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THE INFINITIVE IN POLYBIUS .

Goodspeed. III. Shailer Mathews. Testament.The Department of Biblical and Patristic Greek issues. Historical Studies. Clyde W. The volumes in each series will be issued in parts. Votaw. II. Edgar J. These Studies are grouped in Texts. Historical and Linguistic Studies in Literature Related to the three series: New I. . Linguistic and Exegetical Studies. from time to time. Ernest D. Burton.

THE INFINITIVE IN POLYBIUS COMPARED WITH THE INFINITIVE IN BIBLICAL GREEK BY HAMILTON FORD ALLEN.D. Ph. CHICAGO Gbe *dniversfts ot Cbfcago 1907 press .

DEC 17193 Composed and Printed By The University of Chicago Press Chicago. DA.Copyeight 1907 By The Univebsity of Chicago Published August THE INSTITUTE OF !0 EL! AL STUDIES 1 I TORONTO 1907 6. S. . Illinois. A. U.

___-_ in Biblical Infinitive in Greek V — Comparison Biblical VI — Uses of — Causes - - Infinitive in Polybius - - — Conclusion - - - and - 46 in -51 ---------. --- Introduction PAGE 7 Bibliography 9 Synopsis of the Uses of the Infinitive in Polybius - - - - - - 17 - - - - 29 — Uses the Anarthrous Polybius — Uses the Articular Polybius — Uses of the Characteristic of Polybius IV — Tables of the Uses of the Polybius and I of II of Infinitive in Infinitive in Infinitive III 45 --.TABLE OF CONTENTS._.52 Infinitive Found in of the Peculiarities in the Biblical VIII Uses of the of the Greek the Polybius VII 15 Books - - - - Biblical Use - Greek but Not in of the Infinitive in the - - - - -54 59 .

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All of my work on Polybius was done before I discovered that "The Articular Infinitive in Polybius" had been studied and the results of the study published by E. and New in the Old Testament. The purpose. Votaw. Apocrypha. G. Polybius. The purpose of this study is to of Polybius' use of the infinitive make a thorough investigation and compare the obtained with the use of the infinitive in biblical results thus Greek. of this admirable piece of work was made. along with the disap- pointment there was some satisfaction in the fact that coincided so exactly with those of Hewlett. and in two books and IV Maccabees) which were originally written in Greek. "The Use of the Infinitive in Biblical Greek" has already been investigated and the results published by Professor Clyde W. It was just because of the widespread use of Greek in the East became necessary to have a translation of the Hebrew sacred writings into Greek for the use of the Hellenistic Jews. wrote his history in forty books in the second century common dialect. not in a highly refined style. educated man of affairs might write of events in which he was interested from personal experience. but as an East. of the University of Chicago. then. and that new writings were composed in that language and not in Hebrew. not only of Greece.INTRODUCTION. a native Greek b. and yet not with the whole of biblical Greek as represented Testament. He also very kindly provided me with unpublished material on the same subject. Hewlett in the eleventh >y volume of the American jfournal of Philology When the discovery (II . W. 295] 7 my results . but with certain selected books. which was then the language. who lived during the c. but of all the And he wrote. is to compare the use of the infinitive in that it Polybius with its use in two books (Genesis and Wisdom of Sirach) which were translated from Hebrew.

but especially for the inspiration received in past years of association with him. Vol. and for Greek. Swete's edition (Vols. Burton for my great indebtedness to Professor Ernest his assistance and interest in the matter of this study. 296 . Ill. the biblical first eight books in the second edition. for Polybius the edition of Hultsch. I and II) in the second edition. 1895-96. 1894).HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 8 The texts used in this study were. I wish to express D.

Hultsch. 1875. The Old Testament Henry Barclay. 3d ed. II. Ernest DeWitt. 1896. Moulton. Grammar Friedrich. Thayer. 1871. Berthold. Leipzig. LEXICONS.. by H. New Testa- Vergleichende Syntax der indogerm. 1898. 1900. Lexicon Polybianum ab Schweighaeuser. 5te Aufl. Homerico. 1-58. Parker. Henricus. Fridericus Otto. Edinburgh. in 2ded.P. Polybii Historiae. I. De accusativi cum infinitivo conjuncti origine et usu Leipziger Studien. Ernesti elaboratum nunc ab Joanne emendatum plurimisque partibus auctum. Oxonii excudebat et J. impensis Oxonii. S. Greek according Ill. IV. 1895-96.J. Sprache. passim W. Ill. London. William Watson. PROGRAMMES. Carolus. Chr. 1890. Gustav. ment Greek. 92. Strassburg. Teile. 1870-72. Munchen. by W. Swete. Londini. 1st ed. DISSERTATIONS. Grammatik der griech. Amelung. Griech. Vol. Leipzig.. Whittaker. Buttmann. MONOGRAPHS AND PERIODICALS. 1898. Joannes. to the Septua- Cambridge. Vols. Baxter. Halle. 9 Diss. G. I. editio prima. Baltimore. Raphael. B. 1895. Leipzig. EDITIONS. G. American Journal of Philology. Winer. F. IV. Goodwin. W.. et Vols. pp.BIBLIOGRAPHY. Leipzig. Griechische Sprachlehre fur Schulen. 3d ed. 1888— Berlin. Syntax of the Moods and Tenses of the Greek Verb. H. 1894. Ausfiihrliche A Treatise on the Grammar of New Testament Greek. II. K. Delbriick. A Grammar of the Greek New Testament. W. Griechische Grammatik. Meyer. I. Thackery. (Abbreviated A. Io. De Polybii enuntiatis finalibus. Diss. 1890-1904.) Anz. Ricardus. Kuhner. New Testament of B. GRAMMARS. Halle. 3te Aufl. 1901. gint. Blass. . 1 893-1 900. MDCCCXXII. F. Transl. Transl. Transl. Grammatik. olim adumbratim inde ab Schweighaeusero Is. Albrecht. Boston. II. Vols. Bd. 3te Aufl. 4 vols. Brugmann. Subsidia ad cognoscendum Graecorum sermonem vulgarem et 297] pentateuchi versione Alexandrina repetita. Greek. editio altera. Sprachen. Kriiger. Alexander. et Merico Casaubonis Aug. by J. 1882. Drei Syntax of the Moods and Tenses Burton.. AND SYNTAX. Andover. K. in Chicago. 1894. 3te Aufl.

Various Constructions XXVII. Diss. Siegmund. Be?iten. Vol. De Fellmann. 1878. enuntiatis finalibus posterioris aetatis. pp. Diss. Ludovicus.P. wcrre. . Prg. Wiirzburg. in the LXX. Alfred. Wendelin. I. der Konstruktionen mit #<rre. vi et usu. 1887. C. 1891. I. Beitrdge..P. J. Halle. n. p.J. Quaestiones grammaticae ad Franz. De Polybii elocutione. VIII.. Vol. De Blackert. Bertholdus. De coniunctionis ws origine et usu. Ca?npe. Hermannus. Lipsiae.... Eichner. Uber die Partikel De Englich. Neu Ruppin. Observationum Polybianarum particula. infinitivo Graeco. 1870.. Note on Some Plato. Glaser.P.. poet. 57. Theodorus. Diss. Prg. A J. Prg. II. 1883. Basil L. De Studien. 1882.. Gleiwitz.. 1868.. Schanzs Birklein. 50. 1849. P. Quaestionum Polybianarum specimen. Eichstatt.J. De Delbriick. praepositionum apud oratores Atticos usu quaesti- Marpurgi Cattorum. Vratislaviae. 1. 105. II. trag. Die Conjunctionen bei Polybius. 1894. Vratislaviae. Gildersleeve. 1888. Goetzeler. Birke. 1855. Lipsiae. De particularism Straboniano. infinitivi temporum usu Thucydideo. Prg. Vol. De Fleischer. pp. Brief. Entwickelungsgesch. II. Graec..J. Diss. De Diel. 53.. 1862. Observationes criticae in Polybium. a l so Schrimm.. 1894. in Xenophon and Articular Inf. Gissae. Fassbaender. 54. The The earumque Diss. Prg. VI. 1. Crefeld. Heft 7. Wien.. Zur Entwickelungsgesch. Wiirzburg. F. Augustus. Ill. A. p. Trans. quae intercedit qui in titulis saeculi III. 1. 106. 329-37. Memel. wore particulis consecutivis primordiis Graeci accusativi eius usu Homerico. Polybium pertinentes. Eberhard. Forrsmann. Maximilianus. I. apud Graecarum rerum Monachii.. Lugduni-Batavorum.. Greiffenberg. 1884. 193-205. Dionysiaco. C. Otto... Berdolt. Diss. Diss. 1894. Henricus. Phil. Berolini. [ir\ et ov usu Polybiano. Bd. Prg.. 1833. scriptores Diss. H. n. 1897. Gustavus. 1867. ws. A.HISTOKICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 10 Beller?nann. 298 1874. infinitivo Homerico. p. pp. Diss.. Leipziger Leipzig. Articular Inf. Berlin. 1892. van De graeca verborum timendi structura. Heft Am. ones selectae.. des substantivierten Infinitivs.. Prg. Diodoreo. Again. 1863. Graef. Prg. inter sermonem Polybii et eum. Contributions to the History of the Articular Infinitive. 1894. I apparet. Vol. Franz.. cum ac peculiari infinitivo Diss. 1889. p. Otto. 1878. Encroachments of /jltj on ov in Later Greek. De ratione. Diss.. A. Jacobus Marie. Ass. III. 1873.

Harvard 11 IN POLYBIUS II. Fridericus.i-33.. Kaelker. A. v.7. 1-210. E. Zu Polybios. Bd. Bd. 1888. Bd. 813 ff. LXXV. in Polybius.. 1897. ff. of Fearing. Fleckeisen 's Jahrb. WUrzburg. 350-467. Quaestiones Polybianae. Bruno. 728. pp. pp.. Bd. On the Articular Inf. Pappus. Jerusalem. pp. 288-319.32-58. Heft 3. I zeit: Polybius. pp. PP. Herwig. Die Inschrift von Sestos und Polybius. PP.. fir)d^ ix-qre. W. Philologus. XCIX. 742 (1867). 4. II. Der Accusativ cum infinitivo bei Homer. Der freie formelhafte Infinitiv der Limitation im Griech.-hist. fur das Gymnasium.. Zeitschr. II. XII. Zwickau.. 1889. W. Anzeige Bd.P. Jolly. w. Prg. 1867. 832 ff. Hewlett. L. 1 /j-tj Marburg. Bd... 1867. 456. 1866. Bd. 564-66. Philol. Wertheim. Erster Philologus. 1858. XIII. C. pp. 440-70. fitjdafiQs. pp. Herbst. 392. Die erzahlenden Zeitformen bei Polybius: Ein Beitrag zur Syntax der gemeingriech. Bd. Wiener Studien. XXII. Hamburg. LXXVII. Adolphus. 289 I. Wiss. C. Vols.. Klasse der kgl. XIV. 321-68. II. XI. Kaiser. Bd. Charles Burton. pp. Geschichte des Infinitivs im Indogermanischen.. Hentze. Teil. Vratislaviae. Dindorf. Infinitivs. F. infinitivi qui fertur pro imperativo. Teil. CXXIX (1884). XCV. 1869. C. 1 u. Prosaikern. 624.. Bd. Quaestiones de elocutione Polybiana.THE INFINITIVE Griinewald. 1875. Abhandl. Quaestiones de elocutione Demosthenica. Hertlein. Fleckeisen s Jahrb. p. Bd. Fleckeisen 's Jahrb . des philol.. ff. Ernst... L. Prg. Bd. Leipziger Studien 217-302. Conjecturen zu griech. 1873. On the Greek Infinitive after Verbs Schanz's Beitrdge. XCV Der absolute pp. I. Prg. XCVII. Vol. L. Die Syntax des Herzog. Pars Prior. 735-36. 676. Bd. Vol. Munchen. p. pp. Polybii historia ed. Die litteratur von 1 846-1 866.. Lipsiae. CI. Friedrich.. v. pp. Bd. Ludwig. Uber &v beim Futur in Thukydides. ov. Bd. in indice graecitatis Jacoby. Ill. De Hoehne. Bd. 267-90. G. Bd. Also Diss. Die griechischen historiker der spateren abschnitt. Julius. Studies in Classical Philol. Uber den Hiatus bei Polybius. 1891. apud Graecos classicae aetatis poetas usu Diss. 1892. CXV (1877) pp. sdchsischen Gesellsch. 33-39. Nos. Dis- sertationes Philologiae Halenses. G. pp. zur k lass. pp. Sprache. genitiv des Infinitivs. Prg. 1873. 1859. suae s. Hultsch. 1901. CVII (1873). Dresden. Berlin. Zu Polybios. d. K. Fleckeisen's Jahrb.. (1879). 299 . I. Fleckeisen' s Jahrb. XLV (1886). Gulick. De particularum conjunctione quae est Diss.

Wiirzburg. F. Sitzungsber. Altertumswiss. Meyer. Bd. Diss. Zwei Prg. hist. Diss. Schmidt. 1863. Die Prapositionen bei Polybius.. Max. Grammatik. 1894. Polybius. LX. von Martin Schanz. Ratibor. 1856. Heidel- berg. Suppl. 1883. Vol. Jahrg. kais. cum infinitivo usu syntactico. Der substantivierte Infinitiv abhangig von Praepositionen und Praepositionsadverbien in der historischen Gracitat. Erste Abteil. De Merguet. F. Uber den Infinitiv. lehre. Karassek.. Prg. Diss. Fortschritte d. Gottingen. ^77 oi. Edmund.. Kirchoff.. Schmidt. II. Geschichtsschreiber. N. II. A. Munchen. 2. Heft 1. J. klass. Bemerkungen Philologus.. 300 . 189 1.Classe d.. Altertumswiss.-Bd. Prg. Fleckeisen's Jahrb. Krapp. Der Infinitiv bei De Kersten.. Prg. Diss. CXXVII (1888). tragicos Graecos usu ac ratione. 471. Karl. C. Wiirzburg. Regensburg. 1884. uber die Fortschritte d. pp. 1883. 341-550. Leipzig. Diss. Wiirzburg. A. Leonhard. Bd. Jahrg. Geschichtsschreiber: Jahresber. Erste Abteil. Sprache. Kuhring. Krebs. coniunctis particulis Zu Polybios. 617-32.. p. PP. d. 1826. 20. 1882. De praepositionum graecarum quaestiones selectae. 1875. Wissenschaft. latein. iiber einige accusativi Punkte d. Schenkel. Philologies. Die prapositionsartigen Adverbia bei Polybius. Jahresbericht iiber d. Lammert. 1884/85. pp.. Prg. Saaz. 227-50.. Schanz's Beitrage — Beitrage zur historischen Syntax herausgegeb. Hermes. 52-70. Lutz. Jahresbericht liber spateren die griech. XII. die spateren griech.. Wortfiigungs- Supplementheft.. Miklosich. von Georg Curtius. 383-54.. 1892. Gottingae. 1906. Joseph. Kolomyi. II.. pp.HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 12 KajnPe. F. Leo. Theobaldus. herausgegeb. — Studien zur griech. Griechische historiker: F. Jahrg. Polybius. Prg. Teile. W. Wien. griech. J. Regi- monti. Herodot. Polybius. Hugo. Uber den accusativ cum infinitivo. Jahresber. nern. der philol. Akad. 1885-93. u. iiber d. N. Franz. class. 1882. Franz. Zu in chartis Aegyptis usu Bonnae. Schanz's Beitrage. Die Casus-Adverbien bei den attischen Rednern. Die Prapositionsadverbien in der spateren historischen Gracitat. griech. De enuntiatorum consecutivorum apud J. Kobylanski. Gulielmus.. 1868. Der Infinitiv der homerischen Sprache. Fleckeiserfs Jahrb. De Flavii Josephi elocutione observationes criticae. Leipziger Studien Wiirzburg. iiber die Prapositionen bei den attischen Red- Diss. Allgemeine Beobachtungen Madvig.. 1894. pp..

