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'*

CRICBTOW'S "History of *&<&$*.

PLAIN AND LITERAL TRANSLATION OF THE

ARABIAN NIGHTS' ENTERTAINMENTS,

NOW

ENTITULED

THE BOOK OF THE
antr

a

WITH INTRODUCTION EXPLANATORY NOTES ON THE

MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF MOSLEM MEN AND A
TERMINAL

ESSAY

UPON

THE

HISTORY

OF

NIGHTS
VOLUME

RICHARD

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X.

BURTON

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MY DEAR

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During the

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LONDON, July

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F.

BURTON.

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The Story of Maaroof. 671-732. MA'ARUF THE COBBLER AND HIS WIFE FATIMAH . 465 . 464 II. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE THOUSAND AND ONE NIGHTS AND THEIR IMITATIONS. The Macnaghten Text and D.) CONCLUSION 54 . KIRBY . 448 * 450 . .CONTENTS OF THE TENTH VOLUME. 309 . APPENDIX 322 393 Arabic 421 TABLE OF CONTENTS OF THE VARIOUS ARABIC TEXTS A. iv.) in. &c. Lane's and my Version Calcutta Edition (1814-1818) . . BY W. ALPHABETICAL TABLE OF THE NOTES (ANTHROPOLOGICAL. 303 I.. F. Breslau Text the Bulak Edition . 457 . * . The C. English B. The same with Mr. III. INDEX TO THE TALES AND PROPER NAMES u. TERMINAL ESSAY 63 INDEX OF THE TENTH VOLUME APPENDIX i. ALPHABETICAL TABLE OF FIRST LINES A. The Unfinished B.. I (Lane.

.

" 3 for that she was a whorish. form of 'Urr dung . but poor- he earned much. 2 The popular word means goodness. whom the folk who cobbler was had lived " The Dung . VOL. the MA'ARUF THE COBBLER AND HIS WIFE FATIMAH. worthless She ruled her wretch. fried with samn (butter melted and clarified) and sweetened with honey or sugar. apes. p. scanty of shame and mickle of mischief. Bees' honey is opposed to various what finer syrups Which are used as sweeteners... do me etc. "Zarabm" the chaussure (pi. . for which see i. she revenged herself on his body that night.g. 300. "A'mil al-Ma'arvif " = have the the favour. E. worn by Mamelukes." 5 He replied. swine. v. he spent it on her. See vol. man and careful of his repute.) The ungodly hold it in the left hand. (See Night dccclxxi. spouse and used to abuse him and curse him a thousand times a day and he feared her malice and dreaded her misdoings for nicknamed . mischievous shrew. " So Allah O 1 Arab. " 3 " Dozy translates 'Urrah =. not a bad : = name applied Njal. v. Sale sect. lit. iii. worked some* than our vermicelli. 4 " " daughter of Billingsgate. for she was even as of one How manifold all misery nights have rife Amongst passed with I my poet : wife o In the saddest plight with : Would Heaven when ta'en her like her saith the first I went in to her o With a cup of cold poison I'd life. kindness . I wish thee to bring me this night a vermicelli-cake dressed with bees' honey. and reminds us of the term Dung-beardlings the her amiable to by enemy's sons. iv. " Ma'aruf. . other afflictions which befel him from her one day she said to him. slaves' shoes or sandals (see vol. 4 leaving him no peace and making his night black as her book . e. THERE a dwelt once upon a time Ma'aruf 2 in the God-guarded city of Cairo 1 His name by patching old shoes.e. etc." But it is the fem. of zarbun). and he had a wife called Fatimah. the right being bound behind their backs and they appear in ten foul forms. and when he gained little. 5 The " KunaTah " (vermicelli-cake) is a favourite dish of wheaten flour. 336) is used in its modern sense of stout Here the word shoes or walking boots. See Lane M. 47-) black like the book of her actions which would be shown to her on Doomsday. X. Une Megere Lane terms it a "vulgar word signifying a wicked.The Book of Thousand Nights and a Night. (The Story of Burnt Hallgerda for a ii. that he was a sensible When conditioned. chapt.

Then he arose and locking his shop.A If 2 Laylah wa Laylah. that Ma'aruf the Cobbler said to his spouse. naught of these words whether He aid thee or aid thee not. The pastry-cook O Master Ma'aruf. but our Lord will make things easy to me " She " I wot rejoined. look thou come not to me save with the vermicelli and bees' honey and if thou come without it I will make thy night black as thy fortune whenas thou marriedst me and fellest " " and into my hand. ." answered Ma'aruf. . a virago who would have me but I have sat in my shop till past bring her a Kunafah mid-day and have not gained even the price of bread wherefore I am in fear of her. prayed the dawn-prayer She resumed. I will bring it thee. the price of the I beseech thee. why dost thou weep ? Tell me what hath befallen thee. Presently he came up to the shop of the Kunafah-seller and stood before it and opened me his shop. saying. whilst his eyes " glanced at him and said. I have never heard it applied to " the syrup which exudes from ripe dates." The cook laughed and said. " No harm shall come to thee. and said butter. but our Lord will make things easy. Arab." 2 i. 1 rejoinder is highly impious in Moslem opinion. Almighty aid me to its price. Asal Katr . which is better pounds. ! . to vouchsafe from me the mischief of " After which he sat in the yonder wicked woman this night shop till noon. brimmed with tears. fo&en foaa ft tfje jitne f^un&tefc antr JEJinettetf) It hath reached me. seeing he had not even the wherewithal to buy bread. 2 however." So he acquainted him with his " case.e. kind of black honey. "a The Shrew's fine . Allah is bountiful going out with grief scattering itself from his body. O auspicious King. Here is drip-honey. 1 ceased to say her permitted say. I will bring it to thee this night. My wife is a shrew." Quoth he. I have no dirhams to-day. went out perplexed as to how he should do in the matter of the vermicelli-cake. when hung up. ! " O Lord. " If Allah aid me to its price. I have no dirhams to-day. Kunafah and ward off ! distraught. but no work came to him and his fear of his wife redoubled. Will send us aid. saying. treacle" says Lane j but it is afterwards called cane-honey ('Asal Kasab). pounds but no bees' honey." And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and Rejoined she. By Allah. By Allah. So the man weighed him out five " I have clarified of vermicelli-cake to him. How many pounds wilt thou have ? " " Five .

" i. saying. for I will have patience with thee till such time as thou shalt have dirhams to spare." So he gave him four half dirhams worth of bread and one of cheese. I bought it not save on credit . ! ! He excused himself to her. replying "Yes. She looked at it and seeing that it was dressed with cane-honey. And straiten not thy wife. I will not eat Kunafah save with bees' honey. " Asal Kasab. Then said he. that thou owest me fifteen nusfs. and bring me other than this Then she dealt him a buffet on the cheek and knocked out one of his teeth. " Extolled be How bountiful art Thou " When Thy perfection. bring it with bees' honey ? Wilt thou contrary my wish and have it dressed with cane-honey ? " than bees' honey . so go to thy wife and make merry and take this nusf for the Hammam 2 and thou shalt have credit for a day or two or three till Allah provide thee with thy daily bread. O my Lord he came home. thou pimp. anger she clutched his beard and fell to shouting out and whereupon " " Moslems O So the neighbours came in and saying. possibly made from sorgho-stalks Holcus sorghum which I made syrup in Central Africa. till it was fit to present to Then he asked him. blessing the pastry-cook and saying. " Yes. " Hast thou brought the vermicelli-cake?". " Know. 3 of . and the vermicelli was ten nusfs. " This talk is idle . with a heart at ease. =: that on which man lives : " Khubz " being the more popular known at Malta. his freed beard from her grip then they reproved and reproached " We are all content to eat Kunafah with cane-honey. 1 Arab. then. " Give it me with drip-honey. cheese ? ". her." term. . this is saying. but failed with the fourth on account of the decline of his It 44 Convarter. saying. O Ma'aruf. 3 " Did I not bid thee said to him. ! ! ." he set it before her. *' lit. wilt thou oppress this poor man thus ? Verily. Why. Sugar." So he fried a vermicelli-cake for him with butter and drenched it with drip-honey. and Ma'aruf answered. and said. 3 and what harm will there be.e.Ma'aruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. that he had better make peace with story of the Irishman who brought Hubz and Joobn 2 " is well his wife by knowing her carnally. " Dost thou want bread J and Kings. his wife enquired of him. " " Begone. and. Help. if it be with drip" Ma'aruf was ashamed to object." So Ma'aruf took the vermicelli-cake and bread and cheese and went away." Arab." And she was wroth with it and threw it in his face. because the pastryhoney ? cook was to have patience with him for the price. The blood ran down upon his breast and for stress of he smote her on the head a single blow and a slight . " 'Aysh. Insinuating over to the holy Catholic Church suggests the three several Protestant wives." but said she.

And quoth Ma'aruf. 2 " obey thy husband and thou. 215." He recognised her by their " and saying. ! . " Give me time and I will Then he went out to the bring thee other vermicelli-cake. deal kindly with her. saying. when the folk were gone." and went on Thou eating." Quoth Ma'aruf. " Up with thee.A If 4 " Layia h iva Laylah. take this and get her Kunafah with bees' honey and do ye make " Give it to her." mosque and prayed. and Ma'aruf. " took it and the Kazi made peace between them. and to-morrow night. disgraceful in thee ! burning with hunger. And they went on to soothe her till they made peace between her and him. " Quoth the Kazi. } at ' thy bidding." down curses upon him and she ceased not to rail at him him with gross abuse till the morning. " O man. and the effect was simply deplorable. iv. "She sweareth that she will so I will e'en eat. for thy wife hath complained of thee to him and her favour is thus and thus. she sware that she would not eat of the vermicelli. sat down but hardly had he done this when up came two runners from the Kazi's court and said to him." So she peace. so he brought out to . man . said in himself. hast thou no fear of Allah the Most High ? Why hast thou beaten this good woman and broken " her forearm and knocked out her tooth and entreated her thus ? tears. Quoth he. But." Then he ate. but Allah is bountiful. . swarest that thou wouldst not eat of this . and when she saw not eat him eating. and she was weeping and wiping away her called and . I will bring thee Kuhafah dressed with bees' honey. and thou shalt eat it And he applied himself to appeasing her. when she bared her forearm to beat him. This is a true picture of the leniency with which women were treated in the Kazi's I have noted that matters have court at Cairo. laughing and saying. " me to what thou wilt If I beat her or put out her tooth. " May Allah Almighty torment her description walked with them till he came to the Kazi's presence. may the eating of it be poison " " It shall not be to destroy the far one's body Quoth he. " Inshallah. * . last. she said. 1 For this unpleasant euphemy see vol. thou and she." And he told . sentence but in truth the case was thus and thus and peace between me and her. Ho man. an the Lord decree. revile . O wife. where he found Fatimah standing with her arm bound up and her face-veil besmeared with blood . speak with the Kazi. the neighbours made him the story from first to Now this Kazi was a benevolent him a quarter dinar. saying. after which he betook himself to his shop and opening it. O man. whilst she alone.

for thy wife hath complained of thee to the High Court * and Abu Tabak 2 is after thee. which should be directed not changed. we will exact And they fell to dragging him about the it in despite of thee. whilst her husband returned by came up to runners the to his shop and sat there. " " Quoth she." So they after that . reconciled at the Kazi's hands. He beat me why comest thou to me complaining ? . rise and fee. " And indeed the Kazi Such-an-one made peace between us this very hour. O man. 1 Arab. while he was still sitting. and speak with the Kazi for thy wife hath com" plained of thee to him. "Bab al-'Ali" the high gate or = Chief Kazi's court: ' the phrase is Sublime Porte. and if thou give us not our fee. " Make peace each with other. Then they left woman went one Quoth said. since ye two have made peace with each other. market so he sold his tools and gave them half a dinar. Presently. ." So he arose and went wife hath complained of thee to our Kazi. his 5 the court. up came two ill-favoured fellows and said to him. he said to her." Whereupon the Kazi said to " O her. We govern too much in these matters. as he were a drunken man for excess of the chagrin which befel him. " but quoth the Kazi. for history repeats herself and the same was the case in Afghanistan and in Sind. and she will cross thee no more. made peace and the Kazi said to Ma'aruf. and thy just now. . on the contrary." of me aught ." So he shut his shop and grown even worse since the English occupation. calling on Allah for aid against her and when he saw her." Accordingly he came forward and told the Kazi his story. strumpet." But " 'Tis no concern of ours whether the Kazi took of quoth they. "O behold. for that he had no tools wherewith to work. " Come. " " took not Kazi The him and Give us our fee. here used of the a descendant of the Coptic "Per-ao" whence Pharaoh." *_" Abu Tabak/' in Cairene slang. adding. whilst he put his hand to his cheek and sat sorrowful. behold. respect for the conquerors from the conquered. especially in exacting . is an officer who arrests by order of the Kazi and . He made peace between us " But said they. thee or gave to thee. Ma'aruf. and too little in other things. a man came up to him and said. " There abideth no peace between me and thee." with them to their Kazi. he. and beat her not again. We come from another Kazi." Said he. good woman ? " Whereupon she cried.Ma'aruf the Cobbler and Wife Fatimah. opened it and sat down. he gave me a quarter dinar. Presently." So he gave them their fee hide thyself. and the another way way. when. " Give the runners their and going back to his shop. whereupon they let him go and went away. " Did we not make peace.

" 'Amir" As has been favourite lit. " Whither shall I flee from this whore ? I beseech Thee. Hammam. here used in technical sense. as ruth for thee hath got hold upon my heart. whose aspect caused his body-pile to bristle and his flesh to creep. The privies fire-drake in the text . thrashing. 1 Bab al-Nasr the Eastern or Desert Gate see vol. O man. it was the winter season and the hour of mid-afternoon prayer so. = one who inhabiteth." Quoth Ma'aruf. ruins for which see Terminal Essay. and his He therefore entered the 'Adiliyah. and said to " him. a low word for beating. . upon him. where she shall not know the way to me " Now while he sat weeping. behold." said Ma'aruf. where thy said. means " Father of whipping" (= tabaka. what aileth thee that thou disturbest me this night ? These two hundred years have I dwelt here and have never seen any enter this place and do as thou dost. The date is not worthy of much remark for these names are often This A.baths are the and was summoned by the Cobbler's exclamation and even Marids at times do a kindly action. is inserted by the scribe 3 Arab. : 2 a mosque outside the great gate built by Al-Malik al-'Adil Tutnan Bey in 906 ( = 1501). Tell me what thou wishest and I will accomplish thy need." So he mounted on his back and he flew with him from after supper-tide till daybreak. 234. and therewith he bought Now four worth of bread and one of cheese. clothes . "Who and what art " thou ? and quoth he. when he set And Shahrazad perhim down on the top of a high mountain ceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say. my back. whopping) because he does his duty with all possible violence in terrorem. the wall clave and there came forth to him therefrom one of tall stature. 2 were drenched. and the " Then mount other. as he fled from her. ! . " I am the Haunter 3 of this place. wife shall know no way to thee?" "Yes. 1 fled Laylah. and he fell to complaining of what had betided him and saying. to vouchsafe me one who shall conduct me to a far country." So Ma'aruf told him all that had befallen him with his wife and he " Wilt thou have me convey thee to a country. O Lord. He had five Nusfs of silver of the price of the lasts and gear .A If Layla h wa 6 towards the Gate of Victory. like water from the mouths of water-skins. seen. The tears streamed from his eyelids. where he saw a ruined place and therein a deserted cell without a door and in it he took refuge and found shelter from the rain.H. a peopler and impure places such as homes of the Jinn. vi. when he came out among the rubbish-mounds the rain descended left .

" girt .Ma'aruf foas t&e ft foJjen the Cobbler and Wife Fatimah. " I will up with me and go down into the city : indeed there So he descended highland. are ye not ashamed to mob this stranger and make mock of . him. None is mad but you. up came a merchant riding on a she-mule and followed by two black slaves." I and they stared at it. He pretendeth that he cometh from Cairo and left it yesterday " At this at the hour of afternoon-prayer they all laughed and " round said to Ma'aruf. So the crowd increased about him and they said to one another. look. him and cried out. at this at man and doeth he say ? ". for it was unlike theirs. and found it a place such as lightened the grieving heart but. " O folk. Presently. as lie walked through the streets the townsfolk stared at him as a curiosity and gathered about him. " O man." no is profit in my abiding upon this and saw a city to the mountain-foot by towering walls. " This " and he became a gazingstock in the city and some believed him. for this mountain and thou wilt see the gate of a city." "What countryman art thou?" art thou a stranger?" " " I am from the And when didst city of Cairo the Auspicious. thou leave Cairo " Quoth " " I left it yesterday. hear what he saith " ! and quoth the townsman. O auspicious King. art thou mad to gathering ! O talk thus ? How canst thou pretend that thou leftest Cairo at mid-afternoon yesterday and foundedst thyself this morning here. for here is bread which I brought with me from Then he showed them the bread Cairo. Whilst this was going on. As for me. descend Enter it. that the Marid taken up Ma'aruf the Cobbler. What O folk. marvelling at his dress. is Cairo bread : look at it ." saying. saying. for it was unlike their country bread. and brake a way through the people. the truth is that between our city and Cairo lieth a full " " Quoth he. 'tis yet new." He then left him and went his way. and see. year's journey ? when speak sooth. flew off with him and set him having down upon a high mountain and said to him. behold. his Nine f^tmtofc antr Nmetp--fmt hath reached me. at the hour of afternoon- Whereupon the man laughed prayer. one of them said to him. "Yes. man. whilst others gave him the lie and made mock of him. " O mortal. " ? Come " they. She said. when he said to himself. full of lofty palaces and gold-adorned buildHe entered in at the gate ings which was a delight to beholders. whilst Ma'aruf abode in amazement and perplexity till the sun rose. It come therein thy wife cannot at thee.

after he had married. his host called and they for food set before manner Quoth the " He was " other. Then them a tray of all and drank and the The twain ate exquisite viands. I am a Cairene. 269. ('Atr). 2 seemly man. '"Attar. seated him in a speak-room fit for a King. " " merchant said to Ma'aruf. 3 I come from the Red Street. when we were boys. applied to Al-Azhar of Cairo.= one in a collegiate mosque who like gives lessons or lectures (dars) and pop. " As for news " said the merchant : ! . and we always and he. Come.A If Laylak wa 8 Laylak. Mohammed is wall to wall. what is thy name ? " My name is Ma'aruf and I am a cobbler by trade and patch old " " " What I am from Cairo. he my I played together. Allah done with a learned man. and none could make him any " answer. ix." hath he?" And what he is hath well and he a druggist and " Is he well ? 5" " ? "Three." for Mustafa. "Darb al-Ahmar." perfume-seller and druggist.e. 313. the word is connected with our 4 "Ottar" 6 Arab. who opened a chest and brought out to him a dress such as might be worn by a merchant He worth a thousand. The Arab. 6 Arab. became clad him therewith and Ma'aruf. 1 8 3 friend. him and scoff at him ? " And he went on to rate them. Mustafa. and his wife hath borne him a son named Hasan. " Mudarris a professor " lit. i. . for which see vol. a opened him a shop is professor beside that of his father. Verily they have no shame. Purses or gold pieces see vol. "How many sons "Yes." " Allah gladden thee with good and Ma'aruf continued." a street still existing near to and outside the noble Bab Zuwaylah. till he drave them away from Ma'aruf." Mohammed and them " " ? 6 As " Ali." answered Ma'aruf and named several people to him." shoes/' countryman art thou ? "What quarter?" "Dost thou know Cairo?" "I am of its " 4 " children. i. And whom dost " " thou know in the Red Street ? I know such an one and such an one. whilst he gave an order to his slaves. Then he said to the stranger. being a as he were consul of the merchants. We used to go in the guise of the children of the Nazarenes and enter the church and steal the books of the Christians and sell them and buy food with the was Ali. no harm shall betide thee from these folk. style is modern Cairene jargon." * So he took him and carrying him to a spacious and richly-adorned house. O my brother. O my brother. Knowest thou Shaykh Ahmad the druggist my next neighbour.

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of Shaykh Ma'aruf. O Ma'aruf. : : any of you 1 will lend me a thousand dinars. from which time I wandered from land to land and city to city. the name whereof is Ikhtiydn al-Khatan. compassionate for the poor man. he ran AH a wherefore away none knew whither thrashing gave and he hath now been absent twenty years and no man hath " brought news of him. So I came down from the mountain and entered the city. till he set me down on yonder mountain and gave me to know of this city. Presently. and thou art my playmate they saluted each other and after the salam Ali why. " of head. I am that very Ali. when the people crowded about me and questioned me. . " So. 708) Khatan is a fictitious al. 265) reads "la ville de Khaitan capital du royaume de Sohatan. and selling to him on credit and believing all he said. the rain fell heavy on me so I entered a ruined cell in the Adiliyah and sat there. And they believed me and assigned me a lodging. an hospitable folk and a kindly. we Ali's father: So he appeased them and will complain of thee to the King. " lit." Quoth the host. carriedst me to this house." * " Tell said. what object then. 24. Then quoth I to them Is there Then city.Isfahan! p. : . This thoroughly dramatic scene is told with a charming naivete*.= Arab. but they believed me not. I acquainted him with my case and he took me on his back and flew with me all night between heaven and earth. which was an Ifrit of the Jinn. Edit. is the cause of my quitting Cairo " " The 2 thee hither ? giddiness of folly brought Quoth Ali. iv. till I came to this 3 I found its people city. . . when her annoy waxed on me. I fled from her towards the Gate of Victory and went forth the city." with his wife . I told them that I had left Cairo yesterday. Ahmad So me the druggist." Ikhtiydn Lane suggests 3 district of Tartary east of Kashgar. Such. book It . g chanced once that the Nazarenes caught us with a whereupon they complained of us to our folk and said to An thou hinder not thy son from troubling us. turned my head when I was seven years old.Ma'aruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. thou earnest from Cairo to this he told him all that had befallen him of ill-doing Fatimah the Dung and said. No wonder that has been made the basis of a national theatre amongst the Turks. and questioned me. So quoth I to them I am a merchant and have preceded my packs and I need a place wherein to bestow my baggage. son price. weeping whereupon there came forth to me the Haunter of the place. and thou. so called by Sadik (so the to be Mac. till my loads arrive. swimming Here Trebutien (iii. and presently thou earnest up and driving the folk away from me. The Nights 2 Taysh vertigo.

Hast thou brought with thee aught of such a kind ? do thou answer. I will be there sitting amongst them. saying. They gave ? of certain things asked and I went to the merchants' bazar. and do thou go into them. " Plenty. cobbler grew Thou too. : I they will say. they will not believe thee wilt be a laughing-stock among them as long as thou abidest in the city .A If io when I will before repay to it my goods come Laylah wa Laylah. I will praise thee and magnifythee in their eyes and say to them. that the proverb saith. every Bey. I bought them and sold them next day at a profit of fifty gold pieces and bought others. I will kiss thy hand and ask thee of any kind of stuff. and O my Know. an thou tell them. ploughing poor Fellah. too obtuse to notice the petty insults lavished upon them *' 2 much : here used in Arab. and when I see thee. "no end." . were often addressing them first and otherwise snubbing Europeans who. 2 " And if they question me of thee. seeing goods. do. there show and trickery do whatso liketh thee. Inshallah : . where. Get him a store-house and a shop. from my and thou continued to sell and buy. An hither. who shall walk before thee and guide thee to the gate of the merchants' bazar . bestow upon him what thou mayst so will they put faith in what I say and believe in thy greatness and generosity and love thee. " and ranked " whose degree is that of a Colonel was made an Excellency accordingly the was some whilst his at Court ground. because they ken I come " How then shall I do ? " and AH from Cairo. I'm a thee. of honour. Tanf ik Pasha father. This man is Ifrit brought me come near thee possessed of an Ifrit and harm will . and I fled wife and left Cairo yesterday. " Kathfr (pron. The world is and the land where none wotteth thee. For instance. rich. 1 see This is a true picture of the tact and savoir faire of the Cairenes. they will take fright at thee and none will for till I brother. an thou say to all who ask by trade and poor withal. Katir) = its slang sense. And I consorted with the folk and entreated them liberally. betide whoso approacheth him. 1 so that they loved me." Ma'aruf asked " I will tell thee how thou shalt Toanswered. him " am in want me what I for I . whilst. ! morrow I will give thee a thousand dinars and a she-mule to ride and a black slave. It was a study to late Khedive they managed to take precedence of Europeans who how. Then will I invite thee to my house and invite all the merchants . began his ill-omened rule by always placing natives close to him in the place when English. I also will give thee out for a rise to thee make man and salute thee with the salam and a great man Whenever of thee. of great wealth and generosity . And such public report will be dishonouring both to thee and to me. under the found themselves in the background before they knew it. I and if a beggar come to thee.

Allah 1 give thee quittance of responsibility for all this. and vaunted Ma'aruf to them. Then Ali helped him to dismount from his she-mule and saluted him with the salam after which he took the merchants apart. and indeed he is the chiefest . " I will invite thee to my house and invite all the merchants on thy account and bring together thee and them. of merchants." . so that all may know thee and thou know them. Is this man a " " merchant ? and he answered. one after " other. and amongst them Ali. "Our brothers. ! ! . . Have no care but put away from thee the thought of thy wife's " Allah misways and name her not to any." 2 Punning upon his name. said to him. his 1 1 - on thy account and bring together thee and them. 1 i. preceded by his blackamoor good till the slave brought him to the gate of the merchants' bazar. wherefore he was magnified in their eyes. O man of good works and kindness And he kissed his hand before the merchants and said to them. Kine f^untefc anfc Ninctg-secotifc She continued. there liveth not a wealthier than he and the merchants of Cairo. Much might be written upon the significance of names as ominous of good and evil but the subject is far too extensive for a footnote." So they saluted him. and Ali signed to them to make much of him. 3 Lane translates "Anisa-kum" by " he hath delighted you by his arrival" Mr. crying. O auspicious King. that the merchant AH said to Ma'aruf. where they were all seated. the dawn of day and ceased to say fofjen ft foas tfje her permitted say. " I commend him to you. O Merchant Ma'aruf. ye are honoured by knowing 3 the merchant Ma'aruf. rose and threw himself upon him." requite thee with " replied Ma'aruf and rode on. on the morrow he gave him a thousand dinars and a suit of clothes and a " black slave and mounting him on a she-mule. inasmuch as thou art my friend and it behoveth me to deal generously with thee. who when he saw him. . They asked. . but meanwhile I give it to free use. Yes . It hath reached me. " . . whereby thou shalt sell and buy and take and give with them nor will it be long ere thou become a man of money. so that all may And Shahrazad perceived know thee and thou know them." Accordingly.e. " A blessed " 2 day. for his wealth and forefathers are famous among the hath partners in Hind and Sind and Al- riches of his father May thee for thy the own He Lord soon make thee able to repay me .the Cobbler Ma'aruf and Wife Fatimah.

this is a King's bestowal for he gave the beggar gold without count and were he not a man. till they set him his servants. woman and and he gave them each a handful of gold. Then he struck hand upon hand one after other. high in repute for generosity. "And gazelles' blood red ?". viii. 121. So know ye his rank and exalt ye his degree and do him service. and I am one of And he ceased not to extol him. So the other said. he hath no need of strangerhood for the sake of gain and profit. there came to him a poor he gave her a handful of gold . brought with thee yellow broad cloth ? 2 "Plenty"! Quoth another. O my lord." see vol.A If 12 Yaman and Laylah wa Laylak. a handful of gold. Then they gathered round him and offered him junkets 1 and sherbets. Plenty aught. The merchants marvelled at this and said. dear and one of the merchants." Now whilst they were sitting. he could do so take them from a single one of his store-houses. up came a beggar the round of the merchants. One gave him a half dirham and went and another a copper. whereupon she went away. and wot also that his coming to your city is not for the sake of traffic. and miss naught thereof. and even the Consul of the Merchants came to him and saluted him whilst AH proceeded to ask him. " O my lord. Arab. 300." . and told the other beggars. " Plenty. "O Merchant Ali had thy countryman a mind to transport a thousand >} and Ali said. he made him the same answer. whereupon he blessed him and went his ways. See vol. haply thou hast brought with thee somewhat of such and such a stuff? " and Ma'aruf answered. . Now Ali had that day shown him various kinds of costly clothes and had taught him the names of the different stuffs. having wealth that fires cannot consume.'* above their heads and began to tell one another of his qualities. 3 but most of them gave him nothing. and " " and as often as he asked him of quoth the Cobbler. "Jadfd. blessing him. behold. " He would loads of costly stuffs. 2 * A dark red dye (Lane). " . of vast wealth and money without end. till he disbursed the thousand dinars. . Then said : . hast thou " and Ma'aruf said. " Faturat. " Verily." After a while. ." light food for the early breakfast of which the cake was a favourite item. who came to him. and none other save to divert himself with the sight of folk's countries inis : deed. in the presence of " the traders. i. = " Fatfrah 1 Arab. . till he came to Ma'aruf who pulled out a handful of gold and gave it to him. he had not given a beggar cheap.

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3 Each bazar. " Wait till my baggage come when. handed them to Ma'aruf. The "silver key.'' formulas of polite refusal. Ma'aruf probably would long coming. " That is not my practice and I am care-ridden because of this. whilst the merchants marvelled at the abundance of his generosity and openhandedness. " " Have no care for that. always lets one in. and whenever they made mention to him of aught. and if thou desire stuffs. Allah will send thee thy daily bread but Ma'aruf replied. the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. Then they entered the Cathedral-mosque and prayed the noon-prayers. by the time 3 they locked the doors of the bazar. : ! . This drew the people's attention to him and they blessed him. when he entered the mosque and prayed and distributed the rest of the money. and what was left him of the thousand gold pieces he scattered on the heads of the worshippers. where he talked of nothing but cloths and jewels.Mcfaruf and said. but the reading has " I fear that loads will be 2 my One of the many little sense. thou shalt have At eventide Merchant AH stuffs for I have no end of them. in a large city like Damascus. if a pauper come to me. if thou desire gold I will give thee gold. " I have plenty of it. what shall I say to him ? " 2 Quoth the Consul." invited Ma'aruf and the rest of the traders to an entertainment and seated him in the upper end. wherewith of this city are . has its tall and heavy wooden doors which are locked every evening and opened in the morning by the Ghafir or guard. whilst Merchant AH looked on at what he but could not did. "Itseemeth that the most part of the people poor and needy had I known their misery I would have brought with me a large sum of money in my saddle-bags and given I fear me I may be long abroad largesse thereof to the poor. On this wise. 3 " ! and quoth he." Next day. the place of honour. Both the texts read thus. he said. He ceased not to do thus till the call to mid-afternoon prayer. these also gave away. saying to every one of whom he took aught. our sufficient aid and excellent " What aileth thee. speak." however. who went on giving them to ! every beggar who passed till the call to noon-prayer. Would I had other thousand dinars. and 'tis not in my nature to baulk a beggar and I have no gold " left so. Allah is Quoth the Consul." to give alms till my baggage come quoth the Consul and sending one of his dependents for a thousand dinars.-" Say. O Merchant is the 1 Agent Ma'aruf ? " . 1 . he had borrowed five thousand sequins and given them away. he again repaired to the market-street where he showed a to another trader . Then he turned and borrowing of him other thousand ducats. 1 ay. .

which he distributed to the poor nor did he leave doing thus twenty days. with whom I . " Plenty." 2 Arab." Great Cried the other. " O Merchant Ali. the Invisible Controls concerning have quoted Herklots in vol. two for one. the Men." Then he took Ma'aruf aside and said to him. How long will he take " And quoth one of people's monies and give them to the poor ? " we rede is that to Merchant All. ii. ! "Wa 1 Arab. which thou hast borrowed and given away to the poor. baggage shall come.A If Laylah wa 14 Laylah. I will ! ! " Unmannerly wight that thou art." Said he. " Begone and prate no more Am I a poor man ? I have endless wealth in my baggage and as soon as it cometh. toast it." Ma'aruf rejoined. The merchant Ma'aruf's baggage cometh not." a Cairene vulgarism meaning. 1 " began to clamour for their money and say. I have no need of them. till he had borrowed threescore thousand dinars. : and still there came no baggage. I Arab.e. folk. How wilt thou satisfy the " Said Ma'aruf." So they them. Have patience. " Allah and the Hallows 4 requite thee thine impudence! Did I teach thee this saying. nor a burning plague. seeing that thou neither sellest nor buyest ? " What matters it 3 and what are threescore thousand dinars ? At last folk . Saints or Santons perhaps an allusion to the Rijal al-Ghayb. it cannot fail to come soon. Merchant Ma'arufs " baggage cometh not. no. " in I him whilome and if I blame him himself. . what fashion is this ? Did I bid thee brown the bread or burn it ? The merchants clamour for their coin and tell me that thou owest them sixty thousand dinars. 3 It is insinuated that uncommon 4 process. saying praised I make of those of whom it is out a liar and become myself [now. they shall have their money's worth." So Ali left him and went away. and he said. friendly bias towards the merchants and borrowed of them more money. 211." At this Merchant Ali waxed wroth and said. My speak went to him and said. I will teach thee to lie to me and be not ashamed !'" Said Ma'aruf. "There came nothing to profit him nor to rid the people of him. When my pay them in stuffs or in gold and silver. brown it before the fire. la Kabbata hamiyah. " Kammir. equivalent to the Walis. " O 2 Ma'aruf." Quoth Merchant Ali. that thou shouldst repeat it to me? But I will acquaint the folk with thee. " E'en work the worst thy hand can do They must wait till my baggage come. " Allah is Most Hast thou then any baggage ? ". as they will." i. "Rijal" he had lied till he himself believed the lie not an to be truth may remark. wjien they shall have their due and more.

was proverbial for greed and sanguine. praiseth to do. " O King of the age. ." * 1 And 5 he Presently. we are perplexed anent this merchant. p. he to the poor by handsful. a Medinite servant of Caliph Osman. Ash'ab (ob. 1 A saying attributed say. of the Badawin). his good faith had been made manifest to us by the coming of his baggage but we see none of his luggage. 288). saying folk. though he . although he avoucheth that he hath a baggage-train and hath preceded it. Hence "Ash'ab's sheep" became a by.H." The Scholiast Al-Sharishi like expectation of (of Xeres) describes him in Theophrastic style. I cannot speak to him When ye lent him your money ye consulted me not so ye have no claim on me. . Now this King was a 2 very covetous man. 54). or a bridal procession without * * preparing his own house. greed of " gain got the better of him and he said to his Wazir. : He an impostor who hath imposed upon us. . and all he borroweth. Were he a man of naught." Accordingly. and if he pay you not." on to praise him and extol his generosity.the Cobbler Ma'aruf said Whoso : " O his Wife Fatimah. and he oweth us sixty thousand gold And they went pieces. Micawber" windfalls. hast thou spoken to him ? " Said he. " Cut not down the good enough to be his the Persians and the idea is universal throughout the It is tree thou plantedst. he had not shown all this munificence. the traders came to him and Merchant Ali. or a funeral go by without hoping for a legacy. but there appeareth no sign of his baggage-train. to Al-Hariri (Lane). Dun him yourselves. " knew not what said. and then blameth lieth twice. A. complain of him to the King of the city. * When asked he knew aught greedier than himself he said "Yes. giveth away his sense would not suffer him to lavish gold on this wise and were he a man of wealth. His baggage-train will assuredly come. all of which he hath given away in alms. I and. a more covetous than Ash'ab and when he heard tell of Ma'arufs generosity and openhandedness. Now I have more right to this money than they wherefore I have a mind to make friends with him and is . . hoping they might bring the bride to him by mistake. ." : East. whose generosity is excessive for he doeth thus and thus. a sheep I once terrace-roof seeing a rainbow mistook it for a rope of hay and jumping if kept upon my to seize broke tells it the tale in its neck !" full.word (Preston . He never saw a man put hand to pocket without expecting a present. they repaired to the King and told him what had passed. saying. Were not this merchant a man of immense wealth. Now some time hath past. And he will deliver you from the plague of him. and O am ashamed owe me a thousand dinars. whereupon these merchants will flock to him and he will scatter amongst them riches galore. . 2 A quotation from Al-Hariri (Ass.

