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PJ\l.l.JU>lUM BOOKS PRESEXTS.

For use with any game system
By Mattbew Baleot

For use with any game system

Copyright 1984 & 2002 by Palladium Books Inc. & Kevin Siembieda All rights reserved, worldwide under the

Universal Copyright Convention.
No part of this book may be scanned, OCRed or reproduced, whole or in part. in any way for electronic publication
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the publisher. The only exception is brief quotes and snippets of artwork for usc in reviews.
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Palladium Fantasy Role-Playing Garne«l are all Registered Trademarks owned and licensed by Palladium Books Inc.
Weapons & Assassins and other names and titles are also trademarks ofPalladiurn Books Inc.

Weapons, Armor & Castles of the Oricnt is published by Palladium Books Inc., 124jS Universal Drive, Taylor,

MI 48180. Printed in the USA.

WU?OXS, ARMOR ~

CASTl~S

Of' T~

Researched & Compiled by: Matthew Balent
Editor: Alex Marciniszyn
Illustrators: Michael Kucharski
Ed Kwiatkowski
Kevin Siembieda
Back Cover & Maps: Michael Kucharski
Cover Painting: Scott Johnson
Keylining: Matthew Balent

Art Direction: Kevin Siembieda

www.palladiumbooks.com

Contents

Forward
'• ....... 2
Notable Weapons of the Orient· • • . . . . 2
Bo Staff
Jitte and Tjabang . . . . . . . . . .
Kusarigama & Whipping Chain . .
Masakari, Kama & Sickle Weapons
Malaysian Tiger Claw Blade' . . .

. .
. .
.
. .

Pendang Sword

.
.
.
.

Steps in Donning Japanese Annor
Do Maru Lamellar combined Annor . . . ..
Examples of Kote (armored sleeves) . . . . .
Haramaki-Do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
. ..
Foot Soldier Annor . . . . . .
Warrior in Jimbaori & No-Dachi
Warrior in Surcoat & Field Commander . . .
Chinese & Malayan Armor' • . . . . . . .
Palace Guard & Light Annor'
...
Castles of Japan . . . . • • . • . . . .
.
Major Components of Japanese Castles
.
Nagoya Castle
.
Donjon Okayama Castle . . . . . . . .. .
Donjon Maruoka Castle . . . . . . • . . .
Donjon Matsumoto Castle .. . • • • . . . .
Osaka Castle . . . . . . . . . . • • . . . . .
Matsue Castle' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Himeji Castle & Town
Castles of China . . . . . • • • • . .
Great Wall of China _. - . . . . . . . . ..
Cross Set:tion of the Great Wan .. . . . . .
Plan of Ancient Peking'
" . . ..
.
.
Map of Eastern Asia
Bibliography . . . . ..
..• • • .
.

4
3
3
4
5

. 5

Malaysian Knives & Swords'
Katana & Wakizashi Swords . . . . • . . . .
Spean & Pole Arms
. •• . . . .
Kawang Grapple . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.

6
7

8
8

Yari Spears' . . . . . . . . . . . . • • . . . . 8
Naginata {curved} Spears
9
Malaysian Spears
- .. 9
Japanese Arrows & Manriki-Gusari
Iron Smoking Pipes & War Fans'
- ..
JapaDese Armor' • . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Details of a ~Maru . .
. - .. Mempo(Face Masks)'
Japanese War Helmets
......••...
Jingasa Helmets· . .. . . • • • • • • . . .
Armor Table, by Type
.••...
Samwai in Full Armor

10
10
II

12
13
14
IS
16
17
1

18
20

21
22
23
24
25
26
27

30
31
31
32
33
34

35
36
37
40
41
42
44
46
47

Forward
This book II des<cned 10 be .... ,n,tOduc ..on '0 I~
varIOUS "~apoRS, ..... our• .,.j dier.,rul~ ...ort.. Iou"" ,n
orlen,al cul,ure. ""_'" ..mIen with ,be rIOII., I .....,.
II .. I..... Anyone ....110 11 "Il"'~ll!d In ,hue 'opicI should
find .be book useful.
Camerl ...
,n,,,resued in
Inco<pon,,"1 an
;"lMal ~ cuhur!! In
"ampail'"
w,lI l,rJd
pIe
1 '0 Ie< ,be
~
The ~"*
pte_If:<! In .111. book ate _ew",", 01 an ou'Crow,"
01 .1Iose con,alned '" The Pall_.... Bool 01' We..,.,...
... Ar_. All_", _roet&/l.p of Ihac book Is no' r~.. "ed
,,,..!Ier In'orlll''ion II p<Dwided 11le.", for ,how: In.etes.~

I10.....

,he"

Code Key
Parry

'" ,elallve Indication 01 how ea.lly ,lie weapon
can p.rry 0' ....' Quack..
The h,&"". ,he
nu"'~' ,"" ~\1er.
"'uack Types. Ntl .11 weapon. we.e de~lfted lor ,he
same pu,pose.
The lou. b••Ic Illack 'ypes
••e cu', chop, lhl'\lSl, and impacl. The main
differences be,ween a cu, and a chop a,e
lhe sharpness and c ........,ure 01 .he blade•
Symmetry' Bel"l .hal .ny we..,..... can be ,hrown, ,h••
's • ",ta"ve ,nd,ca,1on 01 how eff""'l;ve
,he .rm would be as • miSS' Ie, ,he lowe.
.he ...."'be. ,he bet.er.
O'. . .e
'" .el.,lve Indica""" of how ..toell OI.."&&e
.h,. we.pon would c ....1e '0 an ........-aa...
•...Ie'.
Other
Nota of ,n,,,,,,", about .he wupon, ......Uy
,be leocrapllical area of oril'I\.
'"
.h,. colum .. ,nd,ea'N ,be .... apoll 's p.. manly
used w,.11 .wo 1I&Dds.

The followl.., II • $110<, deocrlp,lon of • lew of
the ...... ponl llsed by Un"", oriental cul.u'es, This ••
by 110 lIIeanl 10 compo-ehenslve lill.
"'''''her eumples
ean be found In The PaUadl..", BooIr. of W",lponI ................
t::.ch of '1Ml ..
is liven • se, of "....erte•• values
.. ht<:/l ,re "optaoned belo...

".pons

SwOO"ds
M_

o....

Self EAplana.OI'Y.
The ..........., .... ""1' '0 which tbe WI"....,., belonBs.
The IV"""" are ""hed (II). "' .... weII (1(1. M,"""Ih,.-s (MI. Pole A••• Wl. Spear. ISpI. and
S......ds IS..IThe
of .be weapon in """,en..
TIle ",ass of
weapon In k'los,arn...
'" '~3"Ve ,nd,calKNl of how "qul<;k· a wu_
lS biased on bala.rlC<', mlOU, e,e.
The .owe.
lhis
,be ~"e•.

lenti'"

,be

rn ,"

"''''be'

On all ,lh...,a,I""" of NIN wea_",
wlllell por,1On of .he blade is sha.p.

I'"''''

,ndi"a, ...

Notable Weapons of the Orient
N.. me

0,,,

Type
M
Starr If!