1843. Clyde Weber. Zeitschrift fur class. pp. 187-92. Schulze.. liber den Accusativ cum infinitivo. infinitivo Weiske. The Use of Partikel wore mit Hellenismus: Strassburg. Pronomina o?os und 6'cros und dem Emmerich.. Ricardus. 1880. Viehoff. De Polybii dicendi genere.. m ov mit dem Participium und liber ^77 ov mit Nachtrag zu der Lehre uber dem Infinitiv. Beitrage zu Polybius. Gottingen. Peter. 1862. Thiemann. d. Spieker. XCIX (1869). sententiis consecutivis Graecis. Hermannus. Halle. N. Quaestiunculae grammaticae ad oratores Atticos spec- Schulze. . 1879. 529-42. G. A. Diss.. tantes. Richard. 209-39. Joannes. De Wagner. Mus. Bd. Der Gebrauch des substantivierten Fleckeisen 's Jahrb. Prg. 1841/42. Miklosich Jahrb. Georg Friedrich. Maximilianus.. 1901.THE INFINITIVE 18 IN POLYBIUS Die Lehre von den Redetheilen nach den Alten.. Supplement der Zeitschr. Erlangen.. particula (bare commentatio. P. osterreich. Philol. Prg. pp. 1889. Zeitalter des Beitrage zur Geschichte und Beurteilung der Koivq. pp. Vol. Jahrb. Diss. 1885. 427-31. The Genitive Absolute in the Attic Orators. 1882... Zur Lehre vom Infinitiv. Band De I.. Gymnasium. Carolus. iuncto. Gorlitz.. Wiener Studien. Albert.. Prg.. Schomann. Diss. Prg.. Eduard. Die griechische Sprache im Diss. VI. 1857.. griech. Anzeige von F. Sprache. Ernst. Fleckeiserts C (1870). Glogau. Diss. articulo con- Infinitivs im Griechischen. Edward H. Bautzen. Bd. Rhein.. genitivis et dativis absolutis. Thumb. 1883. Chicago. 301 Prg. De Seume. Stick. Uber die Construction der dem Infinitiv. Glogau. 1885. Vratislaviae (without date). Uber die sogenannte absolute Participialconstruction Wentzel. J. the Infinitive in Biblical Greek. 310-43. pp. Votaw. Titus. Wilde. 494-504. Conjecturae Polybianae. f.. Wunderer. XXIII (1868). De apud oratores Atticos cum Prg. A. Erlangen. 1896. 1861. Fleckeisen's Bd. Schwerin. Berlin. Diss. F. CXXVI. Jahrg. Quaestiones Polybianae. pp.

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Of Verbs of Hindering and the like = v. and Pronouns. Result. Prepositional Object (after 7r\^v)=k. 3. Verbal Object. a) b) 5. Of Verbs introducing Indirect Discourse= 2 i. Limiting Nouns. Verbal Subject. 3 7. e0' <2re=m. a) Followed by the Simple Infinitive. I.SYNOPSIS OF POLYBIUS. i) 2) 6. Predicate Infinitive=u. 303] Parenthetic Absolute Infinitive = r. b) Followed by the Simple Infinitive with fj-'fj. Without Attendant Particle=s. 4) Pronouns=q. 3) Adverbs— ^. With x Stipulation. 1) a) Distinct 2) 9. a) Simple Infinitive=h. e'0' v. Modified and General without Attendant Particle=o.e. 1) Actual or Hypothetical. Of Impersonal Verbs which take Indirect Discourse— 1 i. With ware (ws)=:f. wo-re (w$)= s. THE USES OF THE INFINITIVE Of Impersonal Verbs in general=:a. i. With uxrre (o>s) &v—^i. 1) 2) 3) Of Verbs in general— b. Adverbs. 10. b) Infinitive with ws= x h. THE ANARTHROUS INFINITIVE. 1) Nouns. and Specific without Attendant Particle=d. Purpose. 4. With With &<TT€=*t. Adjectives. i) 2) 2. 2) Adjectives=g. 15 IN . Apposition = c. 8. b) Distinct and Specific with wo-re=. a) b) c) 2) Epexegetic or Explanatory. With &<tt€ in Indirect Discourse= 7 f.

Infinitive with t6 as Subject=<2. Limiting Nouns and Adjectives. or Instrument = r. 1) 2) 3) 7. 5. Apposition=^r. irplv f). II. With tov after Prepositions taking the Genitive.r. Verbal Object. a) b) c) 4. Means. Infinitive with 1) a) 2) 8. Means. tw.?. Prepositional Object=/&. Limiting Adjectives = £\ Comparatives. b) With tov as Object. c) With rod ptri as Object. t£ indicating Cause. irpbrepov i]=x. Manner. With t£ after Prepositions taking the Dative. Accusative Absolute^. = ^. With to as Object=£. Infinitive with Trpiv. Infinitive with tov as Genitive of Price=. With With With to. Infinitive with 12. Infinitive with tov after a) The b) ws 9. Verbal Subject. b) With rod as Object=<^. c) With t§ as Oh]ec\. Infinitive with Tov=t. Absolute— w.=bbb. Infinitive with Tov—e. 10. Cause. Absolute =w. 1. 304 . THE ARTICULAR INFINITIVE. b) Infinitive with tov 6. of Emotion. Accusative of Relation=?z. Infinitive with tov in Genitive 11. 1) a) 2) 3. With Verbs of Hindering. Infinitive with to as 13. etc. With 12. tov. Infinitive with Genitive 13. 2. Purpose. with the Infinitive with tov= x t Infinitive with to as Predicate=z<:.HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 16 11. a) With rb as Object. b) Ground c) Point of Difference. With t6 after Prepositions taking the Accusative. a) Infinitive with tov Limiting Nouns=/&. Accusative Absolute=z.

a). 9 )(firjcri}x6v . 2137 * — The with or without a subject accusative. . 65. 24. oi>x olov re aTtoSovvat. 75* 4* 8 e^eVrat Karavoeiv. Grammatik. 14. 9 (TKOireiv -napeo-rtv . 474 and b. /cat Pw/xatiots. . Trapaarrjcrai. . 5 14. the infinitive having the potential force of the corresponding indicative or optative. . kirtfiaivetv. and So/cel of instances of Kiih. 17 each use of the infinitive.J . 30. almost to the exclusion 751. 8 ezrt rotcrSe 9. is infininitive. 2. 62. 5 2 Ian cfaXcav elvat Kap^Sovi'ot? Cf. 3. i. . Polybius uses G. . aAAa rovs Kapx^Sovtous /zr) olov o~TpaT07re$u) rrjs tt^Se toi>s Kar' I8tav OeXovras 8ta7r€cretv paScais ^wpas av Svvao~0at XaOeiv tov? v7revavrtovs. Tenses. I °9 — The infinitive in indirect discourse is used as the subject of passive verbs of saying or thinking. 6. I.1 . jO/z.1. Moods and or infinite. 2 2. Of impersonal verbs in general ( = a). G. used as the subject of an Goodwin. MT. II . Superior 1 305] So/cel. or of such verbs as 4>alveTcu or of any other verb. number MT. 3. USES OF THE ANARTHROUS INFINITIVE IN POLYBIUS. 7 . 472. . finite . o~vv£($atV€. . 8 avayxaiov virtXafiofxev elvat avvTa^acrdat. 745. 6 TTMTTevaai paStov. CHAPTER I. G. 1. MT. 3 750. 2) Of discourse ( impersonal verbs which take a subject infinitive in indirect = I i). 67. Kuhner. i) Verbal Subject. 56. 38. figures indicate the Hereafter cited as G.15-9 (TvvaSeiv ouSa/Aws Swarcu. There is one case of this infinitive with av. xprj evXoyetv. impersonal verb. 3. eSei ypac/>eiv. 211. 40. 3 e$o£ev (3or)9eLV. 75* 6 *£ wv MT. I. 1 7rapa\e\eicf>0aL crwe'/^aive tov tiratvov. 4.

8 I 'at. 747. 6 €7retcrav (pvytlv. after {3ov\o/jlcll. 7.a. /3ovXr)6rjvaL rbv Kiih. 7r/oocrTa£a<.iJo"ai infinitive as object of cf. 4 7raVrws ofioXoyrjTeov 30.iva1 tovs 77-dAe/AOv — Verbal Object. 20. IO. 2 7rapayyeiAas 7rpo7rop£vecr6at. QiXlttttov A. 5. 2) "The Object of verbs infinitive is said introducing indirect to discourse ( = stand in indirect discourse. I. 2. >)v <f>(XT€ov apxrjybv yevtcrOcu. 4 2. Kiih. 14. 3. ^prjadai. 43. or is an accusative of kindred meaning. I. rj Karacpavr} yevicrOai 'PoStois ttjv iv tovtols avrov 7rpoatpe(TLV. 2 (3ov\6pL€vo*s d7roXt7retv. 40. ap. €KptV€ &LaKlV&VV£VUV. 3 7raV yap rj Greek. The oAi'yov ^A#ov a. 19. 2 Siafiaiveiv 9.HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 18 av So£ai Ka$rJK€LV.u<p6v rjXBov aTroXeaaL ra 7rpdyp. commanding has not been study. would have been expressed by some tense of the indicative (with or without av) or optative 306 (with .7roA.cf>Lcrj3r)Te'iv. 12 <x)pp. rov? Kar^Tia/xevous. 12. when 2 i). but does occur in biblical for ixaXXov 7] 13. The infinitive after verbs of placed under a separate head in this verbs of bidding in salutations does not occur in Polybius. 2. 5. The infinitive in Greek is used as the object of many verbs which require an infinitive to complete their meaning. 7 54. I. 473. evAoyoJS rov 7re7roXtp. 4. 2 1. The infinitive is the accusative object of the verb. Object of verbs in general 1 1. 540. its it 2 w— tenses depends on a verb implying thought or the expression of thought (one of the class of verba sentiendi et declarandi). 10 vofxicTTiov av/x/3dXX€a Sokci 2. G. /txot I. 4 7rttp' 33. ^prjcnpiov elvat.7)<rav. 3. 2 1. II. 7 irapa p. MT.Ta.riK. dvaSeiaaOat 2. and when also the thought. and correspond to those of the indicative or optative. 6 ovS' l-rrcfSaXovTO 3. ( = b) 3S33 — TrpoyprjfJieOa ypd<f)£LV. as originally conceived. 6 iOdpprjcrav iKTCtvetv.

tu> Se Sia/xapraVav toi?s 7roAAovs. if a)? Vide Schweig- retained in the text. SoKovcrtv Tt irao-yeiv.3 V7roXa/x/?avovres /xova>5 av outcos 7repas €7ri#etvai 2. 307 7r€<£i>rev/Aevai. 8. 13. 2 0. A. tw 7roAe/xa». 8 et In 34. I. 15. 3. 70. 3. 5. av 7ra0eTv Seivov.. AT«//. 7 Kaipov ovk av 8. Kav avTos a^LOiOrjvat. £.THE INFINITIVE av). elvai. d). 4 I. 4 i>7reSaKvuev aura) a)?. II ovros SokcT d7roXeAavKevat t^s iStas evfiovXtas. emxi Kaipov 7. ii. elvac /cat SiKaiOTaYa? KTrjcreis. 23. 208. 6. 8 ev <2 2 . ovtws aptcrra Kara. 8 avay kcuov V7reXa/?o/xev aval. *• 9> J T 4- 3-7- j 2 > JI 6. MT. 3. rots iTn<f>avr}vai 7rpayp. 2[. 7 I. «X €tv & 0K {j- *3. 7r€7r€tO"/jt€voi»9 fxrjSkv 7. I. 4 7re7reiorfA€voL 7roirjo-ear$ai. /caAAio-Tov Scort 6Vt. an indirect-discourse clause introduced by three times. infinitive. I. This infinitive also occurs Cf. a-rrohovvai. 12 os av 7rX€tcrTOV<."— £. I.2. 2. 685. 7> 4. 29. 5. 1. the infinitive occurs in a relative clause which de- pends on a 6Vt-clause: <pr)(TLV on fiaXavoi etcrt ev crtTOv/xevovs Also tt)v T17 avToOc OaXaTTrj tov? ^wvous 7naiveo~6aL. Also haeuser. tov X077O7AOV. 40. 1. 550. 18. in relative clauses 38. Seiv 12. 6 to. 23. 5. 13. depending on an indirect quotation which has been introduced by an infinitive. 19 IN POLYBIUS 684.ao"iv. KvpLWTaTas ecf>rj 5. 49. 4. re xai /xeveiv 8. wv tov Kapirov . KOiXvetv. 68. I crvyKA^rov. tt)v opyryv 4. 398. 2. I. is Lexicon Polybianum. In r^v cv/x/xa^/av. 23. 12. 2 TTv96lX€VO<i TTOpBtlV. 5 vofJLL^ovres I. 8. Kiih. Future 8. G. 5. avrov? KOfxi^ecrOai k. Xoyov avrov olfxai $vvr)6r}vai €<f)r] fir] MT. 25. 16. 10 aKOvcas tov crroXov crweyyv ? eivai. 3. I. az>. I. 594. 67. tv toi. etc. 8 rovs 8e votuVavTa? av Infinitive in <w?. 755. under article w?. 31.X. KaO 1 a? avrots KaBrjKtiv Kara KotAr/v Suptav.t. with infinitive 30. 32. 8 {^4>r}) <f>ep€Lv eVt I 8. 9. 4. 59. 15. I. 17. 34. so that can be transferred without change of tense to the it MT. 8 7r€Trotrjcr0at. 21. 7 /xot Sokcl TrucrOrjvaL Tt/xato? 31. 3 €<f>r) 1 28. Kiih. 5. G. olkt]o~clv MT.

MT. 10. 5 4. or a) (— v). 12. infinitive is contradiction. 18. (a) — The hindering. <f>epeiv o-ttXov. separation. 2. 16. 72. denial. II. I. 8 o{>x oAo)? d7reA7rt^ovT€5 alp-qcretv 2 €Ko)Xv(re. 52.. 34. 8. after eight different verbs pr). 33 ovk av cv\af3r}9eL7) tovtols iy^eipccrai 7to\lv. 22. the simple infinitive. ytvoi(TKetv ovSev fxrj irapa&i£acrOai. 3. 3) infinitive with in the verbs. which contain a negative in (b) the merely repeats the negation inherent 10. 69. 20. 5 Simple tis etc. Shokelv Kol (TVfXTrXiKecrOai roTs (OKvrjcra Kal Xiyav ttjv Ywfxrjv. in apposi- c. 13. 2. 3. 15 8ir)7rei\y]craTO fxrjOiva 2. 18. 13 2 98.36. 18. 308 . 55 9. 8. 2. 8. cf. 7. and notes. 6." teen times. 6. Kiih. 5. opposition. 472. 30. 745. 4° etc. 7. 11 apvr]drjvat tl 15. 5. and £X €LV 4 5. separation. Kiih. 9 £k(i)\v(T€ p. 24. 514. 3. 807- G. 79. 3. 5. MT. Kal 9. mistrust. ypa^eiv. 16. 5 12. tion with a noun or pronoun. 55. — The infinitive may stand Apposition (— c).HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 20 The with av occurs twice in indirect discourse after infinitive of comparison: o>? 10. Sia/3aiWiv. 9 ov eiKorcos e^apvovvrai 4. 2 7rpor)y6pevov fx-q 29. has firj but twice. They may take themselves. 32. 78. 85. 9. after six verbs. used as the object of verbs of doubt. 20. 47. 2 d7T€t7raro xpetav ^X etv //. 29. ala^pov rjyovvraL. etc. 15. 3. tovs 8e Xolttovs acf>uvat. 81 G. b) Infinitive with firjj 1. 1 5. ovk 3. with the infinitive with rod and rov \ir}. 2. 4. J.}) Kiih. 4. 2. infiinitive. 5. kcdXvcd. E. 13. 38. 4.toi<> 11 others. — verbs Object of verbs of hi?idering. of the infinitive with \xr\. ovSets av liri(T\e crvv Katpu) iroi-qaacrOaL /Aerd/jaciv. I.?) cfivvat [jlyj 7rapa o~<J>l<tl..4 9. 55. 23. either which /at. 25. below "Verbs of hindering. 4 6/xoAoyi'as kirovqaaro roiaura?. 12. 8 14. 8 d7re?7rov avTio iropeveaOaL. 21. 514. 5. - There are thus thirty-three of the simple infinitive without cases. to seven cases. ots 7]7TL(TTr]OraV 1. 7roAe/x. ' ov yap a7reyLV(0(iKe avrbv Kopov e^eiv. e^etvat KapxiySoviois £i<X££a(r6ai StKa. which has the infinitive sevenCf. 7.

