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pH measurement by pHE51 (electrodes) and pHIT51 (Analyzer transmitter) .
pH controller pHIC51, PID
Final Control Element, P51
Process Variables: pH is measured by pHE51 at the measuring well W53.
1. To study pH control using PID control mode
2. To study pH control using P control mode
3. To study pH closed loop tuning
pH experiment: concentration 0.01 Normal (N)
(Refer to attached diagram)
Procedure 0: Start up
Scheme S:
Process control system without T53
Reduce dead time and time constant
Shut MV1/MV4.
Open MV2/MV3


Switch on the main power supply.

Make sure all tanks T51, T52, T53 and T54 are filled accordingly.
Check the air supply is regulated to the correct pressure.
Start the recirculation pumps P53A, P53B and P54B and keep these pumps
running throughout the experiments.
Check all the instruments are reading
Press ON the RCD pushbutton of the recorder pHCR51 with it front swing cover
The controller pHIC51 must be in Manual mode with its MV = 100% .
Check whether the pH is about 7.
a) If pH > 7.5, ON P52 ONLY
b) If pH < 6.5, ON P51 ONLY
c) If pH 7, STOP P51 and P52
When the pH response is steady at 7, mark the chart trend and simultaneously
press start P52 at the panel. Watch the response on pH (red pen) at the recorder.
The pH drops towards 4.5 and then starts slowing down at lower pH towards a
steady value. Stop both pumps P51 and P52. Determine the dead time (DT) and
response rate (RR) by drawing the steepest tangent against the slope of pH
response curve intersects with the time-axis.

Procedure 1: pH Manual Control

1. Start the acid pump P52
2. As long as the pH is less than 5.5, start pump P51
3. Check that the controller pHIC51 is in Manual (M) mode. Set its MV to 100%.

4. Manually regulate P51 by adjusting the MV from controller pHIC51 to bring the
pH back to around 7.
5. Record the result of the experiment in the recorder chart (see Red pen) as shown
in the Result section, RESULT A: pH Manual Control.
Procedure 2 : pH PID control
1. The pH controller pHIC51 is still in manual (M) mode. Refer to RESULT B and
set the following PID trial values accordingly in the controller i.e.
: 20%
: 25 secs
: 6 secs
For a linear PID controller, GW1 = 0% and GG1 = 1.0
2. Let the pH drops to about 4.0 with the acid pump PS2 ON but the alkali pump PS1
switched OFF. PS3A, PS3B, PS4B must remain ON throughout the experiment.
3. When the pH is just below 4, start the alkali pump P51 and switch the controller
pHIC51 to auto (A) mode set point SV = 7 pH. Note that all 5 pumps are ON now
and the recorder chart drive is running. Watch the PID control response for at least
3 peaks or until it is almost steady at this set point SV = 7 to within 0.10. The
pH chart response is to be submitted with RESULT B.
Procedure 3 : pH control using only Proportional (P) mode
1. Make sure controller pHIC51 is in auto (A) mode throughout the procedure.
Pumps P51, P52, P53A, P53B and P54 are all ON.
2. Repeat Procedure 2 with only proportional control (P), starting with a process pH
of about 7 and PB1 = 20%, TI1 = 9999 secs, TD1 = 0 secs, GW1 = 0%, CG1 =
The pH set point SV should always be at 7. Make sure the recorder chart is
running to record the result in the form of the recorder chart response as shown in
RESULT C. Mark this chart record as RESULT C.
3. Pulse the acid flow by stopping and starting the acid pump PS2 from the panel as
a) Stop pumps P52 for 30 secs.
b) Restart pump P52. It is known as the acid pulse disturbance test. Observe the
pH response (red pen) at the recorder chart, for any oscillation.
c) If the pH becomes almost steady at set point (pH 7) to within 0.10 pH, note
any offset, which is steady state error or deviation of the pH from its set point
(pH 7).
d) Manually bring the pH back to 6.5 to 7.5 with the controller pHIC51 in
manual (M) mode.
e) If the response is oscillatory, note the amplitude of the successive peaks or
f) The above procedures will be extended next to "PID closed loop tuning"
immediately after this. Please continue at procedure (b).
Procedure 4 : pH PID Closed LOOD Tuning
1. Continue from the previous Procedure 3 only proportional (P) control. Adjust the
PB% (try 5%) to get almost uniform oscillation with slight damping. Use the same
acid pulse disturbance test to initiate oscillation. pHIC51 must remain in auto (A)
mode throughout.
a) If the next amplitude is smaller, reduce PB%