,

..arry

,

Sr m•

"'ud Types

,

Oamye

The ule 01 wOO<len I.av,," 00" clubs In comt>.o, is a"",em indee<l, fOO" ,hey ~",""n, a I<a...",on from una'lnN
'0 .. ,m~ ......",111<;... The Jap.;oneoe e",p1oy~ a number 01 .. avel of v..,"..... liz,," and eons,ruclion; man, ..e.e
nI.ode almQSl ",n".ely III
tlI' .. eel.
Belnl ,,,la"""11 .....mlels, fOO" ..a,n,"I P"'p<>$Il$, 'he .""'.... iqueo of Sllff
fiOmbal
we'" II.u!':"1 on .1""",. eyery .word .nd ope", school as • prelUde 10 .he uie 01 .be m(We deadly we/l(JOnL
In lIIany In.. :one"", II '. ,m(lOf,$,ble .0 dbllnl...... between suff and .word .echn,ques.

,ft'"

@i

Ii

,
2

( fl

,

,

Name
Len th
Jltte
Japa""se Parrying Weapon

.'m

"

Tjabang:
Malaysian Parrying Weapon

"

.'m

",.

1.4kg

I.lkg

""..
"

,

Att&<:k T
Thrust impact

, ,m.

,

Thrust/lmpa<:1

,

Parr

"

,•

Dama

,

The origin of Ihese weapons Is a malter of debate but they are certainly designed to deprive an opponent
of his sword. The techniques used range<! from parries agaln.t sword strike. lO blows directed again.. t~ opponent's eyes, throat a"ll abdomen. Mastery of these weapons depende<! heavily on being able to evade the enemy's
sword. which In turn lead to parrl"" ",hlch In ,urn lead to counterstrlkes.

• 'OK.U PRONCCO :TITrE

£X!W1PLES OF ;T{TTES

TJABANG

"_""'ON

Ttl

"'''LAS'''

AAIO THE I"WLlPPrNU•

Type
Name
length
Kau Sin K.,
Lim
Chinese Whipping Chain

"

Kusari,ama
Japa""s., Chain Weapon

"

. "=
.61<g

'"

2.2m

I.~kll

"",..

,

Parry

,

,

,

Attack Types
Impact

!\'m.

,

Chop

,

Damag.,

,

'"

Chain weapons of whlcb the Kusarlgarna Is but 0"", were not.,d for their effectiveness In neuualilln,
an opponent'S sword'or spear. These weapons could al$o be used to entangle an opponent's Ie,s to help unbalance
him. Once the enemy had been neutraliled by the chain. the weapon attached to It could be used to finish the
job. Obviously, ,hese weapons required a cettaln amount of space around the wielder and wwld be nearly useless
In a confine<! area.

K/J$ARIGAMA

,,, '

KAUSIN K£
WH/PPtHG CHAJN

. .unl!!!Il}-....----a::-.-. ._"'-"'''''''7~

F
SA T J"AT
MAtA~I,<N

3

KOEAJ

n-I'L

A WCAPDII .flMI<AR
"'" ,,1$£ MIO C()/iSTR<JCriOll
ro rHC ""'.. SIAl 1<£.

(>ften a<lached 10 the handle In an effort 10 give the wleldet an adnnlage o. . .---' MAlA YSIAN SICKU .he r8ther $lrlCk rules which existed during the Feudal Perood In Japan concerning sword. I I . . .. and other obvlou$ weapons many comba."". .5 8 weapon. were Invented which cemered around the use of talher sImple tOOls. art.er sword or spear a.... Bailie . The Kama was one luch 1001 which wS$ used ...Okg .aurl Japaroe.igne<l \0 cut and thruSt. I . which were de. . Name Kama Japane. 4 ... 5ym.. with many Other weapon.' ( I I . ".. Damale Because of . ... . use<!.TYPE lNEN'ON'$ "". Sym.\ 1 IiUTTL£ AxE Name Do. Bailie axes and o.e Rice SiCkle Type " Lel\Jllh I.. Chop .her heavy smashing weallOns were generally no.mOO fOOl•. I I .<==::~. spears. Lengeh Type "Hack Types 1. . I .9kg " Ida.. Damage The Japanese tended 10 use weapon... "... a chain w8.

" .. ". ..wo. .he.. . . ~ .en Wete found belns used In counttles o..==~3~. ' IWWI6 -TYPC SWORD (..4V ~TIGEJ( CLAW'" W!APONJ .heit ba..:.. lhan lhelt orlslnal. .II .'.- MALAY$f..e. . They employed .:. o 2 " fiSh. ' . ...'m '''''' .in amOUn. .m".ell we. ..S/-. SIKIM CALA 5 SUEATH NIl) AND SHEATH 7.. SW . ...pears. 01 In. .lc unatmed combal Slylel.'.he otlenll" cultute. .6m MalaYlla A..mlnsllns of all of .' ' . '.- -11 . lrod ma"lal f.... .N. ~ . SABlT'TYPE ~ .:. IS well IS more elolle a. . wnpon.lkS .e oflen I' well advar><:ed as lhOSll employed In Japan Ind China.. . ..-.:.. ' .lan arod Phlllipinoe a....SE ..._ _""""~·~'C' Peda".:-:. 1 ". of lite Mally.ds 100 s.1' .__ "T~".lns a".-.. 0.C. r-"L 7DOL.. ... " TWO TTPCAl 5TnfS OF TI£ PEPANC JWORP IN COMPARISOf/ IS A CHJNE....77. As Ihete wBS 8 cen. .-.: '..sWORD OTHER MAtAyflAN' _""" .. .-. knives arod .m' luch IS whlpplns chains In addlllon '0 . ~~?.. ~ ~. -.aves. '5 . .. Sy.om dlffetent ateas of.-.~c.-.to. 4""""""''''~ G6nl\MmlQIVU~ SWORDS SAJ<JN .

~ ~ Sii =..=..Pendang style of swords _~80PIX ~ . efr - MALAYSIAN KA'JVEJ . ..::. K£LEWANG THIN/AI I . . . ".£WANG ' ::::.. .:. .. M£lVTAWA . . . ~~"~ .=.::. .. . GIlDUBOIJC..==.~- '.... PEIIO£UE#G c..:.. .:= . " ~ .~ '."' ~~' .::::::: . . ..=.... . . .. i lV/Nt PEDtlWG G5&*:..==~---~.. .=....:.TH .. ·2 " " .' ' ..:::.. • . ..=.. .=.. •• J~ .. . ..K~L.~.:II . ANO SH£).=..=. .:::.. . ---' 6 . . .

he olher weapon.e .word...8kg 1.. handled. "'a. The manner In which .ble styles 01 ken/UIIU.hlch .panese..Hle field In . As with .eapon.. U.e weapon. . yles._ ~tR ~ Hll T """. :S..ry and mO" ol.en a warrior'•• word. • ~=====:::'~. handed do n Irom genera' Ions pas'. • The. th of balic .o-ken'utlul. p" 3 . Ihe an of the ." A..d.ord fighting ..KATANA lM~. .ually the training which . Japanese .. I..hlp of the. Varl.e weapo" there were a number of varia' Ion. were family heirloom.w.her Ihlngs all had sPKlfIc meaning. . were .. with other Japane.. An OlJlgro. 7 ."'. 'he <:olor of 'he $Cabba.e we. legend. as opposed to one on the b.lm "~ ..word flghllng W31 lal/uI"" which was an all based on the Initial draWing of Ihe sword 10 thai an oflen fatal blow could be delivered In one motion In con/urlCllon wHh the dra.. and numerous o... There was a rather formal etiquette centered around Ihe s ord. yle•.4kg "". learned from unarmed fighting ..lready dr ..".he.'m . . Attack T Cu' ThruSt Cut/Th.... The quality of 'he workman. .. Llke the J.pon.eOl 1010 learning to u. • SHORT SWORO I I I .. 'wo weapons made up a warrior's Dal$ho. based upon Idea. Or "The long and . '~" • ~mm~ WAK/ZASHI SHOI?T 5WOR() THo PAIR OF SWOROS ARE CAlLED OA/SHO Name Katana Japanese Waklz. I' . n. ~. m. 'he Chine. of 'hese ... .. ... al on<:e (nl..tlons orten employed both sword.. This art was particularly suited '0 an everyday armed cncoun'er.ord.u..hey were worn. T Len th I. A/KIJCCHI O'II:NLR loVIT"HOIIT HILT lJPull I TANTO " . also developed a variety of s.he 'lIOn.t Dama 3 . ..here "'ere (nnumer.