7. Burton 369. 595. Actual: KaracfjpaKTOv 20. Blass 69. 2 4. 11 109. 63. G. (a)?) used 7roA. 104. 5 — in indirect discourse. 585. optative. II .. 6. 584. ff. 15 irrl p\iav TrapeKT€LvavT€<s vavv a>s tovs Trpb kavTOiv. ap^etv Kara. 9. 9. Trj<s to tolovtovs airorekeiv aVSpas ware with the b) icm ware to yutplov e7Ti7re8ov 5. and that coare with the infinitive was often used when action state or MT. 24. however. 19. 7 aipecrcv avrw irpovreive TOiavTrjv. 25 . V7repreiVeiv e£ eKarepov rov p. 14. 12. 5. 37. 1 ) With preceding ware a) with infinitive or cocrre <w? or (=f). tyjv olvtov irpoatpecriv. 10. 12. ware paSuos five with infinitive in indirect discourse times with the infinitive 594.3. 39. 8. was actually verb principal Kiih. in potential MT. 7 J 5- f] 91 * \prjadaL 6 2 . wcrre tTTOKtiXacrav yeviaOai TOLS P(0/ZatOlS V7TO)(€ipiOV. . 12. 10. II. f. 5 a)(7T€ is MT. . prjOev lkclvov earou cr^/x-etov ev Se 7roteirat 7repi infinitive G. to state that the result of the I. 161 it was intended the of XIV. I.. 3 . 30.24. KaTtirXrj^aro rovs MeAiTaiets. Result. 427 Actual or hypothetical. 26. 5. 8.aT0s cnrovSrj^. ff. 52. P. 29. 18. 211.6 c) may 592. that in later Greek the distinction between ware with the indicative and (bare with the infinitive was obscured. I b 12. 7rpo7re(rov(T7]<. 10 . 3.97. 3.£povs 2. 582 G. like the potential indicative or ^et/xoov6 ko\ ra) al<f>viStu) koll 7rapa8o£u> av KpaTrjaaL coo-re (= 2. VII. Kiih. Kiih. not in indirect discourse. 43 p. realized.46. Brief ff. 15. 7. TrjXtKovTU) Treptiireo-ov I rjv u>o~Te ttolv inropitveiv. 3. av ttj<. 5 f).ea>s. etc. I. II tov (TTpaTOTrcSevaavTa iv avT<2 SokcXv iv acr<pa\et (TTparo-rreheveiv." It seems.. II.7. 3 21 IN POLYBIUS 2 i . 2 12. T-qXiKavTcus o-vpcpopcus wcttc p-^S' ei7retv dittos hvvacrdai.. Hypothetical: jotev 6. 6. 4. J. 240 ff. 383 &>? implies no — In more than classical Greek the that the action or state of the principal verb "is of such a nature as to be followed by another consequence. 15. with av with av. 15 /xtas veco? I. 46. 32. 9. i. If5 — The follow ware infinitive to express a form. 14. (= 7 f).THE INFINITIVE 103. 2. fxipos v} rot? <x</>eTepois Kara. 608. Gildersleeve A. 8. 309 2. 9. consequence rov 7r0A.iTevp. ff. 584. 104.

4. 47. . apposition. e'(/>' With ©ore (= 0) II. 472. . a)(rT . 4. 35. 10 et? I s). e. KeAevca? 7 eVi roinrois TrpoTtivetv €^eiv apL<f>orepovs a vvv typvo-iv. in and and the 610. 3. Stipulation. 4. <f>poveiv used with three tqm yevofxlvqv o~v}xir\oKr)v oura>s /xera rrjv cfrrjcn 3. 310 G. condition. or limitation of the action 584. 3* tov I. and the negative aorist i 21. Cf. infinitive or state expressed in the principal clause. 13. Kiih. ^. r^v iroXiopKiav. 8 6 V 'ATreAA^'j XvpLOLivecrQuL ra? iroieiTai o~wa>/xoo"tav a>crr' rou /SacrtAews ^pecus. 1) is o>— m. 4 cocrre with the infinitive (= 4 f).0 1 And clvtovs 22. 587. wcrr' €K7r€/X7r€iv clvtov pLera xoprjytas." expressed or understood take the infinitive. Cf. 5. rola8e. 102. (=m). 5. limits.r)&ipi66ev clvtu) ^oprjyta irapayivrjTai 7rpos 103. 3. 43 that. . KaTaAetTro/xeV^s. explanatory of the preceding demonstrative pronoun. IO.a The ware fxovov <f>vy€LV vvktos eis Ta? %vpaKOvo~as fxrj is s (f>povpLa Trdvra KaTaXcTreiv.HISTOKICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 22 15. 588 end. for the Kal XaA/a'Sa ets ra? rots AirooAots elpiqvqv and "Infinitive cp correlated with an r-qv 21. 5. 33." — 'E(/>' to purpose of. iirl may tovtco i?ifi?iitive in 3. 14 — The may infinitive be used as an addition explanatory of the action or state of the verb which 29. 63. and e<£' wt€ ze>z//z //^ meaning "on condition e'(£' e$' cpTe. 13. 2. Kiih. 8. 48. Kiih. 2) "Epexegetic infinitive" principal clause. it aKaToWaKT ids uatlovs be tovs 77-/00S c. 8 MT. 14. may iirl used ty)v eirifioXiqv. 12 ravT^v I. kcll tol infinitive in these five cases av fxrj. 3. 31. e7ri/?oAds. 6. KoAd£eiv avrovs SiaK€t/Ae#a. G. 6 3 . 8 5 I. is 9 . 24. Aveiv express a stipulation. 13 II. 4 3 the simple infinitive 3. 18. twv 7roAe/xov avaS^ecrOai tov r) ku. 'Ie'pcovd fxlv yeveaOai tov dAA. infra after 5. 4. A. 2. 2) Epexegetic or explanatory infinitive a) Without attendant 22 particle (=s). MT. uvtos iKetvovs iOeXoKaKetv Se ^a) pea Otis (fipovTt^eiv Iva p. tovto crwr/yovTO wcrre 7roAAa/as f3ovXcveo-0aL 68. 6* dAAa yevrauos In KaKwj/ alpiaeuis r) SiSovai Trjv €7riTpo7n)v 7rept 62. 2. 13 — The 2 7rept with coo-re MT. 36. 30. actios. 2. is infinitives. 584. 5. 3. 2. tov 25.

Adjectives. W i<j>' €7Tt TOtO-8e. adverbs. vide "Epexegetic infinitive=s. 166 Nouns (=h). 4 cv at? Also £) jU. and their opposites. ^1/ TrapdKXrjCTis Oappeiv kol p. 2 . 25. 3. 9*. adjectives. same rela- 758. 473. 13. MT. re rovra>.evov 3. 4. kcll fx-qre infinitive. €<£' C7rt w occurs but twice. and pronouns denoting ability. a>? the simple infinitive with the infinitive in 588. . 11 TrpoOeo-iv €)(ovt€<. 608.ejU. w with demonstrative omitted. 3. 1 6. 31. Kvpca. 3 Kaipov elvat irXeiv. 8. and Pro- 6. need. 3. etc. 78. 2. 12° 311 d^^mi Tr/v 5. /u. 86. 1. Adjectives (=g). all such as express the tions as verbs which take an infinitive. 16. 8. 585. icj>' €7U TOVTOIS. 80. G. time. a> 5. (= I h) 1 . 2 7 I. Simple infinitive. i. T€ <5 dpaadai avrot? e£avai /xt) Trpbs v^ota? p. 11 irapdyyeXp. 1) a) I. 1. — Besides one occurrence of the same construction. i. V7roLKovpovp. 15. 4. Adverbs. 10 5. 7.£v€W. Xaj36vTes 8e crvy)(d)prjpia iroirjaaaOat ttjv d-TroXvcnv.) 4.0v. 3." is found after Kith. 9.evr)V droiziav . 3. 3.eyaAa. 2. 88. 13 eavrov ava-rpareveLV i£ov<rcav eSwKe. 7. €</>' <£ e<£' 67. In w TapavriVov? iXevBepwcruv 1.THE INFINITIVE I.r)$€7roT£ 7r0A. fitness. rbv aTrobovvai fxkv al^/xaXcora dpyvptov Se TrpoaOtivai rdXavra tovtols eKarov.d tl SeSop.€Tairopevea6ai kol 2. 13. etc. Xiyeiv oypa 7repl twv 7rpoKeipLeviov. 8 5 iirl rolcrSe. 4 . II. in fact. 22. I. 8. A. Infinitive with after nouns. 4 4. w i<f>^ to. may infinitive be used after nouns. 584. 28. ivToXr/. 1 avdyKr) (Tvy^oypclv t<xs dpyas koI Tas VTrodtacis elvat if/evSets. 27. Kick. ease. ei^ov eA7u8as Trjs Pw/x^s avr^s tcreaOat Kvpuoi. 3 tovs V7ro7U7rroi>Tas. 7. Trotrjcrdixevot 9 13 9. (TvvOrjKas 8e 23 IN POLYBIUS €<£' avvOrjcrofxeOa. Kick. 12. 49. IO**. 62. iroXiopKeLv tovs <ru//. eSoo-av 7r«rT€ts eVl TouTOis. 12 5. Infinitive after Nouns. I. 8. ws eVi Aoyov 49.e#' IO 'Pw/junoi? KaXXurrov ZQos iarl p. 3 3 the simple infinitive . 24.rj. /JacrtXc'tt'Pw/xatots. II I. 8wajats. 46. 4. 2. Il8. bpp. 2) cf. there is a)? eyei/erd Tts /caipos iv avrots.7re</>euyoTa?. €<£' 1 (Note the future <j)6povs irpd^ea-dat. 76. 2 . G. — The nouns.9 8' rjv (frovtvew fiorjOeLV. MT.

atot Kat 3. 4) Pronotins (olos. In 10. . ecrrt 7rpoKa\€(ra(r6ai 3 eKcjivyciv I.24 I.€lv eVt Toaovrov ware Setva) Tw rd^a 7rpo<xdyeiv. oWaros Kat 7rapoppLr)o~ai. 6. 6. 4 8.ev viro)(wpeiv ttot\ Sk 7rd\iv Ik [X£Ta/3o\f}s cy^etpciv. 74. is twice used as an adverb with the anarthrous infinitive. 26. 29. 21. 2. 8. 8 I g). 6 ouSev Zrepov 8.7r\€Kecr0aL. IOI. 3 Trpd^etpos wv avp. 7rpeo-/3ccov a7roKT€trat. KivSvvevcrai Sucr^p^crrot. HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 4 LKavov I. «<£' otrov o-f£i>yowras Kat o"i. 9. MT.Setos. MT. 1. 102. 770-75. 29.^)to-/377rou/xeV(ov.ws co"^ov teVat Kat 7rapaKaAetr.ei'£ovos </>epeiv. 803 b.49 rjaav eVtTpe7retv. 2. Purpose. 9 Sie/<7rAe?v Kat €7ri</>atWcr#ai doWaTtos €?^ov. — 12 ws €7ra7rocrr€tAai Ttvas rbv Trapprjcrtao'dpLevov TOiV 5* 3* 5 7. IO 3. 3. 37. 0I05 re.eVeiv. 23. 13. 36. Kvptos. 479. 8. Kiih. cov. 3 9 Setvot yap Pcop. etc. 1. 62. 4 ot MeyaAo7roAtrat 7rpo^vp. ^ MaKeSdvas rovs Se Sid icf>rJKe auToXoyeiv. Kiih. Set voctv 7r\r)V 8vo expands crvvrjppLocrOaL. ZvopKos. 8. 8. 7 t' and ocro? (=q).evov.o"rotxot>VTas Stap. rovs crweyyt^ovras. 22. I. 4 Hultsch corrects Prepositional Object (=k). 3 otOL IO. IO Also €7rtr>.'s e£tAdcrao-#ai Kat avOpw-rrovs. 32- Btacra(f><j)v G. ayaOos. 1) 2. Adverbs (=. t' av I. 2 ol>x °tot 1. The infinitive is used a) Without attendant particle (=d). 1. Distinct T0 ^ ? 17. which is used six times as a quasi-preposition with the genitive of the articular infinitive. 4 tyjs Trv\r)<s depicts etpyetv 312 3 . 2 — otos to irXr/v. 5. 51. 46 and specific. crot/xot 7roAe/A€u/ r)aav. 473. rvyelv rjaav d£tot Ttp-ooptas. 6 tovs MeyaXoTroAtras irpoBvfiovs elvac 2. 112. 54. G. 9 o~vvr}0eis 7Tore p. 33. 14. 50. 8. 13 to express the distinct and specific purpose of the action or state of the governing verb. 58. avaffiipetv. ovre yap di/re^dyetv d^to^pews ^v ovre 7rapaf3or)Qeiv. 7 and A. 4. 39. 5 $La<f>£poiTO Se €7rt rouovrov c</>' ocrov StSdcrKCtv Kat Treidtiv V7rep t<oj> dp. 50. 2. 3) 0eoi. I p. tSet ctvvc6l£. olos re I. ovhev 7r\r)v erotp-ovs etvat Trpds to 7rapayye\\6p.

12. €7TOS et7T£tV. I. 39. 584. 3. 34. 3. 88. 81. the action or state of the governing verb is 3. Parenthetic Absolute Infinitive 51. 35. 2 3. Acts 4:14. Kiih. 776-83. 3 12 enr&v. 3. With preceding ware b) tive may ( = e). 4. 9. 26. 9. 12 2 10. 7. IO. 1884. (— o).9. 8 — (bare with the infini- be used to express a consequence which a purpose. 7.3. fxrjv 3°. 12. (or w?) aimed at as 2. Burton 368. o>5 ctKor/v w<s i/Aol ec aKO^s ypdc^uv. 6. 7. 10. 37. 2 4. 8. or with reference to which. 9. 4*. p. 70. 35. 46. 2. 9. 3. 5. 1." av rt ei7reiv e'xot. 7. Ij 3. Luke 9. MT. 16. 34 — This use occurs thirty-four times in parenthetic phrases which limit or qualify the whole statement or only G. 28. II.5. 6. d.3. 4 7roX\ov ye 5. MT. - 1 12. 7 {vide Hidtsch. 29. 585. II Sloltet ayfxevoL olv o)<s pikv 25 IN POLYBIUS 7rpo? rov ' AireWrjv 7rcur(U5 e/X7rootetv. is Sokciv toTs avrwv avixfxd\OL<i €K)((DpeLV TCOV VTTatBpOiV.9 ov ei^oy ye Troieiv ovSeV.6 21. and Cf. In Polybius the infinitive always active or middle. III. 77.5. 8oK€tV. ^ wcrre 7roXe/xtbt?. 20. wore iTnTpi^eiv l^airicTTeiXe tovs cttiAcktoks. 8 aTTfSe^avTO /xere^etv 'Pcu/xacovs. 5. with diminished purpose force and with a general rather than a specific bearing. 3 23. 6 avmraprj-ye rot? 3. that for which.THE INFINITIVE 5. 7. 12:4. 4. p. rrjv AaKCDViKrjv. 6. 587. 10 performed or exists. 5. o>s some word Setv. 31. 1864. 52. 12. 7. 58. i. 32. 4. 447. 3. rats €7ri/3oAaTs avrov. 8. 2S — used to express. Modified a?id general without atte?idant particle 2) "The infinitive is 3. 13 fXLKpov Each 4. 6.io. 16. Kiih. 7. 14. 4. . (=r). 8. 4 of the following occurs once. 83. 8. Fleckeisen. 742). 43. 9. 313 in the sentence. never is passive. 5. 3. 21. WS I. 7:40. 49. 2. G. 3°. 7 3. 6. 38. 1. 16. 46. 5 Seu/. 7. 92.71. 13. . 12. Cf. 7.

7. 30.). 45. 6 iracras i^eXey^oyaL Ttvos 31. 14. ireiTOLrjo-6aL. 6 b inf. 11. 314 eA7TiSas irporepov rj irapa)(<LoprjaaL . 9. preceded by a verb compounded is OaXarrav affirmative. In 9. rj. 8' (a7rAa)s elirelv in a quotation 11. 33. 2 s c-rpareLas e^eXeXv ra? ©T^/Jas. II. Infinitive with irporepov i (pres. TOVr' aVOLCTCLV €7U Tl. 49. follows a positive clause four times. 99. 1. 27. a . 1. 1.HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 26 I. 2 11. 2. 5 « ~. eXelv rrjv M. with indicative after negative clause. avr£ o\r) irpoOeaLS rjv 6 OpKOS IcTTLV p. 20. 12. 29. 6. except 7. Kiih. once.3 7r/3l^ r/. x^^PX ^5 il/otV. 6 ov irporepov eXr)£e irplv 13. ifr'/A. 43. 2. 1. used is it may be nominative. however. irpocrQev XvaeLV rrjv noXLopKLav irplv Cf. 651-54. 9. 2. I. 25. only as predicate G. 28 Predicate Infinitive 10. 5. with the Infinitive (=x). 4 inf. 9. irporepov six times. 6 b 9. irpoadev once. 6. irporepov G. 745. 22. rj rj: $Lecf)6eLpe ra pLeLp&KLa. 7 8. 23. 49. koll rjpLas 8' €i7T€iv. 32 Occurrences not cited above are: 1. 6. r] rf 29. 6. 2 KCtV C^p>7 In each the leading sentence irpo. 12. 626-31. 15. 43. 2. 49. — The infinitive used as a predicate nominative or accusative. 2. 6. 1. from Theopompus. with 2 the 7r/nVclause Infinitive with irplv 10. 6 (pres. 12. inf. 2. - viroSeLKvvvaL kcu SrjXovv. irplv . 5. yap r) 8' rjcrav ras crffaerepas avayKtiLwv. — Infinitive with irpiv: 16. 13.ecrcrrjvrjv. 24. b. i'cr^vcos et7retv. 3. 4. 13 8. elSevai. d. ocrov ye 3 tcAos 21. occurs cpOdvo) 74. 6 2. 6. \ 1. /at) 58. dAAa 10. . 568. 4.7]8lv 2 33. 31. 12. 37. 27. 49. 7. (aor. . 6. 43. with the 4. with 7rp6 once. a negative clause twice: 1. 4. 5. used with. 1: 27. 10.). 18. 6. 11. 23. 85. 4. 10. the aorist I. 31. avTcu (eVroAas) 1 Tov? 11. 6. 5. 18. 85. 39. 5. rrjSi KXtyeLV. 1. In 472. 35. 4 2 . 7.). inf. 38. 7. infinitive follows a I. 18. 12. 23 MT. . In every case. 6 — In the leading sentence 14.) (— u). is rj 7T/3oeKSa7ravaT(H irplv ii<f3oXr)V ets 9. 4. 2 6. irplv 1. 2. (perf. rj is 60. 6. 20. 2. 5. 2 5. 2. 9. 1. twv verb compounded negative clause eleven times: 18. 2 i rj Trplv infinitive. 32. 35. 35. 85. 28.). MT. 11. Polybius. 66.