which he had bought for a thousand sequins and not having its fellow. Quoth the King. I will send for him . Then why dost thou not give them their money? ". O auspicious King. ." So he sent for Ma'aruf. methinks he is naught but an impostor. they shall have silver or an they prefer for merchandise. The King returned his salam and seating him beside himself. An they wish for gold. " O Wazir. he him a jewel is a man of worth and wealth but an he know it not. and the King answered. I will give them merchandise and to whom I owe a thousand I will give two thousand in requital of that wherewith he hath veiled my face before the poor for I have " O merchant. I will prove him and soon know if he be an impostor or a true man and whether he be a " reading of Fortune or not. <{ and would not brook the squeeze." And he gave him a jewel the bigness of a hazel-nut. that when the Wazir said to the King. . who came and saluted him. O King . and 'tis the impostor who ruineth the house of " the covetous And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day . and he answered. "Methinks he is naught but an impostor." " Replied the Wazir. Nine ^unbreb an* Ntnety-tfjirb She pursued. for it was brittle . and ceased saying her permitted Ttfofo fofjen ft foag tjje say. Ma'aruf took it and pressing it between his thumb and forefinger brake it." Quoth the King." quoth he.1 A If Lay la h wa 6 Laylak. Why hast " " thou broken the jewel ? and Ma'aruf laughed and said. to the presence and entreat him with honour and give which I have. and 'tis the impostor who ruineth the house of the " covetous the King said. when his baggage cometh whatso the merchants would have had I shall get of him and I will give him my daughter to wife and join his wealth to my wealth. take this and look plenty/' Then said the King. so that. said to him. Is this true?" "Yes. Asked the " King. " Let them wait till my baggage come and I will repay them twofold. O King of the age. . And how wilt " thou prove him ? ". An he know it and wot its price. "Yes. he is an impostor and an upstart and I will do him die by the foulest fashion of deaths. profess affection for him. prized it highly." The Wazir asked. "Art thou the merchant Ma'aruf?"and said he. they shall have gold and should they wish for silver. . . . what is its kind and value. " The merchants declare that thou owest them sixty thousand ducats. It hath reached me.

the " King said to him. How can he be an impostor and a liar. because in past time thou soughtest my daughter in wedlock." Said the Wazir. but she would none of thee so now thou wouldst cut off the way of her marriage and wouldst have the Princess lie fallow. Accordingly." So the Minister was silent. Ma'aruf. she will captivate his reason and he will love her and give her jewels and things of price but. and jewel I call why dost thou style it a jewel ? worth threescore and ten thousand gold pieces and this a thousand dinars such as the Cobbler How Cometh this thing a jewel. seeing that he knew the price of the jewel. stylest but a bit of mineral worth a thousand ? But ye are excusable. Set the curs on the B VOL. for " fear of the King's anger." " Wend your ways to the traders. his baggage arrive. of a walnut hath no worth in thereof. is This is his Wife Fatimah. " O King of the age." Now this Minister had sued the King aforetime to give his daughter to wife and he was willing to do so. that thou. : and myself these good things. when do ye and have patience with him. this is no jewel. thou desirest no good for me. and said to himself. " Plenty/' Whereupon avarice overcame the " " Said King and he said. this man's fashion misliketh me and methinks he is an impostor and a liar : so leave this whereof thou speakest lest thou lose thy daughter for naught." The King asked. 17 but a bittock of mineral worth A . but when she heard of it she consented not to marry him. give my baggage- dinars end of jewels will give thee. till come to me and receive your monies from me. O traitor. A jewel that my then. "O merchant. that he may wed her and so we gain these riches he hath. Thou hast no concern in this matter. hast thou jewels such as those whereof thou speakest ? ". Princess Dunya. and when he goeth in to my daughter and seeth her to be beautiful. thou wouldst forbid my daughter him ." So they fared forth and the King turned to his Wazir and said to him. even that for which I bought it. Wilt thou give me real jewels ? " thee no shall will When train I come. 'tis is eyes and not of the bigness take no account I who art King. that thou mayst take her.Ma'aruf of the age. as for thee. and brake it because it pleased him not ? He hath jewels in plenty. for that ye are poor folk and have not in your possession things of price. and he answered. X. when it. " Pay court to Merchant Ma'aruf and take and give with him in talk and bespeak him of my daughter. is called but a piece of stone. and all that thou canst desire I have in plenty and At this the King rejoiced and said without price. but hear from me one word. . .

a winsome lady and a lovesome. . by way of generosity. and we will have patience with thee anent the marriage-portion till then. thou wilt and clothe the poor and do thy desire and have no care for the girl and the handmaids. 1 * i." So the Wazir returned to Ma'aruf and said to him. L 269. this present I . Then I shall need a thousand purses to distribute amongst the poor and needy on my wedding-night. I shall make no account of all this outlay. When the baggage shall come. See vol. and speak with the King. and other thousand to give to those who walk in the bridal procession and yet other thousand wherewith to provide provaunt for the troops and others 2 and I shall want an hundred jewels to give to the Princess on the wedding3 morning and other hundred gems to distribute among the slavegirls and eunuchs. how canst thou style him im" " Replied the Minister." " I hear and I obey/' said Ma'aruf and went in to the King. to whom he is minded to marry thee." " the life of my head. . for my treasury is full so take the keys and spend all thou needest and give what ." returned to the King and told him what Ma'aruf said. " His highness the King loveth thee and hath a daughter. " No harm in that but let him wait till my baggage come." wants 40. I will slay By thee Go back to him and fetch him to me and I will manage their degree. and alms too needs must be given.1 A If 8 Layia h wa Lay Iah. this. who said to him. ! matters with him myself.e. What sayst thou ? " Said he. " Gome. for there is no manner of difference betwixt me and thee none at . settlements on Kings' daughters are large and mandeth that they be riot endowed save with a At their rank de- dowry befitting have no money with me till the of for I have wealth in plenty and needs my baggage. Arab. an thou cease not this talk. Since this is his wish. All this cannot be done till my baggage come but I have plenty and. saying.000 to begin with. do what thou wilt with thy wife. for I must give each of them a jewel in honour of the bride and I need wherewithal to clothe a thousand naked paupers. once it is The Wazir here. And I cease not to say postor and liar ? But the King chid him angrily and threatened him.-*' He Show a miser money and hold him back. . if you can. coming must I make her marriage-portion five thousand purses. " Thou shalt not put me off with these excuses. whereupon " quoth he. for marriagecattle * i . " Sabihat al-'urs " the morning after the wedding. * i*. " Then with show of friendly bias he betook himself to Ma'aruf and said to him.

after which the King gave the signal for beginning the wedding festivities and bade decorate the city. whilst Merchant Ali marvelled at this waste of wealth and said to Merchant Ma'aruf." Then he and the Cobbler sent for the his Wife Fatimak. whilst Ma'aruf expended in her honour vast sums of money. Respectemploy them to dance at festivals in preference to the Ghawazi. and the Wazir's heart was like to burst for rage but he dared not say a word. ! : " A What will happen will happen burning plague from that which is fore-ordained." And he went on lavishing money and saying . May Allah and the Rijal retaliate upon thy temple!" Mohammedan decorum." The and there is no flying festivities ceased not for the space of forty days.) are boys and youths mostly Jews. dress in woman's dress with long hair braided. E. thy concern whenas my baggage shall come. " Al-Jink (from Turk. he began scattering gold on the people's heads. and they made her a mighty fine procession. and who Greeks Turks.) gives same account of the customs of the "Gink" (as the 1 2 Egyptians able call Moslems a freak of them) but cannot enter into details concerning these catamites.women. but thou must squander " " Tis none of that of the King to boot ? Replied Ma'aruf.Ma'aruf all. whilst he called out to the treasurer and said to him. The treasurer could not bring money fast enough from the treasury. " Allah and the Doth it not suffice Hallows visit this upon thy head-sides 3 thee to squander the traders' money. Shaykh Al-Islam 1 19 and bade him write out the marriage-contract between his daughter and Merchant Ma'aruf. kettle . and on the onein himself. Bring gold and silver. and a glance translates at . " this. tume. The drums beat and the tables were spread with meats of all kinds and there came performers who paraded their tricks. I will requite the King manifold. Merchant Ma'aruf sat upon a throne in a parlour and the players and gymnasts and effeminates 2 and dancing-men of wondrous movements and posture-makers of marvellous cunning came before " him. and he did so. often 3 Lane When they grow old they often preserve their costhem makes a European's blood run cold. and xxv. When they brought her in before Ma'aruf. ! and-fortieth day. they made the bride's cortege and all the Emirs and troops walked before her. " Arab. Armenians. Lane (M. xix. Then they brought him in to Princess Dunya and he sat down on the high divan after which ." So he brought gold and silver and Ma'aruf went round among the spectators and largessed each performer by the handful and he gave alms to the poor and needy and clothes to the naked and it was a clamorous festival and a right merry. chapts. Another sign of modern composition as in Kamar al-Zaman II.

thee till thy baggage shall come. He laid his hand on her knee and she sat down in his lap and thrust her lip like a tit-bit of meat into his mouth." addressed to his member. "There is no . and he laid his hand under her left-armpit. whereupon he made of the two " O sire of the chin-veils twainl " parts proof amain and crying out." broke is "in its four corners" (which usually square) signifying that he utterly my down. between the breasts and his hand slipped down between her thighs and she girded him with her legs. the curtains and shut the doors and withdrew. He hath brought me in with thee ? Tell me to thee before the coming of my baggage. O my lord." So he arose and putting off his clothes sat down on the bed and sought love-liesse and they fell to toying with each other. And how should I be other than troubled. doff thy clothes and take ! ! ! . " And what hath my father done " and he answered. My lord gave me a jewel on the night of his going in to my lady. "Yaaba '1-lithamayn.A If SO they Laylah wa Laylah. Allah preserve thee " " What aileth thee that thou art troubled ? Quoth he. so he would say. and that hour was such as maketh a man to forget his father and So he clasped her in his arms and strained her fast his mother. to his breast and sucked her lip. to each a jewel. till the honey-dew ran out into his mouth . the " " Great Quoth the Princess." Rejoined she. Be not concerned As for me. whereupon Then he clapped her his vitals and her vitals yearned for coition. Lathm the root means " thou who canst take her maidenhead whilst kissing or breaking. and as for my with patience women have no care for them. leaving let fall him alone with his bride whereupon he smote hand upon hand and sat awhile sorrowful and saying. Majesty and there is no Might save in Allah. " for I have of them great plenty. Arab. This good deed would I have done in honour of thy station and for the increase of thy dignity and I have no need to stint myself in lavishing jewels. " it . . 1 O " He breached the citadel tongue does away with the virginity of her mouth. the Glorious. trouble not thyself about me. for I will have for that. thy pleasure. and I want at very least an hundred jewels to distribute among thy handmaids. seeing that thy father hath embarrassed me and done with me a deed which is like the burning " of green corn ? She asked. and when the baggage cometh we shall get the jewels and the rest. Rise. applied the priming and kindled the match and set it to the touchhole and gave fire and breached the citadel in its four corners so ! . so she might rejoice therein and say.

and he said to him. It when he arose and entered the Hammam whence. giving him joy and invoking blessings " upon him and he sat down by the King's side and asked. " Bring robes of honour for all the Wazirs and Emirs and dignitaries and clothe them therewith. that while must be cried. before thee. Quoth the King. hath reached me. kissed ground between his hands and said. " O King of the age. after with honour and worship. till the treasurer was straitened by him to the uttermost and going in to the King. lest haply thou blame me for Know that the treasury is being exhausted there is none but a little money left in it and in ten days more we shall shut it upon . perceived the dawn of day and ceased . The way of an eagle in the air The way of a snake upon a rock And the way of a man with a maid. verily my son-in-law's there appeareth no news thereof. . clipping and dallying langue fourree and futtering till She resumed. "Allah be gracious to thee. There be three things which are too wondrous for me.Ma'aruf the Cobbler and Wife Fatimah. Wofo fo&en tt foas t&e Nine f^untae* an* Ninctg-fouxtf) Nt'$t. not acquainting thee therewith. O Thou art none other but heedless with respect of the age rnyslery to the ! Author of Proverbs (xxx. O auspicious King." The treasurer brought him all he sought and he sat giving to all who came to him and lavishing largesse upon every man according to his station." laughed and said. Where " " Here he is the treasurer ? is. baggage-train tarrieth long and emptiness/' The King 1 A Minister " O Wazir." They answered. . women have described the pain to me as much resembling the drawing of a . his 21 there befel the mystery 1 concerning which there is no enquiry 2 And Shahraiad and she cried the cry that needs must be cried. All who were there rose to him and received the dawn of day. I must tell thee somewhat. whilst no baggage appeared for him nor aught else. On this wise he abode twenty days. her to say permitted say. j 2 Several tooth. a suit for sovrans suitable he betook himself to the donning him King's Divan. Merchant which the Princess Dunya cried the cry be that Ma'aruf abated her maidenhead and night was one not to the of enjoyment counted among lives for that which it comprised of the fair. 18-19). as he sat alone with the Wazir in Ma'aruf's absence.

"Nahi-ka" I <c play fast and loose." Quoth the Wazir. so that he hath wasted thy treasures and married thy daughter for naught. ! " Speak with the Wazir. to the intent that she may make question of him and " acquaint us with his case. canst thou this night take and give with him in talk and whisper to him Say me sooth : me naught. he hath but imposed on thee without surcease. O my lady." " Quoth she." Cried the King. Arab. nor a burning plague to rid us of him Nay. O my lady. that I may question her of the truth of his estate. How long to this impostor. = used thy prohibition but idiomatically = let it suffice . Ho thou. and fear from 1 thou play near and far with him in words and profess love to him and win him to confess and after tell us the facts of his case." And she answered. no. Wazir. What wouldst thou. As thy head liveth. I know how I will make proof of him. whereupon Princess Dunya to him and took him under the armpit and wheedled 2 him with winsomest wheedling (and all-sufficient are woman's and she ceased not wiles whenas she would aught of men) ." Then she went away and after supper her husband came And do to in rose her. " O my papa. " " and he answered. Indeed his words be many. for thou art become my husband and I will not transgress against thee. O my father ? that . who came behind the curtain. and he still cometh and promiseth me jewels and treasures and costly stuffs . nor cometh there any tidings of his baggage in short we would have thee inform us concerning him. her husband being " " Said he absent. there is no baggage for him. " O King of the age. if it be proved that he is a liar and an impostor. but I see " . So tell me the truth of the matter and I will devise thee a device whereby thou shalt be set at rest. " nothing. King. the Wazir. this liar. and said. thou must what is thy will ? know that thy husband hath squandered thy father's substance and married thee without a dower ." lit." So she asked. ! " Then quoth the shall we do to how learn the truth of his case ? ". none may come at a man's secret but his wife so send for thy daughter and let her therefore wilt thou be heedless of this liar " ? O . There is no harm in and as my head liveth. I will verily do him die by the foulest of deaths " Then he carried the Wazir into the sitting-chamber and sent for his daughter. come behind the curtain.A If 22 Laylah wa Laylak. and he ceaseth not to promise us and break his promises. according to his wont. 1 8 thee As we should say. . and quoth the Wazir.

no. of my eyes and fruit of my vitals. ere we can devise some device and he lay violent hands upon thee ? So him ? fear lest thine affair I acquaint me with the facts of the case for naught shall befal thee save that which shall begladden thee and. nor do they secure credit at all father and lie to seasons. she said to him. and visible in thy face is anxiety on this account. nor a burning plague nay. I was but a cobbler in my own country and had a wife called Fatimah the Dung. with whom there befel me this and that. Know. "Verily. albe sooth when said * Shall cause thee in threatened And fire to fall : Allah's approof. My baggage my baggage but there appeareth no sign of thy hast a luggage-train ! ! baggage. Then thou squanderedst he married . that thou imposedst upon my sire and He said. and beware of lying. for that the nor will would I sleights of falsehood profit not. for sooth is the ark of safety. when thou shalt have How often wilt thee. that I am no merchant and have no baggage. O my Time sunder us twain me and thee hath homed in my heart and the fire of sumed my thee. seek * he Who shall anger " Know. " O my lady. long wilt thou impose upon How my be discovered to him. till . O my lady. . I will tell the liar and God-gifted is he who said : 'Ware that truth thou speak. tell me and I will contrive " thee a contrivance whereby thou shalt come off safe." And he told her his story from beginning to end . So an there be no worth in thy words." Rejoined she. fear shall betide not harm spoken sooth.Mcfaruf his Wife Fatimah. so that of his me to thee. " Speak and look thou speak soothly . and then do thou whatso thou wilt. thou art clever in the practice of lying and im" Whereto he answered. " gether inclined to her. the love passion hath con- ever forsake thee or transgress against have thee tell me the truth. whereat she laughed and said. ! deceivedst greed him by for gain dint of thy deluding vaunts. Inshallah ! He " thee the truth. then. may Allah posture Almighty preserve thee to veil sins and countervail chagrins!" " Rejoined she. I beloved. Allah never desolate of thee nor of thee 23 him and beguile him with speech sweeter than the she stole his reason and when she saw that he alto- to caress honey and the Cobbler O coolth me by less Indeed. thou declare that thou art a merchant and a man of money and ? This long while past thou sayest. for it dishonoureth replied. . But ! liver. for most foolish his Lord to make friends with thrall.

A If 24 his wealth many Laylah wa Laylah. Accordingly. thou or I and go to the mercy of God the Most Great. However. they Ghusl-ablution 1 . Now my father purposeth thee a mischief because of this but thou art become my husband and I will never . An I told my father what I have learnt he would be certified of thy falsehood and imposture and thee. like that of Princess And for a book full none of the characters have much Dunya makes ample amends yet the superficial say that personal individuality. I will send for thee. I will never consent no. 2 This is indeed one of the touches of nature which makes all the world kin. for that he had sought me in wedlock and I consented not that he be baron and I fern me. he bade the syces saddle him a thoroughbred steed. he for this. so my hand can attain. not though I die " * So rise thing now and don a Mameluke's dress and take these fifty thousand dinars of my monies. I beseech thee of thy favour to bid me farewell with thine ! embracement " and quoth she. the Resurrection shall unite us. Furthermore an he kill most like he will require me to wed another. an impostor. land whither the rule of my thee a merchant and send bring it privily to send thee may wax great and I me. I will not cease to send thee letters and monies. A character-sketch of abuse of women. the time grew longis ! some upon my sire and he became straitened and said to me. a liar But my sire hearkened not to his say. O my lady. and to such thee. Make him confess. would smirch mine honour. and if we die. donning the dress of a white slave. then. . Thus shall thy wealth my father die. that father doth not reach. my How father. then. saying. " No harm in that. This. that thou imposest upon Kings' daughters and squanderest royal wealth so would thine offence find with him no pardon and he transgress against thee." 2 So he embraced her and knew her carnally after which he made the . from : would slay thee sans a doubt the folk that among and 1 : married a wherefore would be bruited it man who was a liar. So I have made thee confess and that which was covered is discovered. is the rede that is right and while we both : abide alive and well. and the Wazir beareth thee a grudge a time hath he spoken against thee to Indeed. Arise ere the day wax bright and thou be in perplexed " " plight and perdition upon thy head alight Quoth he. . an impostor. and thou all if shalt return in respect and honour . and mount a swift steed and get thee to a this ! . Then make me a letter by a courier who shall I may know in what land thou art.

give Mamelukes with the baggage. Accordingly and read as follows From the five hundred : took the letter Mamelukes to his I We highness our lord Merchant Ma'aruf. for we are of his lord. Ma'aruf. They were two thousand horse and we five hundred mounted slaves and there befel a mighty sore fight between us and them. that Princess " My husband received a letter from his The Arabs hindered us from the road dependents ending with thirty days which is the cause of our being behind time. " He eyes came in to me yesterday but. 2$ paddled him a courser and he mounted and farewelling his wife. the King and his Wazir repaired to the sitting-chamber and sent for Princess Dunya who came behind the curtain and her father said to her. rode forth the city at the last of the night. They also took from us of the luggage two hundred loads of cloth and slew of us fifty Mamelukes. " How so ? ". Allah disappoint them with the Arabs for the sake of two hundred loads of merchandise ? ! As we are " and Iliyat 1 * in Tartary " Arabs " here means plundering nomades. O auspicious King. give thee know that. Allah blacken thy Wazir's face. When the news reached my husband. letter in hand. They hindered us from the road thirty days doing battle with them and this is the cause of our tarrying from thee. She said. the Arabs 1 came out upon us to and attacked us.the Cobbler Mcfaruf and his Wife Fatimah. But further. " I say. like the Persian . Next morning. in walked Faraj the Chief Eunuch. what sayst thou ? " Said she. saying Kiss for us the hands of our Merchant and him this letter. behold. and said Ten white slaves stand under the palace window and have given me this letter. before I could name the matter to him. And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased - saying her permitted say. Nofo fofjm it toas ftTt'nc tfje f^untofc anfc Xnutg=fiftf) hath reached me. It Dunya said to her sire. : What ailed them to wage war he cried. so we are come to acquaint him with . because he would have blackened my face in my husband's " Asked the King. after thou quittedst us. : : that which befel us by the way. whilst all who saw him deemed him one of the Mamelukes of the Sultan going abroad on some business. and she answered. " O my daughter. other shepherd races. and it hath reached us that he hath wedded the King's daughter. ! .

A If Laylak wa 26 Laylak. from the day he entered our city. So fared it with the King but as regards Merchant Ma'aruf he rode on into waste lands. 'twill not be missed from the baggage. o Since after sweetest taste of thee to bitters I'm a prey. . each clad in a suit of clothes worth two thousand dinars. nor doth it weigh with me a whit. for. o And the sore tyranny of Time doth melt my heart away Mine eyes ne'er cease to drop the tear for parting with my dear. thy husband's wealth is indeed endless and he recketh not of it . . and divination of things hidden which are the property and prerogative of perfect love. for he would have made mock of me and thee. the clairvoyance. As dinars. As soon as he was gone. of perfect affection. Men seem to know very little upon this subject. he will speedily return with the give alms to the poor. I looked out from the lattice and saw the ten Mamelukes who had brought him the letter. is not supposed to be merely romancing. baggage. He went forth with them to bring up his baggage and hallowed be Allah who hindered me from saying to him aught of that thou badest me. : falsed our Union and divided who were one in tway . for that wastage of his wealth nor the slaughter of his slaves. very cruelty of love which hates nothing so much as a rejected lover. laughing and taking no concern for the hasten them. he hath done naught but Inshallah. for I reckon it as if I had given it to them by way of an alms. " O my daughter. and good in plenty shall betide us from him." And he went on to appease her and menace the Wazir. as they were moons. What are two hundred loads ? It behoved them not to tarry on that account. The it noted. O favour like the full moon's face of sheen. who speaketh against my husband words that besit him not/' Replied the King. be introvision. Would I had never seen thy sight. there is not with my father a chattel to match one of them. o When shall Time : Disunion come to end and dawn the Union-day ? indeed I'm he o leave with vitals torn when faring on thy way. perplexed and knowing not and for the anguish of to what quarter he should betake him in of he and the lamented passion and love-longing parting pangs he recited these couplets . though every one has at times been more or less startled by the abnormal i The Princess. but speaking with the second sight. But 1 the fault is all with thy Wazir. being duped by her device. and haply he would have eyed me with the eye of disparagement and hated me. or met thee for Whom thou didst an hour. for verily the value of the two hundred loads is only some seven thousand But needs must I go to them and which the Arabs have taken. Then he went down from me.

" the mound of pure sand which delights the eye of the Badawi leaving a town. I see with thee naught with which thou mayst ! feed me : how then. " Naka. the place is but a little village 5 and there is replied. O my lord " Art thou one of the Sultan's Mamelukes ? Quoth Ma'aruf. he wept with sore weeping. 5 Arab.Mcfaruf Ma'aruf and Wife Fatimah. i. here the town is near hand and I will go and fetch thee dinner and fodder for thy stallion." Rejoined Ma'aruf. that thou invitest me ? my lord. for indeed the ways were walled up before his face and death seemed to him better than dreeing life. " " to the . " " Answered the Dismount thee O husbandman. deign them heal o His heart for kindness* and the fire of longing love allay Would Heaven I wot an e'er the days shall deign conjoin our lots." and the other said. " O my brother. 217. " Welcome. 250. ploughman and said to him." To * say this bluntly might have brought Euphemistic 2 3 : misfortune. sun of noontide. for the lines and explanation in Night cmlxiv. vol. his never cease to be enthralled by Dunya's will she albe he die O the Cobbler whom love and longing ! 27 charms o And long live slay." Arab. Capernaum (Kafr Nahum)." Whereupon Ma'aruf knew him to be of the liberal and said to him. "Alight with me for a guest-meal. See vol." not unusual amongst Moslem Another pun upon his name " Ma'aruf. p. ! And when he ended his verses. bazar So I conjure thee by no there. and he walked on like a drunken man for stress of distraction. may : Eastern rim with all-enlightening ray I'm well content with passion-pine and all its bane and bate o For luck in love is evermore the butt of jealous Fate. ! and he returned his salam and said to him. with me and hearten my heart. when he to a little town and saw a plougher hard by. . ploughing with Now hunger was sore upon him and he went a yoke of bulls. and I o Strain to my 3 breast the branch I saw upon the sand-hill sway ? sun thee o Surcease to rise from o' never full in of moon O favour sheen. and stayed not till noontide. Peace be with thee up came .g." The peasant " O my lord." Accordingly he dismounted : 1 The name of the women. ix. and I will run Allah. in Union glad and gay Shall my love's palace hold two hearts that savour joy. "Yes. Princess meaning "The World. " I will soon fetch thee food. 4 is it. I can go thither as quickly as thou canst and buy me what I have a mind to in the bazar and eat. " Kafr = a village in Egypt and Syria e. alight here thither and return to thee in haste. weal is well nigh. e Join us in brilliance. neither selling nor buying. like resplendent ! pleasant talk o' nights. " Since the town is near at hand.

the bigness of a lemon. place.A If Laylah wa 28 Laylah. each I frit over a thousand Satans and each Satan over a thousand Jinn and they are all under command of me and may not gainsay me. O my lord ! Ask and it Adsum ! shall and night. At the upper end of the place stood a coffer of clearest of union-gems each the size of a walnut. whereon were graven names and He rubbed talismans. each Marid over a thousand Ifrits. He goaded them on. raise a city or ruin a capital or kill a king or dig a riverchannel or aught of the kind ? Whatso thou seekest. he descended the flight of steps and came to a place Presently like a Hammam. Whatsoever he seeketh. . till the share plough starting struck against something and the beasts stopped. opened found therein a seal-ring of gold." Ma'aruf asked. it shall come to pass. and the Fellah left him and went off to the village. . the second to ceiling full . ploughed little. Creator of day service. poor man away from his work but I will arise and plough in his stead. crystal. when of emeralds and pearls and coral also from the third of jacinths and rubies and turquoises ground and the fourth of diamonds and all manner other preciousest roof. with for daYses. Presently he said in " I have taken this himself. to make up " for having hindered him from his work. full himself. and upon the coffer lay a casket of gold. joy exceeding and said to rejoiced " I wonder what is in this casket ? " So he it and stones. by leave of the King of All-might. and I have no excuse in neglecting that he biddeth me do because I am Sultan over two-and seventy tribes of the Jinn. Then he took the and the a bulls. : 1 He has all the bonhomie of the Cairene and will do a kindness whenever he can. each two-and-seventy thousand in number every one of which thousand ruleth over a thousand Marids. the size of the . the first full of gold. till he come back. to fetch dinner for him whilst Ma'aruf sat awaiting him. as they were the tracks of creeping ants. Here am I. " I am the slave of what art thou ? this seal-ring standing in the service of him who possesseth it. As . 1 He strave at the stone till he pulled it from its there appeared beneath it a souterrain with a stair. who and " and the other answered. but they could not move the plough . from floor to nether millstone. that I accomplish for him. so he looked at the share and finding it caught in a ring of gold. " O creature of my lord. cleared away the soil and 'saw that it was set centre-most a slab of alabaster. When he saw he marvelled and with this. " the ring and behold. Wilt thou. a voice said. at thy be given unto thee.

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" Yes Nothing were easier. . " Canst thou transport that which is in this hoard to the surface of the earth ? " and the Jinni replied. " Who be these beautiful casket ? . . as in the Tale of Hasan of Bassorah. tfje Nine ^utrtrrtfr antr Nmetg^sfxtf) tftgfc. It hath reached me. ! ask what thou wilt. "The Daybreak" which also mentions Thamud and Pharaoh." Ma'aruf enquired. this is a treasure called the Hoard of Shadddd son of Ad. " What is thy name ? " and the Jinni answered. and he sank and was absent a little while. for it and I . there came forth young boys full of grace. by land or by sea rub the signet-ring and thou wilt find me with thee." out came Abu al-Sa'adat and said Thereupon to Ma'aruf. She continued." Said Ma'aruf/' Bring it forth and leave naught. him who the base of Manycolumned Iram laid.Prosperities : pron.e. till ere an hour had sped they said.2 " I was his slave in his lifetime and this is his Seal-ring. " O my lord. which clave asunder. ' . the like of which in the lands was never made. Abu "My name al-Sa'adat what is is Abu al-Sa'adat. nor did they cease to transport the " gold and jewels. ! . Lo it. am I the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimak. this place 1 " Quoth Ma'aruf. Presently.Ma'aruf for me. or thou wilt consume me with the fire of the names graven thereon and thus wouldst thou lose me and after regret me. which he laid up in his treasure but it hath fallen to thy lot." Ma'aruf asked. that when the Slave of the Signet-ring acquainted Ma'aruf with his case. and who enchanted thee in "O this " and quoth he. O auspicious King. Now I have ac" And Shahrazad quainted thee with my case and the Peace holdeth slave so . the Merchant asked him." So the Jinni signed with his hand to the ground. " O my lord. thou seest that we have brought forth all that was in the hoard. spelled to this seal-ring and thou hast gotten hold of may 29 not thwart whoso I am become thy hearken to thy word and obey thy bidding and if thou have need of me at any time. the Father of. 8 Koran Ixxxix. returned with more . Aboosa'adat. Naught is left in the hoard. ! perceived the fo&en tt dawn foas of day and ceased to say her permitted say. 1 i. But beware of rubbing it twice in succession. and fair of face bearing golden baskets filled with gold which they emptied out and going away.

O my Marids for this and send a company of them to each country to fetch an hundred loads of its stuffs and then take the form of he-mules and return." So seven hundred of them changed themselves into bat-mules and other hundred took the shape of slaves. carrying the stuffs. And when Ma'aruf saw them do as he bade he cried." So they packed them and loaded three hundred he-mules with them." Said Ma'aruf. who presented themselves between his hands and he commanded some of them to assume the aspect of called horses saddled with saddles of gold crusted with jewels. to the number of eight " hundred. . the like of the least of whom is not found with any of the Kings and others of you be transmewed to muleteers. "O Abu al-Sa'adat. " Canst thou bring me he-mules and chests and fill the chests with the treasure and load them on the mules ? " Quoth Abu al" Sa'adat. " They are my sons. thou in this tent and these my sons shall guard thee: so fear thou nothing . Then said Abu al-Sa'adat to him. and he said to them. Nothing easier/' and cried a great cry whereupon his sons presented themselves before him. with the table before him and the Jinni's sons attending upon him. upon his Marids. Pack the gold and the stones. " my lord accord me delay that I may . leaving Ma'aruf to do thy desire. stuffs or Syrian or Persian or Indian or Greek ?" " " on hundred mules loads of each five kind. Then Abu al-Sa'adat ." Quoth Ma'aruf. wherefore my sons have done thy desire and are honoured by such service. and day shall not replied.A If Laylah wa 30 Laylah. So ask what thou wilt beside this. " and the Jinni answered. ere thou have all thou desirest. " The time of the blackness of the night. " Where be the " " chest's ? They brought them before him and he said. And while he sat in this state behold. "Wilt thou have Egyptian Ma'aruf said. tarry of food. for I go to muster my Marids and despatch them So saying." Ma'aruf " What time dost thou want ? " . up came the husband- . and the Jinni answered. Bring me an hundred and Abu al-Sa'adat. he departed. and the rest to menials. Let some of you take the semblance of he-mules and others of muleteers and handsome Mamelukes. This boys ? matter merited not that I should muster for it the Marids. each sort by itself. and Abu aUSa'adat enquired. canst thou bring me some loads of " costly stuffs ? ." " seated in the pavilion." and bade them pitch him a pavilion. Then asked Ma'aruf. in the guise of slaves and servants and suite. "I grant dawn So they 'thee this time. dispose ! pitched it and he sat down therein and they brought him a table O my lord.

" So they brought him and his . and I accept it from thee. peace with But thou hast his However he hath sent his officers to now I am minded to return to made me this guest-meal without knowing me. Then Ma'aruf washed hands and gave the Mamelukes leave to eat so they fell upon the remains of the meal and ate and. will entreat thee with honour. driving the bulls before him and deeming himself akin to the King." Accordingly he bade him set the porringer amiddlemost the table and ate of it his sufficiency. riding on a she-mule. he filled it with gold and gave it to the peasant. saying. discovered seven hundred mules laden with stuffs and attended by muleteers and baggage-tenders and cresset-bearers. Meanwhile.Mcfaruf 'man. I am his son-in-law and I Ma'aruf. and he passed that night in joyance and delight. " " ? Said the peasant. never seen at a hotel table d'hote. I would have killed a couple of chickens and entertained him in goodly guise. Hardly had dawned the day when there arose a great cloud of dust which presently lifting." Thereupon the peasant took the porringer full of gold and returned to the village. The beautiful girls who guard ensorcelled hoards : See vol. make city. Bring him hither. 2 who smote on instruments of music and danced before him. " What is porringer of lentils before Ma'aruf. . " Carry this to thy dwelling and come to me in the city. and will not eat save of thy cheer. whilst the filled his belly with those rich meats. and I Fellah his . in the guise of a caravan-leader. they brought Ma'aruf girls of the Brides of the Treasure. This is thy dinner and thy horse's fodder Excuse me. With them came Abu al-Sa'adat. himself. with the Cobbler and his a great porringer of lentils Wife Fatimah. 1 and a nose-bag 31 full of barley and seeing the pavilion pitched and the Mamelukes standing. 1 * In Egypt the cheapest and poorest of food. . when the porringer was empty. who said to him. a night not to be reckoned among lives. lentils though it be. for I thought not that the Sultan would this ! come hither and. " Would red with clarified I So he stood open-mouthed and said in and fried them " And he would cow-butter for the Sultan had killed a couple of chickens ! have turned back to kill the chickens as a regale for the Sultan but Ma'aruf saw him and cried out to him and said to the " Mamelukes. and me. had I known that. 109. thought that the Sultan was come and had halted on that stead. . vi. was vexed with him." Quoth " The Sultan is not come. hands upon breasts.

O King of the age. he found the King Wazir." which Thus by a suggests having slept with his daughter. tapering cones based on crescents or on balls and crescents. for he is nothing but an impostor. "Amm"= father's brother. said to Ma'aruf. and call him liar son-in-law's name O ! How often wilt thou defame and impostor ? Behold. a troops ! his ! " ! And behold. and which is indecent in writing. : ! " Allah blacken Wazir thy brow. and what is thy business ? " and thy son-in-law who is come with the baggage sendeth me to So he took the letter and read thee with a letter. therein these words. wished him permanent glory and " prosperity and length of life. I said not this save because of the long delay of the baggage and because I feared the The King exclaimed. When Abu al-Sa'adat came up to the tent. wrote a and it Sultan and sealed letter to the with set out " saying. " Asakir." my Arab. and here it is ! " After salutations galore to our uncle 2 the Know that I am at hand with the baggage-train glorious King so come thou forth to meet me with the troops. 1 xxiv. " O my lord." : " Quoth Ma'aruf. of glittering red gold. chapt. O Abu al-Sa'adat. E. courteously used for "father-in-law. Arab." Cried the King. and when he it and Abu al-Sa'adat took arrived. the thy desire hath been done to the uttermost and in its match among Kings' so don it and mount the litter and bid us do what thou a treasure-suit which hath not litter is raiment wilt. pleasant fiction the husband represents himself as having married his first cousin. that Would he had I might have followed him with the me told destination " Said the to thee Allah be merciful for this heedlessness As Wazir." " " I am a courier." " confusion and replied. " To hear is to obey. Asked the King. Would Heaven I wot whither he was bound. "O loss of the wealth he hath wasted. and go thou not in to him but in the guise of a " and quoth he. I wish thee to go to the city of Ikhtiyan al-Khutan and present thyself to my fatherin-law the King . he dismounted and kissing the earth. . Who art thou liar. set with gems." the ornaments of litters. thy saw that we were head the awake to him and liveth.terminals 1 travelling-litter. wight thy feared dishonour and fled." answered the Jinni. O law and I it .) the sketch of the 2 Mahmal. at this moment in came the courier and kissing ground before the King. indeed my heart is concerned for my son-infear lest the Arabs slay him. which are either plain balls of metal or See in Lane (M.Alf Laylah wa 32 and before him was a Laylah." So Ma'aruf mortal courier . with four corner. he is come with the baggage-train and thou art naught but a The Minister hung his head ground-wards in shame and traitor.