he Kawanaga. ylea cen'ered aro~nd . The urnI' care In fo..glng which was given '0 sword blade. lbe an of 'he curved . climb walls. The multi pointed grapnel on the end of Ihe rope could be .Im ••• 1.. ~ 0 0 -0 .y.. sed to p<lll • foe orr D horse or to pull 81 lib legs when on foo.hese was .. or evell 8.he a"algb. oo~h'" 0 O _.. . secure 8 boa•. . p..-'00 = --f'~~oo .rrhrull .".. ... .. 0 " Wi _ _ i .ether a horse.. '0 make him stumble.l50neu. 'h" Japanese warrior usually carried a ra. and Nagina. .pear. .. . spear.' ==.I T Len ./~"T SPeNOS •-0=<======================..hod wu employed ualng Innumerable o<ylea. "'.o~<'o. .. o : '0 0 : 8 . ide varle.. Tbere were 'wo major me'boda of ~aing lhese weapons: Yarlj"tsu.""""'''''''''~<='''''''~ ..aj". It could be u$<ld '0 .0 ShaWK<. lhe an of .0.. . ... "'hiell was a"ached '0 lib bell. One of .• Olma .her Japanese blades..2kg " • Japanese Bladed Starr IT) Japanese Spear IT) Nqina •• .a whlcb were p<Jl ~nder preuure or were uaed In parries. the buslrn!SI ends of the . .':':'=.9kg 2.he flgh. Parr . The shaft wu generally reinforced at poln.. .he weapon .'='=====. weaponl were 01 the hlghes.. Name .aff weapons In .er was using.m. Itt.' ""<>§f""""=""". I)amag" Sym.helr baulel." .. gg-. . " . ima spear polnu. The Japanese employed a number of spoears aM s.. Each me.'=0=' ?. also wen. YARI STW..peclflc varia. '. .--=:ty. quall.LIke all o. Crappie On .2m 2. and speclahled .. Length • iT) Party "nack Types Impact . o Attack Thrust c ..Name Trpe .her ..)' of e<juipmem. ""0 .ulefl"ld. a weapon.11 2.lon of .he .1Ie b. h fl .""...

. " . . ~.. ...$J="'===== .>------"""""-=:::::==2"". . . . . . . ) MA(AYSIAN SPEARS .-==Sal==':' :~:::':':.....sPEAR HEAOS 9 I . ' ========""'=Q " "~~~. " ..'. . . .. ~ '" =========.'="'="='=""'='='"~NPt +! . I . I .' . . . •• ' ' .~... I-AA/O{/J M.o1LAYSfNV s.. " .~ \U .$!. .' . .'.' . . e".C=>' ======== . . ". .~.'. -. ... .:::=::>..

Japanese used a nun..uction. Length Do•• Thi. These fans we.=~_ .~ ".. forbidden when one was called '0 .- "1W_g••. ~==. Mit-folding type.n could b<! de..wA£NTJ WERE "st/> ay THl ..e Item.e weapons we •. When they began to be used as weapons and we. Thi. counterattacks agalns..e often hfe-save •• If the noble plann"" on your dea'h.lng.her . we..ber of ·war fans" which could b<! ei.esideoce of one'. neck. Type " Length .a$la. the.#D M.he .7Q.Z4PON IITTAc. Type Name Klseru Iron Japanese . Attack Type! Impact Sym. which when In 'h" hands of a train"" per.imple Implemen. maste. Becau. 0. weapon could parry sword strikes as well as deliver effec'iv. a high noble. Damase Th.".on con$l. they became . an lICcurreoce which was not \00 uocommon.e constructed of metal..Skg .w£1l. a foe's head.ARROWS "'N'lWlJe "'"''''''O''S t:_~ WEIlPON.J A. weap<>n i. .her of the foldlllg o.e.RON WAJI' FAN! 10 .y p<>pula.. Or abdomen due to In I. "" Name CURSen lapa""se War fan.e originally used On the ba\'le field to signal trOOps and '0 keep Cool. another example of a ra.

.II of .nlly made 01 metal 0' hard lu..1 lI. 00.II..lon. 1. _eire. the billie lor.." pr<>le<:ted tile l>ead. ablilly 10 "".e put on ove.. Ihe Japanese opted 10 wear Irmour which did not Impede a ..ended over thll "...'1 of ..Ior. h••d luth".he lei..O HATO-O-fI!O-...."ltdlnl J. IIltf'<! . by m.ll... Ittached to the IUme· . • pille ~." .. rrlor'.. .. SllIdlt.eed elllphasU on Il..." m. Some .n too "uy to heeom" lost In the mu" of .r 11 .. Th" low"... kimono WQ put on nut . they "ilhl be put on wr-. of JIPI_ """"" .*.. VI"'" p.. Ove.m5 which _..rA LcTr AA-... by m. u. tM IIbl ."'~ The foflowlnl b • shorl deIo:.ll••11 hltd ellHer"nl n.l 5"'~ . ...H Gt/MfDS SlINE"ATE SHIN lUM-"O.00 of me. TIlt·"" . • direct h.7APNV£Sl OF """"""R sur _ 500C "... whl~ tile ~ .lm flbe. A p. n ontO • p.....o'ooc'''d by • pal.ra..ed of • of pieotU . ..... T1'Ie Japanese .IIln IUltd' caH"d IUne·a'''.u of • ".rrlor first Irq.lo.T allloll&' _ _ _\ -_ _ HA/OAT£ "4J1t7 SHleLO" n'I(.y m". abdomen..IiORt MAJl:)R PIECCS OF A .do of coli"" fibe..the..III'RD SCNOAN-NQ-ITA K'~T _ .-ok.... mad" of . 0' p. chftt.rG.tllnl of f.)wu put on nut. A Illiu (Illltll&ll resembll"l an ..nkinl w.nd eljleCI..&..l1y In th" e. only 1011"11 . of .. • PARTS Of JAPANESE ARMOUR .).hod of taclnl_. 0' conon." 0' lhe centr. TIle COIIIplelt! unll letlOed 10 be wom by . . linen.p'nese •• mou.... These we. .ined ewemi.h the J.. It I....rrlors. lhe lOeb were w.. A palt of (kohk .n wilh • loincloth (". 010.ed • Itep back.lpdon of the m. ell. The w. ""t II • ellvltlon for the bll tDe we....e put on nUt. The jolnu atld lJI..hllteu and "'oblllry.II..hl the ..-1Ii<. lIy ltulld'oed' of In ••"""'..'ms.. Elthe.hose Ind'vldual..se of lowe...•• When ....Ollon 0..r" li.nese hltd n.on 0. The 'ypes of •• mOUr de'veloped by the E. by In lr'O'" Or ..:le _trike.1 '"... lhe COlI'''' 01 . 01 "lp rank. pr~rlnl for • I>Iollle. 'The buk "'odel used by tile Japanese alrtSis.".ra..ere ""..1 vertlc._ """'be< If""'"'" he.. we. 111_ of le.1 only• • tId '0'00'00 connected 'Oletlle. l"'I"11l we...n lell'nl (ky...HCCtlU' SHDV£OCR r. and the Iq. were cooWOe.echnic.~le armour wOrn... M'<Iled for parll" protectionT1'Ie basic "'odel of hlHl_ •• mOll' P'-. were pruent 'n h""1 II well .n of .d In Ihn they Ilowed dow.1Id secured wllh • bell (obll..I.. _ . $houlders. Oj>e.Inl the kneeclp .jor ~..... E~..y ~n"..Japanese Body Armor whif. . Ollk"'1 oft"n hid Ifnd. se .. It b ." &"". WII wovld """". th. thel.ll...ed ...lly 1M "me ove. J-. .. Unnke in Europe...lr of lOeb 1I. any rusOll.n.ces between pillU were the normal points 01 attack in any fillh' an<! teel".m"l for.ho.bou.ddod found. plat'" Iinhd to&"'h"..p.h' armour." used..he.