486.5 ^i"- 01 T<£ 7rpo(nr€(Teiv avrui 6lotl Ka. 56. 7. 18. <t4>l<tl Demosthenes 26. I. 31. 28. 1. 8' . The statement (4) eis TOUTtol/ TrpOVTrZCTOVTUiV. 2 5.1v. 336 2. Polybius has several other ways same thought. 2. 54.46. 50. 8 1.TeiXr}<f>9aL avfxj3atvei tyjv twv 'Apyetwv 7roA. 7r/oocr7re(rovT09 13 5. 6 14. igayy eXOevros wv I rov yeyovoro? r^v Pw/xrjv.s Siort jucra T)}? oWa/xews elvat 7rept Tairovpcav. 1. (ed. 42. 28. 30. avTui tovs IXXvptovs iropOdv tyjv ^copav. 4 55. 2. 8. 116. in the form of a 6Vt-clause may be the subject of an infinitive. 1 Cf.THE INFINITIVE IN POLYBIUS Absolute (=w). Staaacf>r]OivT(i)v. noun or pro- 2. 24. infinitive 27 used as the genitive subject of the neuter impersonal is participle in the genitive in place of the omitted noun. 5 — The 2. 41. 18 Infinitive with the Genitive 12. cf. I yevofX€vr}<. 143. tyjv may be Acriav pLayrjs. 7. 17 IO. 315 crvfifiaivcL rov /xev Eu#uS?7/xov . 53. The (5) ort-clause may be in apposition with the noun of the genitive absolute. 2 J 10. 48. 7rpo<rayye\6£vTO<. 3. Se rrjs 7rpocruyyeAca. 50. 7. 6. 7rpO(TTTt(j6vTO<i 5. 23. 52. the subject of an impersonal verb. Q. was made known could be expressed by a genitive absolute. (1) A noun may be the subject 21. Baiter Kaiser) 17. clvt<3. 1. 40. 37. 6. ^prjcraa-Oat rots 7rapoi)o-ii/. 169. 5. IO 7r/ooo"€7re(re The (3) irapayzvicrOai tovs 7r/oeo-/?evTas. 2. Kith. 49. 3. 17. 62.8 7r/30cre7r€cre The (2) ^Vf^V Kepi rrjs infinitive clause Kara in which to express the of a finite verb. f. TOVS 'PoO/XCUOUS (TToXoV Aij3vrjv TroietaOaL rov irXovv. 23. fact that a previous event 27. 9. 35. 26. 62. 24. 4. 5 IO. ttjv i-rrl Spieker pp. 59. So^avTos $€ 2. Cf. i£apTV€LV aVTOLS TOV Goetzeler p. I. 2 /xeAAeiv avOus 70. 8. 7 10. 7.. 1. 36.8. 80. 2. 20. 4 . KCLI IO. 2 A. 8. 4. 29. rov Xoyov TTpoo-rriTrTovTOS ort vlku. 2.

Spieker p 9. Kilh. 3 irpocnrecrovTOiv 7rapa Qeodorov ypa/Afxaruiv iv ois avrbv eKaAei k.t. 8 13. 3.A. 12. 60. The (7) articular infinitive with rod may stand in the genitive absolute. 10. 14 rots 8' iv ry Pw^. 1 A (8) clause introduced by on may take the place of the genitive subject of the participle. SeW 8 4. e£ov (conjecture) Xa/3dv. may genitive absolute be followed by a clause intro- relative pronoun.# 7rpoo"7recroi/ros BoiW TT€pL£l\7]fJL[JL€VOV V7TO T(x)V Tro\lOpK€LT(XL ticiple of impersonal verbs in . iroiziv. 7. 7rpo(nr€(TovTO<. 2. 7 Swa/xevov yivwcrKCtv r>)v ra>v 7roAe/xiW irapovcLav. 316 avdfSacnv. 5 ort 7rpo\r)\f/iv Se e^etv irdvTwv dSyvarov. 27.6l. 336. 1. 7. 24. (TTpaT-qyov tTepov alpcicrOaL. 23. avTols rov 7T€7rAevKeVat crroAu) tovs Pw/xaiovs. 32. 13. ovtws . 20. Kara KpOLTOS. 43. 40. 16. 10. infinitive. 487. IO. 9 112. 851— 13. 4 irapbv Tavavrca 3 . 3. 4 w? yap Seov tovs -rrokefxiovs iroieio-Oai tyjv Trapeo~KevdaavTO. is MT. 5. 6- — The par- G. 2. 30.HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 28 The duced by a (6) 5. crrpaT07reSov the neuter accusative singular used as an accusative absolute with an 4 to riraprov Infinitive with Accusative Absolute (=z).

to as the object of a verb (=b).32. 34.6vo% etvat to Svvacrdat fiXiiruv. 82. 6 — The is KO/xicracr&u ttjv 11. 3. 21 With a) 1) 7rept AitwAwv. 19. 317] 2 1. 793. 806.I avayKolov r}V G. icpdvr) Tracrtv. 4. as the object of a verb (=bb). 9. 25° i. 3. 23. 5. KaTeKpaT-qae tov yevicrOai orrpaTrjyov 'E7r?7paTOV. The tvX 7!^' latter 790. 13. 8. 2 to SiawLO'TeLV I. 1. 2 29 . 4. or toj is in the accusative. 83. 11. 11. 4) vireXafiov avay/calov elvai to fjirj irapaXtirelv /jltjS' eacrai irapeXOelv aveiricrTaTtoS to kclXXl- cfTov a/jLa Kal wcpeXipLcoTaTOv iiriTrjhevpba tt}? more common usage. 6l. 799. to vlkclv (3. 22. 7t\€lo~tov TroiovpievoL to 10. 798. — The with to infinitive is used as the subject nominative or accusative of a finite verb or infinitive. 1 1).CHAPTER II. 6/63. to. 8. substantivized sentence with with the infinitive 81. £. 31. 6 rots eXopevoLS to 4. ject of a finite verb or infinitive. 6. 10. 791. 63. 3. 478. b) With tov with tov infinitive used as the object of verbs governing the accusative. 2. 8. 29. 26. MT.I. MT. 16. 39. Kith.evoL tov Sokclv pcovov. 62. 10. Kith. Trj ti>X0 4. 3. is — The infinitive with used as the object of verbs taking an object genitive. 51.. as (1. 478. 10. far the I. Verbal Object. with to' is 3. 4. 50. or dative. It has either the article. 5. Ap. 5. 4. 28. as to form of a substantivized ty)v (2. 9. 63. 3./3paKLav 7rapa tu>v 1 conj. 23. IO 8 2 o~TO)(al6p. b. 21. tov. ivapyeaTaTOV 35. tov Se Tcpioievov €K7reo-etv. 28. by to 7rpoTp€7reo~6ac Travras. Verbal Subject (=a). 16. 32 — The infinitive used as the object of such verbs as take a genitive object. 6). d. 3. a. or of a the whole being used as the sub- to. 4. 11. 28. c. 41. USES OF THE ARTICULAR INFINITIVE IN POLYBIUS. I. G. 13. 6 tov yap avTov vop. 37.rjv. 28. 8. 88. 58 2.io~riov v)yep.

ypdcpetv Traprjaopiev. 2 2. 9. 4. 14 Trap* ovSlv i\66vT€<. 5. 3 2 11. 32. a negative in 2 31. 15. 2. 7. 7. 2. II. 58. as the object of a verb (—bbb). 8. 7. a) I. 20. a 48. 12. 6. 33. 4 2. 3 £<f>ir)p. 4 . 32. . 39. . or to. 3. 74. 10. 60. separation. 1. 36. 7. rcov 30. 19. 5. opposition. 74. 8. 5 13". dAAa XpwpLevos to> d<f>opp. 9 7rto*Tevovre? 8e tu TayyvavTtiv.9. 8. 25 k 6 rrpovota) . 18. With these £) With to) raj is 23. 5 5 6. oiov 7rapayeyoverai tov /xt) with infinitive in the dative Ovo/xao*rov. 12. 9. £171/ Object of verbs of hiuderi?ig. IO. 5. 106. /aere^a) 45. b) does not ov tov zttittXovv 2. 21. 7°. Polybius: in used with such verbs as take an object s 28. 5 s 38. occur in Polybius. eyyeuo/xai. 2. 9. 9. 20.8' C7ri 33. tov 7rdo-as a-n-ofSaXttv 2. 66. 44. contradiction. IO. 1. 4. I. 10. 9. 23. 6. omission. 23. 6. separation^ infinitive oAois kivou- toi<j crweyyvs tottwv yeyovcvat.5> 2 . n. p. 4 to Kiili. 23. are found for the 8 4 wap' 6\tyov rjXOe tov p. 10. 39. Also a7r£yvu)crav. time first avTe^w II a/a^co. cf. 1. 3. 5. 4 2 .ev SiaKooAveiv 3. I to pxv xoprjyeiv diroXiyei. 7. 23. 18. 22. I. 807-14. 10 crrepew The following 1. 36. 24. 7rAeta> Infinitive with tov. — verbs which contain simple infinitive with or without with infinitive with to infinitive G MT. d - 2. 10. 14. 8. 2 10. (=^).L. 23. 31. 10. 32. o/oeyco. 3. i 63. 10. 55.65. 9 v on 1 €K7reo~eiV 10. to /-it) 514. these verbs 2* 2 . 29. 9. 17. 8. 23. 318 .i. 9. 6. 3. the (a) The pirj. 14. 8. 5 —The 2. 9. 6.rj p. 11. 31. 10. 5 tov pev Trapa<pv\(XTT€. pu]. 4. 5. 1. IO to may take 3. tcls 7ra. 5. 8 7rpoo-8eo/xat 3 d7raXXao-<Tw 3c. 12. 48. 3. . 2 9. 6. 17. 14. 4.HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 30 3. case. io to irapafSdXXecrOai kox 7rpocrdyeLV d7reSo/a/Aao-e. 16. 9. 23. 5 d7T€o-^ov TOii pi-Ktiv Tais yvuipats. 16 oAiywpew. 20. 24. 6. 7. 71. A. 9. 5. 9. 8 7rpocrav£i^e Ta> 2) kcu I. 10 Siac^cpw. 12. Besides the the infinitive with tov or rov (b) Infinitive with to. irapa puKpov eXOoc tov Aa/3e?v t6v Att(xAov. I . 7.pao~Kevds. 86. 54. 8° etc. pitf. 2. 2 13. 4.2 . themselves. 30. 100. 2. 3. 11. I. I. 3. etc. 1. 18. I.rj /xdvov vewat. 15. 7 outoos CKAi7retv to £?}v. 6. 6. 13 . iS.21. 12. mistrust. 2.ev dAAa ttr. 43.LV tov zttittXovv direyvaio-av. 9% 57. 95. 5. 52 I. 48. 20. 7 K/oare'o). . is denial. — The used as the object of verbs of hindering. doubt.

2. i. 68. SuTpeif/av tov IO 21. . stand in apposition with a preceding noun or pronoun. dSiK^p-aTwv. 79. Apposition (—c). 84.3. TtXecnovpyrjixa. 18. 7. 2 . — The infinitive Vide Kiih. 8. MT. 7 1 2. I*j ' IO « - tov xprjo-Oai. KCLK07rOL€LV TTjV )(li)paV OLVTWV. 12 SuuJ/cvSo) 13.ias fir) fir) rd r)acf>a\icr$at it dp-apTavw.? Ta£et?. 2. 13. 9.TTTe. 39. 35» 8 ovtc av tis a7roo~Tair) 8. . 4.7rt'£<o 18. Infinitive with tov. THE INFINITIVE 1. TeXecr tov pyrjo at tyjv kcltolXtjiJ/lv Trjs 7rdAea)s. accusative. 57- 2 tovto II TTOLOv/xevot. v7ro\afi/3dvovTe<s to 7rdAtv. 11. 32. 16. 7 . Infinitive with to. or 10. to yvooyai T^y KaTaaTacnv 7rap' eKao-TOis. cr^>€T€ptts 3. 5. 4 3 > 4. 2 7. but classify p. 5. 319 tov e/<Sovvai p.63. 15. 25*. dAAoTpiav tov KaTao-^etv 3. 12. 3.7reA. 2. <f>evyeiv firjde yap tovto Te'Ao? 2 3 25 2 6. 16. roi) crvva. elvat to. AaVeiv 37. 7 2 16. 7°« avrw. 8. 3. 7. I 8. 4. . . tov. to o"we^a»s Kaivoiroieiv del Tas tooj/ avfifid)(o)v €A7ri8as. 12. 15. may to) TroAeco? Std^ecrtv *X €LV - Cf. 3 8 2 . 3. II StaAXdrretv tov 5. 27.* 3. 17. 4. o. 10. 15. 14. as a genitive objective infinitive. 14. d7roSeiAidco 4 11. 3. AtrwAtav tov Tr)v KaTot.€v tov atViov tojv . a(f)€fxevoL 87. The a. Sokwv 7 This last pose.LV ///*) 37. 87. 18. 4. 33. l6 14-5-5. 2 . it A. 12. be in apposition with a nominative or 804. 478. 4. 8. may with to infinitive G. 6. v<£' kou eavrovs. k . 10. 6. 5 5. 7 . s 11. . " 5- b) 2. 3. 20. 25. 3. 22. 5. fir) yevio-QoLL tcov 7rvAwva)v 5. 12 .2. to. 2. 1. 2 to IO 3 Trjs TcAevTtuas cAtti'Sos tov Siayoovi^ecr&u 7rept tz}? ^wpas. 2 d7raAAorptow 6 AetVei 2. 14. 2 - 9 21. 6 3. 11. 7. 4.. Infinitive with rod firjJ ^) 2. 478. co-Tat Tpo7ros io~Ttv ovtos oramypta?. aOpo^uv tov 7 31 - 8 - 19. 29. 3. n a . 6. 3. 12 tovt H e ^ tovt' etvat tcAos V7roXr)7TTeov iv Trpdyfiacnv. to VLKrjaai 7rdvTa? 7roir)crao~6aL 3. 9- 3- 95 s 4 . 31. Kiih. 82 . I. AeiVa) 5 example is classified by Hewlett as infinitive of purseems better to explain the sense of the passage to 514. 7rotov irpayjxa tovtov SiKoudVepov. 31 IN POLYBIUS 104. SvvacrOai fx-qhiva 3. 80. with the article 4. cVtos. a) 2 ov yap 9 or) 3. 9. 3 . 20. c. 3. 4. 3 aTri(TT7]crav. 33. 7 4. 4.