Allah is Almighty ! man He came me. ii. for he will give ! hath sent me a letter to that effect and here am I now going forth to meet him. is this 1 ! to ! Nofo fo&en (t foas tije Nine f^unHrefc antr Ntnetp=sebentJ She pursued. said to her. and seeing him riding in the . fearing his disgrace. they told him the truth of the case so he blessed Merchant Ma'aruf and cried. 87 and passim. the Cairene.Ma'aruf traitor. VOL. Good news for thee Thy husband will be here anon with his baggage . Whence then should he get a baggage-train ? But haply this is a device which the King's daughter hath contrived for him. Then the King assembled his troops and rode forth. a calamity to the enemy : see vol. behold.*' Then he bade decorate " the city and going in to his daughter. him to public shame " And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say. what are the Cobbler my riches ! and Now his Wife Fatimah. Quoth " " and when they had done so. " May Allah Almighty veil his fame and not bring him to public shame " And all the merchants rejoiced and were glad for that they would get their monies. X. that his baggage is 33 come he me great plenty in their stead. Glory to God." The Princess Dunya marvelled at this and said in " Was he laughing at me and This is a wondrous thing herself. and he was a poor man. " The baggage-train of Merchant Ma'aruf. making that he was a pauper ? But Alhamdolillah. 1 i. whilst Abu al-Sa'adat returned to Ma'aruf and acquainted him with the delivering of the letter. . Bind on the loads donned the treasure-suit and mounting the litter became a thousand times greater and more majestic than the King. ! . Then he set forward. but. for that " On this wise fared it in the I failed not of my duty to him Palace . O auspicious King. when he saw ! ! the decoration of the city and asked the cause thereof. fleeing from his wife." Said he. he Ma'aruf. when he told me mock of or a had me. and Kings are not unable to do anyMay Allah the Most High veil his fame and not bring thing. that when Merchant Ali asked the cause of the decorations.e. is come. the King's son" What a calamity in-law. the King met him with the troops. It hath reached me. he mind to try me. when he had gone half-way. they said to him. but as regards Merchant Ali.

till they had unpacked the seven hundred loads. stuffs worth two thousand or more . the Lion being the Sultan of the Beasts and the tnost 1 it majestic. whilst to him." So they brought them to him and opened them before him. his good faith was become manifest and none could give him the lie and he had come to reck not of giving. and giving him joy of his safety.AV 34 wa Laylah Laylah. for that the Slave of the Seal-ring brought him whatsoever he sought. " Where shall we lay that which is left of the gold and jewels ? And he assigned to him another place. Presently he entered the city in such state procession as would have caused the gall-bladder of the lion to burst * for envy and the traders pressed up to him and kissed his hands. " Bear these to Princess Dunya that she may distribute them among her slave-girls and carry her also this coffer of jewels." But he said. As for the Princess . " Thou hast hath prospered to thy hand. f " Both texts read " Asad (lion) and Lane accepts it there is no reason to change for "'HAsid" (Envier). giving him whose due was a thousand. Enough of this giving. till the King said to " There is but little left him. bale after bale. the treasurer came in to the King and said. Presently. whereof he chose out the best and said. ! " Carry the loads of gold into the treasury of my uncle the King and bring me the bales of cloth. whilst the King looked on with greedy eyes and could not hinder him . treasury is full indeed and will not hold the rest of the loads. the " O King of the age. ! . that she may divide them among her handmaids and eunuchs. Then he entered the palace and sitting down on the throne said. nor did he cease largesse till he had made an end of the seven hundred loads." Then he proceeded to make over to the merchants in whose debt he was stuffs by way of payment for their arrears. without count." of the baggage. Then all the Lords of the land saluted him and it was made manifest that he had spoken the truth and that in him there was no lie. whereupon Ma'aruf laughed. : . O Shaykh But thou deservest it and may Allah the Most off this trick played of Impostors! Merchant Ali said and it High increase thee of His bounty ". O my son " Then indeed. threw himself upon him and saluted him. I have plenty. after which he fell to distributing to the poor and needy. when he turned to the troops and proceeded to apportion amongst them emeralds and rubies and pearls and coral and other jewels by handsful. greeted him with the greeting of peace. Takhtrawan and clad in the dress aforesaid.

the Cobbler McfaruJ Dunya when she saw and said herself. her wits fled for joy. Then the Merchant went in to his wife." " Quoth Ma'aruf. I want a treasure-suit and treasure-trinkets for ! ! my wife. and his Wife Fattmali. and she found among the ornaments a pair of anklets of gold set with jewels of the handiwork of the magicians. Said Ma'aruf. 35 her joy redoubled and she marvelled "Would I " wot how came he by all this In like manner the traders rejoiced in that which he had given them and blessed him whilst Merchant AH marvelled and said to himself. including a necklace of forty unique jewels. smiling and laughing" Didst thou mock me or hadst lipped and kissed his hand. So respect and abide by So far concerning him but as regards the King. But I would have thee tell me what didst thou design by these words. who met him. at thy service Ask what thou wilt. " I wonder how he hath lied and swindled. " Adsum. . whether thou be rich or poor. sincere and as thou art a true woman. " I wished to prove thee and see whether thy love my duty to thee ! ? For thou art my were sincere or for the sake of wealth and the greed of worldly But now 'tis become manifest to me that thine affection is good. saying. so welcome to thee I know worth. " To hear is to obey. whereupon Ma'aruf dismissed him and carrying the dress and ornaments in to his wife. in reverence pause * And venture not to enquire : Allah gives His gifts unto His Holy Laws! whom He * will. laid them before her and said. " Take " When she these and put them on and welcome saw this. Had they come that he hath gotten him all these treasures ? wealth ! . and open-handedness in the largesse of wealth." Then he went into a thy apart place by himself and rubbed the seal-ring. whereupon Abu al-Sa'adat presented himself and said to him." Quoth the and brought him what he sought. Jinni. he had not wasted them on But how excellent is his saying who said this wise ! : When the Kings' the cause King giveth. in this. 1 from the King's daughter. he also marvelled with passing marvel at that which he saw of Ma'aruf s generosity ." ! "* The Cairene knew his fellow Cairene and was not to be taken in by him. thou a mind to prove me with thy saying I am a poor man and : a fugitive from my wife Praised be Allah for that I failed not of beloved and there is none dearer to me than thou.

who came to him and he gave them each a suit so they donned them and became like the black-eyed girls of Paradise. the case manifest to thee. when he shall have drunken. I and mind a have I O my son-in-law. So how should loads found with the Kings ? thereof be found with merchants ? Needs must there be a cause for this but. of which but a : . such and such things have happened what sayst " thou n-w of this affair ? Said he. O Wazir. said to " him. But a drop-pearl hanging to the heavy pendants by which some European women to receive the cord-acting bridle. " O my lord. How should a merchant have generosity such as this generosity. : camel-fashion. least as pretty as the . they Then he left them and going rejoiced and bussed his hands. " Bring me an hundred suits of apparel. rubbed the seal-ring whereupon its slave appeared and he said to him. whilst the Princess Dunya shone amongst them as the moon among the stars. So she donned the dress and ornaments and said to Ma'aruf. this be no merchant's fashion for a merchant keepeth a piece of linen by him for years and selleth it not but at a profit. E.3^ A If c Laylah wa Laylah. * apart by himself. women Hindu which in the no hoops beauty certainly 1 Arab. " O King of the age. " O Wazir. and bracelets and earrings and a belt such as no money could buy. ." But he answered." And when she put them on and her women beheld her. to him and talk of affect show a make and with thy son-in-law to go. Then he went out and calling his Wazir. " = a nose-ring for which see appendix to Hizam " Lane reads " Khizam there is Lane's M. Ma'aruf took them and called aloud to the slave-girls. " Wear them always. he will lose his . When we come to the garden. with " their ornaments of gold. flower-garden 'do thy bidding. each with its ornaments wrapped up within it." answered Abu al Sa'adat and brought him the hundred suits. . I will make the truth of slight matter is ." Answered the King. I will " Do thou foregather Rejoined the Minister. The untrained European eye dislikes these decorations and insert through the nostrils. I will treasure these up for holidays and festivals. and I will ply him therewith and compel him to drink for. One of the handmaids told the King of this and he came in to his daughter and saw her and her women dazzling all who beheld them whereat he wondered with passing wonderment. an thou wilt hearken to me. with him and say we may that a to thou and the Wazir but no more. as septum is at if lengthen their ears. we will set on the table wine. for I have others in plenty." Hearing and obeying." : take our pleasure there. and whence should he get the like of these monies and jewels.

the guestchamber. : ceased to say her permitted say. When he hath told us the truth we shall ken his case and may deal with him as we will because I fear for thee the consequences of this his present fashion haply he will covet the kingship and win over the troops by generosity and lavishing money and so " True." " Go." answered' depose thee and take the kingdom from thee. of the Spell. nor know we lodging how they fled. What told him all that may had happened and he be the matter " said.f^un&re& antr Ninetg=ci($tJ She resumed. and behold the grooms and serving-men came " " in to him in dismay. him the case. . seeing them knowledge ? and he cried. Jtcfo fo&en it foas tfje J=ttne. And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and . We searched the so we entered the stables. It hath reached me. and asked the grooms. " sand beasts and five O accursed how hundred slaves and servants flee " could a thou- without your Answered they. but found neither horse nor mule of the Mamelukes found and none there. wine for When we drank the wine. the Syces curried the horses and foddered them and the he-mules which brought the baggage ! ! . the subjects of the Slave but. What is " ? their They worth . . O auspicious King. till Ma'aruf came out and. And when morning morrowed the King went forth and sat in . I " ! fear lest its influence stint my wits friends spy matters that hidden lay. and when your lord cometh forth of the Harim. unknowing that the horses and Mamelukes were all Ifrits. Quoth he. and " cried." the King. when lo.Mcfaruf the Cobbler and Wife Fatimah. Then we will question him of the truth of his case and he will discover to us his secrets. we found that thy son-in-law's Mamelukes had stolen the horses and mules. " Thou hast spoken sooth ". " We know not how it happened. that when the Wazir devised this device the King said to him. What hath befallen you ? " and quoth they. In my a traitor and Allah-gifted is O stay it crept he who said is way its o To o And my : the place of Secrets. O King of the age. and they passed the night on this agreement." So they went out from before the King and down bewildered. his 37 reason and his judgment will forsake him. when we arose in the morning. tell sat " chagrined enquired of them." The King marvelled at this.

See vol. o Rising to show her charms to see. " Sharatd. merry quips strongly suggest the dismal toasts of our not 1 ' * remote ancestors.* Were dancing undurn-Sun whose face the moon o Of night adorned with stars of Gemini. who drank it off." And he sat laughing and was neither angry nor grieved concerning the case whereupon the King looked in the Wazir's face and said ." one of the many names of wine. " A'laj 'Ilj plur. " " " and rendered by Lane " the stout foreign infidels. " O my son-inlaw. O " Wazir ? and quoth he. in the cask. saith the poet The : Miscreants 3 went trampling heavy tread. the alluding to the speckled bubbles which dance upon the freshly filled cup." * Quoth Ma'aruf. There they entered a pavilion. The stars of Jauza (Gemini) are the cup3 bearer's eyes. 4 As if it were a bride. then he filled a second and handed it to " Take the cup of the drink to which Reason Ma'aruf. and sat talking. . whilst the Minister entertained them with rare tales and quoted merry quips and mirth-provoking sayings and Ma'aruf attentively listened.e. saying. till the time of dinner came. " of man is this. " 2 These i. whose sight did away sorrow from the soul." said Ma'aruf. boweth neck in reverence. . " No harm in that. 2 the giver of joy to hearts. feet of sturdy ta'en a A Kdfir youth like fullest moon in darkness hands her round strongest cause of sin And Allah-gifted 'Tis as if wine for man is by him o And she hath Whose eyne are inspirited." So they went forth to a flower-garden. I have a mind to go. 198. to a garden. " This is the grizzled l virgin and the old maid long kept at home. When they had eaten and washed hands. wherein every sort of fruit was of kinds twain and its waters were flowing and its trees towering and its birds carolling. thou and the Wazir. to him. when they set on a tray of meats and a flagon of wine.". " " Arab. Arab.where we may divert ourselves. " What is this. I. with whom wealth is of no Needs must there be a reason for this ? " Then they talked with him awhile and the King said to him. vii. the Wazir filled the cup and gave it to the King. of The next line alludes to the cupbearer who was generally a slave and a non-Moslem. whereof worth What manner ? . o vengeance dire on every Arab's head. he who said : and he who bears the bowJ.A If 38 Laylah iva Lay la k. that ye should be concerned for them ? Wend your ways.

And how Slept in excellent mine arms goblet see I is full the saying of the poet Moon : Nor did of brightest blee o that sun eclipse in : whereto fire nighted spying bow down o Magians. 908.D. It And I that of another yet another: marvel at And surge of health returning to its pressers. So subtle is her essence o would seem it 39 Through every limb like course of soul runs she. c neohew . and greatgreat-grandson of Harun al-Rashid. their hearts shall wring.Mcfaritf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimak. 4 o of Lot alike enamouring. 2 The 4 Here Abu Nowas whose name always ushers the same in some abomination alluded or girl dressed like boy to act cupbearer. son of AI-Mu'tazz bi 'llah.H. usual homage to youth and beauty. yet goodlier Cease then is how the saying of blame me. to they died o for thy And left us aqua vita Abu Nowas lymph of life ! : blame doth anger bring o And with the draught that madded me come med'cining 1 yellow girl whose court cures every carking care would with joy and glee upspring : A o Did a stone touch j it : She riseth in her ewer during darkest night o The house with light illumining And going round of youths to whom the world 2 inclines o Ne'er. 3 Alluding to the cup. She comes : and say learnt but still But best of all 1 to him who dares claim there's is brightest." who often opens the door. 5 Abdallah ibn al-Mu'tazz. i8th Abbaside. devices and the Bordels of London and Paris Ghulamiyah" to the Civilisation has everywhere do not ignore the "she-boy. " i. the saying of Ibn al-Mu'tazz 5 : light-coloured wine. which bowed from ewer's lip to me. sheeniest : many Wencher and Tribe lore of love o Something hast another thing. He was one of the most renowned poets of the third century (A. save in whatso way they please. the I3th Abbaside.e.) and died A. And : The runs through every joint of them as runs o the sick. From hand of coynted 3 lass begarbed like yarded lad. strangled by the partisans of h Al-Muktadir bi 'llah.

from which these verses are quoted." (Payne. for 8 men.* 'Mid the throng how many fair with languour-kohl'd eyes 5 o lovely orbs where black on white was lain. And monks the voices of the : awoke the that with chants me by a-hurrying amain the Dawn walls o Black-frocked shavelings ever wont the cup amorn to drain. Omar.) The Convent of Abdun on the east bank of the Tigris opposite the Jezirah was so For a variant of these lines see Ibn Called from a statesman who caused it to be built. ii. 80. 60 miles north of Baghdad). village near Samara (a town on the Tigris. 4 5 Lit." It corresponds with the Latin crissare for women and cevere But see vol. " the vol. 1 north of Mosul. to kiss : And gifted of am he who saith is men In the morn For look on the liquid gold 6 o I And how By God I goodly Allah. Then so light are they that to fly they 're fain o Till we charge them As bodies all with lightened by soul divine. " Ghurrah" the white blaze on a horse's brow. Jeziret ibn 2 . In Ibn Khallikan the bird i. in joy at I the saying of the poet : o All said of other science false only alchemy we see! Carat of wine on hundredweight of woe o Transmuteth gloomiest grief to joy and And The glee. In secret came to see When And lids enfolding shirt of night disguised o In terror and in caution ! Then I rose and spread my cheek like a carpet on his path o In homage. " "Kohl'd with Ghunj for which we have no better word than "coquetry. i. that of another : glasses are heavy when empty brought unmixed wine. and with skirts wiped his trail from off the plain." 3 Arab. But threatening disgrace rose the Crescent in the sky o Like the paring of a nail yet the light would never wane : Then happened whatso happened I disdain thy best and with queries never mell. is the lark. substitute El-Mutireh. gold-coloured wine. 3 ere the bird of flight was fain . a for El-Jezireh. an island and town on the Tigris versions of the poem. . 42 shady groves of Al-Matirah. " Tay'i =: thirsty used with Jay'i hungry. = " Arab.A If Laylah wa 40 On the shaded Laylah. "Some Jazirat ibn Omar. as the Vino d'Oro. island 1 His showers Allah deign o drip of railing rain woody Abdun 2 drop and Shed on Convent hight Oft the breezes of the morning have awakened me therein o shows her blaze. here miss we Khallikan. v.e.e. this is th' richest of is o and tell o So deem of us : And And good news I start up measure it out by the cup.

show us the 1 Compare the charming song of in Bohn's Edit. will said the Wazir. o Dishonour 'twere to see their : Bury me. Abu Mijan German translated from the When the Death-angel cometh mine eyes to close. said to him." And he went on to test him with questions and cajole him. till " Ma'aruf. Or Death will appear to me dread and drear While fearless I '11 wait what he hath in hand An The the scent of the vineyard glorious old drinker! my spirit cheer. Allah upon thee. ! . in his drunkenring. his 41 yet another. Ah. taste. when I'm dead. of Dr. naming to him such of the virtues of wine as he thought well and reciting to him what occurred to him of poetry and pleasantries on the subject. that I may know thy rank and condition. till his wits wandered and he could not distinguish right from wrong. my lord Ma'aruf. " By Allah. When the Minister saw that drunkenness had attained in him to utterest and the bounds transgressed. till Ma'aruf addressed himself to sucking the cup-lips and cared no longer for aught else. said. do thou acquaint me with this." and ness. Wherefore. he said to him. I admire whence thou gottest these jewels whose like the In all our lives never saw we Kings of the Chosroes possess not a merchant that had heaped up riches like unto thine or more generous than thou.Ma'aruf And the Cobbler and Wife Fatimah. Weil . pulled ring " Minister took it and turning it over." o Whose o Dread only veins shall moisten . The Wazir ceased not to fill for him ^and he to drink and enjoy himself and make merry. If I rub it. The juice of the grape shall their food provide. 149). O Merchant Ma'aruf." So. for I after death no 1 he ceased not to egg him on to the drink. said. may " he off and the Take it look upon it. Wine-cup and ruby-wine high worship claim honour waste . bury me not in a barren land. of Ockley (p. by bones in clay Nor bury me wine to And in side of vine misplaced wold and wild. Then ! " O I conjure thee by Allah. that we see its make. for thy doings are the doings of Kings and not merchants' doings. Dig my grave 'mid the vines on the hill's fair side For though deep in earth may my bones repose. being reft of reason. I'm neither merchant nor King." and told him his whole story from first to last.

alludes to the Rub'a sources. Adsum. In rhetoric it is " Rub'a Maskun. till the winds had torn thee to shreds. O ill-bred wight of gross wits. " Rub'a al-Kharab" in Ibn al-Wardi Central Africa south of the Nileone of the richest regions in the world. but " " thou wouldst not credit me ? Replied the King." the Wazir rubbed the ring and behold forthright apThereupon slave appear ? appear to thee. O auspicious King. 2 This is the noble resignation of the Moslem. Shall one have the like of this talisman and give it to the folk to gaze at ? Verily. sans fail/' The Wazir pointed to Ma'aruf and said. What a dialogue there would have been in a European book between man and devil : ! . 1 Arab. nor shouldst thou reach the earth. and none know of him. and its " peared the Jinni and said. O my lord Ask and it shall be given to thee. which when Ma'aruf saw. ceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say. " How deemest thou now ? Did I not tell thee that this fellow was a liar. Thou wast in . he said to the King. " Take up yonder wretch and cast him down in the most desolate of desert ! lands. Rub it and he will do thou divert thyself with the sight of him. I will do for thee. an impostor. thou deservest that which hath befallen thee and but that I fear Allah.A If Laylak wa 42 Laylah. whither goest thou with me?" Replied the Jinni." Ma'aruf was silent 2 and did not again bespeak him till he reached the Desert Quarter and casting him down there. Wilt thou ruin a city or raise a capital or kill a king ? Whatso thou seekest. I would let thee fall from a 1 eight of a thousand fathoms. at thy service. that the Slave of the Seal-ring took up Ma'aruf and cast him down in the Desert Quarter where he left him and went his ways. Yes. She said. " I go to cast thee down in the Desert Quarter. " O Abu al-Sa'adat. al-Khali or Great Arabian Desert for which see Night dclxxvi. went And Shahrazad peraway and left him in that horrible place. he made sure of destruction and wept and said." or populated fourth of the world. the Jinni snatched him up and flew with him betwixt heaven and earth. the rest being opposed to the held to be ocean. It hath reached me. Here it prob. So much concerning him but returning to the Wazir who was now in possession of the talisman. where he shall find nothing to eat nor drink. so he may die of hunger and perish miserably. " " Replied Ma'aruf. 1 . fo&en ft foa* t&e Ttfint f^untati anfc Ntnet^'Nintj) Kigbt." Accordingly.

and he bestowed on them robes of -honour. and they sat weeping over that which had befallen them and found neither hath I meat nor drink. in their own despite. Then he sat down on the throne and the troops did homage to him and he sent to Princess Dunya. till he came to the enchanted ring. saying. . The King hearing Ma'aruf weeping. for I mean to come in unto thee this night. what is my " That wot I but master not. " Make thee daughter. thee as us and Sultan over will not accept anywise gainsay thy So they agreed. seeking all he had a mind to of Abu al-Sa'adat. I and cast you down of hunger and thirst. who brought it to him forthwith. the Desert Quarter and. Allah grant thee weal the The Minister with solace sight." a "Strohwitwe" as the Germans say. she wept. for the case of her husband and father was " Have patience with me grievous to her. so that although a " grass widow. after driving father-inlaw and son-in-law from the country. of her husband's death and he had not divorced her . ring. creature of my Lord. Take up this illmannered churl and cast him down by his son-in-law the swindlerman. saying. how shall I give it to thee and abide thy servant. where- upon quoth the King to him. and sent to him saying." So the Jinni took him up and flew off with him. the King's . " Unless ye make me Sultan will bid the Slave of the Seal-ring take you up one and affair over you. But give me the Wazir." When she heard this. to his being "bidding." Then " he rubbed the seal-ring and said to the Slave. all in the Desert Quarter where you shall die " Do us no damage. adding. after I am become thy master ? But I will spare thee no more on life.Ma'aruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. O lack-wits. that I 43 ! " looked at him angrily and spat in his face. went up to him and acquainted him with his case . for we replied. Meanwhile the Minister. ready. Al-'iddah the period of four months and ten days which must elapse But this was a palpable wile she was not sure before she could legally marry again." myself may O my the right. and told them what he had done with the King and Ma'aruf and acquainted them with the of the talisman. because I long for thee with love." They Sultan over them. my cannot cross whoso hath compassed Then he flew on with him. 1 till my period of widowhood be ended then draw up thy contract : " " 1 Arab. went forth from the garden and summoning all the troops held a Divan. she could not wed again either with or without : interval. casting him down where he had cast Ma'aruf left him and returned. Abu al-Sa'adat commanded me and crime " O " ? replied.

" Verily. this man is a Kafir. for that he was He bade set food before all the passionately in love with her.Alj Laylak wa Laylah. ! . saying. a Miscreant. he rejoiced and his breast was broadened. it had been more to my mind." The Shaykh Al-Islam was silent. 1 Here the silence is of cowardice of the Olema. lawful from unlawful but needs must I go in unto thee this night. when he him in approached her. (" Umm al-raas. she came to meet A blessed night But hadst thou slain and my husband. When the answer reached the Wazir. " is Eat this bride-feast for I purpose to go in folk. laughing and said. my . she drew away from him and burst into tears. so multiply not words on me. : the rede of I him who said s : e attained by my wits return wr* the spoils o And What no sword had obtained. . Dunya Quoth the Shaykh al-Islam. desire surged up and he besought her of carnal knowledge but. and welcome to thee saying. to delay have I a mood and I need not a contract nor know I ." But he " I know neither period of widowhood nor sent back to say to her." Then she made him sit down and began to jest with him and make show of love but caressing him and smiling in his face so that his reason fled she cajoled him with her coaxing and cunning only that she might get possession of the ring and change his joy into calamity on the mother of his forehead 2 nor did she deal thus with him but after " him. he went in to But he answered. 2 Arab. and hath neither creed nor religious conduct. and the passage is a fling at the "time-serving" "banging the bishops'* amongst certain like Westerns. "." As soon as it was evenfall. " There is no help but I slay them." 1 her and found her robed in her richest raiment and decked with her goodliest adornments. with her. and said to the troops. but this was a trick on her part. Whose sweet pluckings I gained." And he said. not lawful for thee to go in unto her till her days of widow-hood be ended and thou have drawn up thy contract of marriage to the Princess " this night. When she saw him. a favourite theme. r When he saw her caress him and smile upon him. then." It is " I know neither days of widowhood nor other period . my ! father . fearing his mischief. lines are excellent. here the place where a calamity alight. coming down from heaven would 8 From Al-Hariri (Lane) the : first crown of the head. 44 of marriage with me and go in to me according to law." the poll." " him be So She answered it. .

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and quoth he. He " I hear and I obey. my papa. " to me. " I have laid him in "Whither wentest thou with my father and husband ? ". Quoth he. the reader will undersuch energetic action among women of lower degree." So he took him and throwing him into the Prison of Wrath 2 returned and reported. foot striking him full in the stomach and he fell over on his back 1 . The " fair sex" in Egypt has a horrible way of murdering men. at thy service Cried she. " Sijn al-Ghazab. Where is the man ? ". pull ! is. his 45 j " my lord. where he lighted down upon them and found them sitting weeping and com" plaining each to other." And they rejoiced in his news. sit thou upon thy replied. seest thou not the man looking at us ? I How canst thou by Allah. See Lane M. he know me what while he looketh on us ? " \vas angry and asked. saying. and they passed the rest of the night with her. Adsum. and he told them what the Wazir had done. screen me from his eyes " When he heard this." she. Then he took them both up and flew home with them nor was it more than an hour before he brought them in to Princess Dunya. and she hath bidden me bear you back.Mctaruf the Cobbler and Wife Fatimah. Indeed I imprisoned him with my own hands in obedience to her. I am afraid of Ifrits . " I cast them down in the Desert " I command thee to fetch them to me Then cried limbo. for relief is come to " you ". " Take up yonder Infidel and clap O my him mistress. her cushion. and answered she. saying. this is the Slave of the Seal-ring. chapt. 1 When the charming Princess is so ready at the vote de faits. He staring at us. On the next day she clad them in rich "O clothing and said to the King. and said to them. by tying them stand how common down and is tearing out the testicles. whereupon she cried out to her attendants. " Seize him So forty slavegirls laid hold on him." So he plucked it off and laying on the drew near it to her. adding." my Quoth Quarter. Arab. who rose and saluted sire and spouse. especially husbands. who came " to her in haste." and taking flight at he reached the Desert Quarter." the dungeons appropriated to the worst of criminals where they suffer penalties far worse than hanging or guillotining. once. she." subject Quoth she. stayed not till ." forthwith. wtiilst she hurriedly snatched up the ring from the cushion and rubbed it. Fear not. . " and he is it off and throw it afar from me. Then she made them sit down and brought them food and sweetmeats. but she dealt him a kick. 8 . ! " sented himself." in jail and shackle him heavily." and said laughing. " There he out his head and in the bezel of the conjure thee ! ring putting thought that the Jinni was looking at them Fear not . xiii. whereupon Abu al-Sa'adat presenseless .

" Quoth she. Then send for the Minister out of prison and do him die. and be ye silent. and after burn him. It hath reached me. behold the King and Ma'aruf entered the Divan. " It behoveth not that either thou or he have the ring. Nofo fo&en it foas rtje ^fjousanfct!) O She continued. Now the troops had passed the night in sore chagrin for Princess Dunya and that which the Wazir had done with her. auspicious King. because it was manifest to them that he was a Kafir." And as the host was thus engaged in talk. and they feared lest the law of Al-Islam be dishonoured. for that he is a Miscreant. the is ring and I Allah will requite him his deed. till he came to . and as he passed by the troops. without marriage-rites. behold. throne and be King as before and make my husband thy Wazir of the Right and tell thy troops that which hath happened." and taking his son-in-law went forth to the Divan. But Almighty folk. I will keep the ring myself. O I live will my daughter.A If Laylah wa 46 Laylah. without the rites of wedlock and he hath testified against himself that he is an Infidel and believeth in no And do tenderly by thy son-in-law.'* and after my death. lest he slay you. the King and Ma'aruf entered. This is the right rede. And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say. that when the troops sorely chagrined sat in the Divan talking over the ill* deeds done by the Wazir to their Sovran. and for his King and Ma'aruf. and belike I shall be more careful of it than you. his son-in-law and his daughter. whom thou makest religion. Then the King bade decorate the city and sent to fetch the Wazir from the place of duresse. a Miscreant and hath gotten possession of the and you may not prevail against him. Hearing and obeying. and would have gone in unto m in the way of lewdness. So they brought him. " thy Wazir of the Right. they cursed him and abused him and menaced him. So they assembled in the Divan and fell to reproach" ing the Shaykh al-Islam. do what ye twain " Quoth the King. saying Why didst thou not forbid him ill-usage of the from going " O in to the Princess in the man way of lewdness " ? Said he." He replied. O my daughter. in going in to her after the way of lewdness. But do thou give me the ring or give it to thy husband. So fear no harm so long as with the ring. Whatso ye wish seek it of me and I will demand it for you of the Slave of the Seal-ring.

O quoth " she. excelling in beauty and perfection. who ceased not to be reared in the laps of nurses till he reached the age of five. where he sat till the day departed and the night advanced with murks bedight. 1 According to some modern Moslems Munkar and Nakir visit the graves of Infidels (non-Moslems) and Bashshir and Mubashshir ("Givers of glad tidings") those of Mohammedans. iii. iv. he went Accordingly. 62) I have noted that " throwing the kerchief" is not an Eastern practice the idea probably arose from the Oriental practice of sending presents in richly embroidered napkins and kerchiefs. when his mother fell sick of a deadly "I sickness and calling her husband to her. Then came in to him his cup-companions of the notables according to their custom. " Allah dearling of my heart preserve thee. 258) speaks of the " Zoubanya. the King died and Princess Dunya made Ma'aruf Sultan in her father's stead. in the sixth year. and to Hell after the foulest of plights . and sat with him by way of solace and diversion. : .Ma'aruf the King. but she gave him not the seal-ring. and morrow she was admitted to the mercy of Allah the Most he answered. they slew him and after burned his body." But com- to thy care thy son wherefore I charge thee but be careful of the ring. for thine own sake and for the sake of this thy boy. 2 Very simple and pathetic is this short sketch of the noble-minded Princess's death. Petis de la Croix (Les Mille et un Jours vol. During this time she had conceived by him and borne him a boy of passing loveliness. serveth on the " ! 2 High. Quoth he. that one day." black angels who torture the damned under their chief Dabilah. Haply mend die I shall and thou needest not that am " ! I ill. 8 In sign of dismissal (vol. the Cobbler who commanded to and his Wife Fatimah. whilst Ma'aruf abode in possession of trie kingship and Now it chanced applied himself to the business of governing." And : "No harm shall befal him whom Allah preThen she pulled off the ring and gave it to him. when they craved permission to He gave them leave and they retired to their houses which there came in to him a slave-girl affected to the service withdraw. as he shook the handkerchief3 and the troops with- drew to their places that he betook himself to the sitting-chamber. and right well quoth one of him : The Compassionate show no ruth to the tomb where his bones Munkar and eke Nakir ne'er cease to abide thereby shall lie o And 1 ! The King made Ma'aruf his Wazir of the Right and the times were pleasant to them and their joys were untroubled. said to him. till midnight. do him dead by the 47 vilest of deaths. They abode thus five years till. after .

city Ikhtiyan " But now. the sorriest of conditions. erst I had a husband who used to provide for me and fulfil my wishes but he is lost to me and I know not whither he went and have been in sore straits since he left me. and if thou wilt. al-Urrah. repentance gat hold upon me and I knew that the fault was with me but penitence availed me not. I am under thy protection of thy So he took me up and flew with me bounty bring me to him in . So I fell to begging of from courted rich contemned the to the all. I ken him. behold. What is thy husband's name ? and I answered. When two days were past.A If Laylak wa 48 Laylah. he reviled me and gave me naught. His name is Ma'aruf. Know that thy husband is now Sultan in a certain city. her till sleep over-powered . O woman why weepest thou ? Said I. poor. ' : ! . Cried I. and I abode for some days weeping for thy loss. didst thou leave thou. Then he lay down and she kneaded of his bed. Asked he. of humiliation and ignominy. who spread him the mattress and doffing his apparel. I went to bed supperless." " that. clad him in his sleeping-gown." Whereupon he looked in her face and knew her by her loathly form and the length of her dog-teeth so he asked her. I will carry thee to him. " I seek refuge with Allah from Satan the stoned " Then he opened his eyes and seeing by his side a woman foul of favour. when I fell out with thee and Satan prompted me to do thee his feet. suddenly he felt something beside him in the bed and awaking started up in alarm and cried. I am thy wife Fatimah she. " Who art thou ? " Said " Fear not. Quoth he. and hunger burned me and sore on me was that which I suffered and I sat weeping when. said to her. and since thou leftest me. When night came. I have eaten of the bitterness of beggary and have been . till she said. 1 him whereupon she withdrew to But slept. " Whence earnest thou in to me and who brought thee to this " " In " " ? art thou at this what In the country country present ? of when But al-Khutan. who sought for thee and the Kazis enquired of thee. : . since thy departure. whilst he stared at her in " amazement. till what was in my hand failed and I was obliged to beg my bread. of abjection and misery." And she went on to tell him what had befallen her. but found thee not." " How can that be ? " Cairo ? said she. one appeared to me and said. Yesterday. I complained of thee to the magistrates. Every night I sat beweeping our separation and that which I suffered. own chamber and ! : a damage. Know. I went about begging all day but none gave me aught and as often as I accosted any one and craved of him a crust of bread.