e'Mr ..mpi.h"r. 'r.h• •110 h... .. The dalsllo con. ed of a number of me.. To protec. . . The i.-ere . .he olher parts of Ihe J... • U sh..e.M body fro .r..om _ar tllrulll 0< I . prmKI'" WU Ihe mOl.he..he scales .lkibltl witioch .l: IIIe lowe. belt.s and waa Ih.ed of p. . Ire I"men..lLlch w"re . four>tlatlon of 1""Iler...doe of .. TIle charac. Upon . was • rather ltrle _lei of plat'" desllned '0 P'OIK' 'M nect .ound tile ..loves w".om 'M ne<t 'Ollie upper 'hi&lI1. prG..tll . ~a.A7I: .a.. The I . No. ....o. The en.. hich W"..armenl c.. Thi lIy IUappal 10 . 01 different desl. In u.he ... hun& on .. Import anI p'ec<I: .be oullidoe..oo by . called nodadIi mi...:hl.he body f. The. followed .. .1Ie middle.PI c..he back h.. "".dded shoulder Ill..cI.enl el"m"nll.h".llacbl!d • numb« of armou.. . C. ed. ...0..1 plllU .1Ie .'ior .ioul .ord CU..0 protect Ihls . IKed .lIen 11'" on a 'OI".. U.. all.ttached to. Led a.lie side tIo-matu.. lelll>er.ed than .Iovei 1)'UIlkyl "'e.nd side of .e ••1 opIm. eaut'<! a haldate•• 1I~s prOtKIt'<! .el . .ral conlour of 1M head... 1l>e a.e. .e worn • ...e. plate....enerally made of plates Iact'<! or 'IVe.he t>. Nu•• he war..lIose whlcll opened in . 1teM: piKe.ny.11 scales botmd li." ord..idel of .1.here was u...menl re. It/tSAZlfRJ· TM6H" .e.ruc:..or..1 con.ed of • numb« of d.ed . 1l>e . of 'M lUll of 'r"'OUr w.. of .y of .he .pe .hll ple~ co.­ The IWO m... p.."Ior 'hen pIl' on an ou..cnerally rl!Lnforct'<! with ""Ial or ..panese armou. or me.lled • tOl"In .hose which opened a' ..e hb .Mr '0 <:over tile four ..ere . to ... aUzashl.- REAR _ _ rrA 12 LOWfsT PI. ere .ral Ill.1 ele ..ene'a1 lhe tOil! c:onsls.ly .. OVff tlteM: .. hale bone.U"...be front of lhe uppe. and a """I Iword .O ..e Sl!<:U..1. The.imes in J.l. This slHve covered lhe Ihouldoe...n 'M wllole . Allached. .ere prOlKIt'<! by ....lIy made of sc.al of • c*" fiul".hell! eMil protKIOrs wllich ... were .he helme... C. p1llel..jor 'ype. ahd II fell .....ut 'f'DI f.. hacloi.. -.lIy made of . an apron '011$ pilI on nell •. . which hunl down from .-obl .._ nodo..ed In IIIe front. ..i".lie open_ 1"3 In . h.lmu • lar.ior would secure hi.M badt..ped plll"The head of a .0 ... TIle do or clles.. 1l>e haldilC <:ould be made of heavy <:lo.n endleu va. or plat'" laced 'OlelM. .n ....eri.oIIltoro.. arm ..al 0' lea..sed at va.be hud...ailt by COlds .. il .1Ie c..llt'<! ..nd bKt of IIIe hand.p.s P'o" OA. rrior would .. identlfyln..."h solk cor. TIle . Ie.. Iymbol...he bact If .ramakl-do and . 0< l.lie ka.lic helme.he nll. .....lIed .sded ". sl«..be Mort-.b'ed of • Ion& I"ord.h...le.. The cemral cIome. "Cre .Ir.artls were 11"1 on ""'".ve beea worn.. of ~'IIIe.h" basic helmet.he skill of IIIe warrlor ...ecled by elaborale helm"l which COIlII.n.. ehher 11t or Jqw'e.. of paddJn..II" hachl. ov". '''''I\I. NUl • ~..•• _ ." . The beller sulll of armour hod a number of speclal- lzt'<! pia. . which protK'ed tile armpl" 1$ well .'ally less prOlec.e P'o't On..emblln.. 1.all relnforct'<! by .. tnd variation.lled ta ...here are hundred. daIabo or Ion& and . of do were ..hlly 10.el or T1Iese "'er" ..1 . hLch alllO Mned '0 SI!<:". um. up ..ner. As with ...tic sl'loulder ..n.he ...lly • Crell or lOme o. ... et.

~Tlct.ecI f..e se"". These maskl tmempol coold prn.h rank. or lacquered lcalhe'..~ IKe hll. They were generally faslened 10 • Imall neck s"ard whieh huns over t . Ilccl.. demOtls. The masks were generally 1l8"erned to represent men.0 lhe wearer. . .. 10 prO'I!<:' h. Or animall. They we.ng warriors usually wOre 8 mask of iron. N\UO'Il't:I ARC . nodowa.finally.IN' 111011I. . OR £"~QurAIO LrUHQf.Uy Ilad<:le<l 0tI the inlide 10 give a me81ure of com forI .om forehead 10 chin or only 8 partie"l" pan Ion of Ike feee..

