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INDEX

Aim
Components
Brief Description
of components
Circuit Diagram
Working
Advantages
Uses
Precautions
Bibliography

Aim

To investigate the
use of LDR(Light
Dependent
Resistor)in
Twilight Switch.

Components
A Light Dependent Resistor(LDR)

Battery

Battery Clip

Carbon Resistors
Transistor 1015
Transistor 3904

Buzzer

LED

Preset

Brief
Description of
components
1. TRANSISTOR:-When a thin slice of p-type is
sandwiched between two blocks of n-type, then n-p-

n transistor is formed. It consists of emitter, base,


and collector.
2. CARBON RESISTOR:- A carbon resistor has
generally four rings or bands A,B,C and D of
different colours corresponding to the value of
resistance.
3. LDR:- LDR means light dependent resistance
which is used to complete the circuit. Light
Dependent Resistance [LDR] is a resistance, in
which opposing power of current depends on the
presence of quantity of light present, i.e. the
resistance of LDR increases or decreases, according
to quantity of light which falls on it.It is made up of
Cadmium Sulphide.The resistance of LDR is 10
M(in full dark) and to about 10-4M(in day light).
4. Battery:- It provides DC electric supply of 9 volts
in the circuit.
5. Preset:- A preset is a three legged electronic
component which can be made to offer varying
resistance in a circuit. Such variable resistors are
commonly used for adjusting sensitivity along with a
sensor.
6.LED:- An LED(Light Emitting Diode) is connected
to the circuit when LDR comes in the darkness.

Circuit Diagram
LDR

PRES

TR1

TR2
LED

101

390

BUZZ
ER

9V
D.
C

Working

The L.D.R has been used in the input base


of p-n-p transistor 1015(TR1). L.D.R whose
value depends on the intensity of light
incident on it,is connected to preset of
100K which is further connected to
22K resistance.The other point of L.D.R
goes to positive terminal of the
battery.Collector of the second transistor
n-p-n 3904(TR2) is connected to L.E.D and
other point of bulb goes to positive
terminal.A resistance is also connected
between base and emitter of
TR2.Whenever light falls on the L.D.R ,its
value decreases and at that moment we
get output voltage on collector of the n-pn transistor.A D.C bulb is connected
between collector(n-p-n) and positive
supply .This positive voltage is controlled
by the preset 100K.
The preset is adjusted in such a way that
on obstructing light over L.D.R, the L.E.D
is put ON while it remains OFF when kept
in light.This project requires 9V D.C supply
by a battery.

Advantages
Collection of parts of the circuit are
easily available.
Accuracy of this circuit is more than
accuracy of other circuits.
By using laser, it can be used for
security purposes.
It can be used to stop the wastage of
electricity.
The cost of circuit is low.

This circuit saves the men's


power.

Uses
It can be used in street lights.
It can be used in mines areas.
By using laser, it can be used for
safety purposes.
It can be used in houses.
It can be used in jail lights.

Precautions
The source of light must be
adjusted so that light falls
normally on L.D.R.

Source of light must radiate


light continuously.

Connect L.D.R carefully to the


voltage source.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Physics Lab Manual Rachna
Pandey

Physics Textbook-NCERT

Physics teacher-Mr.Jitendra
Singh

Google India(Website)www.google.co.in