" And he went on to tell her all that had befallen him and how he was become Sultan and had married the King's daughter and how his beloved Dunya had died. happened but I repent me and I place myself under thy protection beseeching thee not to abandon me. Indeed I had not thought thou wouldst forsake me. . he shunned her and took a dislike to her. and the Signet appeareth to me. whatsoever I demand of him he bringeth to me. that thou canst complain of me to the High Court and that Abu Tabak will come down on me from the Citadel for I am become any wickedness. " Repent from mischief and abide with me. " Did I for- me ? Thou complainedst of me from Kazi to Kazi and endedst by denouncing me to the High Court and so I fled bringing down on me Abu Tabak from the Citadel sake thee or thou : mine own despite. and thou shalt see thy husband asleep on the couch. VOL. and praised be Allah : who hath united thee with me " ! Quoth Ma'aruf. I will clear for thee a palace and furnish it with the choicest of silks and appoint thee twenty and provide thee with dainty dishes and and thou shalt be a Queen and live in all delight slave-girls to serve thee sumptuous suits. an thou desire to abide with me. X. What " " I wish to sayest thou of this ? abide with thee. 49 between heaven and earth." she answered and kissed his hand and vowed repentance from frowardness.Ma'aruf the Cobbler and his Wife Fatimah. and she The young Prince used to visit her as he visited and his sire but she hated him for that he was not her son when the boy saw that she looked on him with the eye of averAs sion and anger. D 1 . . and naught shall betide thee save what shall pleasure thee but. who am thy mate. for her sole use became a Queen. rejoined. Sultan and the folk dread me : but I fear none save Allah Almighty. an thou work in : And fancy not thee nor fear any one." And she ceased not to humble herself to him and to supplicate him till his heart relented towards her and he said. the Slave of His name is Abu al-Sa'adat. with thee by way of an alms. but suffer me eat bread. Accordingly I entered and found thee in this state of lordship. I will slay . " Allah of fore-ordained was That which . long and will I will give thee what shall send thee thither speedily . So. Accordingly he set apart a palace till thou die or I die. and gave her slave-girls and eunuchs. I have a talismanic ring which when I rub. till he brought me to this pavilion and said to me Enter yonder chamber. an thou because desire to return to thine suffice thee all thy life own country. She leaving him a son who was then seven years old. but.

and how beautiful are these wondrous books thou hast cited and the marvellous and singular tales thou " " And where is all this comon the coming night. as was his wont. Shahriyar tarried abroad all that day. according to his custom went in to his hast recited ! pared with what Quoth Shahrazad. I will not slay her till I hear the last of her story . 1 Curious to say both Lane and Payne omit this passage which appears in both texts The object is evidently to prepare the reader for the ending by in the old reverting to the beginning of the tale . he occupied himself with the love of fair handmaidens and bethought him not of his wife Fatimah the Dung. an I " live and the King deign spare my days ? So when morning morrowed and the day brake in its sheen and shone. and Bui. for that she was grown a grizzled old fright. the King arose from his couch with breast broadened and in high expec" tation for the rest of the tale and saying.A If SO Laylah wa Laylah. . " it is like the If it provoke impatience. And r indeed Ma'aruf had not given her shelter by reason of any praiseworthy quality in her." . Ma'aruf. a bald-headed blight. wife Shahrazad. are likest unto glass * Which broken. I shall relate to thee . Here Dunyazad interrupted her sister Shahrazad. . 'tis breached for evermore. it also heightens expectation long elm-avenues of our forefathers . foul-favoured to the sight." and God-gifted is he who saith for . but he dealt with her thus generously only of desire for the approval of Allah Almighty. " Ill-usage the root of desire disparts and sows hate in the soil of hearts .). and its prolixity has its effect as Romances of Chivalry from Amadis of Ghaul to the Seven Champions of Christendom. By Allah. : Beware of losing hearts of men by thine injurious deed * For when Aversion takes his place none may dear Love restore Hearts. but we know that at the end there is 1 (Mac. saying. : cannot whole be made. shroud under arm. bidding and forbidding between man and man after which he returned to his Harim and. " How winsome are these words of thine which win hold of the heart more forcibly than enchanters' eyne ." repaired to his Durbar while the Wazir. we wish ourselves at the end . loathlier than the snake speckled black and white the more that she had beyond measure evil entreated him aforetime and as saith the adage. presented himself at the Palace. when affection flies from them. . something great.

"ala malakay bayti '1-rahah . hole and longitudinal at whose union are the round . that Ma'aruf would have naught to do with his wife by way of conjugal duty. . Fatimah come forth of her pavilion and make stealthily for that of and said in himself. dark." his Wife Fatimah. that Ma'aruf lay that night with one of a damsel endowed with beauty and loveliness. and sat down over the marble slab 1 of the Presently. i. and when he went to the finger. leaving the door open. stature all grace.Mciaruf 'Noto fojjen Dunyazad Ma'aruf it foas tfje said to her sister. intending for that in which was her husband King Ma'aruf. without light. the ring. he would doff the enchanted seal-ring from his symmetry and a Holy Names graven thereon. Now it chanced at this time that the King's son had gone out. all were free to enter His wife Fatimah the Dung knew of all to custom. And it was his wont. he saw jakes in the dark. O auspicious King. steal the ring. 221. and it chanced by decree of the Decreer and His written destiny. of the excellence of his piety. Moreover. nor would self by the Ghusl-ablution." So she said : It hath reached me. Now when she saw that he held aloof from her bed and occupied himself with other women."on the two slabs slit. to the Chapel of Ease for an occasion. his concubines Iblis prompted her to take the seal-ring herself Queen in his stead. I permit thee . he was used to order her go forth from him before daybreak. when he had lain with a woman. she hated him and jealousy gat the mastery of her and from him and slay him and make So she went forth one night from her pavilion. an my lord " Quoth the King. me recount and ^ousanto Do "With it. of his fear for the seal-ring. and after this. when he was minded to have to lie with a woman. " What aileth this witch to leave her lodging in the dead of the night and make for my father's pavilion ? his father 1 Arab. that. according this and went not forth from her place till she had certified when he put on So she sallied out. purposing go herself and of the case. in reverence to the Hammam he locked the door of the pavilion till his return. whilst he was drowned in sleep. fain of hearing it. See vol. when the night was to in to him. and lay it he don it again till he had purified himon the pillow. " " She ! deign permit for that I the Cobbler am replied. antr 51 $\\%\ thou finish for us the History of love and goodly gree. unseen of him.

the ring and he waited till she found it and said. her searching about and heard her say to herself. " Where hath he " laid the seal-ring ? whereby he knew that she was looking for deserveth cutting. said to him. And now. his " . Payne notes. hand with the sword and smote her on the neck and she cried a single cry and fell down dead. have answered thee. "Thou art indeed my very son. except he were girt therewith and his father used to laugh at him and exclaim.e. without doubt or dispute Allah ease thee in this world and the next." O my how father. . 1 woman and Allah-gifted Here ! is Her attempt led only to her own destruche who said the exclamation wards off the Evil : Eye from the Sword and the wearer "The : Mr. even as thou hast eased ! . he drew the sword from its sheath and he followed her till she came to his father's pavilion and He saw entered. " Mahallah 1 This is a mighty . but he hid behind the door." Then she picked it up and turned to go out .A If 52 Laylah wa Laylah." would reply. 2 " Arab. Ma'aruf sought for the Seal-ring. against profane swearing) exactly the of for the evading purpose rupted corresponds to the Arabic" with a difference. me of this vile tion. saying. he raised in her grasp. " I will not fail to cut off with it boy son ! it Whereupon the some head which And 2 Ma'aruf would laugh at his words. What is this. I O my But thou hast not gone down fine sword of thine. I will not fail to cut off with it a head which deserveth cutting. with to battle nor cut off a head therewith. " Here it is. I have therewith cut " And he told him off for thee a head well worth the cutting what had passed. with her blood flowing. but found it not so he searched the dead woman's body till he saw her hand closed upon it whereupon he took it from her grasp and said to the boy. Thou hast a mighty fine sword hast not gone down with it to battle nor cut off a head. and his son standing with the drawn sword in his hand. O my son " ? He replied. God's will. I add. whilst he stood and watched her from the door." Now when treading in . often but thou hast thou said to me. about As she came forth. Now he had a short sword of watered steel. " Mustahakk =: deserving (Lane) or worth (Payne) the cutting. which he held so dear that he went not to his father's Divan. . her track. With this Ma'aruf awoke and seeing his wife strown on the ground. i. behold. Needs must there be some reason for this :" so he went out after her and followed in her steps unseen of her. . And I . thus corold English exclamation statute of 3 Jac. ' Cock's 'ill !' (i. she looked at the ring and turned it But when she was about to rub it.

and made him his Wazir of the 3 Right and his Chief Counsellor. and he told them what his wife Fatimah the Dung had done and bade them to take her and lay her in a place till the They did his bidding. The family in the East. when he was a fugitive. His wish 53 in every case shall : But an that aid of Allah be * refused. Thus her coming from 2 Cairo was but to her grave. nothing strange in such sudden elevations amongst Moslems and even in Europe we still see them occasionally. he took her to wife and in due time he married his son. He whose death is : and he whose steps are appointed must decreed to take place in our land shall not die in any land but that. Good : luck pursuing. till there came to them the Destroyer of delights and the Sunderer of societies. ." foot of the grave. And glory be to the Living who dieth not and in whose hand are the Keys of the Seen and the Unseen " . Then. to is the saying of the poet a land I e fare. I quote Lane. 4 After this. learning that he had a of and daughter loveliness. Then King Ma'aruf called aloud to some of his attendants. and Allah-gifted is he who said morning. 2 These lines 3 There is have occurred before.Ma'aruf and the Cobbler his When forwards Allah's aid a man's intent. and next day he gave her in number of eunuchs. And how I wot excellent whenas not. His first attempt shall do him damagement. is a model and miniature of the state. find consent a Wife Fatimah. and learning is not always necessary to wisdom. King Ma'aruf sent for the husbandman. however humble. . So they abode awhile in all solace of life and its delight and their days were serene and their joys untroubled. whose guest he had been. who washed her and shrouded her and made her a tomb and buried her. ! 1 and Arab. " Made for her a fun*ral procession. the Depopulator of populous places and the Orphaner of sons and daughters. who came in haste. of qualities nature* passing beauty ennobled at birth and exalted of worth. what my lot shall be. " Mashhad" the same as " Shahid" = the upright stones at the head and Lane mistranslates. charge to a 1 : We trod the steps appointed for us tread them. Whether the fortune I perforce pursue < Or the misfortune which pursueth me.

A If 54 Laylah wa Lay/ah. " By Allah. Shahrazad had borne the King three boy so. said. Edit. and they were three boy children. Edit. Now. . " O King of the time and unique one of the age and the tide. for Allah bless that I found thee chaste." Tre*butien (Hi." 3 After this I This reading borrow from the Bresl. 497) cannot deny himself the pleasure of a French touch making the Xing reply. again kissed the ground and said. one walking." he wept and straining the boys to his bosom. pure. " O King of the age. during this time. they will become motherless and will find none among women to Whe*i the King heard this. O Shahrazad. Whereupon she cried out to the nurses and the " eunuchs. She took them and setting them before the King. I am thine hand1 maid and these thousand nights and a night have I entertained thee with stories of folk gone before and admonitory instances of the men of yore. Thou marvelledst at that which befel thee on the part of feet ! . Conclusion. I pardoned thee before the coming of these children. saying. when she had made an end of the story of Ma'aruf. and it shall be Highness replied. and indeed I have set forth unto thee that which happened . Bring me my children. women yet there betided the Kings of the Chosroes before thee greater mishaps and more grievous than that which hath befallen thee. 2" granted to thee. is found in some of the MSS. inserting passages from the Mac. children : she rose to her feet and kissing ground before him. but the relation longsome and hearkening groweth tedious. one crawling and one sucking. qu'on lui coupe la tete. and Kings and others with their women. . these are thy children and I crave that thou release me from the doom of death." So they brought them to her in haste. an thou kill me. car ces dernieres histoires surtoul m'ont cause un ennui mortel. "Farid" which may also mean " union-pearl. "C'est assez . said. as a dole to these infants for. ingenuous and pious thee and thy father and thy mother and thy root and thy branch ! ! take the Almighty to witness against me that I exempt thee from aught that can harm thee. O Shahrazad. saying. and in this is all- to Caliphs is 1 Arab. rear them as they should be reared." So she kissed his hands and I and rejoiced with exceeding joy. " The Lord make thy " 3 life long and increase thee in dignity and majesty presently " adding. May I then make bold to crave a boon of Thy " " ? He Ask.

for this I live. he summoned up his reasoning powers and cleansed his heart and caused his underwise. Then Shahriyar made an end of his sitting in all weal." standing revert and turned to Allah Almighty and said to himself.Conclusion. He distinguished the Wazir. summoned the Lords of his land where* . upon his Wazirs. sufficient warning for the man 55 of wits and admonishment for the Then she ceased to speak. whilst As for the past. whereat she rejoiced. who came. King Shah Zaman. never. and Allah hath vouchsafed me by her three boy children . to wife and let draw up the marriage-contract with her. Indeed I have found her pure and pious. and the Wazir thanked her. whom he intended to marry with regal ceremony. Since there befel the Kings of the Chosroes more than that which " hath befallen me. whereupon the folk dispersed to their dwelling-places and the news was bruited abroad that the King purposed to marry the 1 blessed Wazir's daughter. When for his passing favour. Shahrazad's sire. Furthermore. and when King Shahriyar heard her speech and profited by that which she said. . Officers they kissed the ground before him and his betrothed Shahrazad. lands. chaste and ingenuous.e. upon the Chamberlains and Nabobs and Captains of the host went in to him and kissed ground before him. and said to him " Allah protect thee for that thou gavest me to wife thy noble daughter. who hath been the means of my repentance from slaying the daughters of folk. and King Shahriyar went forth to meet him with the troops. the King went forth and sitting down on the throne of the Kingship. they decorated the city after the goodliest fashion and diffused scents from censers and burnt i -i- 1 i. Shahrazad. with exceeding joy. with special favour and bestowed on him a costly and splendid robe of honour and entreated him with the utmost kindness. and Emirs those who were him and and Chief present heard this. Shahrazad. shall I cease to blame myself is not found in the Shahrazad. her like so praise be to Him who appointed her a means for " Then delivering His creatures from oppression and slaughter ! he arose from his stance and kissed her head. When the morning morrowed. she and her sister Dunyazad. Then he proceeded to make read/ the wedding gear. wherefore praised be He Then he bestowed robes of honour and he set forth to them briefly that which had betided him with Shahrazad and how he had turned from his former ways and repented him of what he had done and purposed to take the Wazir's daughter. and presently he sent after his brother.

dialogues and histories and elegies and other verses. So. related to him that which had betided him with the Wazir's daughter. to wit. quips and jests. and every morning I do her be a . namely that he sought her sister Dunyazad in wedlock whereupon she " answered. went in to his wife Shahrazad and acquainted her with that which his brother purposed. so we may be two brothers-german to two sisters-german. to death . pp. 64-65. O King of the age. together and . of viands and bade the crier cry to the folk that they should come up to the Divan and eat and drink and that this should means of reconciliation between him and them." his heard brother's words. whereat King Shah Zaman marvelled with the uttermost marvel and said.A If 56 Laylah wa Laylah. save that I lie each night with a damsel of my kingdom. aloes-wood and other perfumes in all the markets and thoroughand rubbed themselves with saffron. because we were brought up 2 If he not endure separation each from other. they up great high abode on that wise. and the . seven days with their Then the King shut himself up with his brother and nights. came to the palace. that he take up his abode with us. may accept this pact. stories and anecdotes. but When King now I desire to marry thy wife's sister Dunyazad. we seek of him one condition. she is his handmaid. 8 Many Moslem practice is still families insist popular amongst upon this before giving their girls in marriage. eating and drinking. and they on like wise be for that the calamity which befel me was the cause sisters to us of our discovering that which befel thee and all this time of three years past I have taken no delight in woman. during the past three years and told -him what he had heard from her of proverbs and parables. Shahrazad." King Shahriyar returned to his brother and acquainted him with that which Shahrazad had 1 The use of coloured powders in sign of holiday-making is not obselete in India. he rejoiced with Shahriyar joy exceeding and arising forthright. for that I cannot brook to be parted from my sister an hour. " Fain would I take her younger sister to wife. See Herklots for the use of " Huldee" (Haldf) or turmeric-powder. 1 what while the drums beat and the flutes and pipes sounded and mimes and mountebanks fares played and plied their arts and the King lavished on them gifts When they largesse and in very deed it was a notable day. King Shahriyar commanded to spread the tables with beasts roasted whole and sweetmeats and all manner and . many Mediterranean peoples. chronicles and pleasantries. unto him and came and small and low.

of them was brighter than the sun and the moon. The King commanded each Emir and Wazir and Chamberlain and Nabob to decorate his palace and the folk of the city were gladdened by the presage of happiness and contentment. Their cheeks were rosy red and their necks and shapes gracefully swayed and 1 2 their eyes i. donned raiment and ornaments such as men were wont they for the prepare Kings of the Chosroes and among Shahrazad's a dress was apparel purfled with red gold and wrought with counterfeit presentments of birds and beasts.Conclusion. Then the eunuchs went forth. for therein were encircled like and great jewels such as amazed the wit and dazzled the eye the imagination was bewildered at their charms. for indeed each .e. for that they had eyes sharper than unsheathed swords and the lashes of their eyelids bewitched all hearts. 252. Sumatran. . .e. Allah the Most High shall send to it whomso He chooseth. for the kingdom. according to the Arabs . Shahriyar heard his brother's words. this is what I wished. but their faces outshone the flambeaux. and he replied. So Alhamdolillah about union between us. The contracts were written out and the two Kings bestowed robes of honour of silk and satin on those who were present. he rejoiced and said. Captains and Notables. and they cleansed their heads and . this is what was in my mind. whilst the city was decorated and the rejoicings were renewed. like the . that they might When King . "Verily. perfume the Hammam for the brides so they scented it with rosewater and willow-flower-water and pods of musk and fumigated it with Kakili eagle-wood and ambergris. sisters in the their necks with necklaces of jewels of price. wantoned see vol. O my exceedingly Praised be Allah who hath brought brother. ] When they came forth of the Hammam-bath." said . i. Alexander. whereof Iskander 2 rejoiced not. And the two clipped their hair. high and low and he gave alms to the poor and needy and extended his bounty to great and small. v. for that I have no longer a desire for the kingship. and they married the two brothers to the two sisters. Then Shahrazad entered. King Shahriyar also bade slaughter sheep and set up kitchens and made bride-feasts and fed all comers. 57 " Indeed. for As that I desire nevermore to be parted from thee one hour. she and her sister Dunyazad. Before them they lighted brilliant flambeaux of wax in candelabra of gold." Then he sent after the Kazis and Olema.

o Who slew my life by cruel hard despight " He said. repeat the lines from vol. which showed : I my eyes o A Summer-moon upon a Winter-night. bending and leaning from side to side in their beauty and loveliness. and forth. o Clad in her cramoisy-hued chemisette Of her lips' honey-dew she gave me drink o And with her rosy cheeks quencht fire she set. he was distraught with passion for her. this. i. hair returned to Shahrazad and displayed her in the second and veiled her face with her suit of surpassing goodliness. across her mouth giving her . because she was as saith of her one of displayed her in it shineth forth. o Nay I but veil Moon Said I. whenas he saw her. they sat down on a couch set with pearls and gems. " Hast veiled the Morn in Night? in hue of Night. for the first dress. Laylah wa Laylah. whereupon the two sisters came up to them and stood between their hands.A If 58 gazelle's . and the Then when they came of music. and she was even as couplets saith of her : him whose locks his cheeks o'ershade. as they were moons. slave-girls came to meet them with instruments the two Kings entered the Hammam-bath.a Moreover. . they let down her side-locks one of her describers in these 3 like a chin-veil. Presently they brought forward Shahrazad and displayed her. men and women. All these coquetries require as much inventiveness as a cotillon I fastening the bride's tresses and mustachios." O hail to : 1 2 3 These lines are in vol i. : Then they became attired Dunyazad as she were the full a dress of blue brocade and she in moon when So they Shah Zaman. * : A sun on wand in knoll of sand she showed. for the first dress. her describers in these couplets She comes apparelled in 2 : an azure vest o Ultramarine as skies are deckt and dight view'd th' unparallel'd sight. 218. Then they dress. in a red suit whereupon King Shahriyar rose to look upon her and the wits of all present. were bewitched for that she was even as saith of her one of her describers . 217. the text alludes to the semblance of beard . before . King who rejoiced in her and well-nigh swooned away for love-longing and amorous desire yea.

and swayed in the insolence of beauty and she was even as saith fourth dress to and fro . vol. o viper-bite Her sides are silken-soft.Conclusion. lovely of face and perfect in attributes of grace. the full moon at for she was even as saith of her the poet in these rising tide . 219. which was green. even as saith of her one in these couplets 2 and the fifth : like fullest moon on happy night. Then they returned to Dunyazad and displayed her in the fifth the sixth. couplets 3 : A damsel 'twas the tirer's art had decked with snare and sleight. o Taper of waist with shape of magic might She hath an eye whose glances quell mankind. the sun of day in clouds must dress. this we brake and harried many a sprite. 2 Repeated from See vol. i. that while the heart o Beware of curls that bite with ! Mere rock behind that surface 'scapes our sight : From the fringed curtains of her eyne she shoots o Shafts that at furthest range . 59 Then they displayed Dunyazad in a second and a third and a and she paced forward like the rising sun. lovely coy she appears mocks : fronts her favour and her smile o A-morn. Then they displayed Shahrazad in the third dress and the fourth and she became as she were a Ban-branch snell or a thirsting gazelle. o And ruby on her cheeks re- She comes : flects his light : Enveils her hips the blackness of her hair ." \ 1 Repeated from vol. 218. when she surpassed with her loveliness the fair of the four quarters of the world and and dress in outvied. 3 As : o For many . i. o with rays as though the sun from her had borrowed light She came before us wondrous clad in chemisette of green. the poet of her in these couplets 1 The sun of beauty she all loveliness And when he to all : o And. garment creve-coeur and rightly is it hight. o And robed : by his leafy screen And when he said. i. on mark alight. with the brightness of her countenance. 218. answered us "We call this a heart wi' Pomegranate hides from "How in pleasant callest sight veiled thou the fashion of thy dress?" o She way with double meaning dight.

Presently they went forth and sat down upon couches of Kingship. King Shahriyar ordered them dresses of honour and largesse and they prayed for the permanence and prosperity of the King and his brother. whilst the Eunuchs and Ushers . 1 Arab. They kissed his hands and gave him joy of the Kingship and bestowed on him immense treasures after which he took leave of them and fared days and nights. whilst all the Wazirs and Emirs and Grandees and Lords of the land presented themselves and kissed ground. The Minister kissed the ground and prayed that they might be vouchsafed length of life then he went in to his daughters. . who embraced her as hospitable host embraceth guest. cand. where the townspeople met him at a distance of three So he marches and rejoiced in him with exceeding joy. o Tirewomen they had grudged wear Than feminines surpassing fair. till he came near Samarsetting out. Then they displayed Shahrazad in the sixth and seventh dresses and clad her in youth's clothing. o the bride.A If Laylah wa 60 Laylah. Then the two Sovrans appointed their sire-in-law the Wazir to be Viceroy in Samarcand and assigned him five of the Chief Emirs to accompany him.walked before him. in to the . folk were comforted. and threatened her in her ear with the taking of the sword and she was even as saith of her the poet in these words . charging them attend him and do him service. Dunyazad to King Shah Zaman and each of them solaced himself with the company of his beloved consort and the hearts of the When morning morrowed. : . whereupon she came forward swaying from side to side and coquettishly moving and indeed she ravished wits and hearts and ensorcelled all eyes with her glances. She shook her sides and swayed her haunches. Sawad = the blackness of the bait. her beard and whiskers Who made ! Thus also they did with her sister Dunyazad. then put her hair on sword-hilt and went up to King Shahriyar. the Wazir came two Kings and kissed ground before them wherefore they thanked him and were large of bounty to him. and saluted them and farewelled them. and when they had made an end of the display the King bestowed robes of honour on all who were present and sent the brides to their own apartThen Shahrazad went in to King Shahriyar and ments. : Were not the Murk 1 of gender male.

and their report was bruited abroad and In due time the travellers bore tidings of them to all lands. and they were ever in harmony each with other while on similar wise their wives continued in the love of Allah Almighty and in thanksgiving to Him and the peoples . and each book astounded and delighted him more than that which Then he admired preceded'it. So he read in them a first book and a second and a third and so on to the last of them. chroniclers summoned and copyists and bade King Shahriyah them write all that had betided him with his wife. He sat down on the throne of his kingship and the Wazirs did him homage and the Grandees and Emirs entered of Samarcand and all prayed that he might be vouchsafed and victory and length of continuance. till he came to the end of them.61 Conclusion. their wives in all pleasance and solace of life and its delights. 1 Because Easterns build. . who was just. whereat the folk rejoiced." The book came to thirty volumes and these And the two brothers abode with the King laid up in his treasury. As soon as his father-in-law had departed for Samarcand. and they were translated to their houses fell waste and their the ruth of Almighty Allah 1 in ruins the and Kings inherited their riches. first and last so they wrote this and named it " &\)t SbtOtl'eS of t|)e ^ftousantJ jfftgbtg anb & Nt'gjt. Then palaces lay there reigned after them a wise ruier. keen-witted and accomplished and loved tales and legends. . especially those which chronicle the doings of Sovrans and Sultans. the Desolator of dwellingplaces and Garnerer of grave-yards. So he bestowed on them robes of honour and entreated them with distinction and justice they made him Sultan over them. each ruling a day in turn. contained in the thirty volumes aforesaid. the city and they decorated the houses and it was a notable day. but never repair. and the provinces were at peace and the preachers prayed for them from the pulpits. King Shahriyah summoned the Grandees of his realm and made them a stupendous banquet of He also all manner of delicious meats and exquisite sweetmeats. presence. and he found in the treasury these marvellous stories and wondrous histories. . bestowed on them robes of honour and guerdoned them and divided the kingdoms between himself and his brother in their Then the two Kings abode. f . for that indeed Allah the Most High had changed their annoy into joy and on this wise they continued till there took them the Destroyer of delights and the Severer of societies.

: MOHAMMED FINIS. and Allah is All-knowing." 1 So Glory be to origin of this book. our lord of mankind through whom we supplicate Him for a goodly and a godly . . nor doth aught of chance or change affect His sway whom one case diverteth not from other case and Who is sole in the attributes of perfect grace. i. God only knows if it be true or not.e. Him whom the shifts of Time waste not away.Alf Laylah wa Laylah. 62 whatso he had read therein of description and discourse and rare traits and anecdotes and moral instances and reminiscences and bade the folk copy them and dispread them over all lands and climes wherefore their report was bruited abroad and the people named them " je matbds anfo foonUers of tfje ^{jousantr Ni'gfjt* This is all that hath come down to us of the anfc gj Nu$t. And prayer and peace be upon the Lord's Pontiff and Chosen the Prince One among His creatures.

this training occupies him throughout youthtide he : is a manners without awkwardness. submissive if such classes exist : to Eastern despotisms have arrived nearer the idea of equality and fraternity As than any republic yet invented. especially. while ever a knight he As is a husband his patriarchal position causes him to be loved and . PRELIMINARY." debelling the strong. As a man he is high-spirited and energetic. his country and. self-control to the stranger. terminal stage reached this In glancing over the myriad perhaps. rarely failing in temperance of self-respect. to the Damons and Pythiases : a friend he proves a model as a lover an Quijote without the noble old Caballero's touch Don of eccentricity. hospitable fellow-citizens. vulgar astonishment or mauvaise-honte. at his worst. THE who has reader require will hardly assurance that he has seen the mediaeval Arab at his my best and. pictures of this panorama. gentleman in always ready to fight for his Sultan. cradle of his " comrades and respectful to his pastors and masters. his Faith mind and : courteous and affable." even schoolAs a lad he prepares for manhood with a will and masters. and the cleanliness of his life from As a child he is devoted to his parents.Terminal Essay. As exemplar to the mirror of chivalry. those who can discern the soul of good- ness in things evil will note the true nobility of the Moslem's mind Moyen Age. fond in the to grave. attached superiors and kindly to his to inferiors and self-command . doing battle for the weak and " defending the honour of women.

He cannot but sigh when con- as of the templating the sin and sorrow. and Predestination of Destiny a feature which ennobles the low aspect of Al-Islam even in these Hence her days of comparative degeneration and local decay. constitute the courtesy. a proud resignation to the decrees of Fate and Noteworthy too is Fortune (Kazd wa Kadar). a deepest reverence for all Moslem mind most exalted moral dis- idea. lastly. Considered in a higher phase. This again is which lofty quietism softened and tempered by a simple faith in the supremacy of Love over Fear. like the ancient Egyptian. an unbounded humanity and charity for the poor and helpless an un: conditional forgiveness of the direst injuries (" which the noble ") . his dignity. pathethic and edifying as the life which led to it. his simple. of crowned by pure trust confidence in the progress and perfectability of which he exalts instead of degrading . the Indian Buddhist and the esoteric European imitators of Buddhism. His Pessimism resembles far more the optimism which the so-called Books of Moses borrowed from the Ancient Copt than the mournful and melancholy creed of the true Pessimist. 64 fondly loved by more than one wife children rules his life : he is : domestic as a father affection for his in the highest degree and he finds few pleasures death is beyond the bosom of his family. a generosity and impossible and an liberality enthusiasm for all. and feel the pity of it. Solomon the Hebrew. his fortitude in adversity. his perfect self-dominance and. with its shifts and changes ending . he holds to be the foundation-stone of society and indeed the very purpose of its existence. his sounds the true heroic ring. this and natural human nature. the mediaeval plays. the pathos and bathos world . moderation in his prosperity. holiness. nay.Alf Laylah wa Laylah. And the whole is the note of which at times seem universal benevolence beneficence which. Lastly. the things connected with his religion and a sublime conception of the Unity and Omnipotence of the Deity. exalting kindly deeds done to form of is man above and every root and base of Oriental.

founded upon physical indolence.Terminal Essay. X. meanwhile. renders immediate action and all manner of exertion distasteful : his conscious weakness shows overweening arrogance and intolerance. I. the poetry of ideas. . its his melancholy is " expressed A voice 65 copious misery. while acts of revolting savagery are the natural results of a malignant fanaticism and a furious hatred of every creed beyond the pale of Al-Islam. scanty happiness and in nothingness. a voice no less Divinely sad. of simplicity and cunning. It must be confessed that these contrasts make a curious and interesting tout ensemble. conservatism grovels before the tyrant rule of routine. at a time ignorance and superstition hung awaken the sweetest and life work-a-day when " so thick the dark clouds of on the intellectual horizon of Europe as to exclude every ray of learning that darted from the East and when was classed Nor is his worst He is among that the Studia was polite or elegant in literature Arabum" l the shady side of the picture less notable. Ouseley's Orient. a model mixture of childishness and astuteness. not of formal verse. his lively poetic impulse. 1 VOL. . His crass and self-satisfied ignorance makes him glorify the most ignoble superitself in stitions. its But in divinely sweet. vii. despite that turbulent and licentious independence ever suggests the ruler revolt against : his which mental torpidity. concealing His all stolid instinctive levity of mind under solemnity of aspect. and his radiant innate idealism breathe a soul into the merest matter of squalid harmonies of Nature epitomised Such was the Moslem in Humanity. is a mere barbarian who has not Our Arab at forgotten the savage." Nor does he mourn as they an absolute conviction mourn who have no hope in future compensation : he has and. Collect.

as for brevity we may term this was a upon supernatural agency olden Persia and Mohammed. quite with as fabulous without the halo and Talmud glamour of fancy. most austere and based : . be of any age. Where and When was Whom do we owe a prose-poem which. . entering upon this subject The Apologue 1. The Histories and historical anecdotes. occur the questions. and acro- which the names. 3.before would distribute the prose-matter of our Recueil of Folk-lore under three heads. the " more Prophets. 1 THE ORIGIN OF THE THE BIRTHPLACE. fill Even my own reasons for decidedly taking one and rejecting the other must be stated side And briefly." strongly objected to it the stones favourite puritanical of because preferred by the sensible of his converts to the dry legends of the and the Koran.A If 66 Laylah wa L&ylah. in quo and which. A. The 2. HERE NIGHTS. . give unerring data for the earliest date & amata. as I theme which may the hieroglyphs and in the or Beast-fable proper. Fairy-tale. Herodotus. furnishing him with references to original authorities and warning him that a fully-detailed account would with a volume. when not used achronistically by the editor or copier. analects. has no equal ? like the written and to dramatic epos of proceed to lay before the reader a proces-verbal of the I sundry pleadings already court as concisely as in is compatible intelligibility. by the mode of treatment. a it is found in cuneiforms. suggest the latest.

Suspended Poems. and (5) Tales . as stories dealing with historical incidents and adventures belonging to the every-day life under King Omar bin AJ- personages and with of the period to which they Romances and Al-Rashid and Hatim of Tayy. 446-516 3. historical fact and proper. and oldest " various quotations from the Al-Harfri A. poetry of the Arabs. therefore. The metrical por- The Nights may tion of viz. ix. of G. quotations and the pieces de circonstance by 1 the editors or copyists of the Compilation. imaginative (e. classical The modern = Abu Nowas.g. mdcccxxviii. the metrical portion also further notices must be offered Upon end of at the this Essay. me many work which has been when ago and years far beyond reach of literary authorities . five chief Nu'man. heads as follows: (2) vol. (2) The stories and anecdotes peculiarly Arab.g. beginning with the laureates of Al-Rashid's The 2. Paris.g. such as the Ten Wazirs Women") and Voyages of Sindbad (?) which may date from the days of Mahomrned.67 Terminal Essay. much pleased to find the subjoined three-fold classification with minor details made by Baron von HammerPurgstall (i) The (Preface to Contes Ine'dits etc." such as Al-Asma'i and court. These are distributed into two sub-classes (a) the marvellous and purely (" Malice of . . has caused the remark. S. Tawaddud. Each of these constituents will require further notice when the subject-matter of the book is discussed. In considering the unde derivatur of carefully separate subject-matter neglect of such essential not a is 1 little curious that the origin of a occurred to This three-fold distribution "It difference. pp. which mostly date from the times of the puissant John Payne (Villon Translation. as that of (c) Contes fantastiques. those concerning romantic fictions comprising three different kinds of tales (a) purely romantic and supernatural (b) fictions and nouvelles with or without a basis and background of refer : . The Nights we must The from language-manner.H. venance. (3) e. Trebutien. : The 1. the e. (4) Fables and Apologues ." Mr.) older stories which serve as a base to the collection. relating to the Caliphs and especially to Al-Rashld j and (3) The tales of Egyptian pro" Aaron the Orthodox. instructive fables Jamasp and the Serpent Queen) and (b) the realistic mixed with and moral instances. mediaeval. also be divided into three categories. and ending with 1030-1100. 367-73) distributes the stories roughly (i) Histories Anecdotes or short or long Romances. I was.

(AH Abu al-Hasan) Al-Mas'udi who. Herodotus in A. and that students have to failed in all attempts to detect the secret. 333 of Cairo. showed his by deriving The Nights and held that they had been reduced to shape by an Auteur Arabe inconnu. also learnedly advocated by M: Langles. the other as per- to be purely Arab. erroneously called Devandgari. At with the Fables of Pilpay for upwards of a century. in his Epistle Dedicatory to the Marquise d'O. de patron . the Pehlevi or old Iranian origin of the and strenuous advocate in last work found an able Baron von Hammer-Purgstall worthily continued what Galland had begun : l who although a most inexact writer. This refer- ence to India. Professor Galland." " Sur 1'origme des Mille et une . Dondey-Dupre. Meads of Gold and Mines of 1 Jonrnal Asiatique (Paris. was inevitable in those days India owed that all : it had not then been proved that her literature to far older civilisations and even her alphabet the Ndgari. should still be so mysterious. daughter of his literary acumen and unfailing sagacity from India vi& Persia their present M. his far-famed Muruj the founding (= 944) about one generation before published at Bassorah the edition of first " al-Dahab wa Ma'adin al-Jauhar.H. he was extensively read in Oriental history and poetry. Von Hammer began by summoning into Court the of "thTXrabs. His contention was that the book of Persian the is an Arabisation Hazdr Afsanah or Thousand Tales and he proved his point. Guillerague." the chief authorities at once branched One off into held the work to be practically Persian sistently declared it : Hence two also directions.Alf Laylah wa Layla k. 1826) Nuits. 68 V known Europe and has been studied by many during nearly two centuries. was derived through Phoenicia and Himyar-land from Ancient So Europe was contented to compare The Nights Egypt.