7~HE~T KOlcrz__ Jc¥IfI _ .r elfllT _ _ _.oo:.TJI( MAJ'"M C ~ ~ OF A kASVTO _DIlCHO.a> I1HWT STNoIPW6 "fIVCT. J'f'KWIO HL'MEr AlKK &_ " WfT'" . .oavm """" /tAu./.

rm. lIea. or course If one wal >'lclorious In bailie.ered by the more hea>.e.lly could no' afford an elabora. u.. IlSh. One piece of armOUr 1I1U.sel>'u f.rlc IIIemseJ>'u with al much .parte$O! •• mou. Went lnlO ball~ with only lhe cheat protector.. .rmour as they could afford.ually con'enl 10 ou.e .ul.rwGASA REtNICTJ 15 .lly worn by . this would enable a w.r from lhe dead 10 Inc:reaoe one'.... It w&ll s~ally lied under the chin.."ORMS 0. mall which were worn uncle.10. nl.. own P'OIec11(Mt.Iaulh. armour.. Iron...-enl lhem. llIere were .rfler.n effore 10 p..."hou•• eXAMPLES OF .".. In....of a. easy 10 "ea' only parr of the co.ture of J..mOUr al doelCrlbed e.r described earHer.les '0 100< •• m.nked . In a4d111on 10 1!Ie r.. Thll wal • flal.ple..!le... It wu rallle.. normal elothes. Often warrior. or coppe1".y .e wil.om beinl ..ed watrlora.. Beca..r n. conical helmer maoe of Iteel. there were ample oppor .lIy "mou..." ARMOUR Lower w"rlo. 1or '0 10 abou' with aome decree of prOlCC1lon 1"OtlI1"I IUsptCiQn. They were lI. W.. 1M Ninja and warrior monkl favored Ihi..he lower .I the jlns..110 will of II"'.OTI1ER .se of Ihe modul..

.11 .e. cons.Ye...re lewn on..erspace<! .9!!.nd gCl'. . CHOP RI'" ..• . If one . The m.. Ciotti R'''IlIIaJJ Soh lea.~4: '''' '''' '''' '''' '''' 22kl 22kl '''' I!kl 25kl ARMOUR TYPE I)ESCRiPTJONS L11111 Clo'h II eqlllyalenl 10 GENER .ll pleces of ar_' • 100 COMlS" h>eh Ir" laced 10Sether. Horn/Bone jlferaln..conMcled 10lelher '0 fo..!!!: ARMOUR TYPE .er Har4 lealher Jueralnl Hard WOOl! Janra'n.. He&Yy Clo. .al jazerll... ..eM.ck-. ack. Ckll" S1vdc1ood Soh lealher Sludded Hard leall. CII• • ttack ...e.... l .hey are 10 protecl. ..he o"e"l.Ya. .e ". .1 Melal Bri...y m-e.1 Is .uOfl called: !!esluance I'"aclor of /low . .. . is 10 I.mply me... cell"mele.lIye lnclle.. pn. ..ne<! II follows: ". . buckle•• or lac....."OUI ....e other soft ma.de's'andi .rlO(her by I senlt> of '''Ipl. .iIIimele.'.l .er C(lyert"l of a moderll CUt Rf daly lealher Jacke'..I. Sclldded Mill cons.ber Rl"l.ee '0 ei"'.•.el..'. ll>e follo""nl II • brief desc"puo.... 011"'" . . ..1on of lhe body ...WII 0' .r .hd clo. rel.h...mou. . Har4 Lea'her Qull. 10 'wo lhU<! thicknesses of Of Soft Lea.. rltl.1 Slvdded Hea..h ..">eh I lUll of ..h. RMOUR TYPES linell.. • .~kl 7.1 . hilh'" "' "tc..l...."ack "e lhe ..he.. consis.IY"led on."r" of . .'ns.~ 11151~1 In m.. eqllinlell' '0 dellim.o •..1I.. . "'..ion.nl m"..e Ilo. Mall Combined Ma.. .mour I Combined Uall consists of small plec"s of m"."acks..• • " •• • . 2 .h or leath"r.1 which Is ..'1oa of /low .......he of lhe pieces clo:pend oa the por.. ...... .e"Slan• • h" .and..3~1 2·~~1 3..al rillil ill.. .... Ua.• Wcwen Cord Hea... lps . •.. lChed be' ..'ences be. ....ype.um Clo.. and CU.. laY"" of lea' . is eq.. . ltll the armOUr P.. lise<! I" . TlIln ClollI Medillm CIOlh HelYY Clo.wee..h I.erl...1 scale.... .. of each baSIC .o a slI. '.. 2 MASS 1..Otects al...." is del""d.. The . ..al In.. 'he "chop" ra.. Iype of Ir""".... ."&- . •.ypel of "mou. dlff...te IIjlO<1 each oY~lapped otlle.ncllCl'''''' of ho..pl.11t Ar_. ..h llbOIl' . ..lIy consi. 7k1 3. Me...• •. ....• .s" of m"lal Stlld!! .. nd.ype of armOUr is '0 ImllK' . La_Har "'n on I alsO knowlI e.he .all Har4 leather R'''I'''ln Quilt Rlnlm.rlt eilhe. ... Seal" "'..ye ind>ea.. e'c...ould m""e . .iyalen•• 0 .. .h..erlal nell her.s" of scal"s of yanoll. mit'" WR$lSU of I... blad"...al rllll' wh.1 of 'he ". Ibis '}1M! of ar"'OIIr IS 10 ehop IUacks.. . .. " . Tbe hlille' Ihis number d. .... Tbe IppeareftCe of 'hiS . . conoiSU of CO"OfI or lO".". "..."'" or how '"... of norm... of s"'...1 "mou. Pl.. .. •2 ....yers of doth..'llt p...h Soft lea. Cord """011' resembles m<><lern d.". rnoembles studded !either.ched '0 clo. .n• • hl.. Each ""'OUr Iype IS I.ellt.lnl may he used:.abl" backing. eqlllYalell' medillm clod.law. OtM' armour or I"ache<! '0 one .l mall. .. Padded . knowlI as SpI'"" of sm. IpprOillllltely (lye In or4e' '0 live.. I "'" of YlrlOUI .ch .hlS Irmour would slow • eharac'e< dow. .uac... Brl. "ciaOl. l OESCRIPTiON 01'" .....me. ••.eces of whle" .. of how '~I.. "ralll' DEX sener. Tbey .. ...he OII..abl..ea. 10 reluieled fluabdlly.nd a chop . . eapon'.. een IWO I. worn oYIt. ..•• ... back'''1 conslsll of small m".hich . CUI I . Ill'" . The m of a SIIi' of 'hIS Iype of 1'l:Iour based Ih" bei"l l&Oem (5'lll"j 1.~~1 7... .ne lamilla'ed Melal lamellar Plele THRUST RI'" 2 ...0 . '" . 2 • " " IMPACT 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 .r W~n Ri....h sec.tlye lndicat..mOllr. clo..ndwiched: he. or som" o'her .... bette' ...• DEX .rtlt:lIl.merlcal nille...llye IncI>e. Med..andlne ArmOll' consiStS of Oy". backinl ma. Hard lellher IS eqllil '0 of lea'her. 2 2 .UI.he.er the chlracter .." of f"l...m • sort of fab"c of m"lal.ll ""t. 7kl "> '"'" '" '''' '''' '"'" 7..

~'llJ.. 1:_ _...ell•• O....f ..."ro _ _ _ wrrH M(T'II' Ht:1Mfr (. S<lNE·JlTIl' M(l"l puTe for (urther l"formauOJl on these Iypes of a..e. 17 1"pec:1 . " " "• .WARRIOR IN FIILL AAMOl/R (YOROI) _...ITI' '"'"'''T Co.MJ.~T ARMOUR VALUES ARMOUR VAl. . " " Rf Rf . Co< C""" Thrun Impat:l Rf ..mour please refer to The P311adtum 8oolt. . Combined 17 M311 !arms! " """'"' 2OIl&- ~ "''''rt M[''''l IoIflMI:T _.." ARMOUR VALUES T. .. o( Weapon! and A ... MIl> _'IJ. L .IJ.f l... . .amlnated over Combined 17 Mall larms! Masa: 2lkg.. "'" "• "'"• • Plale ~..A m< ~""""'~TCO ~Vl:R C.UES T..."'" 0.amlnated l...our.... Rf . ..