Kilh. 27. i£ovo~La. 15. ra Aiyuan> used as a limiting genitive after nouns. 478. re rov vixdv cAtti'Sos. IO I. 6 (Tvvv7roKpi0els rov I 18. 2 8 Sokclv Xiav eVoi/>tos etvat. 2. cvvota. Vol. 2 62. . II j €7rtfteAeta. — The I2 <?). 3. o/xotoo? Se xai rov tov AetVeo-^at Katpov. II. IO 2 . 5.. 8. — The VTro<\>£peiv. IO. dcfjop/Jirj. fjLrj. 6. 69. pp. f3e/3aat)Trjs. TeAos. with rov used to denote is Hultsch. rrjs 7rp6s 7rapao-Kevr)v rov vavfxayelv. 7roieio*#ai rrjv Scatrav iv pLut.^ TOV CLVTOV TTtpifioXoV Virdp^LV TOIS KOLTOLKOVO-LV O. 28. cws be omitted). Kilh. 70. 7raodSay/xa. i7n/3oXr}. 3. ^povos. eairevcrav rov /xr] avyyoipyjOrfvai tyjv elprjvrjv avTois. 16. 12. 6 — The nouns (=h). Kvpta. 2. used as a genitive limiting nouns and adjectives. 12 (?). 4. I. 4 37. 7rpocf>acrL<.HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 32 Infinitive with c) 4 TO 4« 29. o-vvOrj/xa.7ropr)ixa KaraXnreiv. 7rap' Ao~o~vpLU)v VTrOfxvrjfxaTa xai ttoXvtt pay /xovrj be read instead of the 5. 6. 3. 1. Fleckeisen. 62. 3.ovL 8eo~fiu)T7)pLU). 798. TW TOJV kXcTTTWV <f>vXoV TOVTU) fxdXiO~Ta aXXrjXoLS 7T0L€LV toj.VTY)V Purpose 4. 6. if 7. //. 67. 3. 34. c. 8. 12. 9. (if 1 /at) 2 . to> Stacf>ep(Dv. II TOVTW 2. 2. voia. infinitive with G. 7re?pa. All the above have rov 12. (if kcu 10. alria. 7rpo- 12. avvayayelv rd Also is (cf. 18. 2. 7 3. 3. 5. if toO infinitive with rov MT. 35. 31. 22. 7. I. be omitted). 4. [AOVIO TW $LaXX<XTT€LV. KaKOirdOuav rov V7rofxeixevrjK€vat Sa7rdvr)v kol 777)0? rov is I. 2 Limiting Nouns and Adjectives. 3. 2. 3. 8. a) 9. footnote in text). III. 38. MT. 7. 7. 38. dpx^yos. . 38. 7. 4. 36. 4. 40. €T05. 57. 7rapd7rTa>o-i9. 74. purpose. 4. 46. 12. rov be read with Hultsch.. SlKCLLa. 8. Tip fJLYj TO. 8. 9. 9. 35. 102. 5. 6. 66 rov $vvao~$ai 8. 6 draSpa/xoyres en rot? ^povois rov fxrjSkv a. = ( infinitive 798. at to of Hultsch. 2J 108. c. 6 this limiting genitive: 20. 5. tw 2 re tov wkSi/. Infinitive with rod after fx6vr]V $L$do~K<xXov 49. 7 rovTU) T/0O7TO) 0~<j>dXXeraL. CXXIX. 16. c. 12. 9. 742-44. There are are thirty-one nouns used with avvrjOaa. 2 3° 2. 2. 15. 1 12. 478. 25 320 k . a s . 5. avrbs yovv rr/XiKavr-qv 3 11 29. 29. I. 5.

10 24 5 25 1 e7ri \ eV irpos With the dative: a/xa I5 ° With the accusative: 8m 5 4 7r/oo? °. . 1 5. 4. 15. 4. 33 IN POLYBIUS J aSvvafxta. 18. 4. 15 . Ao'yo?. 1238 The infinitive with the 6. 2 i . . 12 a7T£600S TOV i 2 I. 9 rov cveyKetv TavYa kv/oio? 39. 8. 9. 40. Trapa 1 . 2. with tov — The infinitive used as a limiting genitive after adjectives. 7 27. £) ' 2 . aWorpLos. 3. The superior numbers refer. /xerd^. Of the four adjectives used with this limiting genitive. V7rrjp)(ev. 16. 8 . I. . 15. €/X7ro8tov. 7re/n' 12 . Prepositional Object (=k). . . 8. but to the number of infinitives which are thus used. 15. The following is a list of the prepositions and quasi -preposi- by Polybius: tions used With the 7T/oo 12 eew? . 57. tov KOtvwveTv. x8 Infinitive with toO after adjectives (=£-). 479. 2 15. like a noun. for the sake I. 18. 14. 77V 29. 9. I. 43. is p. are each used but once. 22. 4.THE INFINITIVE I2 I. eveicev or eve/co. 9 . 800. eTrXrjpuxTav vavs X^P LV T0 ^ T * ? dyopas KO/xt^etv toTs crTpaT07re'8ots. virep 29 . 4 7rA. irpoXvpjtis. — used. genitive: "fcdpiv TrXrjv 6 .?7#05 rjOpoiaO-q ftapfidpwv X^P iV T0 ^ KwXvew hcd/Sao-iv. 478. 8 k^rjKovra Se of. io 7raAcv avada pprjaaL Tas 7T€^iKas alVtos eSoxei yeyovcvac tov oWa/xeis Kat KpaTrjcrou rdv viracOpoiV. G. /cupto?. 13. 16 2 21. 2 8. Karapxrj. MT. 33. %a)pt? 5 . II. 15. the article is article being in the case required by the preposition. 11. 32. . irepl 29 . 13. s g. 4. Kuh. . I bpixrj. 321 rrjv twv Ka/o^8ovt'<ov . 6. avev . 23. <rY)pL&ov. 39.™ 5 yapiv. 42. 5. and aweLpos.13. 8. 34. Three of these prepositions are used with two cases: irepC with genitive and accusative. ovk aAAoT/oiog 21. et? 74 115 e/c . two or more infinitives sometimes appearing with one preposition. e^oo . l/€ir.6vov prepositive in Polybius. 90 . eVt and tt/oo? with the dative and accusative. e7rt>. 2 24. as the object of a preposition. is atrtos. 2 fiexpL 3 . . 8. c. o-PXOj 22 23. 3. not to the number of the occur- rences of the preposition to which they are attached. 1) Prepositiofis with the genitive.

p. 18.. — Used Where a) in the same virep is way as irepL necessary to the sense. io Cf. 30. 8. writing. I. 10. 10 wore iroXXaKis /3ovXeveo~0aL Tots 24.r) ^apvvdr)o~eo'dai rats 62. 16. 18.X. 4. 28.r. 87. etc.KOvovra% 5. Because of the frequent use of number Fassbaender and Brief this construction the of cases of iva. c^ayayeiv. 94. I eireir6pio~ro tovs (TKrjif/LV ws appo)o~ru)v.yp. liroiovvro crirovhr)v Kal irpovoiav virep irpa. — This irepC. 2 2. 5. virep. elo~<j>o- . 5 Be Where rov where the preposition Xvew rrjv iroXtopKtav. K. rov eiriKovpetv rots ev 2 From. II. etc. . 2. 18.. 2 lraXta. X^P LV T0 ^ PI Oavp. I. 6.HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 34 By allowing the infinitive to take a subject accusative Polybius uses this construction to express purpose.aai. I. 9 eyevero rats re iroXeaiv eXirls virep rov pats. is common a classical usage a) After verbs of saying. 1. Se rov irapeicreXOeiv irepl eKeXeve rov 'Aptavbv Kal irdXtv direXOeiv ckcwov <j>povri£. is necessary. 5 is admissibleand pleonastic. Where b) virep is 3.d£ew a. of departure. 41.eiv. 13 tovtols eirera£e irapa)(prjp. 21. the genitive without irepl is admissible and irepi is pleonastic. 88. the genitive without a preposition Cf. 1) 2. 6 virep I 8e rov to Sclvov rj£eiv eirl cr<£as ovruis o^etos ov&e hievoetro irapdirav avru>v ovSec's. e/C. 23. 'Pco/xaiovs. crvXXaXrjcravres avrolq virep rov rr)v iroXtv evSovvat rots Pw/xcuois. €K rov tflv eieyoip-qo-av. 9. 49. 10 8.a irdvras avrovs e^dyeiv Ik rov 322 £r}v. 5 irapaKovaavres 01 'PoSioi irepl rov ras <f>povpa<. 5. I. to express purpose (see is comparatively small. 43. cftvydcnv eir-qyyeiXaro ypdxf/ew irphs KareXOelv avrovs b) irepl — rovs A^atovs irepl rov €19 rrjv oiKetav. 9.

5 cfiovXevvavTO klcls Cf. TrpocnreTrTOiKOTa ras Suva/Acts. 2 vpb tov crvveivai 3. tois TroAe/xet ovoas 7reA. tovtov same €0)s tov yvtovtu TTOTcpov k. letzteres nicht ausschliesslich vor vocalen sonden haufig auch vor consonanten steht. #?z#Y. 290). eXeiv to. 13. 7 From.<s Traa-rj? cAtti'Sos Treipav Xa/JL/Sdvetv HvpaKOvcras. irpo tov o~vo~TrjO~ao~dai tov? K. 7roAe/xcov /cat cfaXovetKiiiv . Ik tov vlkolv aOXov.X. 9. prepositive in Polybius. 3. 35 IN POLYBIUS 7roos to fieXXov £k tov Kara Kpo. 60. 8 ovSevos €Tv^e Seivov 7rA>)v tov KaTairovTLa6r)vai. wo es mit Benseler zu elidiren ist" Trpo 2. 17. IO ova avTo tovto TrepL/xetvavTCi 5. 36. Hiatus macht evefca nur 2. 25- (p. source of knowledge. 4 8' («<£??) etvat eveicev or evetca. IO ovtc yap 3.0S o"ia)7rav oti SvcrapecrTeiTai. 3 14. — Used as a subititute for irplv. 6 No/xas etruadt] Ik tov <f>avai tovs 7rp€0~/3eLS o~eo~6aL 7r/oiv r) Xa(3eiv ras irpoTtpov airaXXayr]- /ay] airoKpicrei^. ZOrjKe €V£/«x used for eVe#a to avoid hiatus. 3 tovs eve/cev is Kap^Sovtovs tov 7rpoeKXvaai. a^petwtrat. dvay/<ao"at. b) 4 7roAAa Trpoopw/xevos evxprjcrTa 3. den hiatus bei Polybius.THE INFINITIVE a) 2. by. or 1. 63. of wv €^ avTov tov &7A. 323 7rXr)v tov Sea. 16. 3 15. IO. 2. 63. 4. 22. 288- Cf.a? vow €^<ov avTou tov cvckcv KaTay(x)VLO~ao~6ai rovs avriTaTTO/xevov?. of source of advantage or disadvantage.ro? eXtiv avrrjv.t. €K Se tov fxa^opiivov? tl iraOtiv. Vol. TroXtop- . eo)9. 8. tol crvvOr)Ka$ iroiovvTat Pw/xatot. "Uber pp. From." Philologus. 2. ou with indicative or subjunctive. XIV (1859). except. ea>9 as tov Aa/?etv a<t>op[xds. 69. "Aehnlich unterscheiden sich evetca und eve/cev. Hultsch.ap)(r)8ovLOVs I tov 7roXefxov. eW which was generally expressed by as. 7rX^ with anarthrous infinitive. I. nur dass 319. — Used like X^? lv ^for ^e sa ^ e °f> ana like ^ it. eia)? so far 3 dAAa jtxe^pt irXriv. %ft>/H?.

fxa Se to> by it. 7 . Iepwva 15. as cited. kcu rots ttoX. 6 x 40 / ^ Aoyov iv 37. with. 200 2) aLia. 6 rov KOfxtaacrBat /3or)6rjcrcu xaypis rov AKpOKoptvdov koll Aa/3eiv opfxrj- rrjpLOv. 8 may continue with 0-p.a he T(3 TrXrjcria^eLV o. 7rapa)(pr)pLa avrjx6r]<Tav 324 7raAii/ . A rare construction used very frequently by Polybius.vv Brj riva KparrjcraL kcu p-^XP 1 T0 ^ wvauf/cu rot? T07rois €(T7rev8e. 46. 4. 02. without — a common in the phrase=^ be beside usage which has but one example in Polybius. oneself. 5 «£(*> TOV <f>pOV£LV y€v6fMCVOL. avev. apart from.? opiov rot? Swa/xeis. II. &(i/3lo<. crvvOewpovvTes rovs KOptiKaq. at the same time in classical prose. 22. to hia to. 32. and 1. rov Trapacnrovhrjcrcu Mcao-rjviovs et fiev \(x)pl<i 5 8vvr) Kparetv rov tottov tovtov. I. 5 2. octux. With the dative. b) 3. Se 3. 13.HISTOKICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 36 X<»pfc> — Without. a) With the present infinitive used thirty-one times. 5 v7rdp)(€LV ovhk KaraXajSetv i£ avrwv /^e/Sauos ov&tv olov re rovs drayivoocr/<oi/Tas. is ef-fo cf>r]cn ovtojs t£to yevecrOat rov <f>povuv. second only The main verb is often modified by a temporal adverb: eu#ea>?. it repre- sents an action which began just before the action expressed the main verb. 8 ahvvaTOv ctvat to KivqcraC tl kol to. a) 2. together with. T0 ^ 7rapaf3\€7rew fj/xerepixyv viropLvr)- TyXiKavras Siac^ooas. irapavriKa. 23. StKata kol twv V7roK€t/xeVa)v dv€V rov 7rapaj3rjvaL to. 6 irportpov I.51. 7rapa')£pr}Lia. t&v e7rtjaerpa» SiaTi#evrai. 4 x<opis yap rov 7roAAa7rAa(riovs auras 6. Ploltiov.rjK€vaL T°v fx^XP L crvyxioprjcrai rovs avTiTa^afxivovs. yap fikv Tract Tre7ro\ep. Besides. 7rpo<T€X€tv eKaTeoa. 3 rov jxkv 30. used but twice. 1 1 .

LOv? ^A.aTT<ij<r#ai a>s €7rt to) toi>s ioYov? TeOapprjKevai. 68.^rjv.eiv ovtol? Kal cvviBeiv tov Kovioprov i^aipofxevov evOeui? crvveraTTOVTO 7rpo? pia. 3. — Used with the articular infinitive to denote (1) purpose.X. I Trepc)(apeLS ycrav ov% ovt<o? €7ri tu tov? 7roXep. 27. Se tov? t<3 tyjv 8e Xo67r^v VTroo-rfjvcu. 3 (2) 6. (2) 2. tyjv 7t6Xlv "Aparos rrapavTiKa iraprjyyeXe. 61 piev epymv ol 8' inl tu pJrf 6 irepi^apr)? yevop. 4 a/xa Be tw TrXr)0~Ld£. 9 /uuv nape'xop. 4 7ra(ra5 Ta? 2.t. Temporal. 2 I. 53. k. 51. 325 . (1) 1 . 41.THE INFINITIVE With the b) is 37 IN POLYBIUS used eighty-four times. the action aorist infinitive. a/xa 76. used sixteen out of fifty-one times.€v^? 7rdo-r)? rrj? iv Tip XeiirecrQai awTYjpta?. 13 crvy^apets tw €7rt Ta> /at) vop. Present and aorist infinitives c) may be used in the same sentence. 2. but chiefly to denote (2) cause. 1.7ri'oas. 5 The Bva^epaivovTa? €7rt €7rt tu> perfect infinitive 15. Local sense. 1. eVt. i-xl tw Tpeif/a&dai tov? TrpoeaOac Tavra. I. iropeiav a. » {\ > r * 4 afxa yap tw KaTao~\elv 2. tov TroXettov Xa[xj3dveiv is ty)v Tpifiyjv.eva ^peiav ev tu> ireo-eiv rots dvOpdiiroi?. 29. with verbs expressing emotion. Cause. 8 afxa twv to) crvy^ojprjaai tol 7repl 6\J/(x)vl(DV olvtoXs tov<s J^ap^rjBovtov? n €Vt7€W9 €7Te. viKav iv tcu 7roAe/xeTv €A. €7r' Tu>v 4 veviKrjKevai. 5 SvcrapecmycravTe? 3. ras €7rtT€T£Dyti€Vas cv to) £t}v Trpd^ei?.7retXr]<f>evaL TOV? KeArovs. 79. 41. 1. II €7rt avTu> tovtw 7rap' d/x<£oiv ra^devTe?. 5. tot. 4.iputi? ap)(€LV. represented as taking place immediately before the action expressed by the main verb.eo~ov? Kara. d7T0K€KXet/x.JaLVOV.9 07T60 iv Tip vav/xa^ctv £o~tl n polktlkwtoltov. 23. (1) Purpose. 78. €veA7rts yevop^evo? 67rt TO) 8o/cctv p. 7 I. evOeay? e<f>evyov. 7ravras V7rr)KOov? 7r€7roif}o~0aL tov? nporepov %6<f>aKL 7ru6ofxcvov<i. 65. 45. 3. i7T7reis Bvvafxtv iirdyeiv. 57. 62.evo? €7U rw Bokclv AtTtoXov? 2. iv. 8 ev 8e rep crwfyyt'^ecv OewpovvTe? to avpL/Se/S-qKO?.