9 . Algiers and Northern Africa to Europeans in general. reads a thousand. and who found favour with their were strung together by trifles to the Kings by relating contemporaries by committing them to memory and by Of such fashion 5 is the fashion come down to us translated from the of the books which have them. 14. Thousand Tales. in my vol. According to De Sacy some . pp.." p. which is abbreviated 3 in the French translation of M. Paris mdccclxv. etc. and De Sacy = Pehlevi." and in his Memoire " a thousand: " Von Hammer's MS. for corrections see De Sacy's " Memoire. " And. Grecian. (Kitab Alf Laylak wa Laylah? This is an history of a King and his Wazir. are named Such also and. xxx. Vol. of Asia Minor. one of manifold inaccuracies. Von Hammer's lii. * Alluding to Iram the Many-columned. 9 These names are noticed MSS.. Asiat. Trebutien quotes. " Sabfl-ha. the word is still applied through- out Marocco. the it is : minister's daughter known and a slave-girl Shirzdd (lion-born) and Dmar-zdd 1 who (jdriyah) (ducat-born). ii. indeed." for which the Editor of the Journ. Indian (Hindfyah). 89-90. i. in August. this etc. the Graeco-Roman (Rumiyah) 7 : we have noted the judgment which should be passed upon compositions of this Afsdnah or T/ie Such nature. some MSS. chapt. iv.*.). Gems. reprinted from the Journ. 1839 3 : Trebutien's Preface. and vol. Asiat. In Trebutien Sfha. 6 and the reciting Persian (Farasiyah). have " Fahlawiyah " Lower Roman. 8 De " thousand Sacy (Dissertation prefixed to the Bourdin Edition) notices the and one." rightly read * 6 7 For ". (for Ixviii. read " History of the Wazir and his Daughters. The Styrian Orientalist * 69 quotes with sundry misprints 2 an ampler version of a passage in Chapter Ixviii..Terminal Essay. Evidently no stress can be laid upon the numerals. C. Barbier de Meynard." 3. is book entituled the Hazar which word in Arabic signifies to the public under the name of Khurdfah (Facetice) The Book of a Thousand Nights and a Night. Baron von Hammer-Purgstairs chateau is near Styrian Graz it had been left as it was at his death. pp. many men well acquainted with histories 4 opine that the their (Arab) above mentioned and other stories men who commended themselves them. when I last is saw his library.-xxxi. and the French translation a thousand and one. 39. 2 At least.

Fables of Bidpai (Pilpay). Baruc and Barsinas." etc. 43) who dales the murder in A. Hence he concludes " L'original des Mille et * * une Nuits * selon toute vraisemblance. par la suite. c'est-a-dire trente ans avant le regne du Khalife Haroun al-Raschid. a Persian Guebre named Roz-bih (Day good). Abdullah ibn al-Mukaffa (the shrivelled). 735) has Wizreh or Von Hammer's MS." of a bard at the Court Wardeh which guide of Wird Khan. Schimas. (iii. (Night dcccxcix. xxi. Syriac and Persian (Pehlevi) works to be that into Arabic.H. The mention of "Simas" (Lane's Shemmas) identifies it with "King Jali'ad of Hind. it was the Takhallus 1 Lane versified or " and probably remodelled by one nom de plume Rasti. and containing details Sirnds. grandfather of Al-Rashid) caused many 136-158 =: 754-775.) Writing in A. Rustam. the specifying Kalilah wa Damnah. the hero of whence probably the Isegil or Isegild of Langles (1814). four nouvelles out of nearly seventy. and other episodes of old Persic history. the death of Mas'udi chapt. 142 See also Ibn Khallikan . See also 485) for a notice of the Thousand or AN Thousand and one Nights." He also notes that. 3 Arabised by a most " elegant" stylist. and this suggests the manner of its composition by accretion. the libri us to prefers Djilkand (Jilkand). which Von Hammer and many others have carelessly confounded with Sindbad the Seaman. who islamised and was barbarously put to death in A.M. 277).D. qui. Kings and Wazirs of Hind concerning the Sindibad Laylah : Book of Al- the and others of a similar stamp. (alii Laylah. the Logic of Aristotle. 961 Hamzah Isfahani couples with the libri Sindbad and the tale. 775) by command of the Caliph al-Mansur (Al-Siyuti p. a et< traduit au temps du Khalife Mansur. cxvi. Makri'zi's Khitat or Topography (ii.A If ?o the Tale of Farzah. 158 (=.H. '* He also translated from Pehlevi the book entitled Stkiserdn. about a century after Al-Mas'udi had mentioned the Hazar jouer un si Afsanah." Von Hammer Al-Mansur adds. containing the annals of Isfandiyar. We find that two tales once separate have now been incorporated with The " Nights." says Al(l." 3 the made and Greek and translations of Latin. 1 2 wa Firza). devait lui-meme grand role dans ces histoires. of Al'Mas'udl (second Abbaside A. " 2 " Seven Wazirs " The Malice of Women alias Alluding to the (Night dlxxviii. and the Tseqyl of De Sacy (1833). quoting chapt.). the Geography of Ptolemy and the Elements of Euclid. (= 759-6o).

387 987) by Ebou Yacoub as el-Werrek. parable. silly fables. iii. 304) arts (funun). de Bianchi.H." a posthumous publication of M. Asiat. 1 "Notice sur Le Schah-namah de Firdoussi. In sect. khurafat-ki khurafat (a . were the palaeo-Persians (and the Kings of the The Ashkanian Kings First Dynasty). 630). = A. " Called " Afsanah by Al-Mas'udi.. " and facetiae. after a reign of thirty- Mahmud. and who The : first who themes of indited of them. and See also the Journ. three years. copyist. 1/5) in which I find a distinct allusion to the "Gaboriau- " of The Nights. I.D. consigning these works to ordered some of them as though related by the tongues of brute beasts." The following is Mohammed " Is'hak al-Nadim (cup-companion or equerry). A. IO3O 1 Von Hammer some twelve years afterwards Asiat. 1839. 1810. first section Mohammed ibn Is'hak saith imagination and made books the libraries. (Journ. It was published (vol.) fanaticism renders =a ** jest : it = talei by the Arab "Khurafah" Bat-ki bat . of the Third Dynasty appended others to them and they were augmented and " amplified in the days of the Sassanides royal The Arabs house). de Wallenbourg. librarian. 3 or Index List of from the Eighth Discourse which consists of three " The known popularly an extract bin (p. a joke for a joke. I shall quote another passage of Al-Mas'udi (viii. in his "Note sur 1'origine Persane des Mille et une Nuits." a second and an even more important witness : was the famous Kitab this (Arabic) works. 4 on the history of the confabulatores nocturni (tellers of night tales) and the relaters of fanciful adventures. Miiller. 71 the Ghaznevite Sultan who. ob. Roediger. 3 Leipzig. Vienna. 736-37. also (the fourth translated them and last into Arabic. A. together with the names of books treating upon such subjects. the bibliographe. Fluegel. known as Ibn Ali Ya'kub al-Warrak. J.Terminal Essay. and Lane iii. August. 1871) under the editorship of G. August. 1839) brought forward. Tr. A. pop. by M. As we learn from Ibn Khallikan (Fr. = i.'' in Moslem Hindostan it vrotd for a word. the author's name was Abu al-Faraj Mohammed ibn Is'hak. Here Von Hammer shows detective tales 2 his customary inexactitude. written (in 2 al-Fihrist. both words having the same sense 4 story.

= Peri-zadeh or If Allah allow me She is better the Fairy-born. the argument whereof was as follows. to say sooth. her. her of till she was blest by boon of child of him. when he wedded a woman and had lain one night with entituled on the next morning. she fell one 1 hight. whenas she lay with him tales of fancy moreover she used to intellect to telling . book was this Bahman daughter of Mohammed and (nurse It is composed for (or. to slay her Presently he espoused a damsel of the daughters of the Kings. 2 The preface of a copy of the Shah-nameh (by Firdausi. for whom. Abu Sasan from his son. 72 and the loquent and eloquent polished and embellished them and wrote others resembling them. that solaced himself with hearing night-tales was Al- Al-Mas'udi (chapt. see below./.A If Lay Iah wa Lay tah. This Persian Marguerite de Navarre was daughter and wife to (Ardashir) Bahman. 1021). the Eponymus of the Sassanides who followed the Kayanians when these were extinguished by Alexander of jst = Darius Codomanus. collated in A. 2 who entremetteuse). when she acquainted him with the device she had wrought upon him wherefore he admired her intelligence and inclined to her and preserved her life.D. xxi.). seventh Queen. 829 by command of Bayisunghur Bahadur Khan (Atkinson p. reigned thirty-two years and left known to Europe (throfigh Herodotus) as . hight the truth is. Shahrazad endowed with him. connect the story at the end of the night with that which might induce the King to preserve her alive and to ask ending on the next night until a its thousand nights had passed over Meanwhile he cohabited with her her. x. informs us that the Hazar Afsanah was composed for or by Queen Humai whose name is Arabised to Humayah. 3 Inshallah. And : (artifice). bin Is'hak adds who not duenna. and erudition and. Humai succeeded her husband as the crown to her son Dari or Darab Macedon. A. ob. The first work of such kind was 'The Book of Hazar Afsan/ signifying Alf Khurdfah. aided the wife in this and in.H. A King of their Kings was wont. by) Humai it were included other matters. Parysatis 3 i. Kahramanah Dinarzad (Dunyazad also said that the 1 first ?). That King had also a . sixth Kayanian and surnamed Diraz-dast (Artaxerxes Longimanus).) makes a name of the Mother of Queen this Humai or Humayah.

vol. quoting from El Curtubi book. '39 . author of a History of the Caliphs about the middle of the twelfth century. 685 = Granada) born in A. Payne (ix. adduces evidence to prove the greater antiquity of (Abu al-Hasan) Ibn Sa'id (bin Musa al-Gharnati = of 1218 and ob.Terminal Essay. " now apparently and he lost. = This Spanish poet and historian wrote Al-Muhalld bi al-Ash'ar (The Adorned with Verses). 136. Payne (x. Dozy's published text. in the British Museum. in Windwafts of Perfume from the Branches of Andalusia the 4 Blooming" (A. the story of the building of the Houdej in the Garden of Cairo. xxxi. 639 = 1241. : might thereby become the more cautious and himself. " Ibn his (may God have mercy upon him Said !) sets forth in EJ Muhella bi-s-Shaar. was probably intended to flatter the Badawi (Al-Mas'udi of the pavilion girl. Tunis A. 301) thus translates from Dr. 1628-29). and it is. 4 The well-known Rauzah chapt. . but less It than two hundred night-stories. 7334 fol. a Topography of Egypt and Africa. Al-Sana'ah The name a camel-litter.' ' made use of the book containeth a thousand nights. 73 Iskandar (he of Macedon) and he had a number of men who used to relate to him imaginary stories and provoke him to laughter however.D. designed not therein merely to please he. 1 The Athenaum? objecting to Lane's modern date writer in The for I Nights. In this he quotes from Al-Kurtubi.H. of silly anecdotes No. 8 There are many Spaniards of this name Mr. which Al-Haudaj = is or Garden-island. 302) proposes Abu Ja'afar 1 8 i. for a single history often occupied several nights. left his native city and arrived at Cairo in A. 622 Sept. : ibn Abd al-Hakk al-Khazraji." . No. the work. the here speaks the good Moslem ! a review of Torrens which appeared shortly after Lane's The author quotes from a MS.). 615 1286. which is the Cordovan the 3 . in his turn is al-Abbas Ahmad quoted by the Arab historian bin Mohammed al-Makkari.e. but that he After him the Kings in like fashion alert entitled Hazar Afsdn. in truth. Abu of Spain. Mr. : 29.H. i.H. A have seen it complete sundry times a corrupted book of cold tales. more than once noticed in The of old Nights.

in the neigh- bourhood of the Chosen Garden. the book El-Muhella bi-1-ashar. 5 Amongst other 6 The name appears only losses which Orientalists have sustained by the death of Rogers Bey. 303). 495 524 1129). (ob. and adds that the Badawiyah wrote 19 her cousin certain verses complaining of her thraldom. the rare of ordinance and surpassing. from the History in of El Curtubi. A. by Mr. corresponding in three attributed to Al-Makrizi 1444) and was thus translated from a MS. and it Bedouin woman. Suggesting a private pleasaunce in Al-Rauzah which has ever been and is still a succession of gardens." The same passage from Ibn occurs in the famous Khitat 5 Sa'id. Bedouin it gotten the mastery of him. . Quoth Ibn Said. to wit that the Khalif El Aamir bi-ahkam-illah1 of whom had the ' Chosen Garden slain as let build ' 2 for a and used to he went thither .A If 74 wa Laylah Laylah. we have the passage " He was a wily thief : none could avail against his craft as he were means The Bad I . " The Khalif El-Aamir bi-ahkam-illah in the British MSS. but he saved himself by a timely flight. which was of the magnificent pleasaunces of the Fatimite Khalifs. which the youth Al-'Amir found the correspondence and ordered Ibn answered..D. mention his may proposed translation of Al-Makrizi's great topographical work. A. Miyah's tongue to be cut out. Abu Mohammed Al-Battdl " : the word etymologically but see infra. a place for his beloved the Bedouin maid (Aaliyah) 6 which he named El Houdej. Museum set apart. the love resort often thereto and was ceased not to be a pleasuring- The place for the Khalifs after him. 3 The writer in The Athenceum calls him Ibn Miyyah. concerning the traditions of the folk of the story of the Bedouin maid and Ibn 1 He was (= uoi 2 the Seventh Fatimite Menah (Meyyah) Caliph of Egypt: of the sons of regn.H. abusing the Caliph. in a later passage. 4 In Night dccclxxxv. in the neighbourhood of folk abound in stories of the 3 and Ibn Meyyah of the sons of her uncle (cousin girl ?) and what hangs thereby of the mention of El-Aamir. John Payne (ix. so that the tales told of them on this account became like unto the story of El Bettal 4 and the Thousand Nights and a Night and what resembleth them.

and the tale may be much older. Paris 1807). 21). and quotes the " Thousand and One Columns " at ConstantiCistern of the Kaempfer (Amcen. "Multa seges sepulchralium quae virorum ex omni sevo doctissimorum exuvias condunt. Konfah (Iconium). with a it was translated : preface Lastly. 38) notes of the Takiyahs or Dervishes' convents and the Mazdrs or Santons' tombs near nople. significant indefinite: for instance. The Hazar auctor Libri qui inscribitur Hassaaer yek Mezar). . *'. influence for TOGO. figure to the But the grand end and fact of the for 100 write Hazar Afsanah Mr." A book. Chief Sofi of Isfahan into French by Petis de la Croix. Payne attaches age. in inauspicious. as amongst the wild Irish. was composed in the mid-xviith century by the famous Dervaysh Mukhlis." (or and the * tales) This evidently means either that The Nights existed in the days of Al-'Amir (xiith cent. so that mention of the traditions their upon the garden became like unto El Bettal Thousand Nights and what resembleth them. the number of cyphers not followed by a is Hindus affix the required 1 .Terminal Essay. 385. and was englished by Ambrose in India and throughout Asia where Indian extends. the is divinity odd numbers and consequently the Hence as Sir Wm. Exot p. mille et o yek Ruz (= 1001 Days). 137) "apparently some famous brigand of the time" (of But the title may signify The Brave. names is easily explained. Voyages vi. by Cazotte. the discrepancy of The change are (Travels which appears titles. Payne notes (viii. there (the proverb says luck) others of Mr. 1001.) or that the author compared them with a work popular in his own much importance me to a minor Amongst to detail. the Arabs. mille et unum recenset we jek mesaar (Hazar ve unum mausolea. Charlemagne). to determine hundreds the number 101 Phillips.*. and uncle her Khalif El what hangs 75 thereby of the Aami'r bi-ahkam-illah.. ii. Ouseley says number Thousand and One is a favourite in the East (Olivier.

Imprimerie Royale. He accepts He the Persian scheme and cadre of the work. 1833). India. and that all the nafvest sur Torigine and dated from ante-islamitic ages.) Paris. 2 is Nights. Editor of the Calc. even those dealing with events localised in Persia. Academy on i.. was the vulgar dialect . Nights. unquestionably proving Arab work borrows from the Persian bodily that the or frame-work. that it cause and that imitators endeavoured to inserting romances which were already Seaman. Nights ii. extrait des tomes ix. none of the purest withal. still its cadre exordium and bear the old its Persic names. Baron Silvestre de Sacy J clarum the chief authority for the Arab provenance of Apparently founding opinion that the work. whether he no part of the original The originally by the . whilst the two heroines its . as 3 Syria and written in observations upon his now known. viii. the Book of Galland. des Me"moires read the " Sur Dissertation themselves anachronism. prefixed to the Bourdin Edit.A If Laylah wa 76 being the archetype of is its The Laylah. in order " Professor " pure and simple. but no more. 1829. Also in his July 31. et de Litter. Nuits 4 Memoir les et Belles Lettres. Orientale. Arabist in Europe landed at Alexandria he could not exchange a word with the people : the same is told of Golius the lexicographer at Tunis. He du Recueil des Contes intitule Les Mille et to une d'Hist.et x. the Seven Wazirs and others. . This origin had been advocated a decade of years before by Shaykh Shirawanf . 218. contends that no considerable body of prae-Mohammedan or non- Arabic appears in the actual texts fiction China and other mostly with 1 de " infidel lands the "Memoire In his (Mem.speaking Syrian who designedly wrote in a modern and conversational Here we find the to instruct hon-Arabists. tales. nomen venerabile et by other the work by finish or known but which . he of is in composed was never completed was prevented by death author. confine Royal Acad. text (1814-18) : Ahmad at- his Persian preface opines that the author was an Arabic. style. the principal characteristic denouement. When 2 3 the first Lane.formed such as the Travels of Sindbad the recueil. genus 4 Such an in Arabic ? assertion makes us enquire. before the Royal Mille et une Nuits" (pp. des Inscriptions 1'Inst. Did De Sacy ever read through The Nights .

In fine. suffices to discover in All this. who have no scruples anent changing words. it show that one not expect to should anything save the production of a Moslem with due deference to so high an authority. tale it contains it suggests he remarks prince's father has : Camaralzaman and Budour. to Shaytdn. dealings with Solomon. names and dates. Jdn bin Jan into Peris of Kayomars and the olden Guebre Kings into the Jinns and Jinniyahs of Sulayman Volumes are spoken by the fact that the ? Arab adapter did not venture to change the Persic names of the two heroines and of . all that here find of the City of the Magians. writer. of China. And what transform Father easier Ahrimdn Adam. classical common modern in and The History of the loves of literary that . strongest most and zealous points out that the language differing widely many words from the is the popular or vulgar dialect. during the Abbaside epoch he makes a point of the whole being impregnated with the depicting the people. the corpus however remain- Under the hands of a host of ing untouched. scribes and copyists. his mother is named Fatimah and when imprisoned he solaces himself with reading the Koran. 77 manners and customs of Baghdad and and Mosul. use and that generally Of one the decadence of Arabian literature. The again. which nobody denies. business-like) matter of fact Arabic. that the archetypal superficial. is very Granted. . is He Mohammedanism. of spirit Moslems for subjects. it had ample time and verge enough to assume another and a foreign dress. Princess The no more Indian or Persian than the others. those who had we Genii who interpose in these adventures are. Damascus and Cairo. and than into to islamise Iblfs the the Divs and the old Zoroasterism. abridging descriptions and attaching their own decorations. as well as of the fire- worshippers.Terminal Essay. Hazar Afsinah was translated from Persic into Arabic nearly a thousand years ago. the florid into and rhetorical Persian would readily be converted the straight-forward. editors.

the I translation regret to see by Mr. Edit.g. Sultan of Balkh. at times we can the Mazin of Khorasan ' Montagu MS. Mr.). especially in the Syria had been chosen because Nights. wretched production called " Chandos Classics" (London. after five the The Nights. i. Gesta same Romanorum manners and customs knightly and Christian and ecclesiastical developments old chivalrous. Romans hundred years. Cambridge the "Fables of The words mutilated that few will recognise them. e. differing. Carchenas for KaVshfnds. the of mediaeval Europe. In the annotated I. of the Wortley of the Evidently the learned Baron had not studied such works as Tota-kahdni or Parrot-chat which. the names and incidents are old Iranian and And with few exceptions distinctly Persian. the story has not been "Ten the literato's pen. native country of 1 2 3 then came round to that of however. the into lapse the Hindu Maymun is radical wa Dimnah. old such of instance We converted to Christianity. etc. (Mac. the details.A If 78 wa Laylak Laylah. " vi. for first are so Chaschmanah . for instance the (in the Bresl. Dr. Warne). G. Chashmey-e-Mh (Fountain of the Moon). accepted De Sacy Von Hammer's view and . Jonathan Scott's " translation 283. 191-343) which is the Guebre Bakhtiydr-ndmah. For a note on this world-wide Tale see vol. during his three years' labour of translation. the Prince process in European folk-lore of The the later Syriac version of Kalilah is change Ahmad as life. Here. 52. notably translated by the Nakhshabi from the Sanskrit Suka-Saptati. N. I hold that the Austrian Arabist has proved his point whilst the Frenchman has failed. F. therefore. vi. 3 find precisely the for instance the . when e. the royal brothers or to transfer the mise-en-scene any whither from Khorasan or outer much worked by too Wazirs " Where Persia. Keith -Falconer. in minor The University Pilpay" in Press. becomes the Hasan of Bassorah Turner Macan MS. detect the process of transition. Lane. in which. Edit. 2 has now become as Moslem orthodoxically Rajah becomes and wife his " 11 Pilpay Another Khujisteh.g.

when he pronounces The Nights to be of was an enthusiast of but few cared to . proposed le milieu du neuvieme siecle de Thdgire (= A.Terminal Essay. his opinion no more deference than is his deriving the sub-African entitled to and negroid Fellah from Arabia. see its Vorwort (vol. G. W. propose its and Mr. the sixteenth centuries. probably of Tunisian author- THE DATE. birth-place " " Middlegates Palgrave boldly says Baghdad about the eleventh century in popular but very spirited version ship and somewhat later.. 3). 2. for Arab. Lane.." B. Caussin (de Perceval). Edit. however. three the barbarous and dangerous Nile. had already " advocated in his " Remarks the close of the fifteenth century . of which was brought from Tunis . argued only from the nature of the language and the peculiarities of style. I do not quite understand Mr. arbitrarily is * point to consider present form of for of this entertaining work appears to have been com- original posed P. Other authors have wandered Still finding Mosul idioms in the Recueil. p. but presume that his "other version" is the Bresl. i. 263. Mr. . p. The next "The in another less . the land per excellentiam of pure and noble blood. Egypt or rather for Cairo. of Nilotic origin.. 79 then the most familiar to Europeans: the "Wife of Bath" had made pilgrimages to Jerusalem. who knew The Nights only through Galland's version. and scribes through whose hands it it who number must have passed.D. 1445-6) as its latest date.Valley. is the date of The Nights the Professor Galland began middle of the thirteenth. abstained from detailing reasons and who. col. and M." that is. Brit. Some further afield. Qth Edit. by placing De Sacy. it he knew " purely visit Mr. upon the authority of a supposed note 1 Article Arabia in Encyclop. the only part and. Hole. Palgrave. the MS. forgetting the editors in its and here opinions range between the tenth and .

(MS. notes according to De " This blessed book was read by Sacy (Mem. Esq. oder dass ein Theil desselben verloren ging. dass er aber entweder schriftlichen sein theils nicht vollendete.) : wahrscheinlichste diirfte also sein. common 1. The first Wahabah son of Rizkallah the Kdtib (secretary. so dass das Fehlende von Andern bis ins 16." as justly observed But." A similar note by the same Wahabah occurs vol. in i. 2. 1508) says distinct the Jinni (with three incidentals). Introductory Edinburgh. 20. pp.D. 95$ (= 1548). i. 1517. Sultan of Turks in A.H. 50). iii. qui existent . Jahrhundert ein Egyptier nach altern Vorbilde Erzahlungen fur 1001 Nachte theils erdichtete. note) by Henry Webber.. 973 ( 1565) and a third (MS. 3 vols. " to which is an further information see " Tales of the East First at the Rabi'a end of prefixed Dissertation (vol. 1506) For is undated.e. 2nd ix. vol. declares fol. das im 15. slave.H.D. which have been texts printed by of The Nights first that four collated the tales : incidental story "The Bull and the Ass"). by Mr. Jahrhundert hinein durch neue Erzahlungen erganzt wurde. ii. Payne. etc. scribe) of Tarabulus al-Sham (Syrian Tripoli. 1812. bearbeitete. Werk nach miindlichen Sagen. Edit. oder friihern Aufzeichnungen." les douze manuscrits connus des Milles Von Hammer in Tre"butien. in Galland's to have "Not nor ended soon Weil says "Das than the compiler the before the fourth last of of fourth first Mr. This tenth day of the month A. 24-26. the enquiring into the original date of nucleus the scholars. verso)." Egypt was conquered by Selim.) who prayeth long life for its owner (li mdliki-h). Lastly the learned Dr. 1 (in The Trader and There are three MS. et une Nuits. been living century i. evident it to all are the following thirteen The to determine is of the Repertory by a comparison This process makes 2 Introduction (with a single when step the and the dozen MSS. undue has Caussin Evidently given weight to such evidence. M. the fifteenth the sixteenth. after Osmanli the A..A If 8o MS. (vol. the weak p. 1507) dated A. 1 Laylah in his far scanty Vorwort too (p. 1548 and in earlier begun wa Layla h. * "Notice sur en Europe. Lane says 1565. Notice.

quotes up. 61) tells us that he found only two vols. al-Jalis. 4. VOL. the Printed from the bought 3 till highly probable that the tales of the it Arabian Nights did original 1 made added The I extinct Aliens. The 5. not it. occupying one tales. 10. p. Dr. X. Salt.8* Terminal Essay.. The Hunchback's Tale 8. have vainly enquired about what it. 11. and suffered while poor accordingly. 4 of who run through more than two MS. MSS< of The Nights were scarce at Aleppo and that p. The Tale of 7. Nur al-Din and Anfs 9. of Major Turner Macan. form less than a fifth part of the whole collection which in the Mac. Shams al-Nahdr (with two). Edit. believed that the original Nights did not outnumber two hundred. 2 the Natural Historian of Aleppo. Kamar al-Zaman. Porter and the three Ladies of Baghdad. Jonathan total Scott. and 13.). 452. Tale of Ghanim bin 'Ayyub (with two). to which subsequent writers a thousand and one was " held Russell. Patrick Russell.3 whose valuable monograph amply deserves study even in this our day. 3 Aleppo has been happy in finding such monographers as Russell and Maundrell Damascus fell into the hands of Mr. R. These forty-two and twenty Nights. Ali Nur al-Dm Ali and bin Bakkar and Badr ai-Dfn Hasan. Editor of the Shahnamah : he from the heirs of Mr. The Ebony Horse. The Tale of the Three Apples. The Fisherman and 3. contains a total of two hundred and sixty-four. Preface. Paris. (280 Nights) which he had great difficulty in obtaining leave to copy. vi. Julnar the Seabjrn. He also noticed (in 1771) a MS. 1799. igth." in the Gentleman's Magazine (Feb. the historic Consul-General of England in Egypt and after Macan's death it became the property of the now then of Leadenhall Street (Torrens. F . the Jinni (with four). short Ixix. in the Vatican and another in the "King's Library" (Bibliotheque Nationale). his son (with eleven). hundred 1 Hence Dr. 6. became of vol. said to be complete. Appendix. i. 4 Vol. Missionary Porter. paper by "P. Tale of 12.

" So Galland. cclxiv 1 with the seventh voyage of Sindbad after his Mille et them in : that he intentionally omits the dialogue between the sisters and the reckoning of time.D. reduces the thousand to two hundred and thirty-two.763 years. this suggestion I who preserves in une Nuits only about one fourth of The Nights. vary with the Editions of Galland some end the formula with Night cxcvii others with the ccxxxvi. consequently. ends No.* which is Tailor's Tale "(vol. are vitiated by the habits of the scribes. 324) that so that the fallen into a mistake by not distinguishing between the names of the by no means identical Caliphs Al-Muntasir and Al-Mustansir. Petis de la Croix. banishment from his of i. Abbaside. For instance we (vol. however.H.H. 6 The Saturday Review (Jan. 8 In the old translation we have " eighteen hundred years since the prophet Solomon : : . to proceed uninterruptedly with the tales. "Captain Burton has ii. in the places his adventure with the A. so many. 975) * Meaning = A. 825.D. Al-Mustansir the penultimate (A.C. Bechet Aine. libelli. deductions from them. ." if habent sua fata Laylah. 554). may " subjoin. and his return to another Caliph 10. Ex uno disce. And 8 so his imitator. I can : explain (not extenuate) my mistake only by a misprint in Al-Siyuti (p. find the in 41) placed Tale of the Fisherman and the Jinni The immortal Barber possible.H. scribe has here made a little mistake of 5.320 years of the era in his Tale of Himself (vol. = March 4 This the during bi 'llah 5 supported where he dates PP' 3 l 7-34fy> reign of = 785." it was an ugly confusion of the Quite true melancholy madman and parricide with one of the best and wisest of the Caliphs. Paris . the era of the Seleucides. Baghdad 1225-1242). Jonathan Scott shows (vol. 304) Safar and 7. Dr. in his Mille et un Jours. 653 and A. 653 = A. died. I adopt that of the De Sacy Edition. A. i." (B.A If Laylah wa 8t hundred and eighty Nights. 1255) is A.D. 1826. ( Alexander. 1255 would correspond with 1557 of that epoch. 623-640 after the accession of " unfortunate 25th. 2 Contes Persans j suivis des Contes Turcs. lover on hardly i. 2nd '86) writes.H. 169 who can be no Baghdad other but 1 The numbers. The internal chronological evidence offered by the Collection is useful only in enabling us to determine that the tales were not written after a certain epoch all : the actual dates and.

Terminal Essay.

Al-Muntasim

= A.D.

bi 'llah

(A.H. 640-656
at the end of the tale (vol. i. 350) he
year" and

his ninetieth

man, past

of Al-Mustansir

is

Again

1242-1258).

described as "an ancient

a very old

man "

in the

days

318); so that the Hunchback's adven-

i.

(vol.

"

ture can hardly be placed earlier than

storming of Baghdad

after the

83

A.D. 1265 or seven years

by Hulaku Khan, successor of

Janghiz Khan, a terrible catastrophe which resounded throughout
the

Yet there

world.

civilised

epoch and the

silence

total

Could we assume

no allusion to

is

suffices

invalidate

to

this crucial

date. 1

the

by adding to A.D. 1265 half a century
for the composition of the Hunchback's story and its incidentals,
we should place the earliest date in A.D. 1315.

As

little

can

as true,

it

we

learn from inferences which have been

from the body of the book

(vol.

i.

fishes

Lane

77) Mr.

:

at

most they point to

In the Tale of the

editions or redactions.
(i.

"

its

drawn
several

Ensorcelled Prince "

135) conjectured that the four colours of the

were suggested by the sumptuary laws of the Mameluke

Soldan,

Mohammed

ibn

to

Kala'un, "subsequently

the

com-

mencement of the eighth century of the Flight, or fourteenth of
our era." But he forgets that the same distinction of dress was
enforced by the Caliph

Omar

after the capture of

Jerusalem

in

was revived by Harun al-Rashid, a contemporary
of Carolus Magnus and that it was noticed as a long standing
A.D.

636

;

that

it

grievance by the so-called

Mandeville in A.D.

1322.

In the

Tale of the Porter and the Ladies of Baghdad the "Sultani
"
oranges
(vol. i. 83) have been connected with Sultdnfyah city in

which was founded about the middle of the
"
"
thirteenth century
but " Sultdni
may simply mean royal,"
a superior growth. The same story makes mention (vol. i. 94) of
Persian

Irdk,

:

1

In the Galland

MS. and

held to imply that

upon

insufficient

the Bresl. Edit.

(ii.

253),

we

find

the Barber saying that

was at that time (yaumaizin) in Baghdad ; and this has been
the Caliphate had fallen. But such conjecture .is evidently based

the Caliph (Al-Mustansir)

grounds.

A If

84

wa

Laylah

Laylak.

Kalandars or religious mendicants, a term popularly corrupted,
even

due only to the

(i,

but the

In the same tale

A.D.

(about

Darb

1430)

highway was known
one of two high
(circ.

A.D.

may
=

be

asker,

A.H. = A.D.

Bab Zuwaylah (i. 269) dates from A.D. 1087.
occurs the Darb al-Munkari (or Munakkari) which

the

probably

"

Nazarene Broker's story

in the

al-Masriir

topography, the Khitat

Al-Makrizi's

Here we learn that

40).

careful

in his

time

and the

obsolete,

Darb al-Amfr Baktamfr al-Ustaddar from

who both
lastly

died in the fourteenth century

we have

given as a Wazirial

title
2

In

and

the

Hasan

In Badr al-Din

the fourteenth century.

of

name had become

the
as

And

1350).

al-Munkadi

(ti.

officials

about A.D. 1320.
is

Kalandar

265) was a ruin during the early ninth century

1420;

is

"

scribes as the Bresl. Edit, reads Sa'aluk

The Khan

beggar.

Here again

Karandal. 1

in writing, to

it

Khan
(vol.

al-Jawali built

i.

237) "Sahib"

dates only from

the end of

Sindbad the Seaman, there

is

an

Hindu Kingdom, Vijayanagar
of the Narasimha, the great power of the Deccan but this may

allusion (vol.

vi.

67) to the great
3

;

be due to editors or scribes as the despotism was founded only
the fourteenth century (A.D. 1320).

apparently dates before Chaucer
Waker "
"

Taming

(Bresl.

Edit.

of the

Shrew

;

The Ebony Horse (vol. v. i)
and " The Sleeper and The

134189) may precede Shakespeare's

iv.

"
:

no

stress,

however, can be laid upon

such resemblances, the nouvelles being world-wide.

come

to the last stories, especially to

the tale of Ma'aruf,

1

De Sacy makes

the

we

in

But when we

Kamar al-Zaman

II.

and

are apparently in the fifteenth and six-

"Kalandar" order

originate in

Sharif bu Ali Kalandar died in A.D. 1323-24.

A.D. 1150; but

In Sind the

first

the

Shaykh

Kalandar, Osman-i-

Marwandi surnamed Lai Shahbaz, the Red Goshawk, from one of his miracles, died and
at Sehwa*n in A.D. 1274: see my "History of Sindh" chapt. viii. for

was buried
details.
2

The

dates therefore run wild.

In this same tale

H. H. Wilson observes

assumed before the middle of the
3

that the title of Sultan of

xiith century.

Popularly called Vidyanagar of the Narsingha.

Egypt was not

Terminal Essay.

The

teenth centuries.

Lawandiyah

=

first

85

contains (Night cmlxxvii.) the word

=

Levantine, the mention of a watch
1

the next Night

;

Shaykh Al-

II. after

the capture

and, further on (cmlxxvi.), the

by Mohammed

Islam," an officer invented
of Stambul in A.D. 1453.

Sa'ah in

"

In Ma'aruf the 'Adiliyah

named;

is

mosque founded outside the Bab al-Nasr by Al-Malik alBut, I repeat,
'Adil, Tuman Bey in A.H. 906 = A.D. 1501.
the

all

names may be mere

these

On

interpolations.

the other hand, a study of the vie intime in Al-Islam and

of the manners and customs of the people proves that the

now

body
before
written
have
been
must
stands,

The Arabs

use wines, ciders and barley-beer, not

of the work, as

A.D.

1400.

distilled

spirits

familiar

with

they have

;

small-pox

The Nights

in

battles

it

swords, spears

(judri),

are

infantry)

(for

no

coffee

they

fought

or tobacco

ignore

with

and lances

and

javelins,

cavalry)

whenever fire-arms are mentioned, we must suspect the

Such

is

The

syphilis.

bows
(for

and, while

and,

;

scribe.

by means of which

the case with the Madfa' or cannon

Badr al-Din Hasan breaches the bulwarks of the Lady of Beauty's
This consideration would determine the work
virginity (i. 223).
to have been written before the fourteenth century.

1

We

ignore

The Greeks had clepsydrae and the
Time-measurers are of very ancient date.
portable and ring-shaped, besides large standing town-dials as at

Romans gnomons,

The " Saracens " were the perfecters of the
Aquileja and San Sabba near Trieste.
Turense (Beckmann ii. 340 el seg.} describe
and
the
Chronicon
Bosseret
(p. 16)
clepsydra
:

the water-clock sent by Al-Rashid to Karl the Great as a kind of "cuckoo-clock."

Twelve doors
told the

hour

opened successively and little balls dropping on brazen bells
noon a dozen mounted knights paraded the face and closed the

in the dial
:

at

Trithonius mentions an horologium presented in A.D. 1232 by Al-Malik alKamil the Ayyubite Soldan to the Emperor Frederick II like the Strasbourg and
Padua clocks it struck the hours, told the day, month and year, showed the phases of

portals.

:

the

moon, and registered the position of the sun and the

planets.