... ... ....:.STEPS IN OONNIN6 JAPAN£$£ AAMOVIf . ...... .::....::.... . o 00 ( o \ SHORT FIINfJ05HI SHITAGI Mf) 08/ 0 • TABI Sf'l.ft Tor 8l>Qr 18 ... ....

... I SU(YE$ 00 WAKIBIKI UWi\-OBI MLT MXCWA _ " fiVUO ANtI HACHIMAKI 19 M[Mft' FAa ..KOTE . «' k'ABtJTO "CLMer OW .

. C. ....nNI Moo. .. L... 20 RF ..WARRIOR IN OO-MARIJ LAMCLLAR COMB/NEO ARMOUR REAR VICW ARMOUR VALUES T. . Impacl . Impact RF .1 M3ss 1St!..UES T.. • " RF """.. Melal tamella..mln'led Combmed Mall RIbbed Plale C..II . " TII"'51 RF •. RF " ARMOUR VAI..led DVl!' Cono- b. RF """ " " L.. RF . RF .. ..

ne elboW. ne maU II all..les (combined maill.M! shouldf!r .I.tD .ere Iypkal .. elbo. ...ed . COM.ist of mall lnlerlp-<. haM!.ith metal pl. joint. "rl. UMllLA/t £XANIPl.che<! to a fabrIc backing to prevent chafing.ANOTHER TYPE OF LAMEllAR.ncevu These pieces con..B/NElJ ARM/JIIR REAR VIEW The Same Armour Valuf!s as Lamellar Comblnf!d. SIAIIC'ATr MiT.en of relnforcemenl.. 2' .fJ OF KaTE ARNtt:MJR.

" " Leather Cooablne<l Mall I La. Rf . "" C" . ""'Rf".. . IOks. Rf. Rf . • . . Rf• • .f. lnate<l (breul plalel Lamlnaled our combined 1. 1"1*=1 .1811 C'" -- Mau: Ilq!" WA/l'R.b1ned Ma'i Melal Jareralnl o~r Combined Ma. 22 hnpac::1 .r. ..UES T". " " " Co. . Rf . W Lamellar C(.lR IN HARANAKI-OO ARMOUR VALUES T.....ARMOUR VAI... .. " Rf . Th~..1 Mau. ..

hen on secret milIlona or . • ~INGIU'" _ HE~T_()I' J. Thll armour could be worn undet ordinary clothl fot prOlecllon . C". RF Mall 7 6 7 j Combined Mall J Ma5l: 9k5.' • Impact RF J ...omellllr Mass: ~kS. 9 9 Thrull R..... RF RF l. ARMOUR VALUES T.1S~AlTO CIAfVCO BIU.hen the impression of belnl unarmoured wal Important.. C"". .FOOTMAN fN LIGHT MAIL AIrMDVR ....lErN.J ARMOUR VAtUES T.Af) 8UOIJ£O S~ WAJIAoJI ~ 23 . 5r111f'. C"' RF Chop RF Thrtllt Impact RF .

.. Ov>o .. lIlI< l... ". T". .WARRIOR WCAR. """" "".. "..am.. CUI Thrusl ImlOKl Lall"nale<! 9 Comb'nt:<l Mall a 24 Im.. • WARNOR WITH NO-04CHI ARMOUR VALUES Type .nale<! Comblnt:<l Mall .1 "'._. ~ -.. ..~ PI... n../N6 ~"... ""• .." Melal l.. . . JIMSAORI ~. . .am. .... V ARMOUR VALUES ~tu C. .

WARRIOR IN SVPLtJAT (iTIIVIBAtJR/) •. FI£LO ct:W\MANO{R 25 .

--.IR£CO WITH MI6NIr>/NC.UES Cut ("~. i. such IS the cllest Ind Itnees. Shirts of brisandlne could be added when fighting on fool.r LA nit ~'- CHINesE 8KI~ANDWE ARMOUR IUMNNOCR.· "y"r S"."".. ~_Q£1t li~ DCOA8I."'.. Large shoulder guards of melal and leather Could be worn. --.ed IhrouShoul lhe course or d10e Iges.j . '-'9 ThrUKI lit-" ·'OiI.lodlne Irmour. were rreq\lf!ntly reinforced by metll pillet. the Chinese hid I number of pieces of armour which eOlild be added or deleted depen<lln.Chinese & Asian Armor The Irmour of lhe Chinese remained relilively unchln.kk-d • Ch. £NTUlC suIT IS Dr $TUOQEO >4VW1 ClOTH.kll' 2. such as I shirt or Jacket.Q£R _D mCK IIfINFr:.. upon the degree or protection wanU!d. lod brl. -'. lIlte most ellhures.. OF THI.. .Ill rlvell.IJf-:S Cui ..IJ .It Ictually h~ overllppln... b<. ThNSt ImpIC! . forearm guards of laminated metal were pl$O used. ". O/IILY SHDut. The Chinese Ilso used armour which Ippeared to be In ordinary .lndlne neck . ~.110 M.. 0 1 _ helmetl Ylere mlde or neel Ind hM! brl.ulrdl IltlCheO 10 lhem.._~~.".-. aclle.iVI' If MAOE OF tyll()ANOfNE AHMOUH.sdltlon to belnS leu protecllve... VAI.. . Importlnt polnll 011 the body.~l 11 II> ("1. . Urlr... .arment.llo Su..--. employed nrlow forml or paOded rIng. IS ICllIllly much leu encumberln. The ehlnew.. metal plltes Illached to the Inside. Their besl sulll Ire of brlglndine.d Wllh I number or . --'1"['-. In some iMuncea IrmOUr consisted OIIly or p~ina which was fitu. In thb rorm the sull resembled brlgllndlne bul . Ylhkh Consisll of tYlO plecea or cloth Yllih Imlll metll plltea belYleen them. ~'­ 9_- " . - "IIi" '·'-16--' AHUOUH VAI. In .

PALACE GtlARO CHIIllEt:E ENTIRE . Metal INlundlne Mesa: fill&. Th~' Rf • Im~1 Rf 2 CHINeSe LIGHT AJ(MDVR FOI.OED POItT~ SI«»'IIING wnIVOI" OF _rAL Sf:NF&. T.Rf Rf.po Chop .sillY II OF ~-ARMOUR VALUES C. Rf • 1.Rf 27 .. Rf Chop . ARMOUR VALUES e". . Rf ~.

. Meta! lazeralm S. Co.. Co. R' • " " Padded Plate Mass: ~kg .i'h Japan..rr PlAIT I'WP S~TR KOREAN ARMOUR Korean armour '0'8$ generally . PNHXO AAlW:ll/R TIA''' R'. The lo . COa'$ were also wOrn.ltTHER (HAlfD) u.. LC.. a number of Japanese arm""r$ were also worn. " Gl/t'...ltTHCR TVN" ARMOUR VALUES T.. Impact .. whiclt left ..: 9kg.$Tl/OPED a.. udde<l Hard Leatlter Plate Ma.CHINiS! ll6UT JlRMOUR METAL HHMf"T" WITH PADDED E. R' 9 CO"" ThruSt R' 9 .ZERtl.ha' 01 lhe Cltinese.er cla. In periods of conflict . Weallhy warriors often were adorned in ..INT" CHF. . R' • KOREAN ARMO(lR HILMET ..es often wore heavily padded body armOur up '0 r""r cen..R GIHIRPS ARMOUR VALUES T.o..uiu which were very elaooralely decorated.R ~U'PS Mf:~ Jtl.h":k. ruclion '0 .RO.e. .milar In con. Impact " " ThruSt .lte arms and legs bare.. Hardened lealher jalerain. " " R' •.lme.R' 2..