besides: 7rpo? tw Kare^evaOai hid. 8 ep. 326 ovk dpyrjaetv to KaAAovs 7roAAoi>s . 41. diropy)o~eiv av&piov d^io^pewv 8ta KaTeyyvrjOrjoreaOai Kal o~7rov$ao~eLV inl tc'Aos dyayelv avryjv. avTwv tl avpLJ3rj Trepl rjpids dv$pii)7nvov. IO MapKOS 7rpos to) 7rapafidXXeo~0ai koX In 12. is used 339. The present infinitive 504 infinitives with to occurring after it. 32. and the future infinitive three times. 6 Sia to 10. I of the in eiceivov. busy with. 12. is W 7//^ /$<? — This accusative* is ^v. in the 1.-qo'i7roT 2 Treir eio-p. 8ta to. kciv iXwc^a y p. pxv ydp kov : el Kara to irapov av evXoyw<. aorist infinitive 39 times.7. 50. tyjv ei7reiv ye Trepl tov pteXXovTOs (3ej3ai<x>o-ao~0aL pirjoeva t<ov vovv e^ovTOiv. 04. e£e7reo~ov Ik ty}s iSi'as 81a.S' 8e /x^Seis av ToA/x^crai tovt' evTV)(rj. k. eyi'vero 7rpos to) o~t paT-qyeiv tovs vTrevavTcovs. 7rpo? 777)0? ra> 2. 13 the preposition used most frequently by Polybius. c. Present infinitive: ToboKelv ££6<fiBaXpLOv elvai r)7r6pr)a'av Sia dXoytav rrjv I. Aorist infinitive: 2. to 7rapao-7rov$f)o~aL toi>9 3. IO. IO. the construc- much-used substitute other constructions for the expressing cause.v eirjaav eh KaTaXet7rea$aL fxrjSe/jLtav acfaoppirjv with the present infinitive: )(lXlovs 8ia to pi-qoeva /XTySeVor' cr<£icriv. elfxC to vavp^a^elv ovras. 6\kovo)v 6tl /xa^t/xot av V7roXapLJ3dveiv otl /xkv avopes e7nvor)o~ei tls k.HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 38 — Nine of the ten occurrences 7rpo?. av with aorist infinitive: dv6poi7ro<i wv. 8. yivofjLat. 3. 3) are with sense of being intent or determined upon. The infinitive generally tion being a has a subject accusative.X. With the two cases compare three cases of 8 oikciovs. of av with infinitive present and aorist hia to with the future infinitive.eXXov T019 ^vpaKOvcras eiraveXeaOai 8ta to Trjs 1. II 7T/oa£avT€s 8e Tavra 7rpos or tw 8ia/av8weveii/ T^crai/.6 2.X. 3. where the text tw Sia/avSwevetv weak. 6 ovk eToXpnqcrav dvTe^ayayeiv 'Pw/xatoi ra o-TpaToVcSa oia to irpoKaTa- XirjcfiOrjvat /cat jur) 3. 71. o. 18. 31 Kara tci^t} era i ra? Swa/xeis. 3 I. used 77790? is ordinary sense. 28.t. 4 7rdo~r)S rrjs f3or)6eia<s. cr^eSov hecnro^eLV aXX-qs SiKcAias.t.ai tyjv VTrodeviv oi. I 3. perfect infinitive 124.

5 b) IKaVOV T077W 7TpOS TO flT] ToXs 7ToA. (2) After adjectives and adverbs <z) 3. ^crav 7roos to ctToAoyeiv. o~<jo£etv. After nouns. wpp. I. 13 p. After verbs. .ejUt'ot? VTTOTTCKTaiKivai. 3. Purpose. 12. 6 32. 17. 2 1.r)v to Qrjv eirtOvpLiav. 48.1v dvaXa. 16. 6 o~vvej3dXeT avTots Trpos to 3. fxrjSiva Ke^prjaOat tolovtols crKd<f>ecnv. It pair -quay irpos to /?A.a Ttp. Ztl 8k 7rpoo"Aa/?eiv. TrpaTTEiv tl 7rpos to OapprjaaL tovs /SovXopctvovs.ov<.. I 7T/30?. 7 IO Sia to 1. I. 79. Sia to ttcoi tt/s avroiv iXtvOepias o~vvco~Tavai tov oXov dywva.oopr. 9. 68. 62. 3 <.?) Ttvas dAAa TrdvTas . 4.{viov 7rpos to paSuos I. 109.a7TT€tv a^TOv?. to fxivetv kox /x€T€^etv 7rap£0"K€va/<ap. 64. fiov\6fX€vo<s ttlctlv irapao K€vd£eiv rots fxeWovcTL Xiyecrdai 7T€pL 2 1 6. 3. 3. 3.pL/3dveLV tyjv 7rp6s Pcop.) Seiyp. 327 p. I7. 2. 60. 12 T7P-W iyKpaTrj yeveaOat o~Trov$d£ovTa 7rpos to i^p. Sokciv auTois rjTTav eivat to yeyovos. 32. II TrpoOvpLOTtpOVS 7T005 TO Ktv8w€V€tV. 69. 2.6vov dvaKTrjo-aaOat. 3.a fiovXopievos ii<cf)€peiv 7rpos to p/>) SeSioVas d7r€/\. IO 7rporjXde 7rp6s to (J)lXoSo$€lv. rjTTopovv ye o~Krjif/e(x>v 7rp6s to p. II 7ravTO)v IkQvixws €^6vt(dv 7rp6s to KivSwevecv.vao~p. THE INFINITIVE 32. 69. After verbs. 88. 60. 5 7rapeo~Ke.?. d) In free relation to the I. 20.€v 7rpos Twv avraJv dydivwv. 6 Sia 3. 9 I. p/*) whole sentence. 39 IN POLYBIUS 7T/30S to Sia7ropeiV tovs olkovovtols fJLrjre ravra roiv arv/jif3aLv6vTO)V p-CTa ire.ds dp. 9 ov t*)v 7rpo5 p. II Cf. 14.a"ttO"^ai. dc^uws 8taK£ip.cuov5 d7T€^^etav. ipLirpr)0-&rj vac. I toijs ap^ovTa? €TOLp. (1) 7r/oo? to and end of infinitive signifying the motion. 88. 3. I. Perfect infinitive: Sta to ttoXXyjv cVSeittv yeyovevat ro>v l-rnT-qheioiv I.cvot 7rp6? to c 7rdA. 63. to rrapdoogd riva (fiavyaeauau Sia avTOV. 5 ovSev KaTeXetVeTo 7rp6s to I.pi avrov.7ri'£eii/.

. c) 4. 46. 2 5. 4. elfii ptrjSe oWKaTa7rA>7- aTo^d^ovTai ttoiovvtzs Ik iroXkoiv yevu>v St8d£at Kat irpavvai koX p. . eh to StaAwai (fuXoveiKLav 6. 10 4. 50. to XafteTv. to avfifxeveuv Kat 7T/oo? p. 4. eytvoi/TO 7rpos to 7roAtopK€iV avTTjv. is found but once. acr<pa\iXecr6aL. 5 *• I 55* 5* regards.7rpa£aL Kat crvpLTrepnroir)o~ai tyjv o\p^qv ai>T(3. 3 /3ov\6p. 4 77-/90? ra>. 2. After nouns.40 HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 3. is 67. i7TLO"TroipL€vov 3. 40. tyjs twv o^Awv o~vvecf>p6vr)o~av bppvqs avvepyova-qs els to StdS^pxi 7repL0eo~6aL. 3 (4) I. ets to (f>6dveLV.r) 7rapw0eTo"0ai to 6\ov epyov. 48.. (1) After verbs of emotion. 7 . 3 tyjv irXevpdv rjacfjaXcXovTo.. 59. 5 VaKTELV. TOLavTrjs ovo-qs tyjs $vvdp. — eh. With (3) I.1 poirr/v els to vlkov.pkyeTu.ivoLS 6p0u>s Svvap.eTa#eii/at tovs tyjv rjyvorjKQTas b\oo~yepios dcrTOxovatv. 29.evov o-n-ovSrjv els 6. to yi/wrat t^v dA^etav. 3. and tow <yivofxai. 49. 67. 3 I.ea)s els to Kat /?Aa7TT€tv Kat o~vvepyeiv dAA^Aots. \petav eh to vlkov. ira. 2 - end of motion. 36. 5 TTOir)orap. 4. 85. 9 tov 7r pea /3vt epov Kat 7rapaKaAowTos eh to o-vp.eyio~TK]v 5. and adverbs. pcev irpbs — Compare 7rpo? to /xev 7iy)os ktous with the meaning. 63. fiovXoLievos 7rapacrTr)o-ao-dai tovs olkovovtcls els to p. 46. 8. I. 15. ovrcov 8e 26. avo-TrjaacrdaL. 52. as far as 7rp6s 8e to a7T€i6eLV o-vfjL<f>povr)0~avTa<s eivat toTs y)yovp. 61.$ 36.LV. 5. (2) a) After adjectives 2. indicating the 1. to SiaAvetv. 5 bppvqv 117. 1. to Ta^ews /my) #. XxifSovTes tyjv e-rriTpoTT-qv els to SiaAvcrai. 4 Trapeo-T-qo-e eh to t^i/ p. to KtoAvetv twv Se 7rpos to /?td£eo-#at. dAA^Aots els to llyj 328 Tekeiv. cojicerned. 18. 6 coWai/ I 9 7rpecr/3eveLV. 41 €7reppioa0r)aav els to eKirepvirew. 7roAep. 60. 49. After verbs.evos avacrT pocpy)v StSdvat 2.etv. 6 b) p-rjBev 7rapaAt7r€tv 7rp6<f>ao~LV twv oWaTu>v ets 66. 3. 3 eh to dcf>oppids els tt)v e^Bpav..dAAov avTu> crvvaya- 2. 5. 4. Purpose. 48. 3 7rao~av LKavrjv woLOvpievovs 4. I.

Tapa^qv. 5. 4. eirl to is used after to£ p€7rav Tats yvujpms eVt to to TrapoippnqO-qv eVt 7roteti/ opfAaco.ei/ tovs V7revai/Tibus avoiTOLTOi (T7rev8ovTe9 Aa/?eTv TYjv (pvy-qv iwl 7roX. 2.THE INFINITIVE Independent. is clause with T-qv Trpoup-qfxivqv to fiorjOeiv Cf. twenty- nine are in the aorist tense. Tv^ovaav infinitive with eVt to to avvepfiaLVUV. to with the infinitive iyw€T0 irept to 777)0? tco. as a substitute for an aorist participle in irepi 41. 18. twv irpoe&iSov ytvicrOcu tois 7ro\e/xtOL<s. 3. 6 — Used with I. 2.eydX-qv I. In the majority of cases 1. to KaTaA. (3) 12.7r€o-^oi/ 31. 7 eis 2.puayiav {yxas.6.77p. . 6. 6 7rdvT0)v /jLerd.eTaAAeveiv Kat xprjcrdai toTs SpvypuicrivvTrb cf>epop. limiting the whole expression. 41 IN POLYBIUS 25. only with the aorist infinitive. 26 p. 7r/?o? and et?.ev -qOiKUiv Kat lirtvouxv 7roteTcr#at. 7 €t fxev /jLera to used. is I.eVots.€V(ov — Of the eVt to TretOap^etv toTs 7rapayyeAAop. 3> 34. 36. iytvovTo koI 7rapa/3d\\ecr6ai Kat 7raV vnofxeveLV VTrep Tr}s 7roAeojs. o~vyKaTrjV€x$rjo~av eVi to ypa<petv Soypux tolovtov. 70. thirty-three infinitives used with fMera to.€Ta 7TOLa to KaTayiovio-Orjvat tol oAa Kat Treaetv eis T-qv TOiV 'VwpxiLiDV e£ovo-Lav.vdo~ao~6ai Kap^oWiovs. IO. 35. 66.rjo~ao~6aL.ixrao*#at Kapx^Sonous 3. 29.eTa to Oiadai T-qv o~vp.v Ka. 3. 21. 7. evreroKacrt TrpaypuxTLKiov Aoycov p/^Se T-qv eVL — The in a £>}Aov.Ta<f>epr} o T€ StoO"t'/?ios 17. eVt to Kpwai TrapayLVO/xcda. 7 eVi to o-vyxpyjcrdai KaT-qviyBr). found after verbs of motion Compare metaphorical sense.Kp<x)Vy o>s aua evpoi/Tes Se yjp-qfxaroiv eis to /x-qSev eXXetVeiv c X e W a KaTao~ Ke. 1.ei/a>v. Result. 3. 87. 7rept genitive absolute or for a temporal ore. I3. II yr}s. tois veots toioiItov 4 . the clause expressing the time after which something else occurs. eis to twv p. 13. Trot. 5. I means to irepaiovv tovs CTpaTtwTas 329 eis T-qv At/Sv-qv. 5. 5 IO 2.eVous a"<jf>as fxevovs eis to p. 28. d) 2. I P-ctol 0. eVtye'yove Tt p. 7 €v rots tpLrrpocrdev ^povot? Kat irpoei- €7rtKeKotp. 12 Tt? rjv p. 32. 4. e7rt twv a. 20. 3 KaTrjvTf)o~av eVt ^^. to p. 7 II. yivo/juai. a.4 used kccl Kprj/xvioSr] ras eVi/JoAas. 7 tfxevov to eis 8. 68. wppirjcrav eVt 20. Tt to>v Aeyop. irepl be busied with something. 29.

IO 6 8e P 0810s our (os KaTavecrTr} to>v 7roA. d. o~vpL/3e/3r)Kos cJvat 4. 39. 5. II 2) dvdXaiTOV VTrdp^etv. to) p. 5 I. After verbs of emotion. 7raA. 5.KTrjO~aVTO. # avTrjv irapucnrcaovTa. MT. apposition. 97. or instrument of the action to indicate the cause. Manner. 46. 27. (6. 51. Cause. 5* ^ SvcrapecTTovpievai <. Means. 9. II 5. Point of difference. Il8.TOS iSiOTrjTL KCLL 6. 6. 29. <p0do-ac Aioyevrjv ets I02. except yivo/mcu after 22. 6. 12 Sokovvtcs ov^ r)KL(TTa 81' ckcivov oXiympeio'Oai t<x> pLrjre 7rp€0~f3eveLV 7rp6s clvtovs. 68. indicating the ground of emotion. tQ> in 1. 8. 18. tu Trapa r^v 7rpoo~8o/aav. only irepl to after aTrovSr).9- 330 TW fioV X€VeO~6a.Tr\v d^tov rrjs Trpoaipecrcws. The infinitive with the article T<y is used tQ> — or state of the principal verb. 4. 33.L KaAuJs dv€. 2. 78 I. . SoKeTv. 11.HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 42 Cf. $Lr)7ropovv ra> 7re7reta6ai. 478. 32. 3 to) Sokelv avTrjv 9 i^evt^ovTO tw to 4 evOapaeis 3. a) tovto manner.) 27. in a causal sense. 56. 1) -rrapd G. irepl rod with the infinitive. Polybius uses 4. 4) and aTTOvhd^o). and that to with the infinitive occurs but once. Xoyov ovk avayKcuov TavroXoycw. 48. 12 oicrre <f>9do~ai rd kutol KptOevTa AXegdv&petav tyjv Kara tov Heparta tol Infinitive with 7. 1 elvat V7T€p avTrjs 7re7rotr}o~6ai T(2 pvq tw rjvvev hvvaaOat cpvvat OappovvTas 3. 2.cv See also I. 3. — irapa irapd. 7 to! 8e 7roAAoi)5 yjyovp. ovk iyivtTO 14 ovSkv 7roAw /<at TayyvavTeiv iroXv with infinitive -rrepirjo-av. 3. 4. 5. 12.eO 2. 79. 68.77 kcli to> TaxyvavTCLV. Denoting Cause. means. 2. 52.ep. t<2 Sokelv. 5. 9 T77 TOV 7ToAlT€UpX(. 71. Kiih. #) 57 Trpoo~Ta. 799. 4. 106. 51. l6 - J 4. to -rrpdypxira.1v 6p0o)6rjvat. Means. 3. 1. 8.<W rfj re ToAp. 5. 4. 4. 29. irapa. Also 10. or Instrument (=r).