Towards the end of

the fifteenth century Caspar Visconti mentions in a sonnet the watch

proper

(certi

and the " animated eggs " of Nurembourg became famous.
The earliest English watch (Sir Ashton Lever's) dates from 1541 and in 1544 the portable chronometer became common in France.
orologii piccioli e portativi)

;

:

A If

86

Laylah wa- Laylah.

the invention-date and the inventor of gunpowder, as af
discoveries which have affected

mankind

at large

all

old

we know

and we are led

that the popular ideas betray great ignorance

is

:

all

to suspect that an explosive compound, having been discovered
in the earliest ages of

human

was

society,

utilised

by

gradual that history has neglected to trace the series.
ing to

Demmin

!
,

bullets for stuffing with

steps so

Accord-

some incendiary com-

bombs, were discovered by Dr. Keller in the
and the Hindu's AgniPalafites or Crannogs of Switzerland
Astar ("fire-weapon"), Agni-ban ("fire-arrow") and Shatagni

position,

in fact

;

"

hundred-killer

like

"),

Roman

the

of Byzantium, suggest explosives.

fire

and the Greek

Phalarica,

Indeed, Dr. Oppert

accepts the statement of Flavius Philostratus that
lonius of Tyana, that grand semi-mythical figure,
in

India, he learned

desisted

from attacking the

and the disputed passage
the

travelling

in

reign

"

These holy

:

enemies with tem-

their

walls."

sieges of Constantinople ( A.D. 668)

during

was

why Alexander of Macedon
Oxydracae who live between the

men, beloved by the gods, overthrow
pests and thunderbolts shot from their

musket

when Appo-

the reason

Ganges and the Hyphasis (Satadru or Sutledge)

Arab

2

Passing over the

and Meccah (A.D. 690)

Tufang or

Firishtah touching the

of

Mahmu'd the

Ghaznevite

3

(ob.

Alphonso the Valiant, whose
long and short guns, used at the Siege of Madrid in A.D. 1084,
are preserved in the Armeria Real. Viardot has noted that the

A.D.

1030),

we come

African Arabs

first

to the days of

employed cannon

in

A.D. 1200, and that the

Maghribis defended Algeciras near Gibraltar with great guns in

1

An

1877.

illustrated

The

History of

best edition

is

Arms and Armour

Dr. Gustav Oppert "
Triibner
and Co. 1880.
London:
*

Chapt.

etc. (p. 59)

the Guide des Amateurs

iv.

On

the

d'Armes

Weapons

etc.

;

;

London

Paris

:

:

Bell and Sons,

Renouard, 1879.

of the Ancient Hindus

"
;

,

3

and

I have given other details on this subject in pp. 631-637 of
his Lusiads."

"Camoens,

his Life

Terminal Essay.

A.D.

1247,

This

last

and

feat

87

them to besiege

utilised

of arms introduced the cannon

Northern Europe, and

it

must have been known

many a decade before that date.
The mention of wine in The Nights,

in

Seville

A.D. 1342.

into barbarous

to civilised Asia

for

especially the Nabfz or

fermented infusion of raisins well known to the prae-Mohammedan
Badawis, perpetually recurs.
of holy personages and
"service of

washed

;

As a

mostly of the Caliph Al-Rashid, the

wine" appears immediately

and women,

drunk

as the process has been called.
in

Romans

it

the

after

Yet

the fourteenth century.

la

recherche de

distillation

the

Amongst

was confined to manufacturing aromatic

Nicander the poet (B.C. 140) used for a
like the Irish

hands

are

as well as men, drink, like true Orientals,

for the honest purpose of getting

known

except only in the case

rule,

"pot" and

its

the

still

produce "poteen."

art of converting salt water into fresh,

by

I'ide'al,

became well
Greeks and
waters,

and

term o/^,

The simple

boiling the former and

passing the steam through a cooled pipe into a recipient, would
not have escaped the students of the Philosopher's " stone ;" and

thus

we

find

throughout Europe the Arabic

modifications of

Greek

terms

Elixir

while " Alcohol " (Al-Kohl), originally meaning

;

tenuity or

Alembic

Alchemy,

Chemistry

(Al-a//i),

"

and

extreme

impalpable state of pulverulent substances," clearly

shows the origin of the article. Avicenna, who died in A.H. 428
1036, nearly two hundred years before we read of distillation

=

in

Europe, compared the

human body with an

alembic, the belly

being the cucurbit and the head the capital

important difference but n'importe.
noticed in the xiiith century,

when

Spirits

:

he forgot one

of wine were

first

the Arabs had overrun the

Western Mediterranean, by Arnaldus de Villa Nova, who dubs
the new invention a universal panacea and his pupil, Raymond
;

Lully

(nat.

Majorca A.D. 1236), declared

be a boon from the Deity.

Now The

this essence of

wine to

Nights, even in the latest

A If

88

Laylah

wa

Laylak.

"
white coffee " of the
adjuncts, never allude to the

respect-

able" Moslem, the Raid (raisin-brandy) or Ma-hayat (aqua

Mohametan

of the modern

wine

our contemporary Dalmatians, one of the healthiest

like

and the most vigorous of seafaring races

is

Europe,

actually began

humanity
enough.
lethal

do not say

I

diseases do not begin except with the

:

their

They

are

history,

at

first

as

far

as

we know,

dawn

is

it

ol

simple

comparatively non-

sporadic and

which we can determine, and

at certain epochs

:

Europe.

by The Nights.

ignored

and

;

in

which at the end of the xvth century began to

Syphilis also,
infect

vitse)

the drinkers confine themselves to

:

for reasons

which as yet we cannot, they break out into epidemics raging
with frightful violence
they then subside into the endemic
:

state

and

lastly

"

instance,

they return to the milder sporadic form.

English cholera" was known of old:

the Asiatic type took

its

place and

now,

For

in 1831 (Oct. 26)

sundry violent

after

becoming endemic on the Northern
seaboard of the Mediterranean, notably in Spain and Italy. So
epidemics, the

disease

small-pox (Al-judrf,

is

vol.

i.

254) passed over from Central Africa

to Arabia in the year of Mohammed's birth (A.D. 570) and thence

overspread the civilised world, as an epidemic, an endemic and

a sporadic successively.

human bones

Martial,

we

"

Greater

Pox

"

has appeared

in

of pre-historic graves and Moses seems to mention
in

Juvenal and

find Eusebiu's relating that Galerius died

(A.D. 302) of

and other parts of

and, about a

gonorrhoea (Levit. xv.
1

The

ulcers on the genitals

12).

Passing over allusions

his

body

;

century afterwards, Bishop Palladius records that one Hero, after
conversation with a prostitute, fell a victim to an abscess on the penis

1

The morbi

deride them

venerei amongst the

vitiis, lib. xviii.)

on the glans
rubigo

is

Romans

the physicians are silent."

are obscure because " whilst the satirists

Celsus, however,

inflammatio coleorum (swelled

testicle),

names (De obscenarum partium
tubercula circa glandem (warts

penis), cancri carbunculi (chancre or shanker)

noticed as a lues venerea by Servius in Virg. Georg.

and a few

others.

The

Terminal Essay.

In 1347 the famous Joanna of Naples

(phagedaenic shanker?).

founded

(set.

her town of Avignon, a bordel whose inmates

23), in

a measure to which England (proh

were to be medically inspected

pudor
No.

!)

iv.

objects.

she

expressly mentions the

Such houses, says
in France

known

In her Statuts du Lieu-publique d'Avignon,

still

common

there.

Ricord who
after

But

In Santo

A.D. 1493-94 an epidemic broke out with

in

los

it

Some

Sanctos contra

Domingo

attributed
in

the disease was

it

to the

the xvth century

But the pest got

Spain.

mal serpentino,

el

espanola," of Rodrigo Ruiz Dfas, the specialist.

arose from the mixture of

Europe

learn from the " Tractado

we

Hipas, Guaynaras and Taynastizas
that

vengut de paillardise.

A.D. 1200; and sporadic venereals were

llamado fructo de todos
la Isla

Mai

studied the subject since 1832, were

alarming intensity at Barcelona, as

venido de

89

:

its

names

the

hence the opinion in Europe

:

European and

"

Indian

who migrated

Gypsies
2

common under

"

blood. 1

Western

to

others to the Moriscos expelled from

popular name after the violent out-

A.D. 1493-4, when Charles VIII. of Anjou with
a large army of mercenaries, Frenchmen, Spaniards, and Germans,
break at Naples

in

Thence

attacked Ferdinand II.

Naples and Morbus Gallicus

term

As

in

early as July 1496

with details the

"

una

and the

neo Latin lands

gallica being

"

Mal Franzoso."

The
in

as the

still

French disease"

Marin Sanuto (Journal

from Fracastori's poem (A.D. 1521)

1

became known

it

scientific

i.

Mal de

the popular
in

England.

171) describes

"syphilis" dates

which Syphilus the Shepherd

David Forbes, the Peruvians believed that syphilis arose from conalpaca ; and an old law forbade bachelors to keep these
animals in the house. Francks explains by the introduction of
syphilis wooden figures
found in the Chinchas guano ; these represented men with a cord round the neck or a
According

nection of

to

man and

serpent devouring the genitals.
2

They appeared before the
"

gates of Paris in the

summer of

1427, not

"about

Eastern Europe, however, they date from a much earlier epoch.
Gilbert's famous picture has one grand fault, the men walk and the women ride
1422

life

:

in

the reverse

would be the

case.

July,
Sir J.

:

in real

A If

9O

Laylah wa Laylah.

struck like Job, for abusing the sun.

is

(Sixtus IV.

and

1

)

began to abate

killing a

King

After crippling a Pope

(Francis

I.)

violence, under the effects of

its

the Grosse Ve>ole
it is

mercury

said

;

and became endemic, a stage still shown at Scherlievo near Fiume,
where legend says it was implanted by the Napoleonic soldiery.
The Aleppo and other " buttons " also belong apparently to the

same grade.
to

Elsewhere

it

settled as a sporadic

be dying out while gonorrhoea

The

is

and now

on the increase.

it

appears

2

I have said, belongs to the
days before coffee
and
tobacco (A.D. 1650) had overspread the East.
(A.D. 1550)
The former, which derives its name from the Kafd or Kaffa province,

Nights,

Sidama

lying south of Abyssinia proper and peopled by the

was introduced

1

8

Rabelais

lies

Al-Yaman

in

buried there,

= old

wine. 3

mentioned twelve times

is

it

of

Kahwah

Arabic

in the

Edit.)

who

al-Shdzili

Shaykh

name

Mokha

to

4

Gallas,

A.D. 1429 30 by the
and found a congenial
In

The Nights (Mac.

but never in the earlier

;

c. 30.

ii.

may be allowed to note that syphilis does not confine itself to man a charger
infected with it was pointed out to me at Baroda by my late friend, Dr. Arnott
I

:

N.I.) and Tangier showed

Bombay

(i8th Regiment,

me some

noticeable cases of this

hippie syphilis, which has been studied in Hungary. Eastern peoples have a practice of
"
"
venereal and other diseases, and transmission is supposed to cure the
passing on
patient

for instance a virgin

;

In Persia

with climate.
often fatal

and

it is

heals (and catches)

gonorrhoea.

Syphilis varies greatly

said to be propagated without contact

:

in Abyssinia

it

is

readily cured

by sand baths and sulphur-unguents. Lastly
Unyamwezi, where mercurials are wholly unknown, I never saw caries of

in lands like

in

Egypt

it

is

the nasal or facial bones.
3

gave

For another account of the transplanter and the
" First
"
see
in East Africa

my

rise,

Footsteps

casuistical questions to

which

coffee

(p. 76).

4
The first mention of coffee proper (not of Kahwah or old wine in vol. ii. 260) is in
Night cdxxvi. vol. v. 169, where the coffee-maker is called Kahwahjiyyah, a mongrel
term showing the modern date of the passage in AH the Cairene. As the work advances

become

in Night dccclxvi. where Ali Nur al-Din and the Frank
"
to
be
a modernisation of the story " Ala al-Din Abu al-Shamat
seems
King's daughter
and in Abu Kir and Abu Sir (Nights cmxxx. and cmxxxvi.) where coffee
(vol. iv. 29)

notices

thicker, e.g.

;

is

drunk with sherbet

where

it

is

mentioned

after present fashion.
six

The

use culminates in

cmlxxvii.), as being drunk after the dawn-breakfast

of course.

The

Kamar al-Zaman

times (Nights cmlxvi. cmlxx. cmlxxi. twice

last notices are in

Abdullah bin

;

II.

cmlxxiv. and

and following the meal as a matter
Nights cmlxxviii. and cmlxxix.

Fazil,

Terminal Essay.
tales

:

Kamar al-Zaman

in the case of

except

91

not belong to the epoch and

we may

evidently does

II. it

In

fairly suspect the scribe.

the xvith century coffee began to take the place of wine in the
nearer East; and
life

and from

gradually ousted the classical drink from daily

folk-tales.

same with tobacco, which

It is the

The Nights
fruit

it

(cmxxxi.),

and where

it is

Sir,

;

mentioned only once by

Lane

"Tabah."

called

the work of a copyist

is

conjunction with meat, vegetables and

in

but in the same tale of

sherbet and coffee appear to have

now

to have gained the ground they

615) holds

(iii.

Abu

it

The

Abu

Kir and

become en vogue,
hold.

to be

in fact

result of

Lord

Macartney's Mission to China was a suggestion that smoking might

have originated spontaneously
undoubtedly

the Old World. 1

The Bushmen and

true.

Africa threw their

Dakha

round

the

it

in

inhaling

is

un-

other wild tribes of Southern

(cannabis indicd] on the

fire

and

sat

Smoking without

intoxicating fumes.

The North American

tobacco was easy enough.

This

Indians of the

Great Red Pipe Stone Quarry and those who lived above the line
where nicotiana grew, used the kinni-kinik or bark of the red
willow and some seven other succedanea. 2 But tobacco proper,

which soon superseded
first

materials except

all

adopted by the Spaniards of Santo Domingo in A.D. 1496

and reached England
the so-called

in

1565.

Red Men, denoted

contained, spread over the
additions, like

"

Tutun,"

English manners

It

3

;

Hence the word, which, amongst
the pipe, the container, not the

Old World as a generic term with

for especial varieties.

brought

already been noticed

1

hemp and opium, was

and much of the modified sobriety of the

1

travellers in

China contend

meaning smoke

:

an indigenous growth and sundry
and the maize, both white and yellow,

is

that the potato

have there been cultivated from time immemorial.
2
For these see my " City of the Saints," p. 136.
'
hence the Arabic "
Lit.

in

about by the cigar after dinner has

has been suggested that Japanese tobacco

modern

The change

Dukhan," with

the

same

signification^

A If Laylah wa Layla

92

be attributed to the influence of the Holy Herb

may

present day

en cigarette.

ft.

we know from

Such,

was

its effect

amongst
and the normal wine-parties of The Nights suggest that
the pipe was unknown even when the latest tales were written.

Moslems

history

;

C.

We

know

produced our marvellous Recueil.
"

this great

probably

Dedic.),

who

absolutely nothing of the author or authors

how can we suppose

that one

Galland justly observes (Epist.

work

man

is

hot by a single hand

alone could

own
"

enough to invent so many ingenious fictions ?
Mr. Lane alone, opined that the work was written

;

for

a fancy fertile

Mr. Lane, and

Egypt by one
by two, one ending what the other had begun,
and that he or they had re-written the tales and completed the
in

person or at most

by new matter composed

collection
It is

hard to see

conclusion

of

MSS.

:

at

most

the distinguished Arabist

"Asiatic Journal

to such a

can be true only of the editors and scribes

it

As

the

Reviewer (Forbes Falconer

"
(vol.

xxx., 1839) says,

"

work

called the

vehicle for stories, partly fixed

tion fairly deserving, from

its

in

the

has confirmed us

Arabian Nights

and partly

?)

Every step we have

in the collation of these agreeable fictions

in the belief that the

name

came

evidently copied from each other, such as the Mac. and

the Bui. texts.

taken

how

or arranged for the purpose.

is

rather a

arbitrary, than a collec-

constant identity with

itself,

the

of a distinct work, and the reputation of having wholly

emanated from the same inventive mind.

To

say nothing of the

improbability of supposing that one individual, with every license
to build

upon the foundation of popular

stories, a

work which had

writer,

would have

been multiplied by the copyist with some regard at

least to his

once received a definite form from a single

arrangement of words as well as matter. But the various copies
we have seen bear about as much mutual resemblance as if they

Terminal Essay.

93

had passed through the famous process recommended
guising a plagiarism

and again

*
:

for

dis-

Translate your English author into French

"

into English.'

Moreover, the style of the several Tales, which will be considered
In

a future page

geneous

Hi.),

(

so far from being homogeneous,

in the extreme.

West Africa, Egypt and Syria are
are

others

heten>

represented and, while

all

authors are intimately familiar with Baghdad,
Cairo,

is

Different nationalities show themselves

equally

;

some

Damascus and

All copies, written and

ignorant.

printed, absolutely differ in the last tales

and a measure of the

divergence can be obtained by comparing the Bresl. Edit, with the

Mac. text: indeed

it is

my

conviction that the

MSS.

preserved in

Europe would add sundry volumes full of tales to those hitherto
and here the Wortley Montagu copy can be taken as
translated
;

a

We

test.

may,

I believe,

compare the history of The

safely

Nights with the so-called Homeric poems, the Iliad

and

the

Odyssey, a collection of immortal ballads and old Epic formulae

and verses

traditionally

incorporated

handed down from rhapsode

welded together about the age of

To

conclude.

fied in

1.

The framework

King

;

The

finally

Pericles.

the data above given

drawing the following deductions

arabised
2.

From

to rhapsode,

body of poetry and

in a slowly-increasing

of the book

is

I

hold myself justi-

::

purely Persian perfunctorily

the archetype being the Hazdr Afsanah. 1
oldest tales, such as Sindibad (the Seven Wazirs) and

Jili'ad,

may

date from

the reign

of Al-Mansur, eighth

century A.D.
3.

The

thirteen tales mentioned above (p. 81) as the nucleus of

1
Unhappily the book is known only by name for years I have vaialy troubled friends
and correspondents to hunt for a copy. Yet I am sanguine enough to think that some
day we shall succeed- Mr. Sidney Churchill, of Teheran, is ever on the look-out.
:

. notably Kamar al-Zaman the Second and Ma'aruf the Cobbler. are as late as the sixteenth century. 5. 94 the Repertory. is was mentioned by Al-MasSidi. shall suggest that this tale also we must MSS.d/f Laylah wa Laylah. together with " Dalilah the Crafty. The work assumed 6." 1 in may be placed our tenth century. The author one : is its present form in the thirteenth century. unknown for information for the best reason In '3 I there never touching the editors and copyists await the fortunate discovery of some 1 . latest tales. The 4.

Haroun Alraschid. But we must not forget that it is wholly and solely to the genius of the and finished " " Gaul that Europe owes The Arabian Nights' Entertainments over which Western childhood and youth have spent so many Antoine Galland was the first to discover the spelling hours. As the in made his nor will the immortal the infallible judgment of child- Encyclopaedia Britannica has been pleased to . his polished taste and perfect tact at once work take high rank in the republic of letters fragment ever be superseded hood. Robinson Without the name and fame Lemuel Gulliver and Dr. and he had in a high degree that art of telling a more captivating than culture or scholarship. and the " stylist. by Mr. at once turgid and emasculated. and alone he did it : his fine literary flaire. Payne's admirable version appeals to the Orientalist readers. The Nights in Europe is one of slow and gradual The process was begun (1704-17) by Galland. Lane's Crusoe. tale which Hence his delightful version (or perversion) became one of the far is world's classics and at once made Sheherazade and Dinarzarde. won for the work by the single-minded brilliant Frenchman. IN EUROPE." anthropologist Galland did it not to the many-headed . a Hammer Frenchman. and mine to the and student of Eastern manners and customs. marvellous fund of material for the story-teller buried in the Oriental mine . the Calendars and a host of other personages as familiar home to the reader as Prospero. 95 11. Primrose. THE NIGHTS THE history of development. paraphrase of the learned and curious hash and latinized English. John Payne (1882-84) an Englishman. his pleasing style. continued (1823) by Von an Austro-German.Terminal Essay. would have found few Mr.

2 Galland. MSS. the reader may not be unwilling to see a short sketch of his biography. more unwilling and unready . his Latin classical assistant. Firmin Didot. especially from Hoeffer's Biographic' Gene*rale. Didot. duced him to a priestly turn Du recommended him Plessis. widow a left in in early life a seventh child and his mother. his Bozzy. and compelled to earn her livelihood. are far I should have to begin with teaching the pedants to learn than are those they teach. He collected a class of boys. was making an experiment which might be revived to advantage in our present schools. almost without other exercise of the mental faculties. Latin and Greek. 1646 of peasant parents at Rollot. 1 Antoine Galland was born " poor and honest A. saw scant chance of educating him when the kindly assistance of a Canon of the Cathedral and President of the College de Noyon relieved her difficulties/ Greek and Hebrew home " In this establishment Galland studied which the for ten years. he hated manual labour and he presently removed en cachette to She introParis. struck by his enabled him to study at the College Royal and eventu- ally to catalogue the Eastern Society. that abilities. " All are taken from the work of M. a Doctor of the Sorbonne. and proposed to teach them speedily and easily language as well as 1 I in have extracted it by making them converse in the read and write it. Petitpied. talk." * As learning a language is an affair of pure memory.D. where a M. etc. numis- matologist and litterateur. Paris. Godouin. but unfortunately class. 1816. mdccclvii. where he knew only an ancient kinswoman. " strait But he was made thing at for letters . man and admirable Orientalist. in the great ecclesiastical Thence he passed to the College Mazarin. . Biographic Universelle. I it should be assisted by the ear and the tongue as well as the eyes. Professor. no matter how would invariably make pupils badly at who. who to the " Sous-principal " of the College Here he made such notable progress in Oriental M. aged about four. de Boze.A If g6 ignore this excellent Laylah wa Laylak. Paris. from many books. etc. relative of the Canon of Noyon. during lessons. as a first. a little bourg in Picardy some two " He was leagues from Montdidier. after apprenticed him to a trade. studies.

for the purpose The political late Dean Stanley was notably trapped by the wily Greek who had only In religions as a rule the minimum of difference breeds the purposes in view. visited " the harbour-towns of the Levant and the Holy Places/' including after settling Jerusalem. The Nights il a fallu : le as he faire But he prepared himself for translating it by studying the manners and customs. soon religious question. where Galland copied epigraphs. . whom the persecutions of the Pashas had driven for refuge to the Palais de France. especially lively discussion Arnauld (Antoine) and Claude the Minister. X. (Parisiis. maximum of disputation. who was ordered back venir de Syrie." * Galland. dislike and disgust* VOL. fame recommended him to who 1 MM.Terminal Essay. certain amongst crops up amongst cafe's and listening mastered Romaic and grappled with the under the tuition of a deposed Patriarch and of sundry Matrdns or Metropolitans. sketched and collected antiques. certain knotty points in the Capitulations. he returned to France. and which even in our day occasionally " Protestants. had not time to register success or failure before M. M. leaving his chief. In Syria Galland was unable to buy a copy of expressly states in his Epistle Dedicatory. de Nointel named attache-secretary to dogmas and in he was appointed 1660 Ambassadeur de His special province was to study France for Constantinople. Carcary and Giraud strongly urged a second visit to the Levant. by frequenting the to the tale-teller." etc. de Nointel. G . 1708). such as the marbles Gallery of which Pere Dom published specimens in his " in monuments the Baudelot Bernard de Montfaucon presently Palaeographia Graeca. the 97 and to obtain doctrines official attestations concerning the articles of the Orthodox (or Greek) Christianity which had then been a subject of Catholics. In Paris his numismatic Vaillant. to Stambul. the religion and superstitions of the people and in 1675.

with D'Herbelot whose Bibliotheque Orientale. how Baron von Hammer escaped drowning Nights. 1 See by the in Tr&mtien (Avertissement blessing of 2 He * I signs his The name iii. fifteen thou- but. President Bignon died within the twelvemonth. and le charged him with collecting coins and medals for the royal cabinet. Councillor of State and Intendant (governor) of Caen in Lower Normandy.A If Laylak wa 93 Laylah. authors appeared in English in 1695. Persian and Turkish recommended him Thevenot and Bignon this first MM. then famous for its academy in his new patron's fine library and : numismatic collection he found materials for of works.) to the Discours pour seivir de Preface. and he set out without delay. Hoeffer. Persian and Turkish need not trouble the reader with half in M. his kitchen 1 being cold as becomes a philosopher's. which fill up nearly a column and a His collection of maxims from Arabic. their titles." Louis him Grand. he was dug out unburnt. he had a narrow escape from the earthquake and subsequent sand of the inhabitants : fire which destroyed some he was buried in the ruins . President of the Grand Council He also became a by a pension. As he was about to leave Smyrna. . 3 mended him a long succession They recom- strongly to the literary world and in 1701 he was made a member of the Academic des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres. when Colbert and to be created " the Marquis de Louvois caused Antiquary to the King. of collecting. 2 Galland attach himself in 1697 to M. which made finished at his death. In 1691 he third journey. The commission ended eighteen months afterwards with the changes of the Company. travelling at the expense of the made a Compagnie des Indes-Orientales. Foucault. left un- acknowledged favourite : to his services he had the honour of completing and prefacing. Galland again returned to Paris where his familiarity with Arabic and Hebrew. including a translation of the Koran. with the main object of making purchases for the Library and Museum of Colbert the magnificent.

religious. the marvel of the miracles and the gorgeousness and magnificence of the scenery at once secured an was a revelation exceptional success . fe'conde en prodiges. the glamour of imagination. it France was it a-fire presence of a monumental literary with delight at a something so new. 746. At Caen Galland issued in I7O4. . and the public in purpose. i2mo. however.." 1 is told of un colons plein de chaleur. et le sel d'un c'est et was published in 1704 Galland's to all name and a popular reviewers who. de costume et de localite's absolument Strangers a toutes les On fut ^tonne* la ve'rite' ide'es e'tablies du charme que des sentimens. ixth Edit. une imagination sensibilit^ sans prevention. " des in Us produisirent/' said Charles Nodier.Terminal Essay. moral or the Oriental wanderer in his stately robes was a start- ling surprise to the easy-going and utterly corrupt Europe of the ancien regime with its loose " morals. et que ce genre de composition admit ou plutot exigeat des details de moeurs. (Hoeflfer/s Graesse's Tresor de Livres raresand Encyclop. so unconventional. de caractere. No. mentioned in Lane. dans nos contes r^sultait la nouveaute* du monde. London and Westminster Review Art. cet effet qui assure aux productions de Tesprit une vogue populaire. Contes Arabes traduits en Frangois which became famous " as The Arabian at once Nights' Entertainments. 3 etc. 2 The Contes Arabes tale leur lecture. 1717 in 12 vols. Britannica. et plaisent que tout le nos romans. Ixiv.. 1 99 the part of his Mille et first une Nuits. at once made them and him known Galland's version Biographic C'est que 1'attrait comique sans d'une caricature.'* Mutilated. 1'esprit et le naturel enfin plaisent partout." etc. his way. iii. recognised that stood in work. fragmentary and paraphrastic though the tales were. so entirely without philosophical : romance.. quoiqu'ils appartinssent une a peu connue litteVature France en . . des tableaux. a genius moment de le garments and perfectly indecently tight leur publication. iii.) See also Leigh Hunt *' The Book of the Thousand Nights and one Night.

first made from It kept the The in that nearest approach translation of the Koran. and yet a second English edition had appeared." and a footnote states that this translation." . a poor the Arabic (No. 2 To France England version by also Andrew Ross of Consul de France for owes her that Egypt. Arab framework which the Professor so soon gave up the he had deliberately adopted. to have been made by himself. Sawyer) 1712 Addison introduced diction. ennuye*s une nuit uniformite'. " Layla k wa Laylak. si vous ne dormez pas. vous ne dormez pas. 1724. including Preliminary Discourse and Notes (4to London).A If TOO mostly mangle find Dans : toujours. 535." His version appears.) and mean by Andre du Reyer. faites-nous un Galland. fait par diverses questions insignificantes. faites-nous un les Ma de ces contes que vous savez. (No. 6 vols. ousted in 1734 by the learned lawyer George Sale whose conscientious work. 1 Edition of 1856. Quelques jeunes gens. the * may In Nov. we deux premiers volumes de ces contes 1'exorde e*tait chere soeur. et supprima dans les volumes suivants le pre*ambule qui lui avait ing attire* la why This legend has the merit of explain- plaisanterie. Nashshar. frapper sa fenetre. In " " Lowndes' Bibliographer's Manual the English Editio Princeps when. allerent a Ja de porte 1'avoir Apres 1'auteur. from the style. very inaccurate and vulgar in was often Spectator reprinted. The Nights was once translated from the French at 2 though whom no authority seems to know. de ces beaux contes que vous savez si bien. where and by is thus noticed. " Arabian Nights' Entertainments translated from the French. xv." Galland profita de la lecon. field till year iv." de cette plate froid. " Monsieur si Ah. qu'il faisait tres-grand qui courut en chemise morfondre ils temps quelque terminerent en lui disant. I2mo. into the Story of Alnaschar 13) and its says that his remarks on the (=A1- Hope serve as a moral to an Arabian tale which I find translated into French tone and by Monsieur Galland. vol. brought him the ill-fame of having *' turned Turk. In the Biographic Universelle of Michaud 1 it. London.

He was the first to point out the resemblance between the introductory adventures of Shahryar and Shah Zaman and those of Astolfo and Giacondo in the Orlando Furioso3 Introduction to his Collection . i. Loisseleur Deslongchamps. It v.101 Terminal Essay. What lent for the Prix de Demotic papyrus in Paris with in the cellar 2 England.. Weil. 159. 1840. i. half dozen. Nos. so they were not wanting who " of Webber. p. 1839 Jan. But it is only a slight specimen of the sad British state of art and Radicals. all is mystery. We over scores of books in the British (my iii.) " Tales of the East." 3 vols. their years France. and Museum 1 is and corresponding with Galland's of 1715." 2 work was first published in England/ says Henry it seems to have made a considerable impression upon Catalogue of Printed Books. Lane vii. But as there 5 " 3 Dreams of the distempered fancy of the East. I am ashamed to state this default in the Museum. are from the fourth edition of ii. a set of six volumes and I) have turned the University Library and the Advocates' Libraries of Edinburgh and Glasgow I have " " been permitted to put the question in Notes and Queries and in " but all our researches hitherto have been in vain. men who cannot are spoke When the 1 read Pickwick. Birch who can Contrast the Societe* Anthropologique and Institute" au second in its fairly deal with a palace and professors a corner of Hanover Square and its skulls 1 " On the Arabian Nights and translators. or nine in vogue had already Even the ignoble national jealousy which Galland's after Edit. as the first 1713. reached a fourth issue. neglected equally by Conservatives. Torrens and with the Essai of A. 1884. Edinburgh. 139-168." The Foreign QuarLondon. and volumes were reprinted friends Museum. 1840. terly Review. Sir prompted Prin. concerning which Englishmen are apt to boast and which so carefully mulcts modern authors in unpaid copies. was the fashion of several times apart from their subsequents. vol. conjectured that the two is and first day but . judging from the fact that in 1713. Liberals and has been done for the endowment of research ? What is our equiva- literature in our ? " Rome ? Since the death of Dr. are from the third vi. Princeps in the British bound in three Tomes i. appeared they William Jones grossly to abuse that valiant scholar. are from the second of 1712 and iv. to the Edit. Art. pp. (vol. col. Black and Armstrong. 1812. the " Antiquary The popularity of The Nights in England must have rivalled : . Oct. could not mar their popularity. Auquetil du Perron. xxiv.

but the grave advocate himself became a prey to the fascination of the tales. gives p. having one Saturday even- ing found his daughters employed seized ' them with a rebuke Sawbbath ' for in spending the evening before the such worldly amusement in these volumes. reading . characteristically termed them "downright lies ture.' (Canto " and forbade the house to such " unwholesome What 5 xxviii. and was very different from his predecessor at Oxford in my day. whea applied to for instruction in Arabic. formed tales pretty on the frequent of female dress. quickly made their way to public favour. side by side la (Cloustou)." 1 omnium omnium them firme populorum habentur. The A rabian Nights^ however. " We have been informed of a singular instance of the effect they produced soon after their first appearance. not appear to the flights of imagination to his other his dislike of these to be his opinion. the public. a mistake afterwards corrected by Warburton). 1 Notitiae Codicis . Noctium. Galland or fabricated " Noctes Mille et Una . \ M. ? some (Petis de la Croix. (Paris. litera- E. expressed strongly and stated or English making any remark on the work may be presumed that he was not The displeased with the perusal. in Pope 1720 sent two volumes (French to Bishop Atterbury. MI. being found on morning of the Sabbath itself employed in their perusal. the Beattie professed himself uncertain whether they were translated by M. and. Leveque in Les Mythes et les Legendes de 1'Inde et la Perse French versions of the Arabian and Italian narratives. who. manibus- the amiable Carlyle. from which he had not risen the whole night. in deliciis que omnium terentur. without but. Sir James Stewart. estimable qualities. Dr. Pusey wrote of quae in cultiorum linguas conversae. Lord Advocate for Scotland. Pusey studied Arabic to familiarise himself with ftebrew. while Dr. 1880). refused to lecture except to a class. a sketch of character in two words 543 ff. that they were the work of descriptions Frenchman it ?) . it have joined a relish for who does bishop. from his very silence.102 Alf Laylah wa Laylah. dictae." As late as 1780 Dr. in the gospel ac- cording to Saint Froude.).

aged sixty-nine 1715. prolixe. Hence. while notable for penetration and acumen in 1 This nephew was the author of " Recueil des Rits et Ceremonies des Pilgrimage de La Mecque. where he was an assiduous and efficient member of the Socie'te' with foreign Orientalists. Numismatique and corresponded largely Three years afterwards he was made Professor of Arabic at the College de France. leaving his second Part of school which * he bequeathed his writings to the Bibliotheque du Roi. in life 17. in I2mo. 2 good old vrai dans les and manners he was almost childish in worldly matters. have carefully copied their leader and Charles Nodier remarks " : II me semble que Ton rendu assez de justice au style de Galland. 1754. in I2mo. his Numismatic Dictionary to the to the the end came." etc. to assist him in his will after the simplest mili- Professor Galland is The Nights was a French rapidly becoming his . correcte . . and. et qui naiVet^ de Perrault et de la prdsente bonhomie de La Fontaine. during the next half decade. first printed in 1724. I have said. in fact peu all Gallic imitators. etc. he devoted himself to publishing his valuable studies. illness. Alcoran on February litterateur of the extinct. jamais de cette elegance qui je ne sais quel melange de la re*sulte de n'a Abondant sans il pas etre ne manque la facilite*. Then In his last an attack of asthma complicated with pectoral mischief. Homme simple in his devotion to letters. Lokman. 2 The concluding part did not appear."were Lowndes* mistake. with a name now thoroughly established." Our Professor. 2 vols. naturel et familier sans etre lache ni trivial. he sent to Noyon tary fashion for his MSS. moindres choses (as his filoge stated) and single-hearted Academy and died. succeeding Pierre Dippy. re- turned in 1706 to Paris. and ordering his : nephew in Julien Galland making He Abbd Bignon. till 1717 his " Contes et Fables : Indiennes de Bidpa'i et de I presume. Paris and Amsterdam. unpublished.Terminal Essay* The only their style fault is 103 found in France with the Contes Arabes was that Yet they want classicism. Tr<butien included.

supposed to have interpolated. 3 de Codadad et de ses freres. Laylah wa Layla k. only three of which are extant. 2oth. indefatigable Briefly. (Galland's) more is in three and the detailed small vols. each of about pp. tells us that he found there only two MSS.. the last two sections being reversed. 264) makes eleven. Gibb informs me that he has come upon " book. Edit. or .. Galland in 1806. la Lampe merveilleuse (Aladdin). The MS.. etc. Galland informs us (Epist. Tales from the Arabic" (vol. or about the beginning of The missing portion. which he afterwards translated from the Bresl. the ten 2 following tales. 3. 1 is Ghdnim and this two-thirds of his volumes is down M." contained like the other volumes 140 if it pages. 3 Mr. 4to.th parts are wanting j the sections which follow the i. translator. one of his biographers remarks. Nights. in teaching children the elements of education as he was immense in acquiring his and exactitude erudition. de Sidi Nouman. in his a Turkish story* . the I2th. there are anecdotes from Bidpai. and lacunae everywhere abound. " Camaralzaman. truth and honesty. J." this tale in Edit. who edited The first stories are is hardly he presumes that it contains the original (an The date is supposed to be circa early?) text which has been altered and vitiated. is very imperfect. du prince Zeyn Al-asnam et du Roi des Gdnies. and is divided intelligible to many into 29 sections style.D. the same from which he drew his Jewad. Professeur of Arabic at the Imperial Library. de Paveugle Baba Abdalla. The other MS. Payne (ix. consisted of four volumes. de 4.A If IO4 He would his studies. 5. A. including the Histoire du Dormeur eVeille = The Sleeper and the Waker. characterised industry most his honourable career. i8th. Arabs. 1 bringing the work to Night cclxxxii. i6th.).th contain sundry stories repeated. Histoire 1. 2ist-23rd. 25th and 2.) that his MS. have been as happy. the Ten Wazirs and other popular works. 2. whence and cmv. which mostly favours Bresl. The second Parisian copy is a single folio of some 800 pages. both imperfect. Bed. would end that tale together with the Stories of the Enchanted (Ebony) Horse the first and such . But in its the disposition in the ordinance the text used by would hardly have filled more than for the other third he interpolated. i$th. * Mr. W. E. more correct than that of 140. 1600. i 5. Caussin (de Perceval).

et de Quarante Voleurs extermine's par 7. Henry Charles Coote late iii. " It is possible that an exhaustive examination er of the various known "On these paramythia in Levan- and had inserted them into of their having . composed an inhabitant of Baghdad. Smyrna and rhapsodists or professional story-tellers in the bazars of The other ports of the Levant. source Italian. 10. " been work p. . Aladdin. and x. One Nights Europe might yet have been found cast in the Biblio- theque Nationale (du Roi) Paris ." 178 et seq. 1 9. Mr. d'Ali Baba. t marchand de Bagdad. the " Folk-Lore Record. Sicilian Prince in vol. Ali Baba and the Envious Sisters. 105 Histoire de Cogia Hassan Alhabbal. Mr." of some of M.). Part Payne (ix. Aladdin and the Forty Thieves. Concerning these interpolations which contain two of the best and most widely known stories in the work. Chenery. grammar was ample.Terminal Essay. Frenchman had heard corpus fabularum. 6. suggested acquaintance with Arabic them from the Professor had borrowed recitations of the Rawis. 8. sug- coffee-houses by Haroun ii. 1 A the with those his unequalled 268) conjectures the probability at a comparatively recent period in imitation of the legends of Rashid and other well-known tales of the original and adds. conjectures have been manifold but they mostly run upon three lines. copies of the Thousand and to exist in the public libraries of litterateur lately assured me that NoS. Baba Cogia (Khwajah) and Peri (fairy) suggest a Persic MS. Such Persianisms as Codadad (Khudadad). (in Galland's Tales. stories incidents identical Ahmad. du prince Ahmed et de la fe*e Peri-Banou. d'Ali Cogia." quotes from popular and Romaic gesting that the tine that the MS. but two friends were kind enough to enquire and ascertained that it was a mistake. ix. De Sacy held that they were found by Galland in Mr. de deux Sceurs jalouses de leur Cadette. whose the public libraries of Paris. une Esclave.

the a poor tailor. for reasons before given. of abridgment. 212. vi. with the Collection of Bodleian. and. But literary license was the order of his day and at that time French. being an Eastern story. taking "The Sleeper and the Waker" and "Zeyn Al-asnam" as cases in point. as in " Judar and his Brethren. recollecting that her husband kept a shabby. In either tale in the palace is transported to a distance and both end with the death of the wicked magician and the hero and heroine living happily together ever after. amplification and substitution. "where they drink a hero's father is certain It is The mise-en-scene warm liquor" (tea). As regards Aladdin. New Messieurs Tales from the Wortley Montagu Nimmo in reprinting Scott MS. rather than an Arabic recovered : And Galland was not the I feel man to convinced that commit a all will be literary forgery." sixth I regret to see that Volume. "The Arabian Nights' Entertainments (London: Longmans. and the audacious distortion of fact and phrase in which Galland freely indulged. I am convinced that it is genuine. but I should expect. always the most bdgueule of European languages. in the have omitted his . the Professor Palmer. for old lamps! "a the prime point paralleled in the Tale of the Fisherman's son." I wa Laylah Laylah. All Arabists have remarked the sins of omission and commission. intro- Even the Magical Ring. where the 1 Jew is asks exchange only old rings and the Princess. doubted late laid is down upon all the lines of Oriental fiction. to find the stories in a Persic MS.A If IO6 some light Tales. well-worn ring in his writing-stand. and he being asleep. 1811) by Jonathan Scott." the Maghribi Magician ducing the Wonderful Sorcerer's cry. although my unfortunate friend. China. upon the question of the origin of the interpolated quite agree with him. the most popular tale of the whole work. its "New presently Lamp and lamps makes his appearance. took it out and sent it to the man. was bound by a rigorisme of the narrowest and the straightest of lines 1 Vol. whilst his knowledge of Eastern languages proves that he knew better.