"het by brass m.e . • 0' C. or ....e Mon:ls of the Phllhppinn .e lillie or NI .lnl do. used. ARMOUR VALUES .- M• .. ImPllCt . A. mou. Thrus< 0' " Juer... bIn these -ere rife ..nd eApenslwe. fItOU•• Some "ore ". Hide (Ilard Leather) . IS prorectlon lrom blowpipe dlrts...... ""...M4LAYAN BARK ARMiWR MALAYAN ARMOUR In le_nl.... made of brass or horn pl. the$e _Ie .. mlde of hides. Zk" 0' 0' • 29 .. "'". . n In I.mou... Th~ 0' ImPKt ..pie hides h....n . ooden sc. . n.d. WOWe1l c. ....orn Ind bid. 0' .. ...lnt MUI: 4kS' 0' MALAYAN AJ(MWR AOMOUR VALUES T".. .1.tes connected t\>K...." C""". .

0 . I" lene.. lown near . lo< did nol pl.deftK. of lhll .11 paner. .... I.ed by . . ''''1''101 . w1>c.lIy bull.hese "'OUnlaln cas.eapons ......les were now bu. n compound.he Mlllmaru compound! ..lIe Ine "'at 'Ilen protected by I".. ... The ca.pede IJ>y advance..e. . UOM .be .aln Or a leveled area roea' . of SIOCIeS ".rds .1Ie lariefl be•.00 common for .all.he only errec. and ..be poll'lc.de .atft would ""pedoe . CIlI.lIe. .ccessfully en..c~srLES Castles of Japan ~PANESE fORTIFICATIONS Japa""lle forcrflues were llen". 'Of' '. hoch conlained .lCllons . l_~ lbe COI'pound.. f"or .he alllCk wblle . of . There "'ere nile<! bl"r"ufiro. _nta.. ele.peeled obs'n.1I In o-pen •• ns. 'here .ed.l.ltHptrs.h . .he . when w. 'ha' IIlhllnl from oU'&Ide <he calole ..ermory..IIe .IIb . In lenerll. The clll..0 .o~...ed I"''''' dead a .. Wete ~ded I' well.ymbol ..rve mea.be eVell.helr comJlOllndS were s.ba... .h century 'owen. reS.1 ... llIy chose . Ulle~pec.he wloole e wlS ..he province Wi' concen"a. For lhll reason I ••" 10... These ... as well as .JUici<le If ...".m1O'... "as not: .1I.ere buill <:.'_1 bulldinp for . 10 SlOrm ..IICe... or yln.les belan '0 be 1I..n I mlillarr blloe. MallY dllmyO£ wer...... were "._. II .he ""alls ..er..ere<! '0 T10ae caRie . now a . even ~n"..n .-er.me less and Ie..b. food In . These mOUnla.be defe1>de. Ohe" .u by liele. BI"'" alley.he 'op of .. had • well "a'e' nd a l<hebe. of an IUKlt. If .0"''' OUts..he g"u.lie end of 'be sixteen.le ."e of "...lIl1nll '0 flgh' ". no clear-c.ould be dimc"l.I. whICh ca.""ablte<! by manr of .be" own hind.. To. Oflen 'Ile doll"".l.1M:' middle 0' .. he .he don""... 'horlly and power. food. 'e<! 011 b. on .1Ie <kvelopmeIM 01 'OWR$ howe.-ns were callecl johallladli. A.be olle" 'Of . pa.. 10 'kI' . or drop Rona 'r_ . atlord·. la.. and . SIIbsid.".he hell.lIey . aI>oj>....nd economic life of .be ..land calfles we." 30 .be pa.he J.. could fore "rOW..n bocb "'1lI lood clefeRlive purpo$e1l "'1lI le""'rallr IlOl able for .n tUlles. ..ed.. pUl a lopped moun. 0' .d ou.lie wbole area wil procec.hln .he defense will IInwccell'"I.. The ca"le was ". These f1a.be . bec.on .ere ..lope.h•• reason cu.. TIle doRlon wlS lIWaUy ..owns were inhabi.sHemely dIUl<:"h '0 Itlack.he callie "'" Ilso I.he mlln COmJlOllnd l.le .hes... ..."h a sleep .. .c.0 IIlh' 'rom wlthml the confines of .n .0<1..ered by a'tackinl HOOPS.. The bulldl"IS (WI I ca.om ..e were Irral"ge<! 10 Iha.. do.lI.ppor. I.IM:'..ever .I. freq\lll!n..he fOOl of .. all.Ile Mor"e of . Soone .be corneoThe "I'0OI& for.0 die hooorably by ..alle<! hl ••jlra.altin• • cas. ee<:auK ..be dil.ary compOttnds were added on llOUnd IIIe lIl .he be~' defense.. .e c. T..he castle'...IUS and mOlln were placed "OUnd thelle compounds ei.""....be Clstles were . _chanll. aya ..I'1ed ou'''' .'es '0 .he n.op ft.he dilm1O's w"rrlor.he callie I'selr. spranl lip at . for prefl&rl".rreu .he clllle. '*""_ loot 011 a mue-ilke appe~. of .. fo< In I"&eke. 10 .he m""maln. Wele bull.."lle.. The I'OU&h .ould .0 be ..errl.hough.. or clem.ajlro.eb '0 rule .plneloe wa. •• lKIA.here ..ll lbe . • .. in I cor-:enlrlc 0< spl.h.1>c ca•• 1e became Ino<e a pol".cal cen'er h.0"'''' around ..op 01 mountains. on .lIere '0 be • la"e enouill..he "OOPS and tile" f•• .M ..

... o ZD..~. 7lJU KORAl GATE 31 ...JAFAN TI-IC MAJOR COMPONENTS OF JAPANESE CASTLES GATE TYPES INSET GATE.7 . .

OONiTON O""'''......A CASTa: TYPES OF STONE WALLS PATCHY COMPA(:T JTON£. VRDPPING PROoJCCTION PARTS OF A DONJON CAJTLt TOWCIt 32 .

~.GI({XIN() PLA/I! OF PONJON OF AIIAR{)OKA <:.. • • • • • • a: eLEVATION OON070N OF MARIJOKA CASTLe 33 . .

SOI/TH·CMr TllRAET 34 ..r ON THC MNN F/OOA.. 'T~". 'S" /VOIfTH W£..j Cl • •I'ILuH • r(}R• IW'EA .701J (}1?OIlNO PLAN OF OON...JON 'i !fN?c.4LL I • • • • • • • 1 • • " • • • " • • rxJN.rON COMPLEX MAYSt/MOlD CASTLE NCf1T: THE ENTRANCE IfffO ~ (>{IN.ELEVATiON OF flONJON OF MATSVMCffO CASTLE c..ST ~-.

OSAKA CASTLE PIAN OI/ffCRw••a ll"""I>" HOII.JNG _GATl O~ CASTLE AS OCl'ICTEO IN THE nN. CEN7tJRY 35 .