<f>povTi£ew. 10. 6. 53. 15 </>tAo£a)etv. . 5. 2. 18 8. 3 4. tov OLTToOaveLV aia^pws t. dyayeTv.8. 2. 15.et£ov 3. tov SwpoSoKeiaOai. The a) G. atrots tov TrewXevKivai o~toXw tov? Pa>p. Kvpnorepov Tt p. 17 is otKetoVepov virdp^ov tov lTrio~r}pxxiveo-6ai. IO 798. 7rAovs to tcdv kclto. 12. etvat tov StaKpiOrj vat. MT. c.r) crvp. TO V7TO ^v to fJLUlV 0LPX*) V pvq ScacpvyeXv Xoyov tov M. 9 10. A.the infinitive Infinitive with tov after Comparatives.rjv irepi TrAetovos 7roir]crdpLevo<.r)8kv Soopeav npaTTetv. roiS jO^. p-eyaXov yap ovtos tov KaTopOovv iv irpdypxicrt koX 7reptytv€cr#at Toiv i)(0pQ)v iv TaTs €7rt/3oAaTs. 2 ovBcv 61. c. Aav^dveiv p. 4 evAoyov yap 6Wos tov I 18. 7rpoo-7recrovTO<j I omitted noun or pronoun. g. 7 IO. 2. 2. 7. 34. 12. I. III. 8 tovto 7)v to MaKeSoras 8. 2 tov yvoivai.. 7. K€Kpip. ( ws <£povTt£etv without a preceding oirrcos. 6 conjecture. tov irpovy io. 2. 4. Genitive Absolute (=w). — The infinitive with tov is used as the genitive subject of the neuter impersonal participle in the genitive in place of the 798. 2 et'77 8' ftev €K/3aA€iv. 81. 3 to KaAaJs p. 43 in polybius and tov with the rj in Polybius. 6 Sevrepos av 8. 4. 64. Kick. 30. a 60.atbus xat 7rdAtv avTitroLeicrBai Trjs OaXaTTrjs. Ta? Trpoatpctret?. 24. Kiih. 1 5.r) 540. 36.a^aviSav. — The (= 1 does not infinitive 1 /). 7 Trpocnrc7roir)o-6aL. o>? with the infinitive with tov ovSevos /uaAAov 3.lt epov iTTOLrjcravTO ipifiaXeLV KaraaTrjaai. 4 TOVTO 8' €<TTt tovto 11. = u). 478.eVov tov Kaivoropctv tois dv8pao"tv. 17. t>}s 8(opo8o/aas €7ri7roAa£oiKn7S Kat 331 tov pvq&iva p. 8. ov yap iXarrov Icttl tov Trapd to KaOrJKOV The comparative with occur b) used after comparatives (—t). infinitive with the article to is used as a predicate noun. 4 ovScv dvayxatoTepov efvat tov (H>Scv a'icr^LOV 6. 56. 43. s dSryAov yap ovtos 2 I /cat tov iroirjaaL /cat tov iraOeiv tl tov rjyepLova. kcu 8. 478. with tov infinitive 4. 5 Predicate 9. 27. 66. 4. 2 18.7r\eKew. 34. 6 b . 6. 30. 2. 31. 3. G. MT. 14.

b. Genitive of Price (=x)S 13. 8. Kat ovk av OavLidaau tov Trpoup-qfxevov ev7rapaKoXov6r]Tov Kat Tepov rjyov{x^ 3. Accusative Absolute {=z)S 11. xprjfJuiTa r/ret — The tov tov fir) p. 478. 3 participle of imper- wcnrep to Tas d/xapTtas l^aptOfxu- r^s tcrroptas tov tol kclXol Kat StKata kTno~y)pjaiv£0~6ai. Kiik. G. 412. b. etrai 29.ep. (p. Kilh. /3. infinitive Cf. 7rop0rjaai tyjv )(wpav. 3. 7 The infinitive with to may stand in free relation with a whole sentence. k. tov Se 332 with tov is 7. 418. — The sonal verbs in the neuter accusative singular sative absolute. yLvecrOai ttjv hirjyqo-iv ovhev avayKato- o~a<f)f} used as the genitive of price. rjav^tav *X UV Kat tirj o-vo-tpar evaai StaAwat tov 7r0A. 5 3 Xa^iov 6 fxev 7rao' €7r' tov lit] avTwv yap EvpeV^s avTrjv €7rt 6pfxrjo~aL ttjv tovtois fjyeLiova. — Accusative of Relation (=n). to 7r€Lpa0rjvaL Voi/xrjv. . found six times (nine is is infini- tives) in Polybius.HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 44 This construction. Hewlett p. 487. LLvrjfxrjv.0v ^t'Ata ?revTaKocrta. 12. according to Spieker "altogether rare Attic prose. MT. 9. 4 to 8' Xvetv Tt? 1 end.X. 852. 278. with an infinitive with to. 31." in 326). Kith. ttjv TToXtopKtav. 96. which.t. 3. 4. 12 to o-VLiirXtKeiv aXXrjXaLS rots 7rpa£ets. ovSe Kara ttcktov iTroirjcraTO 2. MT. O.kv Pw/xatot? irevTUKocna rdXavra. crOai roiv 7rpa£avT(DV oiKtioTepov V7rdp-^ov twv tpywv is used as an accu- G. 5. 61. 2 6 796. 479.

To express purpose besides toO with the infinitive. in — Polybius uses the articular infinitive. purpose. whose use per page is higher. to £r)p.CHAPTER III. The simple infinitive is not used by Polybius in any new ways. in placing the article before a whole sentence. Polybius' innovations are rep like fiera to. first. et? to' and 737305 to. placing the article before a simple infinitive which gives him a noun. (#) afia to and 7T/oo? tu> with ytvo/mai and elfit. etc. 7T|0o? to and fieTa to are very frequently used. which may then be governed by a preposition. Polybius uses x^P iV T0 ^> cvexa tov. and (d) (c) ttjoo? the genitive of price. cause. And yet he has not used the articular infinitive in many ways other than those employed by classical writers. thus supplying a new form of clause to indicate time. Articular Infinitive. This substantivized sentence may become so involved that an infinitive with the article may be used as the subject of another infinitive with the article. second. to vc/cdv. — Simple Infinitive. nor does he employ any of the established usages to such an exceptional extent as to make them characteristic of his style. if only the prepositions (not the number of infinitives) be counted. and. 333] 45 . Polybius uses the articular infinitive very frequently. Sea to. eVl to). standing second only to Demosthenes. USES OF THE INFINITIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF POLYBIUS. In regard to frequency of use X^P iV T0 ^ l ar g e ty takes the place of eve/ca (eve/cev^j tov. iirl tw of cause of emotion. (a) 7rpo? to in final clauses.

— with tov. o = purpose. adjectives q = limiting pronouns — anarth. b. manner.. artic. with —parenthetic absolute — anarth. means with rw. = object. artic. with wore. TABLES OF THE USES OF THE INFINITIVE IN BIBLICAL GREEK. artic. with tov.. anarth. with ws. T{.. anarthrous infinitive (abbreviated " anarth. u. a a. — anarth.CHAPTER IV. r = cause. TABLE IN POLYBIUS AND I. after verbs of bidding — anarth. artic.. with wcrre. letters refer to the to. c^>' = artic. of 1 those Symbols in <Ls. b. artic.. 7i artic.. w. roman in italics. — anarth. e. with to. toj respectively. oxrre av. = epexegetic or explanatory —'anarth. anarth. with to. 5 f. bbb = object — anarth. actual hypothetical or — anarth. g = limiting adverbs — limiting g g. artic. tov. 2 = accusative artic. r s.").*• w<s. to with tov and rj artic. artic. k — object of prepositions — anarth. absolute . Symbols. with to. the 46 [334 . = subject x i ject of artic. Designating the Various Uses of the Anarthrous and the Articular Infinitive.. with to. = object. = apposition — anarth. e — purpose. with tw. to. d.. f. Trplv — anarth. with tov. the articular infinitive (abbreviated "artic"). k. x s. c 4 artic. s h. other symbols being added for uses of the infinitive which are found in Polybius. v. u = predicate t. v— object of verbs of hindering. 1 2 i f. — anarth.f— result.after comparatives anarth. with and without in c. 1 — subject — anarth. but not in biblical Greek. = genitive of price — with — — accusative relation with z.. after verbs introducing indirect discourse — anarth. artic. with tov. r artic. h = limiting nouns — anarth. wcrre in indirect discourse. p. rj. bb. with were.. etc. distinct and specific — anarth. t. tov. anarth. artic. tov. amd Their Equivalents. artic.. anarth. w = genitive x — absolute c^>' a>. — anarth. 7rptv. 1 h. L artic. with m = stipulation — anarth. These symbols are same as those used by Votaw where the use of the infinitive in Polybius is the same as the use in biblical Greek. wcrre.. wre. x = with irporepov — anarth. impersonal verb taking infinitive of indirect discourse as sub- — anarth. modified and general — anarth..

TABLE Relative Frequency of Infinitives in II.THE INFINITIVE The second column 47 IN POLYBIUS shows the average number of infinitives per page. Of the whole number of occurrences of the infinitive. of anarth. the pages in these editions are unequal in length. infs Wisdom of Sirach. of figures in the following table Since. Polybius and in Biblical Greek. infs No. there are 7. 103 pages No. see Table I.. infs No. 11. of artic. and 541 futures. than those of Polybius. these figures require correction to and of frequency. however. — Genesis. 46 pages No. of infinitives No. Average Number Polybius.265. 111 pages No. The column gives the figures of the second column corrected these inequalities and reduced to the basis of a page of the third for length of the Polybius page. mainly after verbs of hoping. infs IV Maccabees. and the pages of IV Maccabees about the same as those of Polybius. of artic. infs — — Table of the III shows the infinitive in total number of occurrences of each tense each of the several uses of the infinitive. the count being based on Hultsch's edition of Polybius and Swete's edition of the Septuagint. For the meaning of the symbols. The chief use of the future infinitive is discourse 437 times. 335 . infs No. of artic. etc. of infinitives No. 2924 aorists. of anarth. of infinitives No. the pages of Genesis II show the actual ratio Maccabees containing about one-fourth more words. of artic. of infinitives No. of 14 1 2 pages to Page — infinitives anarth. The ordinary grammatical distinction between the different tenses in indirect is preserved. b. infs infs artic. of No. 33 pages No. of No. a. infs II Maccabees. i. the pages of the Wisdom of Sirach about one-fourth fewer. 726 perfects.074 presents. infs No. of anarth. of anarth. No.

484 in the aorist tense. ..327 are in the present tense and 5. .48. ... e£to . The predominance of the present over marked as compared with the use of these the aorist is very tenses in biblical In Polybius for every aorist infinitive there are 2. .. of which 3. .7rk 16. efc to... e X 43 . 2i V f Aor. II. Total.. Fut. II times. 2 1 53o 542 Total . Sia to. swearing.. In biblical Greek. 15 . 1 3 2 em' . bbb. which allow the object and indirect discourse.. 9 of these instances It is infinitive both used with the article but being after prepositions. in direct etc. napa. . 32. according to present infinitives. . tive with the article. a use which is found twice in Polybius (3. 1344 76 2394 1399 28 50 260 679 7 14 3 5f. .. . 14.. 1 . 9 (eX. 365 v 3 1 3 . Pref.. Pres. we obtain 5... 1 3 31 7rpo? ei? J k 1 3 5 3 . ajua.. 4. 5. 7i 6 43 . .. . €771 . 5 3 . . Wisdom of Sirach. virep tov. 16 1 3 5i 124 1 1 34 9 29 3 11 . 1 IX€T<X 7 irepi 20 60 3 u 3 12 IV 5 2 X 1 3 1 2 1 7 3 28 1 6 2 5942 2350 . . 1056 III. ... XU>pi5. 3 7 7 1 19 6 18 124 34 75 w 145 17 98 7 3 1 17 15 nepi vnep.. g q k d 65 437 Aor. 18 Aor.. 7f... . Anarthrous ii b .65 to I. 18. and 9 times after prepositions: X^P iV there are in all rov. 8 1 Sid ... irepl tov... 338 98 38 30 39 . 2 13 4 4 3 2 2 ev 2 1 2 5 /xe'xpt. 1 1 1 1 . 8.42 Greek. .. Fut. 3.. 6. Pres. II. 9. . . .. . 3.HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 48 TABLE The Tenses of the Infinitive in Polybius and Their Uses. ... . .. 1 . 5 2 39 16 12 eoi. Perf 49 10 17 .. 3 18 1 23 10 . . u b.. 3 372 705 9 152 3 1 84 28 IQ 7 5 . h I 9 27 105 Perf.972 infinitives.. . 5. bb 8 g. 184 705 ! 37 2 9 152 1 1 promising.. 14.. 1 5. 270 5 IS 4f Articular Pres. II and IV Macca- the following statistics (Table IV): 336 . 3. 2. 5.2.. n\rju 1 1 « ii 1 6 13 4 1 5 h 47 s 14 2 15 avev . 49) Greek 8. 10 2 8 18 13 7 . If 24.. biblical inrep tov. we compare in biblical bees). 9. ih.. Articular 5 m .. 7. .... rrpos. the uses of the infinitive in Polybius with those Greek (Genesis. Therefore in biblical Greek the aorist predominates over the present in the Biblical Greek does not use the future infiniratio of 1 . .. 1132 11 574 Total. . 1 1 1 11 8 . 2 €K 7 1 evenev 23 24 1 rrpd. . 4) after e\7rt?. .. Fut.. 8 2 . 94. 107 16 10 11 . Votaw (p.

JCI C) o • H Jt3 m vrlv in ? -t • • . O • in m ro • • * ro m • • o • • m h M m . H • • 11 CO • • Sodii v>9 Spdu. O N roo ro ^..3 . rn : .3AV S(r CO H icfXaW ii N H • . ro O o u u H (N 00 1) ii • • N • c H d 1 w w w N i-H ^ Pi <J W _] PP z < U £ t^ ro a w 1 ^ M jdsit Ci : : : : ii » : : : : ii : : . 1-1 ^ > W Q < (/) D > J O OX a H X H a n>ooo • • > v • 11 43 Tj. •' • r>J. . . '. m On ^ pq OH 1 < cs ^i ro cn ci ro <N •. : .THE INFINITIVE + t^ * HMO O w ro m VO 00 VO VO t^ ro a m h °~ 1 : - • CO h COO N m CO ro ro n.ep CO s Fh O w • • • • ^- . ro • • • • • • • • *S8 o • Vi H H •* 5 CO 00 in -*• H • •<* H in tv UH vb H 1/1 co <+* • • h CO 1 * • CTi • • • • • • • • • o^ o^ H M CO . .. II IV . • N > m • " H h h ro in CO PQ ii N M .-.. • • • • H N • * ^ § 1 DDE <* : : .a •- s U M y « o « >c c tfl t. .ndyX CI On • • • ^ M • • '• • CI (*.? n 11 n m : • ' «5 M ro • s» ci 0. • • • .. • • • M • . . . • • > w W H O H O X ro £ CO 3 CO M PI ..3r1 J1L3 ' . •>*• : m O..ro i- Cn H m : ". r^ *K> M - in h : : m • * : ro M H v <o B Q\ in (N < H 1 ro •"in ro ci ro m m m : : : CI • •' • • • • • SjdmX IT) . -< P-c S o u - . : >-. " • /ikyu oo ro 9^^ M ^133/3/13 u H VO • H • • H • • • • • * '... . id?u (NO in • M IT) O CI • • H • • • • • • • • 1 W > <: rt o : ro m o h . • . '. H '• '• • ro^o N ro O ro * • • • • '• '• ' • • • '• • S13 o O i-l w : ydvu ! Q O cr -* CO 6j0 • '• ' ' .. 49 IN POLYBIUS o H • • • • • •' • • . « H m • • • w ^ H m* • 'uaB . . 1 1 CO • 1410 P- m& | oo co m ro r-> • N CO *x ' ro h M u • •*j 3/3 >> dsun .ro On w : '. .. Sir 15 _> 3 1 Mace Polybius > 337 Mace Genesis Wis.

HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES

50

Again, comparing the uses of the tenses of the infinitive in

Greek (LXX, Apocrypha, and New Testament), using Votaw's results, we obtain
the following statistics, reckoned absolutely and by percentages:
Polybius and in the whole

field of

TABLE

biblical

V.

Comparative Statistics of the Infinitive in Polybius and Biblical
Greek, According to Tenses.
Percentage

No. of
"
"

all

r

it

it

'•

" perf.

Pol

infs. in

" Dre^
" aor.

"

t

"

"
"

a

it

"
a

"

"

"

11,265
7,074
2,924
541

'"

.628
.26
.064
.048

726

I.

No. of

all

Gk

infs. in bib.

"
a

" pres.
« aor

"
U

"
«

"

"

lt

"

" perf.

"

"

"

"

8,972
3,327
5,484
74
87

,

.3708
.6112
.0082
.OO98
I

No. of Anarthrous
"
a

"

"

'•

it

"
«

infs. in

Pol

,

pres. infs. in Pol
"
"
"
aor

"

"

"

perf.