" " he errs shall find that and .) and the violent convulsions in is mere England especially during the reign of Soleil.)." while "ce qu'il y de remarquable (Night Ixxiii. . conquete . from which the If tudesque. fifty " more a is familiar Dinarzade L'officieuse Cette plaisante querelle des deux freres become " ridiculous only in translation picture " (Night Ixi.) d'avoir fait une gives a Parisian turn voir sans horreur cet abominable barbier n< false note struck in dans un pays ou tout le monde . The same may be . The " terrible Old man " " ba'dly described by Tincommode " Brave Maimune }> and (" the ill-natured old fellow ") of the Sea" (-board) is : " Agre'able Maimune " are hardly what a Jinni would say to a but they are good Gallic. his success has been derided (by scholars) for Hd Monsieur and Ah Madame ".) would relieve the Gallic mind from the mortification " of " Destiny decreed." " teilles de vin flaggons (Night Plusieurs sortes de fruits et de bou- (Night ccxxxi. que voila est blanc. " (Night Ixvii. and. condemned a man as a barbarian and a least e*cart we 107 we consider Galland fairly mostly for a purpose.) is good French for Wa 'llahi " " (" fifty handby Allah \ and cinquante cavaliers bien faits from biblical ! ! ! some gentlemen horseback ") " than and on knights. a European practice and of the "Je m'estimais heureuse passages. " and " O and Shakespearean English. il : " si two belle Je ne puis quoiqu'il soit ne laisse pas a .. but he could not write " O mon sieur and " O ma dame " although we can borrow 44 ! " ! ." Night xx.) ccxxxv. " O my lord " " Bon Dieu ma soeur " (which our translators my lady " english by O heavens. " " noted of Plier les voiles pour marque qu'il se rendait (Night Jinniyah (ccxiii.). that of popularising his work He indeed justified his means. " (Night Ixxii.Terminal Essay. : France laughs at but she has only to look at Galland's contemporary (Shaykh) vieillard " which the home Roi " le " shoking dies girl her head having been cut off by her sister) Gallic squeamishness " in and flasks europeanises etc. cliv.) the officious Dinarzade " " and "this pleasant quarrel .

naturally enough.) (fire) and Dun (in lieu of) into : as this has been untouched by De Sacy. while almonds and walnuts were of the quatre mendiants. 271) justly charge Galland with (ix.) of the date which has only a pellicle. (Night puts French polish upon the matter of fact Arab's " clviii. mess of pomegranate- us the hero removed his son habit ") and placed them under the pillow. but dates were not seen every day in France. a crucial fact in the history." so well displaces. " voila une wrist (Night pas que Ton presente cl. the outlandish seeds. and it was an unpardonable carelessness or something worse to turn Ndr " le faux dieu Nardoun" (Night Ixv." Though the text especially bag-trousers (not only " tells " couteau funeste.A If io8 resembler a un thiopien horrible que le visage wa Laylah mais . Professor Weil and Mr. plus noire et dame de of " Orientalism. Lastly.). not including violent liberties. Laylah. can hardly be held excessive. our Professor sends him to bed fully dressed. Again in " " maillet is mentioned 27) the cattle. apparently for the in a foot-note It Ixxx). Inwa. even by Lane who ought to have known better . la Nearly as bad also when the youth gave him grande ignorance de ne savoir main droite a un mdecin et non pas fa . bow that purpose of informing his readers Easterns " se couchent en calegon " (Night was mere ignorance to confound the arbalete or cross- with the stone-bow (Night xxxviii. which probably later issues " the " First Shaykh's Story (vol." The list of absolute mistakes. Payne the Trader (Night making i. throw away the shells (tcorces) as Galland certainly knew . in allusion to the jerking practice called end of the i.). a il Time encore " (Night " Une a mere affectation is clvii. but this has universally been done. as the means of slaughtering readers at the : have changed to noyaux.). to the make left the Jewish physician remark." In known to the West. I cannot but conclude that he never read the text with the translation. He preserves the forces.) vieille leur connaissance an old woman. tale it because familiar to European becomes " le Badr al-Din a " tarte a la creme.

Padrone ! as the Italians say : I . one of the indignes the Princess's face in was no Persian ga." in with eau-de-rose.Terminal Essay. In the Islands becomes " L'ile de la and "dog-son" are not "injures atroces grand roi " the : greatest Eastern et kings allow themselves far more energetic and significant language." missing one of the fine touches lacking the pundonor. " (Zahr al-Bustan). 42) makes it worse by adding "Alcolom (AlKulub?) signifying Favisher of Hearts" and his names for the six slave-girls (vol. Lune. Payne's.). iv. " impertinente "Dog" d'un (" ! story of Badr. of the tale which shows al-Din.g. I have noticed the incuriousness which translates " along " " " the Nile-shore by up towards Ethiopia (Night cli. come Comoro address hither. " Venez al-Hasan would not greet " he would kiss her Hai'atalnefous (Hayat al-Nufus. " 109 East must know.). Indeed the AngloFrench translations are below criticism it would be waste of time to notice them. for they had been cut off by the nape . which Galland rightly renders by 37) such as "Zohorob Bostan 1 " Fleur du Jardin. Fitnah 1 Dr. rendering hair "accomodeen boucles by "hair festooned in buckles" (Night ccxiv. but sound and heavy cuffs on the and the sixth brother (Night clxxx. would not it sprinkle la vie il throw cold water " Camaralzaman " I " : she would addresses his " its " hero a weak and violent man. impertinence "). hasty and La belle Persienne/' in the Tale of nor would her master . and lie d'Ebene (Jazfrat al" the Isle of Ebene. : language purely European (ccxxx.). and the " Islands of the Children of Khaledan " (Night ccxi.) by characteristic " is he prefers these wretched versions to Mr. It was by no " from time to time with her soufflets some means " des petits tips (" fingers ") which the sprightly dame administered to the Barber's " " second brother (Night clxxi. Night xliii. et ne s'approcha d'elles. Badawi jealous of by hands and feet." serve only to heap blunder upon blunder.-" A certain surly old litterateur tells me that Abnus. The : a servile suit paid to the original e. cannot envy his taste or his temper. the Fortunate Islands.) was not " aux levres " fendues (" he of the hair-lips ").) two abominable wives de Abu " saluting le tapis a ses pieds his beloved (t his fair wife. Nur her.) instead of gauche whose exclusive use all travellers in the the Khalidatani or Khalidat.). Scott who uses Fitnah (iv. Night ccxxvi.

more dramatic." widely different in French and in Arabic probably not Galland's fault. the Sultan. verse. " by no means Force de Nights is Lastly the dtno&ement of cceurs. rarely style. which contains only a quarter of The Thousand Nights and a Night.. Galland's fragment has a strange effect upon the Orientalist and those who take the scholastic view. clothing the bare body in the best of Parisian the rhymed prose and excludes the rendering a few lines in a balanced suits. the Frenchman Here he rejects strains at the gnat miss the odeur du sang on it a the prefers this version as account of the common process. worse still. be it wide or narrow. It shows only a single side of the gem and delicacy. as a wholly different book.no is A If Laylah wa Laytab. It It ignores and very rarely generally rejects the proverbs. absolutely suppress much of the local colour. contrasting with the gorgeous tints. and all Von Hammer ends merrily without marriage-bells. manners and customs. the childish indecencies and the wild orgies of the original. De Sacy does not hesitate to say that the work owes much to fellow-countryman's hand his but . the elevated morality and the religious tone We of passages which crowd upon them. By deference to public taste it was compelled to expunge the often repulsive simplicity. 1 De Sacy (Mmoire p. applied to a race of familiar many facets. would have been the wonder and delight of Europe. inferior only to the Oriental device. as . Its attempts to amplify beauties and to correct or conceal the defects and the grotesqueness of the original. 52) notes that in some MSS. and. epigrams and moral reflections which form the pith and marrow of the book . proposes to put her to death. ennuye* by the last when she produces her three children tales of Shahrdz'ad. accouchement!. that has so and which. difficulties of the . and indeed he deserves high praise for having invented so pleasant and 1 sympathetic a close. it disdains touches of character which are often Shakespearean those in their finer depth ways and thoughts. judge otherwise I it : is necessary to dissociate the two works and to regard Galland's paraphrase. The but that is he never saw the original.

Leipzig and elsewhere convinced me that the work The to be done. and speaks volumes for the genius of it could recommend it in such blurred and caricatured But those condition to readers throughout the civilised world. which taints the parfums du harem . Habicht and was printed at Breslau (1824-2 5). Asiatique.Terminal Essay. their . in 1 still See Journ. . 1839. Turkish and every far-extending The Hindostani. fifteen Max small square vol. 1252 versions tion of are direct from the Arabic : my = 1836. Persian. iii. se*rie. by the late Bertholdy Seemann that the " contained a literal and language of Hoffmann and Heine translation of The but complete Nights personal enquiries at I was assured " .* All these search for a transla- Galland into any Eastern tongue has hitherto been fruitless. the glamour of the unknown..H. and the transwas made by Munshi Shams al-Din Ahmad for the use entitles lation of the College of Fort George in A. they arouse strange : marvellous imagina- brightening of making one dream mind and an that behind them the strange and unexpected in fact. look only at Galland's picture." still compare his tales with the sudden prospect of magnificent mountains seen after a long desert-march longings and tiveness indescribable desires produces an insensible increase of fancy-power. lies all the new and unseen. The Nights has been translated into Eastern tongue. viii. Paris. latter them Hikaydt al-Jalilah or Noble Tales. a magnificent texture . first remains attempt to improve upon Galland and to show the world what the work really is was made by Dr. who Con- splendour of Empire and the havoc of Time. his effort to " transplant into European gardens the magic flowers of Eastern fancy. Ill also the humouristic tale and the Rabelaisian outbreak which relieve and throw out into strong relief the sidered in this light it is seen on the wrong side the man who a caput mortuum.

it We can explain Professor left its in the latches only by the theory that the eminent the labour to his collaborateurs and did not take the trouble to revise their careless work. ix. translation of a translation. Trebutien's. etc. Tunisischen Handschrift erganzt und vollstandig iibersetzt. known Prof. 1823. von Hammer. H. with other valuable works from Tunis. vol. zum erstenmal aus dem Arabischen in das Franzosische iibersetzt von J. which formed the only useful part of the first eight volumes. Zinserling. at the to Herr Cotta the version appeared.. 1 of which is..A If Laylah wa 112 Thus volumes. Thus a German publisher of Tubingen. 3 while the French version was unaccountably lost en 1 von Cairo and who. therefore. Langles and other savants in filling up the lacunae by means of sundry MSS. the Styrian Orientalist entrusted his MS." : von der Hagen und Karl Schatte (the offenders ?) 2 Dr. it is utterly useless as a picture of manners or a book of reference." who had shown some He xii. Herr M. tartness in his " After by the well- Dissertatio Critica carefully imitated all the shortcomings of his predecessor and even omitted the Verzeichniss. The editing was a : the corrigenda (of which brief lists are given) would fill a and.) (ix. 3 translation was by Aulic Councillor into French the tales by neglected After some difference with M. MS. it more condemnable than the Arabic possible. J. 8. Erzahlungen und Anekdoten. " Tausend und Eine Nacht Arabische Erzahlungen. through a personal acquaintance. Habicht informs us (Vorwort iii. de Glossis Habichtianis. 7) that Zum ersten Von Max route to mal aus einer Habicht. The next German Hammer-Purgstall Constantinople. as before noticed. the Varianten and the Glossary of Arabic words not found in Golius. a learned Arab. shirks every most extraordinary blunders and difficulty . und aus dem Franzosichen in das Deutsche von A. Fleischer. Stuttgart und Tubingen. Drei Bde. the hand of Professor Zinserling. . F. Habicht's death in 1839 his work was completed in four vols. Professor. he obtained his H. Galland. is the translation . during his short stay at turned J. Annagar (Mohammed Al-Najjdr ?) and was aided by Baron de Sacy. conscientiously " * version It original. 3 Die in Tausend und Eine Nacht noch nicht ubersetzten Nachte. if it " appeared before the Tunis Manuscript The German purports to be a translation. as if the necessity of a list of tales had just struck the dense editor. E. abounds style it . the indices of the first four tomes were printed in the prodigy of negligence volume fifth. every charm of lacks Laylak. of a translation of a translation. Caussin (de Perceval) in 1810.

Weil neglects the division of days which enables ledge. are inadequate and verse .). Gustav Weil who. but all of that art fashionable in Europe till Lane taught what Eastern illustrations should be. liberties with those of Lane in places entirely : Trebutien appeared in a French etc. or Porch to the first Camoens edition. 1872. 13 with the text which can compare only he abridged and retrenched disappeared and he misexplained 1 . " 2 Lewald's " Vorhalle i. and by a strictly literal version. the succeeding editions (Stuttgart) VOU X. Breslau Edition.) (pp. born on April 24. Dr. confined to a few words. informs me that Aug. is held in Germany to be valueless and that it was noticed only for the Bemerkung concerning the offensive In the Vorwort of passages which Professor Weil had toned down in his translation. (Paris.)- I learned friend Dr. oct. 1808. Zum erstenmale aus dem Urtexte vollstandig und treu uebersetze von Dr." Finally the London. Under 1 Tausend und Eine Nacht Arabische Erzahlungen. the Saj'a or assonance being wholly ignored. Gustav Weil. (the tales : him for instance. " Contes ine*dits. On the other hand the scholar shows himself by a correct translation. in the library of text of is due to still (1886) tells us) were the Abd al-Rahman al-Safati His originals (he 1 is Saxe Gotha. the Bulak and. notes. He began his work on return from Egypt in 1836 and completed his first version of the Arabische Meisterwerlc have the Zweiter Abdruck der dritten (2d reprint of 3d) in 4 vols. The venerable savant.. The only good German translation of The Nights Dr. H . translation Hammer took S.Terminal Essay. to introduce any number of occupy a large part of vol. Stuttgart. It has more than a hundred woodcuts. roy. Wilhelm Storck. to whose admirable translations of have often borne witness. till the likeness difficult passages work did no honour to the amiable and laborious historian of the Turks. notes that this Vorhalle. in 183842 2 I My (3 vols. a MS. it is wholly omitted. is everywhere rendered by prose. contrasting strongly with those which preceded him. rhetorical introduction a addressed to the general public. rendered such service to Arabism. professing at Heidelburg. Von mdcccxxviii. was written without his know- who has xv. Galland's eleven The Vorwort wants development iii. 8vo. by G. he shirked some In fact the others. save where the treatment required to be modified in a book intended for the public..

I cannot find that they translate The Nights for themselves of Galland seem to have Romaic." numbered seven have claims to distinction xviii. 1822 8vo. cannot well be other than longsome and it monotonous reading. in 32 (dateless) Milano. France (Tre'butien. 4 francs. illustrated (2) 25. will be found in a future page. (i) by M. 8vo.H4 Alf Laylah wa such circumstances Laylah. 1 and other Notes on the versions. (and vilely . 1823 large 8vo. Professor Galland has never been forgotten in France where. amongst a host of editions. Paris. has favoured me with detailed bibliographical notes on Galland's imitators which are printed in 1 Appendix No. Paris. Preface in and to 2 . . 8vo. 1806. (3) (?) 3 M.) later years they have grown prodigiously.. " Mille ed une notte. Paris. 4 8vo illustrated. Paris. versione italiana vols. Caussin (de Gauttier. Russian satisfied (?) many and remarkable : cheap and gaudy versions the public. 2 Thes are. Baron de Sacy. une prodigieuse importation de marchandise de contrabande. 1867. Napoli. I2mo 1838 . and " nuovamente emendata e corredata di note . 4 francs . who has made a special study of the subject. Novelle Arabe. 24: 7 vols. Kirby. and (4) illustrated). Novelle Arabe. William F." Mille ed una notte. Perceval). four his success did not fail what De Sacy to create a host of imitators justly terms " As early as 1823 and attract Von Hammer and during Mr. The most popular are now " II. Destain. Edouard 6 vols. 9 vols. vols. Although Spain and Italy have produced have taken the trouble to Orientalists. Icelandic.

" despite a it. when the Author them or is dispraising debarred the higher enjoyment of praising* them by name. but may assumed lo be upwards of four hundred. historical more 1 monumental comparatively civilised age. And. . which apparently antedates all The Nights. as the purposes of fables are twofold Duplex libelli dos est quod risum movet." A should I hint can be given and a or a way of friend or foe can be lauded or abused as Belins the sheep or Isengrim the wolf. 1 1 5 THE MATTER AND TH^MANNER jOF THE NIGHTS. RETURNING my to threefold distribution of this Prose into Fable. A. awakening consciousness of mankind. as when offspring of the a jealous despotism powerful oligarchy threw difficulties and dangers in the " Speaking plain truths. Et quod prudenti vitam consilio monet : The speaking of brute beasts would give a piquancy and a pleasantry to moral design as well as to social and political satire. The literary origin of the " especially shun that 1 fable is Indo-Germanic The number of fables and anecdotes " not Buddhistic we must : school which goes to India varies in the different texts. about half of which were translated by Lane. let Poem ( i) me proceed carefully. has been called " One of the earliest or Beast-fable. antiquity. Fairy Tale and to consider these sections The Apologue other subjects in creations of the regard a Anecdote.Terminal Essay. -THE MATTER.

of idolatry see Koran xxxix. not as a rude and early attempt.the visible means of fixing and concentrating thoughts of the vulgar. 1 and would extreme for ever fix their the apologue and The Lion and others to that the the Mouse appears in a Leyden papyrus dating from B. p. beginning of chapt. postulating an ancient origin and The illustrious ancestry. and possibly Homer Solon. as opposed to a to Babylonia. . 1200-1166 the days of Rameses III. viz." syllabary. incuriousness iii. dialogue also is brought to perfection in the discourse between the Jackal Koufi and the Ethiopian Cat (Revue 6gyptologique ivme.C. These are the a notable improve- symbolism or idolatry the Lingam and the Yoni are now mystical representations. Herodotus. and of only one literary development. 118). Unnefer (" Hare God And of late years there " representatives. of the Beast-fable not. history anecdote. and perhaps the best possible impersonal " of the abstract expressions paternity and maternity (Prof.). but in a finished form. : iii. like the crystal of the hypnotist or the disk of the electro-biologist. goddess Diana was in no way better than goddess Pasht. The those of Egypt. Every old which the Deity became idols (images of metal. part i.n6 for Alf Laylah wa Laylah. China. Biblic. when Pythagoras. April 6. to Assyria civilising influences. where tota canem venerantur nemo Dianam have noticed these points more the Sword. stone or wood). Professor Lepsius taught us. in incarnate as in the Catholic host . evidently memory mode one As "In the ofden times within the we know only of one advanced culture . literature poetry. (Rhampsinitus) or Hak On. For the true view of I am deeply grateful to Mr. fully in the superficiality. Aristotle sat for instruction at the feet of the Hir-seshtha. To mention no and criticism. 4. the learned grammarians of the pharaohnic court. home the because it Africa therefore was was the chosen land of animal worship. *' The Book of and ignorance. 1886) for identifying the Manibogh. of only of writing. -dEsopic. it ^Esop inherited the hoarded wealth of ages." 1 I 2 A notable instance city i. of man. Nor was unknown bourne of their invention of an alphabet. is Williams in "Folk-lore Record" vol. P. Oppida Egyptian anne*e Part had its of Roman 2 . Plato. Monier of tone in treating of described as "). as Professor Mahaffy thinks. its origins. besides its own symbolic animal used as a Kiblah or the prayer-direction (Jerusalem or Meccah). Archaeology. Michabo or Great And Hare of the American indigenes with lines ment upon which Osiris investigation should run. le Page Renouf (Soc.

In after centuries. and mingled the manifold families of mankind by joining the eastern to the western world. Here the Apologue found its populariser in AIO-WTTOS. after Psammeticus (Psamethik Greek. the late Eagle and the Sun. 8) and Nathan's parable of the Poor 2 Herodotus (ii. the Baroch 1 in modern Guzerat. Judaea.C. c. threw Egypt open to the restless Africa too the Fable would in early ages migrate make for itself a focus of civilisation formed new home in the second great by the Tigris-Euphrates Valley. possibly Aithiops idem sonant " with connects says the sages. ix. From Kemi was but a step to Phoenicia. "Once upon a time there was a fight . Under formally hellenised. whence a ferry led over to Greece. and Aves 651. and we may accept the fabulist's contemporary with Croesus and Solon (B. 117 but simply because the Nile-land originated every form of literature between Fabliau and Epos. The Mr. and others in her (Rhodopis) fellow slaves. Ixi.Terminal Essay. Grecian art and even language overran the old Iranic extended and eastwards reign throughout northern India. 255-125). such as dialogues between the Ox and the Horse. George Smith found amongst the cuneiforms fragmentary Beast-fables. 134) notes that " ^Esop the fable-writer (6 AoyoVoios) was one of Aristophanes (Vespae. 1446) refers to his murder by the Delphians and his fable beginning. 19 and in one of them the herald Zarmanochagas (Shramanachdrya) of Bargosa. the independent Bactrian the Orient became the Seleucidae and during the kingdom and science." while the Scholiast finds an allusion to The Serpent and the Crab in Pax 1084 . Porus in B. when the conquests of Macedonian Alexander completed what Sesostris and Semiramis had begun.C. bore an epistle upon vellum written in Greek See Jotham's fable of the Trees and King Bramble (Judges Man and his little ewe Lamb (2 Sam.C." Vespae 1401. i). At^io^: This would show that the Hellenes preserved a legend of the land whence the sera as Beast-fable arose. 2 From eastwards and ist) about a century 570). ^Esop. Phrygia and Asia Minor. " et ^Esopus in myth. literature sent two embassies to Augustus life of (B. whose Black-land the it 1 involved name. .

synchronous with the Persian Kay Kaus and Kay Khusrau. The second. "Hikmat ba Lokman dmokhtan. of the tribe of Ad who The youngest Lokman " lived 3. i. ii. Thomas) and.g. of Biography etc. barbarorum regionibus Graecae artes ? Macedonicus sermo ? Atheniensis Quid Quid in sibi inter volunt in mediis Indos Persasque Asia turba est" Upper Macedonian days would have been mainly Buddhistic. after a godly and " a of left volume Amsal. ad Helv. would find indigenous letters. the and the civilisation From stone- But development. pretend say." memory " I learned wisdom from the blind who make sure of things by touching them" (as did " I have received St. " in " One should not to teach Lokmdn and Easterns still Persian. imitators 1 1 There are three Lokmans who distinct are carefully comfounded in Sale (Koran chapt. camel for " Camel His wife Bardkish also appears in proverb. was son of Ba'ura of the Children of Azar. i. 938). when he ate the colocynth offered by his owner. " " could dig a well with his nails hence the saying.500 years. of the vultures " More voracious than Lokman" breakfast and another for supper. He from thee so many a sweet that 'twould be surprising if I refused this one bitter. in the : buildings were wooden and she lacked. and there ^Esop would be represented by the sundry One of these was of servile sages who share the name Lokman.). was a prince the age of seven vultures (Tabariy. said when her son 295) . 134) alludes to his eating one He . as Bactrian result main the architecture test of social far as classical opposed to vedic Sanskrit. ^Esopus. he became King of the country. c. his Al-Hakim (the Sage) The first or eldest and the hero of the Koranic chapter which bears name. Kingdom gave an impulse to her was we know. *' Thou resemblest Lokman (in black ugliness) " but not in wisdom (Ibn Khallikan i. was destroyed. sister's son to Job or son of Job's he witnessed David's miracles of mail-making and when the tribe of 'Ad maternal aunt ." proverbs and exempla (not fables or apologues) edifying life. . Stronger than Lokman " " More hence and he loved the arrow-game. art. xxxi. : . i.P. (ibid. This negro or negroid. Persia Greek extending southwards to Arabia. " (A (ibid. was a slave. an Abyssinian negro. give us camel flesh to eat. e. vi. gambling than Lokman ." was buried (says the Tarikh Muntakhab) at Ramlah in Judaea." Three of his apothegms dwell in the public " The heart and the tongue are the best and worst parts of the human body. " i 78). but still in a low and barbarous condition her India. i-7oi). entitled Lokman. us and camel thyself" (ibid. Videtis gentes populosque mutasse sedes " says Seneca (De Cons. Layla h. possessing a rude alphabet borrowed from Egypt through Arabia and Phoenicia. also called the Sage.e.A If Laylah wa Ii8 {Strabo xv.) and in Smith's Diet. 145). also Pythagoras the Greek(!) His physique is alluded to in the saying. sold to the Israelites during the reign of David or Solomon. with the seventy Prophets stoned in one day by the Jews.

More of this in Chenery's Al Hariri p. The savage. 89). are said also to have beast-fables which have never been traced to a foreign source (Lelarid). Keith-Falconer. " To the Gold Coast for Gold. followed by Mr. or carpenter tailor. would regard the carnivor and the serpent with awe. 422 1 I ." which are born. are there reduced to two. but the three have noticed them Lokmans in vol. ii." a reminiscence of hide. soon suspect the same mysterious potency in the brute as self : so the Malays as the possessor of look upon the Uran-utan. herdsman." . might have with some rude and fantastic barbarian of Buddhistic " " persuasion fable. carried and indigenous origin : so Reynard the Fox has its analogue amongst the Kafirs and the Vai tribe of Mandengan negroes in Liberia 1 amongst whom one Doalu invented or rather The modern Gypsies borrowed a syllabarium. passions. discovers " between the JEsopic and the Hindu apologue In the former : animals are allowed to act as animals men as is in the form of animals. live and die like himself. must have seemed quite human enough and on an equal level to become his sub- when he began to reflect. prepossessions and prejudices. 19 1 " lips Habashi " and splay so far showing a superficial likeness to the JEsop of history. who had few in him- Wood-man^ The hunter and the other companions. shepherd . condition. But I cannot accept the refinement of difference which Professor Benfey. showing all the same affects and disaffects. would presently ex- plain the peculiar relations of animals to themselves by material by a former husband brought her a fine joint which she and her husband relished. 47-49. ii. The ^Ssopic fallen in by the Hellenes to India. . wonder and dread and would stitutes. loves and think and talk like " hates. Also* "Barakish hath sinned against her kin" (ibid. or still superhuman wisdom. and a (Ethiopian) meaning a negro slave with blubber feet. To early man the lower animals.Terminal Essay. and its Homo The the latter makes them act essence of the beast-fable primigenius with erected ears and hairy is expression : to make the brother brute behave. him with the superadded experience of ages.

and. fly farther than And the Rome the jade was a book result which has had more readers than any other except the Bible. that ancient guebre Panchatantra (" Five Chapters of King. . the beast con- Ego (alias soul) of the human such instinctive belief much in Hindu literature.I2O Alf Laylah wa Laylah. 2 The King Anushirwan (A.D. original has Arabic. the bodily transformation of man him weal and woe. * Diet. the Hindostani Akhlak-i-Hindi ("Moralities of Ind Canopus"). under a host of names. from the name of the two jackal-heroes. this venerable production : Voltaire 3 wisely remarks of Quand on fait reflexion que presque toute la terre a &t& enfatue'e de pareils contes. of which more " earliest is the representation of the first collection. Arabic." presently. avowedly compiled from the 11 Panchatantra. et qu'ils ont 1 I fait can hardly accept the dictum that the Katha Sarit Sagara. Its original is unknown. and is "). Greek and Latin. Apocrypha. Hebrew and Syraic. V. and Europe knows the recueil as the Fables of Pilpay or Bidpay (Bidya-pati. by This blending of blood. ") and in Persia Hebrew and and Turkey the Anvar-i-Suhayli ("Lights of Syriac writers entitle their version Kalflah wa Damnah. Vishnu Sharma for the benefit of his pupils the sons of an Indian Rajah. Lord of learning ?) a learned Brahman reported to have been Premier at the Court of the Indian King Dabishlim. which in Pehlevi became the Javiddn Khirad ("Wisdom of Hoshang. this racial baptism would produce a fine robust progeny. after our second century. increased powers of working to brute giving A more advanced stage would find the step easy to metempsychosis. or Kalilaj wa Damnaj. 1 The volume. Tales have wings and hatchets of proto-historic days. Persian and 2 Turkish. 531-72) became the turned into Persian for Bah ram Shah the Ghaz- Pehlevi version of the days of Humdyun-nameh ("August Book") navite: the Hitopadesa ("Friendship-boon") of Prakrit. ^Egypto- Graeco-Indian stones overran the civilized globe between and China. jnetamorphosis. Philosoph.'* became the Hindu Panchopakhyan. Testament or the Ages") in Sanskrit the a recueil of apologues and anecdotes related by the learned Brahman. The Hindu been adapted and translated into a number of languages. but it was not wanted at first taining the explains : the Apologue. S.

de But methinks the sage of raisonables. once it shows the quoter to " not a Jangalf.121 Terminal Essay. tales with a single event each characterised by some social or narrative highly interesting in exquisite itself. with 'their grey young heads and is in their wisdom a perfume of the past. political aspect. . and yet preserving. d'6sope. dictes do not " and man ascribe but it with beast. wondrous soothing withal to olfactories agitated by the patchoulis and jockey clubs of modern pretenders and petit-maitres. writers." a sylvan or savage. Preface to Pilpay. ignores Again. " Were whose ignorance is " Connu antique. de Pilpay. far les fables more. latter is is mainly German. as the Anglo-Indian official them is tells at : habitually termed The main fable in by difference The Nights is his more civilised between the " fellow-subject. mature experience adhibited to the Western pert intelligence. including the modern which. P<ducation du genre humain. with rare ingenuity. to Rajah. the Arabian fables " are often long-continued novelle involving a variety of events. appears humorous enough and rich in the wit which results from superficial incongruity the deep underlying bond which connects 1 The Lokman * older Arab . those few could digest it might escape the normal lot of being twisted round the fingers of every rogue they meet from Dragoman And a quotation from be a man of education. often forming a exhibiting the most moral. bien Ferney might have said utterance of early man . There homely and ancientfashioned like a whiff of pot pourm. beast-apologues to ." The equally pronounced. fables or proverbial sayings. These fables speak with the large they have also their own especial beauty the charms of well-preserved and time-honoured old age. peculiar characteristics of the actors. the motto of a dose of its ! who before he visits the East." And 2 the the distinction between the ancient and the mediaeval apologue. '* they record only Professor Taylor Lewis : I repeat. since " Reineke Fuchs." classical apologue and the that while ALsop and Gabrias write laconic and a simple moral. on trouve 1 Lokman.

than understands one. the strain of pungent satire. takes the form of a bull metamorphosis full blown. The second melancholy love tale of Ali bin Bakkar. romance of the following cliii. x. the first in chapter Ix. with table-talk finds We know that it and a place This style of composition from the history of the 2 and giving even these are not where humorous Rabelaisian anecdote in fact the fabliau or novella. idea ever cropping up the oldest book in the world " ." Our Recueil contains two first (vol." who becomes a " panther of the South (Nubia) for rage" at the wife's impudique proposal. alternating with five anecdotes iii. . his "little brother. that name was given by M. Proverbs. Rameses III. be dates as far back Two Brothers in the prototype of Yusuf and Zulaykha. after the fashion of 8 The fabliau is interesting in more Brugsch.C. intro- the subject-matter. 2200. the the In the Katha Sarit Sagara the beast-apologues are more numerous. an ways (Potiphar) Anepu in Folk-lore. of apologues. in the Contes Populaires of Egypt. distinct cxlvi. 125). 266 et seq. the elder the language of cattle. Chabas to a MS. but they can be reduced to two great nuclei book chapters . It is not. as the allowed 1 by the followed the deadly sin of such works obviating monotony as knightly and Shimas mentioned by Al-Mas'udi as independent The such and consisting of eight fables. 1 sets may . King Omar bin al lengthy Nu'man and ix. dating from B.. vol. Jali'ad The consists of eleven. History of Egypt." a novel earlier than the popular date of Moses.). palate. i. literary as ancient as the apologues. injected into is cmxxiv. suggesting great antiquity for this style of composition.) (Nights vol.A If 122 main the secret of its Laylah wa success is Laylah. being acroamata. gostly and worldly. which the people could apply to all unpopular " lordes and prelates. are climax of excitement And murder of the Wazirs. as some have called it.) and the second in the same Ixii-lxv. places the duced with some art and add the repose to series in the romance of to hearer or pall or analects to reader after a upon the mental anecdotes and short biographical Beast-fables variety King tales. Here too they are mixed up with anecdotes and acroamata The Nights. both In Nights. of " See also the Story of Saneha. not including ten anecdotes (Nights cmi. especially in the Renardine Cycle. such as the Hermits episodes..). Orbigny papyrus. and Bata (Joseph). of . (Lib. mingled with (iii.