' 3.l.." worc. -O~ OONJON MATSIIE CA~Tl£ PliIUDM AT GATI ""'" .#~ "1. lLS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • MATSGE l'ASrU c....'----~---..AR$ rO/( .. .:' • • • • • • • • • • m1!n • •• • • \I -IMRIUO WlNOCMIf f -- ... ...rE '"CALf ... /6/1 • • • • • • • • • • GROth/{) PlAN (J..s/..

.£5" PllT1:~T ~ """""lOItr rnS'I7lI~T D T'IMPl...~0tJ1fl} PI." r _ 37 . lI'fIIO_flrOfttAPVUND N_'-.OIJNOING TOWh! GENCML • o Mo..... .AN OF HMEJI CASTl£ ANP 5II~R.oT TO"wlI>E'OJ'l.£J MID SHN"fi UllKLoTl CMTU GlllJ(lfl/D ~ _OUI'~ j -m.

.~u 38 ...on/FICf) CDR1l100R II~I!I oo"'~ . • .HIM£ JI CASn£ GROIINO PLAN • IIID ""/iRS • Mo.o.o.

~ 39 .] ~ •• GRDVNO PLA/II OF OON<TON COMPLEX OF UIMCJI CASTLE. c.

Aher 'he Chh.h all of 'he Yarlou.hrough the w. Many of Ihe ya"ou' loops and offshoolS were constructed In sub. d tlla..h. per mile an~where from 100 200 yards apall. enough time could be bough. Wall was nOt Simply PUI up overnight.. centurIes passed with no upkeep. .er 'hiS..y of .ide-branche. emperor Shih Huang TI wa. To cou".and men. are buill of brick whicb IS laid down In many course. In COntriS' 10 the Immense wall' these doors seem ...lons. Chhl. purpose of ke"plng ou. They rose to grea' helghlS. The wall "'" much like a breakwater aga". Howeyer. almost every other single s. to .men 10 'he well and Into Europe.. which wayeS of nomads "'ere broken and contained. and lOwe . Ohen large tOwers are placed along the w.alori.he end of lhe .ve piece of archnectme ou'shme.inces.LL 0'" CHIIIIA CHJNESE f"ORTlFJCATIONS In ChIna 'he . the nomadic tribesmen were ellmlna. and 71h. '0 Perhaps Ihe mOst famous example of delensl. unlled at . seem InsignifICant... cemury B. The Crea. AClual construclion began . and Sui Periods there was a malor renovalion and reconstruction (6. There are usually e.he major cl. n and Han Dynasties (3rd. were ollen from 15 10 25 meters thick.D.. were cOnstructed of brIck 0' SlOne with COres of rubble. centude.he wail wa.we)oe lowe.tablll'ing the . there was lillie ~pkeep and malrl'enanCe.ed as a major threal. The wall achieoed I. DUring the Wei.alely ~ . OUI.eway. The base of the'e wall.ually made of heavy umbelS.C.ructure built by human hand•.all "channelled" the nomadic trlbe. The walls ."y (1368-16441 they were cerlamly only a renewal "r prior COnslruc. by lhe defende" 10 enable reinforcemen" 10 arrl~e. and ullilled '0 40 .hemselye. By elimInating 'he 'DC. Although many of these foruflca.ll. earlier existing ramparts which had been buill in the earlier prO. up 2S meters. lnlenl upon .gh. When 'he coumry wa. were heavily foruned by wall. In general . As Ihe wall e"slS IOday. this mU.. some of which make the large" European ca"le.l.VlCW OF T1<C GIt~T "'.l. again numerO<l. In gener~l. COllld hold up '0 one-. frequently slrengthened by a plilh of Slone.opped by crenellated rampartS.. I< can . '0 3rd century A.round 217 B..D. the nomads by reStrIcting . Ga.de '0 capture a section of the wall or knock a breach In It.ed auack was ml\. and were . af.ery weak.C.e fOrlifkatlon Is whal IS known as The Great Wall of CMna.ed 10 the Ming Dyn. It Is Iheorl'ed 'ha' the ".id m defense.C. the wall. h is eslimated '0 CoOer 3930 miles 16325 kilomelersl wi.errltory by keeping the nomad'c hun. bullt upon a granl'e block baoe. .le. '0 . are u.l.he onset of the Chllin Dyna"y (22J-207 B.equent centuries after the orlglnal line was bUilt.er thiS large gatehouses were butl< which U Marco Polo relaled In .he number which could pass this oorder.. have been da.ic of large numbers of horsemen sweeping down Out of tile steppes and socilng chles and town•..lIou.lI. TIlE GREAT WALL Of" CHINA to a large eXt en'.lon. Naturally the wall had lis ups and down. If a large concenlta.hlneenth cenlury. A. The base of the wall wa. . figured in.

.AP~~D)('MIlTI LIM: OF OIr""""L w"U or e"..sHOWIAG THE arENT OF THE GREAT WALL 41 ... MAP OF NORTHERN CHINA ..

. AUTUU IN SoME Sllrll:"/J CROSS SECTION OF THE GI?£AT WAll OF THE CIT Y OF TSINAN WALLS ..u.:1'IT ..mDlfll'lATlL Y IIJ MCTCIU {u .... l 42 .I £2 IMCTrJff I 1..1.

. 9 me. Gate along of defensive Chin•.. 43 thl'! InlH!' the line .amp• ..-howl"g the to .. In Nortl>ern .. all..Inner view of chy walls of Slan rampt uoed . the defePdetJ clImb Total '0 he'lh.e...

'\' CITY ID -11 Nl£TEf/S HU"H . .-U" JlAIXIND r"'TA.PLAN OF PEKING W...'2.. .L._.1!_ _"T _ HIGH T.U ~· PEKING CArE ~ROM CHINESE CITy TO TARTAR ern 44 THK"N~ ~T£/I. NlCTCRj T>i£ WAUt _ .I__..._.- .. __I.".' L S ARtx1NP C:HW£SE crrv r·. W .S '..

appro. Barbie. .be c. OOR PLAN OF THE.. Total beiC11t or wan 10 metn'a." 20 mete'".i'Y.ima'ely . THC ~C. " • .AN • TOwell! 4. "" WUT wALL 0' T"'W TA6T_ nor ~"V n.Al.welt wall of . ABOVE BARBJC.".

MAP OF EASTERN ASIA GkEAT WALL China -{!-:-•... PHILIPPINE ISLANOS :.~.. ... . . • SUMATI\ .

.e of Arms and Armour.l.lon..he Prelence of The Dragon TIlron"'. Haku.mour 8Qot.kl: The A. Leomd and Ol"lr.l.ln!\ Ans of ..1 Armour... The Complete Ern:yclopedl.BIBLIOGRAPIIY Aroderson.: In .ude. and Westbrook. Adele: Secren of the Samu. In Ho<:hO . Ch.p.. Sidllf!y: A llistory of fOrtIficatIon rrom 3000 o..C. Ratti.• Vollmer. Robinson..he In<lone.Gunkiko. Russel: Orlen'. Deeo. of Arm. Joseph: S'-. John E.: Wupon •• nd f"i!\h. S. 47 . DlBe8er. Tar"nuk. A. ArmllUr." In China..J. O. Donn R. I&~. Vol. Toy.: A GIO". Needham. and U.ern:~ and CI.lan Arehillf!l'8Cl..ry of the eonstrue."".lllli. L.a.: J.one."I. H... George C.. Through 1700 A. & We"pon .lIon.D..

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