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: To study the responses from different PID settings in the flow control

The System

: INFLOW (FT12) using LIC/FIC11
 FT12-inflow, vortex flow meter
 FIC11-loop2, PID2 of LIC/FIC11
 LCY11/PP/LCV11-Control valve at inflow pipe, complete with
current-air converter (IP) and Positioner (PP)
OUTFLOW (FTll) using TIC11/FIC12
 FE11-outflow orifice meter
 FT11-outflow, DP flow transmitter with FIC12-loop2, PID2 of
 TCY(EP)/TCV11-control valve complete with current-air Positioner

Key Process : Inflow FT12 to tank T11
Process Variables:
Pump from T12 by P12
Outflow FT11 from tank T11
Pumped to heat exchanger by P11

1. Fill tank T12 with water till its level reaches the overflow Drain pipe outlet (D).
Check and top up later when is about half-full.
2. Turn on the main power supply switch at the electrical cubicle. The control panel
instruments lit up. The PANEL, SCADNDDC switch should be in the 'PANEL,
SCADA" position.
3. Locate the following external selector switches mounted near the panel controllers
LIC/FIC11 and TIC11/FIC12.
1-2-3 Position (Element) selector switch is for controller LIC/FIC11
1-2 position selector switch is for controller TIC11/FIC12
Switch both to position 2.
4. Set the two panel controllers to Manual (M) mode. Display FIC11 and switch it to
manual (M) mode. Manually adjust the output (MV) of FIC11 (loop 2 of LIC/FIC11)
to about MV = 35%.

Start the recorder LFTR11 and its chart drive by pressing ON the RCD pushbutton at the front of the recorder with its swing cover opened. making sure that both are in position 2 at their respective external selector switches. Check that the Inflow manual valve entering tank T11 at the top is opened. start the outflow pump Pll. 9.point SV2 to 4. Display FIC12. Observe FT12. verify Pll is pumping through the Heat Exchanger by visually checking its discharge into tank T12. Make sure TIC11/FIC12 is in position 2. Change its set. Press the Auto (A) button to switch both FIC11 and FIC12 to Auto mode 15. Observe FT11. the outflow rate PV2 at FIC12. 10. Manually regulate both control valves TCV11 and LCV11 from their controllers FIC12 and FIC11 (in manual modes) so that the water level in thank T11 remains almost steady. 14. Change its set. Watch the control response. Star the inflow pump P12. (write the set-point and PID values on the recorder paper beside their response) 16. Note that the inflow is channel 2-green pen: outflow channel 2-blue pen 12. but shut the bottom Inflow manual valve to T11. Outflow FT11 set-point at FIC12 SV2 to 2. reduce the flow set-point SV2 as follows: Inflow FT12 set-point at FIC11. When the level tank T11 is more than 50%. Display FIC12 and switch to manual mode Manually adjust the output of TIC11 to about 35% 6.5. the Inflow rate PV2 at FIC11. Display both controllers FIC12 and FIC11. Display FIC11.point SV2 to 5 m3/hr. Set Proportional (P) and Integral (I) control into FIC11 and FIC12 using the following trial PID values for both controllers PB2 : 150% TI2 : 6 seconds TD2 : 0 second 13. 11. 8.5 m3/hr. Open the ‘Other Demand’ valve fully and keep it opened throughout the experiment. 7. With the controller still in Auto mode. . Observe the recorder output for the response and note the set-points and PID values.5 m3/hr Note: The inflow FT12 must always be set higher than the outflow FT11 so that tank T11 can overflow tank T12 but cannot run dry. SV2 to 3 m3/hr.

c. Repeat step 16. Open manual by-pass valve for 5 seconds then observe the effect of disturbances. Apply set-point disturbances to both the flow loops by changing their controllers setpoint SV2 as follows: Inflow FIC11. Repeat step 1 (test disturbances) using the following PID values: a. this type of controller gives rise to offset or a steady state . 2. PB2 at 150% and T12 at 9999 seconds and TD2 at 0 sec c. Switch FIC11 to manual and step increase MV by 10% switch back to auto mode and observe the disturbance. 13. there are there basic types of controllers: proportional (P). PB2 150%. Proportional controller is the simplest controller among the three types and it does correction to the system based on error calculated. When it oscillation is damped. Repeat step 12. PB2 at 100% and 200% b. proportionalIntegral (PI) and Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID). The next few test are done with FIC11 but FIC12 must be left alone in Auto with Setpoint SV2 = 2. However. Re-adjust PB2 to 150%. 4. PB2 at 20 % e.17. PB2 at 60% 3. T12 at 6 seconds and observe.5 m3/hr and PB2 150% TI2 6 seconds TD2 0 sec Test disturbances: The test are for the inflow Loop 1. Set SV2 back to 3. 14 and 15 for PB2 100% and T12 6 seconds 18. SV2 = 4. Step SV2 to 3.0 m3/hr b. 19. Set PB2 at 150%. FIC11. SV2 = 3 m3/hr. PB2 at 40 % f. Observe the responses. Generally. Record all observations. TD2 0 sec a. The difference between the values is called error and signal is being sent to system in order to bring the value back to desired set point. PB2 at 2% d.0 m3/hr Outflow FIC12.5 m3/hr and observe effect of disturbance. Disturb the inflow by opening/closing the by-pass valve of pump P12.5 m3/hr Observe the responses. apply the load test disturbance as in step 1 5. SV2 = 5. T12 6 seconds. THEORY A controller compares a measured value from a process with a set-point. TI2 at 6 seconds and TD2 at 30 to 60 seconds.

c. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) adds the derivative action whereby the controller can calculate the derivative of error and hence able to anticipate the direction of the process is heading. compensating for the positioner high gain. The proportional band (PB%) of the flow controller may have to be increased to reduce the overall higher loop gain. Look for a damped and non-oscillatory response with OFFSET (no Integral control) b. For a proportional-integral (PI). Look for oscillatory response with inadequate damping (low PB) d. At each set of PID values. Make a report of your observation. Include the recorder chart response when the controller has Derivative control gain. A fast process like flow generally does not require a positioner. Study and compare the different response for different PID values.error. Comment and give your conclusions. Look for oscillatory response and instability caused by the Derivative action (TD2 is not 0) of a full PID controller. a. the response of flow control is different. A positioner is actually a high gain proportional controller and may even cause further instability when used with high gain flow process. RESULT The recorder LFTR11 records the results of the experiments. Look for a damped and non-oscillatory response without OFFSET (PI control). an integral function is added to eliminate the offset. A positioner is however very useful to help overcome friction and hysteresis in the control valve. . A positioner ensures the control valve stroke proportionally with controller signal if its actuator spring is not 3-15 psig.