"

.0000

9,364
5,942
2,350

.635
.25

530
542

057
.058

I

No. of Anarthrous
"

"

"

((

it

«
"

«
"

(<

"

infs. in bib.

Gk

pres. infs. in bib.
«
<(
«
r.,..
(<
«
t<
..

,.

"

perf.

"

"

6,197
2,357
3,7o8

Gk
(<
(<

I

No.
"
"

of Articular infs. in Pol
"
pres. infs. in Pol
"
"
"
"
"
aor.

(<

<<

«

'•

"

"

r

j.

perf.

i<

(<

"

"

"

1,901
1,132

"
"

"
"

a

ft

<<

tt

"
"
a
a

infs. in bib.

11

184

Gk

pres. infs. in
aor.
£..«-

nerf

'*

((

u

.000

2,775

bib.Gk...

it

"
a

it

"

''

"

"

.000

.595
.302
.006
097

574

I

No. of Articular

.000

.38
.60
.Oil
.009

74
58

"

00

"

97o

.

1,776

•35
.64
.00

29

.01
1

338

.00

;

CHAPTER

V.

COMPARISON OF THE USES OF THE INFINITIVE
AND IN BIBLICAL GREEK.

IN POLYBIUS

In looking at the foregoing tables of the average use of the
infinitive per

page

in the

books under examination, we are struck

with the fact that Polybius has the highest average of
that there

and

all,

a large difference between the averages of the trans-

is

Wisdom

lated books (Genesis and

of Sirach)

and the untrans-

IV Maccabees). We also see that the averand IV Maccabees stand much nearer to Polybius than

lated books (II and

ages of II

they do to Genesis and the

Wisdom

of Sirach.

Considering that Polybius does not use the

infinitive in

any

unusual ways, and that there existed usages which he did not

employ, the question

What

arises:

causes the low averages in

numbers and the comparatively few usages which Genesis and
Wisdom of Sirach employ, and what is the reason for the high
averages in II and IV Maccabees and for the large difference in
the number of occurrences of the infinitive in all four books of
biblical Greek?
Looking at the tables, we find 27 uses of the anarthrous infinitive:
u,

r,

a,

l

i,

w, x,

v, c, n,

b,
z;

l

t,

t,

2

i,

v, c,

5

7

f,

f,

s,

s,

and 18 uses of the
h, g, k, e, r, u,

4

]

f,

w,

f,

m,

h,

l

h, g, *g, q, k, d, e, o,

articular infinitive:

x, z.

Of these 45

a, b, bb, bbb,

uses, Genesis

2

employs 20, viz.: a, b, i, c, s, h, g, k, d, e, o, bb, v, c, s, t, h,g, k, e
W isdom of Sirach employs 18, viz.: a, b, i, v, s, h, g, k, d, o, x, a,
2
bb, v, k, g, k, e ; II Maccabees employs 14, viz.: a, b, i, f, s, h, g,
d, e, x, a, b, k, e ; and IV Maccabees employs 16, viz.: a, b, i, v,
2

r

2

f,

h, g, d, e, x, a, b, bb, v, h, k.

339]

51

CHAPTER

VI.

USES OF THE INFINITIVE FOUND IN BIBLICAL GREEK BUT

NOT
we

In Genesis

usage s;

find the

Sirach, the usage/; in

IN POLYBIUS.

Wisdom

in

Wisdom

Genesis and

of

and II Maccabees, the
usage p; in II Maccabees, the usage 1; and in IV Maccabees,
curb rod with the infinitive, none of which is found in Polybius.
1. The Infinitive after Verbs of Bidding (
1).
of Sirach

=

Mace

II

1:10

^atpCLV

1

:

rj

yepovala koI

IouSas

Aptcrro/JovAa)

KOLL VyLOLLVELV.

rots 'IouSatois 7roAAa ^aipetv

9:19
1 1

'IovScua koI

of cv rfj

6 Avcrias r<Z

This use

is

vyiatvuv koa ev irpaTTtiv (SacnXevs Avrto^os.

/cat

7r\r}6ei rtov 'IouSai'wv ^atpetv-

merely a sub-class of the object

infinitive,

the verb

which the infinitive is the object being omitted. It is the
stereotyped form of address used in letters, and is not confined
to biblical Greek, but is found in II Maccabees only because
It occurs also in I Esdras and
several letters are there quoted.
If Polybius had quoted letters, the usage would
I Maccabees.
have been found in his history.
of

2.

1)

Result.
Actual or hypothetical.

a) Without attendant particle

Wisdom
nor

in

Wis.

of Sirach

and

Attic Greek.

Sir.

5: 5

irep\

—This usage, found

Maccabees, does not occur

II

G.

(==p).

MT.

e£iA.aoyxot>

585, 775; Kiih. 473, 7;

/xt]

a<j>o/3os

yivov,

TrporrBeivat

in

in

Polybius

583,

2.

afxapTtav

ec£'

apxtpTLas.

II

Mace. 3:24

Kara7rA.ay€VTa,s tyjv tov Oeov Svvafuv, ets €k\vctlv kgu

8aAtav

rpairrjvai.

12:42

7rap£Ka\ecre to irXrjdo^ avvTrjpetv avrovs ava/xapTrJTOvs eTvou.

(Homer and Hesiod) the simple infiniresult.
The tendency, however, was to

In the older language

1
used to express
the use of ware with the infinitive as being more exact, and this
In
use superseded the former in later Greek, especially Attic.

tive

1

is

Karassek, p.

fxalveadou-, vii.

13;

Herodotus

194 diroXeaOai after

i.

176 Kalcadcu;

ii.

7 ehai;

iii.

149

vor\aai\

iv.

79

o'vto).

52

[340

Epexegetic or explanatory infinitives with tov ( = s). 42: 2) I rj koX 77-oA.P. Gen. infinitive with tov had the representative of come to the Hebrew fold relations. with the infinitive {Winer. does not occur infinitive Polybius nor in classic Greek. Kith. besides the use of with the cocrre infinitive. which literary we have but coctt€ with the infinitive. 6: 7 K0^ 7ri7TTa)v eis to eSac^os. c. 3:22 19:19 3. common design and must recognize in LXX. — In koXov koX irovqpov.is avTr) iyyvs tov KaTa<pvyeiv Xaftys fxr} 7rp6o~<i)7rov //. 106.. the b consequence" usage an in this exaggeration of declining (Hellenistic) Greek. Hypothetical: Gen. opObv €tx ev Kai a/cAivi} tov XoyLcrpiov. — The employed "for epexegesis. IV Maccabees the used once with airb tov to express source or cause where Polybius would have used i/c. 4. Gildersleeve.THE INFINITIVE IN POLYBIUS 53 the use in biblical Greek of the simple infinitive to express result.€ ckci. This is very denoting both "We 410.Moulton.. Prepositional Object { tov yivuio-Ketv $11 20J 47: = &). found three Genesis and twice in Wisdom of Sirach. Wis. 411) . p. Blass 71. lo\>v Sir. Actual: Gen. where the simple without cocrre might have been used. ^TjV T7)V ^/V^Tfjv [XOV. and. and where infinitive with tov infinitive with or is the meaning of the genitive has been lost in the mixture of con- sequence and purpose. 105. — with tov (=/). A. b). 19: 20 iSov Sir. p. 'iSov 'A8a/x yiyovev O 7TOt€l9 €7r' Ipk TOV ws ets e£ ^/xdv. pp.J. 478. fxrj elalv avTOiv 01 KareXnrov ovo/mx tov iK8LY)yr}crao~$ai iiraLVOvs. cf. dirb tov Sovas. as usually It infinitive happens with b in its mani- the case of established in formulas. 29. the proper signification of the genitive was no longer thought of" {ibid. This usage. infinitive is IV Mace. unless we prefer would seem that the be regarded by the Hellenists as to resort to unnatural interpretations. tov ajxapTavetv. 341 fxr) <f>€pav to troi/xa ra? dXyr}- . times in form was The in used at language of daily speech even when the recognized least in the &) a partial may have been return to the older construction. Vol.3. 44: 8 (TvveKXet(rev /xe Kvpios tov tlktuv. 16:2 Wis. XXVII.

are the peculiarities of the use of the infinitive in the What Each are the causes of these peculiarities? books must be examined separately. his knowledge of as a result of this literal either language will play an important part in the result of the work. the purpose be to produce a translation which shall be good from a literary point of view. the resulting translation in is be in other directions. We I. Aside from the purpose of the translator. because of inability to reproduce the thought of the original in the translation. the result will be a translation which will be worthless from a literary point one which may even obscure the thought of the original of view of the four biblical — method. CAUSES OF THE PECULIARITIES IN THE USE OF THE INFINITIVE IN THE BIBLICAL BOOKS. no matter what the transla- tor's ability may language deficient. ask then: What books under discussion? biblical II. from it their [342 . for it can be easily seen that. If the purpose is to make an extremely literal translation. reproducing each word and construction of the original. and his knowledge of the languages with which he has to deal. so that became necessary to translate them 54 it on laid great stress when was but natural. Genesis and Wisdom of Sirach. and differences of style must be taken into consideration. and since two of the books. if his knowledge of will literary value or in the reproduction of the either be wanting thought of the original.CHAPTER VII. on the other hand. Translations differ according to the method and purpose of the translator. If. were translations from Hebrew into Greek. since no two of them were written by the same person. the translator may change the thought of the original. It is well known that the Hebrew people the value of the letter of their sacred writings.

however. was not the Greek of the educated native Greek. Not to speak of other nonGreek aspects of the language (for that would lead away from the study of the infinitive). it must have been that of persons whose manner of life and thought was very different from that of native Greeks. instead of had written in this style. Turning now to the Book of Genesis. the translation was made possible in the translation. are quoted in the words of the speaker. of the Dispersion. were in The Jews understanding the lessons. and . the one language of intercourse between all the inhabitants must certainly feel the effects of the mixture of races which spoke it. chiefly in Alexandria. The Jews for Jews. for whom the translation was made. Quo- being given in the subordinate form of indirect discourse. Alexandria was a thriving city. If it was a spoken or written language. even the efforts of the interpreter who turned of no aid to them in the syna- the Scriptures into the spoken Aramaic. had so far forgotten the language of their nation that gogue. of the Dispersion above mentioned were descendants of those Jews who had fled or been carried to Egypt and who had grown up under Greek influence. fresh from — the reading of Polybius. and they must have the Law in Greek if they were to understand it. and. and by their manner of life and thought. Genesis. where they had been given a part of the city to themselves and had been granted civil rights. Their Greek. not for Greeks. The narrative is made up make an of short declarative statements connected in groups by the simple connective. to endeavor to present the original as closely as Moreover. The language of these Jews was Greek. no subordination of part to part in order to orderly whole. the two great groups of subject and object infinitives would have been reduced to a 343 minimum.— THE INFINITIVE 55 IN POLYBIUS point of view. we feel at once that this is not Greek such as a Greek would have written or even have spoken in ordinary life. there is here no balancing of sen- tences. but was presumably the language of the Alexandrian streets and markets a composite of the terms of the Egyptian seaport. situated as it was. The speakers would naturally be affected by their native idiom. If Polybius tations. with its population made up of many different peoples.

The usage though it eft)? tov tco while. it is but an extension of the = Result). s has been largely affected by Hebraistic influence. it in the speech may be infinitive b with the infinitive. The epexegetical character seen in the infinitive with of the articular infinitive to. the when some other case would be expected being due to the influence of the Hebrew particle b. or tco in may be apposition with a pre- ceding demonstrative in the accusative. only 13 times in his whole work. tov. which Polybius has used very sparingly. but may of the Alexandrian Jews. Wisdom of Sirach. Out of 187 simple infinitives. In Hebrew translator to reproduce viewed. irpo rod until. and we look in vain for the many other ways which Polybius had of expressing it. fxerd to after. genitive. ev before. and would have the whole average of simple infinitives used given no pleasure to the reader. The average of infinitives in Wisdom of Sirach is almost the same as that in Genesis and the causes of The translator has shown in his prologue this are the same. may not have been due merely to the effort of the have been used whatever way usage f [tov c. We why see. of this infinitive. Polybius' history would have become as formless as the Greek of Genesis. or dative. In comparison with its use of the simple infinitive. Genesis makes a very large use of the articular infinitive. and but 7 of the infinitive with coo-re to express purpose. Genesis has infinitive J J times to express used the simple purpose (d). fact that it is used with tov.HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 56 number would not have been any higher than in Genesis. form he could have used. but this large to the exclusion of the other proportion infinitive due rather is to the infrequent use of the simple than to an abnormally frequent use of the articular Nearly infinitive. all of the uses of the articular infinitive are with prepositions in clauses to express time. there is such a large use because the translator has used It is it made almost ways of expressing purpose. — 344 . Very likely it was the form used most frequently in the dialect which It certainly was the simplest he employed in everyday life. In Genesis there are but 4 occurrences of the infinitive with eh to. therefore.

self to is. used as follows: a. o. simply turned the writing of his grandfather into Greek words. we lar infinitive are scattered. b. cast. the infinitive of indirect discourse is found more frequently. that we shall not The sentences in the effort to have a are balanced. he did not He has feel at liberty to present the translation in Greek form. he might have As it left us a better monument of the Alexandrian dialect. Subject and object occur very frequently. the articular infinitive. k- goodly array for so short a But though the translator could write Greek. There is large use made of all the uses of the infinitive which of the infinitive. —a d. We see that the average of use of the infinitive is high. and the tables tell us the reason.THE INFINITIVE 57 IN POLYBIUS what he might have done in the way of writing better Greek. all its The frequent use of the participle in significations appears again. i. p. these books have in infinitives down. each link in the chain being necessary to the unity of the sentence. 4 with pera to of time after which. the Maccabees. 31 occurrences of the articular infinitive 24 are with denoting time while. while subordinate clauses of 345 . the uses of the articu- and several prepositions are used with When we read II and IV Maccabees. see the reason for this. the infinitive of purpose drops cqo~t€ with the infinitive appears again. but so that the thought shall be expressed as a united whole. in common f } he with the tables of the uses and IV Maccabees we are prepared for a different state of things. bit. II infinitive. if he had not been hampered by the form in which his translation is In the prologue of only 22 lines there are 13 infinitives. the translator of If Wisdom of Sirach could have brought him- throw aside the characteristically Hebrew form of the original and clothe it entirely in a Greek dress. 2 with et? to to denote purpose. and IV Maccabees. he employs two uses of the common has in II with Genesis. — Looking when we come at one of which. part being produce a flowing style so series of statements strung together like beads upon a string. other. while the one occurrence of irpb? to ev tQ> is due to the prologue. subordinated to part. common to II with Polybius. Hebrew clinging to the parallelism of the Of the original.

But each of these might have been used by him and do not show Hebraistic influence. which are and the use of airo rod with the infinitive. are 346 1. not also found in Polybius.HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 58 purpose and result. as has been stated above. are used. up the sequence of thought The only in all of which builds orderly style. uses of the infinitives in these two books. time and cause. p. .

though tinged by elecolors ments which it has absorbed in a foreign land. and linguistic knowledge of the author 3. while the thought which they wish to express is foreign to the native Greek and somewhat the language in which it is expressed. such grammatical the Greek language finds no use here. though true of some more than others. Greek at heart. 347] 59 . not necessarily in new syntactical uses. he will feel and see that he is reading Greek. in the new meanings given to words. still the language is a living one. Thought will color language. the very letters of which were sacred. chiefly. constructions as are used are in the main Greek. show a much greater free2. dom in the They use of the language. The syntax depends upon the ability. purpose. the language will be affected.CHAPTER VIII. owe their frequency of use to 1. which is retained in the translation. ence was responsible for the style and grammar of the translaOwing to the simplicity of the tions which they produced. while Greek in form. From the foregoing we conclude: That the translators of the books of the Old Testament were largely influenced by their desire to keep as close as possible This influto the form of the language of their sacred books. That the same is true of the authors of the books of the New Testament. Hebrew style. so that subordinate sentences are few. though some are found which. the structure of the Greek is very simple. so that. That the authors of those books which are not translations. are not effort to preserve as nearly as possible the hampered by the form of an original. If the reader will ignore the thought and read the language alone. and when the thought is foreign to the people in whose language the thought is expressed. the influence of the Hebrew original. and the highly developed and varied syntactical structure of Still. but were originally written in Greek. CONCLUSION. of course.

3: 16)./ 3 times. and in addition the imperative infinitive. . but not in Polybius.HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 60 or translator. 784. a true Greek use 474. MT. It of the infinitive in the New Testament books of the Apocrypha originally written uses those infinitival constructions (1 5 in times. p 12 times. is The syntax like that of the Greek. Kith. s once) which were found in the four Old Testament and apocryphal books. a) which is found once (Philippians 348 (G.

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