b) If the next amplitude is higher, increase PB%

c) If no oscillation is observed, try the above acid pulse disturbance to initiate
Aim for slightly damped oscillation rather than perfectly uniform oscillation.
2. Temporarily stop the recorder chart drive (press RCD at the recorder) and stop the
alkali/acid pump P51/P52.
3. Submit the closed loop uniform oscillation chart response as part of RESULT D,
showing the final determination of Tn*. Mark this chart record as RESULT D.
4. At almost uniform oscillation under proportional control, the PB* and Tn*
(oscillation period) give the Ziegler and Nichols PID tuning values.

PB% 1.66 PB * %, TI secs

Tn *
Tn *
secs, TDsecs

Suggestion: Second (II) S PID trial value.

PB1 : 13%
TI1 : 29%
TD1 : 7 secs
For a linear controller, GW1 = 0%, GG1 = 1.0
5. Try out the PID values established (or the Second (II) PID trial values), at at,
setpoint SV = 7 pH with pHIC51 in auto (A) mode. The recorder chart drive
Ishould be running (press RCD at the recorder), and pumps P51, P52, P53A, P53B
and P54 must be ON. Apply the same acid pulse disturbance after change of PID
values. Record the result in the form of the recorder chart response as shown in
RESULT D. observe the pH control response (red pen) until the pH is almost
stable at its setpoint SV = 7, to within 0.10 pH.
6. Temporarily stop both the alkali/acid pumps P51/P52, so as not to waste any
chemicals. Stop the recorder chart drive, so as not to waste any chart paper.

Always press manual (M) mode before setting the new parameters in PID
Stop or mark at the chart before start the next experiment
PB1* = Proportional Band, TI1* = Time Integral, TD1* = Time Derivative, '
Tn* = Oscillation Time
A controller compares a measured value from a process with a set point. The
difference between the values is called error and signals are being sent to system in
order to bring the value back to the desired set point.

Generally, there are three basic types of controllers; proportional (P), proportionalintegral (PI) and proportional-integral-derivative (PID). Proportional controller is the
simplest controller among these three types and it does correction to the system based
on the error calculated. However, this type of controller gives rise to offset or a steady
state error. For a proportional-integral (PI) controller, an integral function is added to

eliminate the offset. A proportional-integral derivative (PID) adds the derivative

action whereby the controller can calculate the derivative of error and hence able to
anticipate the direction of the process is heading.
Record all observations and data. Comments and explain.

Result A: pH Manual Control

Initial pH (about 5.5)
pH desired, 7


: 100 spm, stroke length 100%

: Stroke length, 100%

Draw the steepest tangent against the slope of pH chart response (red trend) to
intersect the time-axis (the initial steady pH value). Use a ruler to emasure in mm, the
distance between the intersection and "mark" for the start of pump P52/P52.

Time taken

Chart distance in mm
3600 secs
Record chart speed, 500mm/Hr hr

Determine the dead time: ____________ secs.

Result B: DH CDntrDI usinD PID cDntrol mode
: __________ %
TIl secs
: __________ secs
: __________ secs
: 0%*, for linear PID
: 1.0%*, for linear PID
P52 : 100 spm, stroke length: 100%
: Stroke length: 100%
Initial pH (about 4): _________
pH setpoint : 7
Max-pH overshoot: __________ pH Oscillation period (if oscillating):
Result C: DH Control usino P Control Mode
TIl secs
: 9999 secs
TDl secs
: 0 secs
: 0%*, for linear PID
: 1.0%*, for linear PID
P52 : 100 spm, stroke length: 100%
: Stroke length: 100%


Initial pH (about 4): ____________ Disturbance: pulse acid flow

pH setpoint : 7
Note: enclose all recorded chart responses, stating the PB values uses and the
oscillation period, if any.
Results D: pH PID Closed-Loop Tuning
PID Tuning Closed Loop
Tn*, secs
_______________ secs
PB*, %
_______________ %
Use Ziegler and Nichols to calculate the PID
First trial values
PB1, %
_______________ %
TI1, %
_______________ secs
TD1, %
_______________ secs
Initial pH (about 7/about 4) : ________ pH
pH setpoint SV
Max pH overshoot
: ________ pH
Note: Enclose all recorded chart responses.

Second trial values

_______________ %
_______________ secs
_______________ secs