" measure satisfies the Substance. retort Sarit 28. Fiction shows or would a mighty show us maze life as it 1 The fox and the jackal are confounded by the Arabic dialects not by the Persian. is used aphrodisiacally as an unguent by both sexes. where the natural universe " imaginative existence. about This is remarked by Weber (Indische Studien) and Prof. of Le Jardin parfume du Cheikh Nefzaoui. a type familiar to nor Again The Flea and the Mouse (iii. Let down us make merry an hour and lie together let ! thy hair!" Some of the apologues in The Nights are pointless enough. ass's milk and melted camel-hump. whose " Rubah " can never be mistaken for " Shaghal. Mankind what History denies and in some the Mind with Shadows when it cannot enjoy And as real History gives us not the success of things according to the deserts of vice and virtue. Next in date to the Apologue comes the Fairy Tale proper. and Potiphar's 123 It wife. such as the Wolf and the Fox 1 (the wicked man and the wily man). etc. but in the best specimens. Koranic Joseph charming naYvete* 11 Come." " Sa'lab " among the Semites applied to either beast and we can distinguish the two only by the fox being and rapacious. moins qu'amusants . is told a with and such sharp touches of local colour as. is locally solitary tales the Giddar or Kola (Cants aureus) being by no means sly and wily as the Lomri (Vtdpes vulgaris). ii. must strike the home-reader as peculiarly quaint.Terminal Essay. rational Fiction soul. See p. Fiction corrects and presents us with the and fortunes of persons rewarded and punished according to merit. See Katha "King Nobel" Sagara." But I would say still more. like jackal's grape (Solanumnigrum=z black nightshade). and the jackal gregarious and a carrion -eater. may add that in Northern Africa jackal's gall. 239. Benfey's the lion is by no means to the point. supplemented by one of purely the active world is inferior to says Bacon with his normal sound to gives As is the "so sense. it fates History paints or attempts to paint with or without a plan : life as it is. I of whom more presently. of students of the Pilpay cycle. In all Hindu the jackal seems to be an awkward substitute for the Grecian and classical fox. both rien characters are kept distinct and neither action carefully dialogue ever flags. 151). .

in priceless and bring the choicest 1 transport in an eye- and build who can serve up chargers and im- from farthest Orient : . the faculty of Fancy takes count of the cravings of man's nature for the marvellous. For that the report of noble deeds doth urge the courageous mind to equal who bear most commendation those approved valiancy . however whimsical. Here he sees mighty spirits summoned to work the human mite's will. better enjoy and commonplace characters. ancient histories. fighting and loving. the impossible. Art because it not Nature. and of his higher aspirations for the Ideal. Every has longed for supernatural powers and a glimpse of Wonderland. and gentle portress who holds the opposition to Reason. Here he is in the midst of it. who can gems and and delicious drinks jacinths Rambler. being carried away from scenes and incidents work-a-day world. is " fixed Thus lines. youth and portrays The imaginative foil for The Nights varnish of serves admirably as a We to the absolute realism of the picture in general. trivial from the matter of fact surroundings of a life of eating and drinking. into a society and a mise-en-scene which we suspect can exist and which we know does man at some turn or term of his life not. the Perfect : she realises the wild dreams and visions of his generous him a portion of that "other and world." with whose expectation he would console his age. sleeping and waking. the surly and that kind open. wisely ordered and laid Fiction is not the mere handmaid of History hold of her own and she claims as Goethe remarked. fruits Ixvii. in As 1 Palmerin of England says and says well." this is And." is Fancy. No. a . him ruin cities . " la du is folle logis> Hope wide gate of scrupulous guard." " Laylah. delicate viands possible cups . she has a house- : to be the triumph of Art which.A If Laylah wa down on should be. who can twinkling whithersoever he wishes palaces of gold and silver. the fair fruit but not last of their of Imagination and of least.

In "The Adventurer" quoted by Mr. the is Mr.?" His brain 1 is dazed and dazzled by the splendours which flash before it." men and women. talismanic couches which rival the carpet of Solomon. these Fairy Tales have pleased to please almost all ages. to our favour. evil sorcerers. the anomalous character of the super- natural agents here employed. sympathies. . subjected ill if will. Heron the truth of the fact. observes that these Fairy Tales find favour because even 'their machinery. in short. has and the magicians and enchanters perform nothing but what was naturally to be expected from such beings. by the sudden procession of Jinns and Jinniyahs. . 1 Some travels I 2 We see whose good or years ago I was asked by my old landlady had come across Captain Gulliver. some by good wizards and whose powers are unlimited for weal and for woe by mermen and mermaids. unknown " rather supposes the It is surely the strange- nature. once granted them existence. flying horses. Arabian Tales of Chaves and Cazotte. feeling almost inclined to enquire "And why may it not be true. who on all the feelings of our hearts. even The of that strange fascination little in their and life literature of mutilated and garbled form. and reasoning elephants by magic rings and their slaves and by hideous. reader surrenders himself to the spell. Hawkesworth " * and and still Hence. others preternaturally beautiful ." very contrary ness. here he finds magas and magicians 125 who can make kings of his and bring any number of beloveds from this outraging probability and out- friends. demons and fairies. stripping possibility arises not a exercised for nearly two centuries upon the Europe by The Nights. fears. slay armies of his foes to his And arms. wild and wonderful as it is. power or weak- ever in the course of "Translator's Preface to my the . and.Terminal Essay. possess qualities to recommend them to the influence of beings. that makes them to operate so powerfully on our hopes. curiosities. after we had its laws . all ranks Dr. as one remarks. continue all different capacities. talking animals. Heron.

lively as ever. are regulated we cannot comprehend stances which tremble for their . we with the same anxious concern. a fragment of the truth and holds it whole Truth. him with fond gentle beings. and around amongst us. and precipices : by motives and circumand hence. ness. xi. " writes Mr. should for a friend wandering. as wise and as we admire similarly foolish in word and deed as ourselves : a landscape natural forms like those of In such supposing them so very are pleased to find Staffa or the Palisades which favour the Again. or by received." meseems each has secured. as often happens. but hospitality. strongest . we naturally a dark night. like Central Africa before the last half century interest tion is that of the to one who Personal Narrative delights greatest where faith tive " races like the is in travels. but . pleasure in Fairy Tales is Wonderland which known is The grand this is not all. Bayle St. John. to be the Granted that such we as Jinns walk the earth. disposed to cherish Both writers have expressed themselves well. " for instance 1 "Life "family" in amongst imagina- " I a Levantine Family" the faith in Jinn and Ifrit. amidst torrents in or preparing to land on a strange island. by cannibals waiting to tear him piecemeal. source of chapt. and devour him. human. Since all is is the religious the able author found his much has been changed ghost and vampire Nights. 1 : of a grand explora- The supernaturalism with their mother's milk. Nights. the natural desire to learn to many more of the word and nothing as a more. the more our attention is excited and our forecasts are baffled to be But set right in the end. spiritual creatures works of be to preternaturalisms architecture. the wilder and more capricious they prove. so fully developed in believed in thus the pleasure must be Kelts and especially Orientals. The persuaded/' The Thousand and One by the majority of the inhabitants of firmly believing in am who imbibe that the great scheme of preternatural energy.A If 126 wa Laylah Laylah. as fate. attention or neglect. while he knew not whether he should be on the shore. in Alexandria .

the second cradle of the creeds. The gifted Iranian race. 127 He might have added and Egypt. media stultified . with borrowed bodily from Persia. between Marocco and Outer Ind." Mohammed. The so-called The innovation was hailed by the Hebrews. blighted roundings and circumstance to something little higher than a Covenanter or a Puritan. The whole of its superproves. . has exercised upon the world- which has not yet been fully Babylonian art and literature what influence repeated for Greece had done for Egyptian. as the Talmud the " absurdities of foreign fable** " becoming the most wildly superstitious and otherworldly" of mankind. and they made the sphere of Art and Fancy as real as the world of Nature and Fact. and Iran instinc- tively chose as their characteristic the idea of Beauty. from Mullah to Badawi. the superadded Babylonian legend The Law by supplementing it with and ended. the other world which ruled the life of the Egyptian in this world may have : the lawgiver. to me. physically the noblest and the most of beautiful all known amount of history an It recognised. naturalism is a great and commanding and narrowed by genius. whoever he been. rejecting was exaggerated and grotesque . " I am sent to 'stablish the sur- manners and customs " . removed to Mesopo- tamia. all that Books of Moses deliberately and ostentatiously ignored the future state of rewards and punishments. The same change befel Al-Islam. which had " imparadised Earth by making it the abode of angels. But the Jews. presently caught infection of their Asiatic to Egyptian myth ." professions both in Syria " The Fairy Tale in The Nights is wholly and purely Persian." by every reasoning being from prince to peasant. declared to his followers. Osarsiph or Moshe. whose dominant idea was that of working eternity a for Hellas K-riJ/xa cts act.Terminal Essay. apparently held the tenet unworthy of a race whose career he was directing to conquest and isolation in dominion.

his cosmogony. quickened dates from the second century by the glowing imaginaA. plastic art and fiction. even the Talmudic or Iranian* But there he stopped and would have stopped others. But human nature was stronger than the Prophet and.H. thus outraged.8i$. his heavens and Bridge over the Great Depth are all either hells. and prayers. with a mingling of classic modern Hylozoism 1 The name . perforce borrowed from the Jews who had borrowed them from the Babylonians his soul and spirit.D. was incontinently decapitated. made him dislike everything " women. the Traditions and other books of and he never reads poems nor Mohammed listens to " taint still for the lingers in He always studies Law and Religion . his unlike that of Moses. It idea'd intolerance which find of the what appears to be a natural and was the same furious fanaticism and onefor made Caliph Omar destroy : it he could Alexandrian Library and prescribe burning Holy Books of the Persian Guebres. music or to stories. or before A." a dispensation or rather a reformation so arid. the Koran. demanded thaumaturgy and metaphysical and these he entities. " Law jejune and material that it promised little more than the left of Moses. And the Al-Islam all will be said of a pious man. taken prisoner after the Battle of Bedr. was Before the first by the rise startled century had elapsed." before this was vivified and racially baptised by Meso- potamian and Persic influences." with an to music and poetry. took speedy and absolute revenge. : angels and devils. by apostolic command. perfumes. His enemies among the Koraysh were in the habit of reciting certain Persian fabliaux and of extolling and equally as superior to the silly of the "Glorious stories fictitious them leader of these scoffers was one The Koran/' Nazr ibn Hdris who. sensible preference. orthodox Al-Islam of Tasawwuf or Sufyism 1 a revival of Platonism and Christian Gnosticism. which.A If Laylah wa 128 and his deficiency of imagination Laylah. but especial aversion Yet his system. .

is shown to Bulukiya. a creed the most for "belief" hunger placed upon a solid basis of fact and proof. had been in left in a order to " Bulukiya : tell the hapless lad cavern to die by the greedy woodcutters him her the latter is Mohammedanism scribe to faith the older creed. the encircling 231 etc. the most poetical 129 spiritual and the most trans- satisfying all man's . Dabistan i. v. first the subject gorgeous picture is the Session of the Snakes which. of the East. as a specimen of the true Persian of the Serpents " (vol. The of Lane's Carlylean denunciation. Amongst the sights traverses the Seven Oceans." but tory " of Genesis. speedily formed tion cendental ever invented which. Good and Hormuzd and Ahriman. true Magian dualism. the eternal Two Roots or antagonistic Principles. which Milton has debased into a duello of the Evil. itself into and impractical. . . so familiar to Al-Islam. like their Indian congeners the Naga human heads and kings and queens. Sakhr and Kaf. common-place modern combat fought the Jinni is Eshem chief of the Divs. The The Queen Nights. have reptile bodies. 298). also with cannon. who Adventures of Israelite converted "beyond the Seven (mystic) Seas.Terminal Essay. an . the mightiest of the Angels Bahman. 1 VOL. I will take from " romance. X. by editor and not buried by authentic his- The is and. who enabled Zarathustra-Zoroaster to walk like Bulukiya over the Dalatf or 1 Caspian Sea. an Egyptian myth that engendered the "old serpent The Sultanah welcomes Hdsib Karfm al-Dm. introduces tale. the crystal descent of the Archangel the manifestation of the First Intelligence. detect under his assumed his seal-ring suggests the cup of the great King Jamshfd. would forth- if right cease to be belief. at Jerusalem or Jam-i-Jam. Tiberias . and " the but we can Solomon is Gabriel. as he a battle royal between the believ- ing and the unbelieving Jinns.

man and woman. of Knowledge. emblems of souls. in the Mantak al-Tayr (Colloquy of the Flyers) the Birds. guardian of the Persian mysteries.Alf Laylah wa 130. of Stupefaction. and all Thus useful animals and plants. their god. seeking the presence of the gigantic feathered biped Simurgh. " Simurgh and casting a clandestine glance at him * they saw thirty birds in him and when they turned their eyes island of the . the identity of God and thirty birds entirely." A represent : " to Simorgh. " that is. Light- " " by Ahriman. annihilation of self). (i. though . This two-man-tree is evidently the duality of Physis and Anti-physis. to themselves the thirty birds seemed one Simurgh themselves the entire Simurgh they saw . progeni- created for " Shfdistan. the battle between Mihr. (the iii. Ahriman produced the comets. In McClenachan's Addendum Mackay's Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry we find the following definition monstrous griffin. is Laylah. the wolf. the several stages At standing upon the mysterious last. the dog. and of Altruism of contemplative life. the 1 The Hindus same metaphysical idea by Bramha the Creator and Visva- Because Si = thirty and Murgh = bird. in : they saw in the Simurgh the Therefore they arrived at the solution of and Thou . We they were for ever annihilated in the Simurgh and the shade vanished in the sun (Ibid. (vol. Nature and her land. So a later edition of Persian Alborz. cerning Khalit and Malit the seed of Kayomars 250).e. noxious beasts and poisonous growths. of Competence. The wild ideas con- "From 319) are again Guebre. . of Unity. planets. mountain." were seduced counterpart. androgyne. like pre-Adamite man) sprang a tree shaped like two human beings and thence proceeded Meshia and Meshianah. tors of mankind " first who. Izad or Mithra with his Surush and Feristeh (Seraphs and Angels) against the Divs who are the children of when Hormuzd Time led created the by the arch-demon Eshem. v." the problem " Man . traverse seven Seas (according to others seven Wadys) of Search. of Love.

the young Prince. " View of the History etc. that is. 329). the is energy. of the Hindus" by the learned Dr. 491) on Herod." whose stature corresponds . iii. : After evolution turned topsy turvy. as the universal are at chronic war human They escape in intelligence East believes the/can : to the and speak these Simiads with the Ants. 2 Rawlinson (ii. 1 131 by Europeans Vulcan the and the latter caricatures them miscalled former fashions a horse and a bull with an ass and a buffalo. implanted by the Creator in the mundane sphere. episode. who could see in them only the " low and sordid nature of idolaBut we can hardly expect better things from a missionary in 1822. symbolised by a bull. the Anti-creator. karma. Raphael or Israfil Azrail who Dumd is alias or Life-giver . 102. the . Nearchus saw the skins of these formica Indicze. Ape-island whose denizens are articulately. and Azazel or or Mordad. to wit Rawanbakhsh the Persian or Beshter. Michael Ardibihisht. the mise-en-scene being Kabul and the King of Khorasan appearing in the proem. " the Bulukiya then Story of Jdnshah. and the four demons hostile to mankind who were driven behind Alborz-Kaf by Tahmuras the ancient Persian king. Janshah. 177. seeing nine angels and obtaining an explanation of the Seven Stages of Earth which supported by the Gav-i-Zamin.Terminal Essay." tect of the took the trouble to understand what " idolatry " means. alluding to some obscure myth which gave rise to the gold-diggers of Herodotus and other " emmets in size somewhat less than classics. dogs but bigger than foxes. Ward. c. the Death-giver are about to attack the Dragon. by some rationalists explained as " jackals. no sooner comes to man's estate than he loses himself out hunting and falls in with cannibals whose bodies divide longitudinally. who Gabriel is Bulukiya meets the four Archangels. iii. v." 2 The episode then falls into the banalities of Oriental 1 For a poor and inadequate description of the festivals commemorating this ' ArchiGods "see vol. when no one try." recites itself an episode within an a Persian name and accompanied by two others (vol. each moiety going its own way : these are the Shikk (split ones) which the Arabs borrowed from the Persian Ni'm-chihrah or Half-faces.

suggesting that they were written after the destruction of the Fatimite dynasty (twelfth century) by Salah al-Din (Saladin the Kurd) one of the latest historical personages and the with the last text. Wilson. resolving to regain his natal land. Laylah Janshah. king named in The Nights. suggests that The Nights assumed essentially their present shape during the general revival of and requirements which accompanied the Kurdish and Tartar irruptions into the Nile Valley. loss till when the end Having heard this story Bulukiya quits him. and. vary some of the anecdotes : almost contemporary may . historical stories and the Ana " of great men in which Easterns as well as Westerns delight the gravest writers do not disdain to relieve the dullness : of chronicles and annals by means of such discussions. finally.A If 132 wa Layla k. mourn her and loses her Yaghmtis. H. arts fifteenth centuries and ended with the Ottoman Conquest in A. Lord of the Birds he enters the usual forbidden room falls in love with the pattern : . . learned Sanskritist. . fourteenth aod letters. is Jews' city. rest of the tale calls for (!) enables hiroi no comment Thirdly and lastly we have the histories. by a shark. a golden age which embraced the whole of the thirteenth. Swan-maiden wins her by the popular process . C.D. Green Prophet. be as late as the Ottoman Conquest of Egypt (sixteenth All are distinctly Sunnite and show fierce animus century). '86). who was Wazir to with Khizr falls in Kay Kobad to win his wish. against the Shi'ah heretics. 1 These anecdotes are so and by others as " pengolens " or ant-eaters (mam's penUdactyld). like Ali of Cairo and Abu al-Shamat.) and was connected with Macedonian Alexander " like that and. given The by the people of Little Thibet to the precious dust thrown up in the emmet heaps. whose name. she is killed is Monk a burlesque of the Greek . H. 1527. determines to of his days. recovers her through the of King Teghmus. 1 A writer in the Edinburgh Review (July. the normal persuaded to be sewn up in a skin and way to the top of the carried in is Mountain of Gems where he makes acquaintance with Shaykh Nasr. and the (vith century B. The . quotes the name Pippilika = ant-gold. passing the Sabbation river and reaching the folk-lore. dates must greatly relating to the early Caliphs appear others. humorous The or pathetic. of whom more presently. moral or grossly indecent.

See Le Jardin Parfum du Cheikh Nefzaoui Manuel d'Erotologie Arabe Traduction Edition priv^e. whose bounty embraced the folk Sa'adi (ob. the Viceregent of Allah combining the powers of Caesar and Pope. appears to be the model of literary pirates. 1291) his generosity He was and the (xivth most one . &c. a tale highly favourable Fakhr al-Din 2 36). . 1866. 934. as. of the most splendid empire the Orthodox was the central figure world had seen. (lib. Why will not poets mind their quantities. &c. in lieu of stultifying their lines by childish ignorance ? What can be more painful than Byron's "They * See ' De laid his dust in Ar'qua (for Arqua') where he died Sacy's Chrestomalhie Arabe (Paris." that the Great Caliph Aaron the becomes the hero of this portion of The Nights. science century) and A. connected often with '33 Frenchman terms the what a learned " 1 regne fe*erique de Haroun er-Re'schid. Revised and corrected translation. Cosmopoli mdccclxx'xvi. one devoted to war and pilgrimage. at large." : : be brought out by a bookseller whose Committee.D. and wielding them the general voice of historians." him to in Al-Siyuti most the of (nat.-vingt exemplaires. Paris. the volume lacks an index. a Manual of Arabian Erotology (sixteenth century). Let us humbly hope not again to hear of the golden prime of " The good (fellow?) Haroun Alrasch'id. as he calls it. The book has not been fairly of the in mistakes. par Isidore revue et corrige'e Liseux et ses Amis." a mispronunciation which suggests only a rasher of bacon. of illustrious The Shaykh alRauz al-'Atir fi' Nazah 290). To al-Khorasdni described him. vol. eloquence. Mohammed The copied some of the assured by a friend) from Tunisian edited : the notes abound editor has forgotten to note that the celebrated Sidi tales MSS. written the Jardin ParfumS has been twice translated into English as Since this was "The Perfumed Garden of the Cheikh Nefzaoui.D. for the Kama Shastra A rival version will Society of London and Benares and for private circulation only. i. from The Nights and borrowed others (I am same work. imprime' a deux cent.D. P " i. in " asserts 1445) of distinguished Princes the Nafzdwi 1 the "Gulistan" tells and lauds his merits. 1826). a century and-a-half " would be tongue-tied. 3 A..Terminal Essay. in death his after when flattery right worthily according to quote a few : Ali bin Talib A. robbing the author as boldly and as openly as if they picked his pocket before his face. (sixteenth Caliphs Earth" of the century) (p.

in his speech je les histoires ne vous en donne la Lorsque vous verrai que je m'eloignerai de requite* dans mes jugements. Jewdd even the latest writers have not ceased " ! (p. J. sans fdcheuses ni de re*primandes. Si). the best And of the generous." 1 des paroles trop 2 He became and ne parlez point well read in science and letters. sans y rien vous ma de de surtout cre*ance. Ne Attendez ordinaire- que vous me me donner vous demanderai. W." The Abbaside was and handsome. ment que je vous interroge. 2 D'Herbelot (s. et de me donner des avis en particulier. especially history tradition. a sportsman and an athlete who delighted in polo and fifth He showed archery.Alf Laylah wa Laylah. ramenez-moi avec douceur. 134 al-Khatir (chapt. him " : pas trop who had undertaken Ne m'enseignez jamais en public. (Glasgow. calls Harun the " Master of munificence and bounty. si vouloir me pour vous donner de vous etendez jamais trop en long sur et les traditions permission. et raconterez. ou myste'rieux. " Asmai"): I am reproacher by a dabbler in Orientalism for using this admirable writer who shows more knowledge in one page than my critic does in a whole volume. in the Harun was the most bounteous. = vii. Gibb. pre*occuper pour vous attirer i'autorite*. of noble and majestic presence. Mr. user de paroles Enseignez-moi principalement les choses qui sont les plus necessaries pour les discours que je dois faire en public. Story of illustrious and upright of the Abbaside Caliphs. fair sound sense and true wisdom to the grammarian-poet Al-Asma'i. to praise him. for " his understanding was as the understanding of Translated by a well-known Turkish scholar." Says Alf Aziz Efendi the Cretan. dans les mosquees et ailleurs . ni avec recherche"es. je to teach ne vous empressez et contentez-vous une response precise a ce que Gardez ajouter de superflu. Wilson and McCormick. v. E. . 1884).) Scented Garden-site for Heart-delight. et en termes obscurs.

" says liberal to poets. We have allusions to many Georgius Abba et presents. the dog Becerillo and elephant Abu Lubabah sent by Harun to Charlemagne is not mentioned by ' Eastern authorities and consequently no reference to it will be found in my late friend Professor Palmer's little volume " Haroun Alraschid. 139. one the Preacher. and liberally rewarded Sammak its experts. Abd al- Thy humility in thy " No Caliph. tent and linen hangings. he forgot his fanaticism of shalt make " nakh'd " 2 his indomitable energy and hatred of the Infidel. the his West is diplomatic dealings and courteous intercourse with Carolus Magnus." London." He made the pilgrimage every alternate year and sometimes on foot. "34-352 3 the The word nakh " (to make a camel kneel) is explained in vol. fairly said of him." of Allah From ! O Commander Roman dog. al his Nafzawi. "had been so profusely and his till and the Shaykh Finally. The present of the famous horologium. perfumes. 301 and 304 the I camel was only one instance of to be believed. 3 For specimens see Al-Siyutf. while "his military expeditions almost equalled his pilgrimages." " Day after day during his Caliphate he prayed a hundred bows. greatness " panegyry whom. 135 educated Arabs of his day. pp. 1 in advanced he wept over his divines." is Al-Niftawayh. pp." weight of his arm Court-yard . save for some especial reason." never neglecting them. although as the years in his of nobler than thy greatness. to Nicephorus the not hear. he was a all 1 connoisseur of poetry which at times he improvised with success. the learned " and. Byzantine feel the in the imperial name sins. Felix) of Aaron Amiralmumminim Regis Persarum who entered the silken dresses. the clock and elephant. thou shalt see son of a miscreant mother my Nor reply. ii.Terminal Essay. like . and this till ! Thou did he cease to he in his Yet.clepsydra-cuckoo clock. 1881. Marcus Ward. death . if . lawyers There was vigorous manliness answer to the Grecian Emperor who had sent him an insult- extravagance amongst other ing missive " : In the Harun the Faithful have read thy writ. and he used to give from his privy purse alms to the He delighted extent of a hundred dirhams per diem. the al-Rashid. and candelabra of auricalch brought by the Legati (Abdalla. .

Gratia cui Caroli prse cunctis Regibus atTjue Illis Many 2 See Al-Siyuti (p. The author also quotes the lines etc. and." . 178) Recueil des Histor. as becomes a good Moslem. marks his world from Spain to furthest China. tragedy whose details (reign with the stain of infamy.D. a right royal figure according to the Moslem ideas of his day. par Dom Martin Bouquet. so was his end obscure. or the contemporary Kings of the West in most points. Jonathan Scott's " is unknown. 305) and Dr. and well regulated rule contrasted as strongly with the barbarity and turbulence of occidental Christendom. have remarked that the actual date of the decease 1 (p. Anecdotes. as the civilised splendid Court and the luxurious Baghdad and its carpets and hangings devanced the quasi-savagery of London and Paris whose palatial halls The of were spread with rushes. months great Caliph ruled twenty-three years and a few 170-193 = A. 1 After a vision foreshadowing his death. : Persarum Princeps illi Praecipuo fuerat. a village near Tus.A If 136 Laylah wa Laylah. Principibus tempora cara fuit. 2 which happened. with a blot of blood never to be Port of Pisa (A. ia forty- Sanabad. des Gaules et de la France. devinctus amore nomen habens Aaron. and life reign was his 786-808).296). Tales.D. 801) in (vol. he ordered his grave to be dug and himself to be carried to it in a covered man set the litter thou art come down and a litter five) at " son of sighting the fosse he exclaimed. to be He made over him was buried (aet. " to this Then he commanded himself to be O when : ! perlection of the Koran on the edge of the grave.H. v. mdccxliv. (A. Paris. as his youth was chequered glorious.. But his career shows that he was not more more sanguinary than the normal despot of the East. during a military expedition to Khorasan. tyrannical or : he was far superior to the historic misrulers who have afflicted the But a single great crime. and Letters. indeed. a are almost incredibly horrible. Aaron the Orthodox appears in The Nights as a headstrong and violent autocrat.

washed away." Mas'udi's account of the family's early history is unfortunately los . in Al-Fazl was a foster- brother of Harun. service of the 1 Ommiades The most remarkable and Finance to Al-SafFah. 103. he the youth from death in seated firmly on the throne. entered the Abbaside and became Wazir and Intendant of first built "Ebnd" youth for He was 2 nobility of soul. the family. Al-Fazl. and D'Herbelot " AlBarmakian) quotes some Persian lines alluding to the supping up. charged by the Caliph Al-Mahdi with the education of his son Harun. compared them with the four elements. until the assassination of the fantastic who proposed tyrant Al-Hadi. once prison. the chief. till.v. " This Firdausi sings.3 in whose time the house rose to that height from which decline the East.Terminal Essay. Mohammed. Khalid bin Bermek. but he lacked the charm of temper and manner which characterised 1 I have given (vol. the head-quarters of the hated Baghdad. he was succeeded and heir Ydhya (John). 188) the vulgar derivation of the name . to his own child Caliph. had long served. belonging to the or Arabised Persians. tale." as full the massacre of the Barmecides is a story which . transferred the capital Ommiades. and Musa. liberality and his son by early distinguished of from Damascus. This Kha"lid (s. 137 of the waters of the eye. to After securing the highest character in his personal gifts and public services. difficulty in his Yahya Grand Wazir. hence the latter was accustomed him to call father little and. 468). he was in office by history when Al-Mansur ad hoc.the in our eighth century. and fall are. had no . The ancient and noble Iranian house. appointed This great administrator had four sons. his poetry see flatterers first entitled Ibn Khallikan Wazir under Al-Saffah (Ibn Khallikan iv. . of Bermek make preserving The Orthodox. Ja'afar. has often been told and which cannot here be passed over in silence. an exchange of suckling infants having taken place between the two mothers for the usual object. i. succeeded 8 For * Their Abu Salamah. well nigh certain and immediate. a statesman famed from early prudence and profound intelligence. i. a tightening of the ties of intimacy : he was a man of exceptional mind.

and gives further Fakhr al-Din (p. Abu Zakkar and the Christian physician Gabriel ibn Bakhtiashu. 27) adds that Masrur was an enemy details concerning the execution. Their downfall came sudden and terrible a thunderbolt from the blue. cxii.Alf Laylah wa 138 The Ja'afar. who is so pleasantly associated with Ja'afar in many nightly disguises ." were halting fall. and they did its arresting like " disruption. from Mauritania to Tartary. spent in of the night called up his page Yasir and bade him bring found Ja'afar which extended the Caliph and Ja'afar (the convent) near Euphrates. 786) to the date of their Yahya and his and Al-Fazl sons. carousing with the blind poet still were Ja'afar. the Sworder of but Vengeance.D. 2 the Eunuch survived the Caliph. chapt. be I me whereupon he eyes and received the fatal blow. in Al-'Umr As al-Rikhlah 2 the dead notable service in Anbar-town on the different pavilions. 310) says the eunuch Abu Hashim Masrvir. poets and rhetoricians have been profuse in their praises of the cadet who appears The Nights in as an adviser of calm sound sense. . (A. an intercessor and a peace-maker. Wazir adding. and even more remarkable than the rest of his family for an almost magnanimity and generosity une ge'ne'rositd effrayante. of Ja'afar . 803)." For ten years (not including an interval of seven) from the time for bravery * of Al-Rashid's accession (A. after a convivial evening Harun during The messenger Ja'afar's head. * They did good and harmed not. my "O . whatso Allah if and. and was the persuaded to return to the Caliph and report his death . sucker another at once life followed Ja'afar exclaim answer thee word. Laylah. to An and heard mother's will " ! owe shall done. Mohammed was famed for exalted views and nobility of sentiment incredible and Musa " and energy: of both it was justly said. who 1 Al-Mas'udi.D. virtually rulers of the great heterogeneous empire. bandaged Al-Asma'i. " listen of thy I will his he express regret not." Caliph thou if send thee before him own the only clitoris. Ibn Khallikan (i.

. the age The of seventy-four. and children.) to he insulted the afterwards. and summoning two witnesses commanded them to decapitate Yasir. Al-Tabari. some A pathetic tale is four months before told of the son his warming water for the old man's use by pressing. after having been tortured with two hundred blows in order to make him produce concealed property. naphtha and reeds for burning the body of Ja'afar the Barmecide/' Meanwhile Yahya and Al-Fazl. were slaughtered with Mohammed. seized by the Caliph Harun's at Baghdad. Al-Fazl. (5 shill.000) to a " the Wazir Ja'afar bin Yahya and. the whole Barmecide family. The motives of -this terrible massacre are variously recounted. when the head was " crying. men. women. brother his Calipfa's foster-father. however. some months the last and worst indignity remains by having them burned There are indeed pity and which can be offered to a Moslem. and lived to only three exceptions his son Al-Fazl.H. some opine. "Ten . (A. between two such items terror in the difference " accounts as these : robe of honour for kfrat. .Terminal Essay. was allowed to die in who jail two years' imprisonment at Rukkah. that Harun he gazed at it. was summoned the presence to 139 shortly recounts after. A. I brought to cannot bear to look upon the vengeance did not cease with the death " slayer" of Ja'afar His ! he ordered the head to : be gibbetted at one end and the trunk at the other abutment of the Tigris bridge where the corpses of the vilest malefactors used to be exposed and. survived his father three 805) after years and died in Nov. hastened their downfall. in the Treasury- Four hundred thousand dinars (200.H. terrible foster-brother. who. is immense their was con- According to the historian. Yahya. numbering over a thousand. the copper ewer to his stomach. fiscated. were significantly cast into the prison command " Habs al-Zanadikah " of the Guebres and wealth which. not supported by all the annalists. 808. .

" Allah slay The great house seems at times to have Bresl. vol." Ja'afar bound himself by a solemn oath but his mother Attabah was mad enough to deceive him in his cups and the result was a boy (Ibn Khallikan) or. that it body " . Edit. cxii. had been entrusted (A.D. i. had wedded him." but was heard to mutter. vii. translated in the Mr. 1 3 3 Al-Mas'udi..A If Laylah wa 140 Laylak. close dark " Ja'afar the escape of in abetting " ! 8 slay thee not. The issue was . floor of possibly." and expressly said " to his eldest sister brilliant in marry thee I will Abbdsah." It is far less lively and dramatic than the account of the same event given by Al-Mas'udi.. Ja'afar's perjury was only "the last straw. 786) with the Wazirate which he kept seven years. given. by Ibn Khallikan and by Fakhr al-Din." . her apartment. the deadliest enemy of the Barmecides. 189 and headed " Al-Rashid and the Barmecides. Night dlxvii." vol. wishing Ja'afar to be his companion even in the Harem. way its to : according to the most credible accounts she and her child were buried alive in a pit under the But. The popular idea embodied is The in Nights. Jonathan Scott's extracts from Major Ouseley's "Tarikh-i-Barmaki. according to others. 1 Harun. imprudently and whom Alide. cxi. chapt. Zubaydah who had her own reasons for hating husband and wife and cherished an especial grievance against Yahya. See Dr. pro forma. Payne's "Tales from the Arabic. Sayyid commanded confinement in a : hast done well I had also acted generously but when charged with disobedience the Wazir confession and Harun had (they say) exclaimed. the loveliest but he had may be lawful for thee to look upon her but thou shalt not touch her. chapt.. pp. 2 soon found it Abbasah supports the general conviction Thence Harun's treatment of to head-quarters. sent under the charge of a confidential eunuch and a slave-girl Meccah to for but the secret was divulged concealment. but no sufficient explanation has yet been." Already Al-Fazl bin Rabfa. twins. or possibly ever will be. woman of her day. for dungeon had made full Thou me an the Caliph had Yahya bin Abdillah. 258-260. mind as in to her.

303. 292." Hence 2 save to and Harun . Caliph's sister to have not seen thee enjoy one happy day since putting Ja'afar to death answered. Ibid. its very greatness powerful enemies and anonymous verse and prose. i. after Al-Rashid's death. pp. rend it I in thought that I pieces!" my shirt therefore ? hold with regards the intimate cause (of the catastrophe) unknown and Allah Al-Mas'udi.Terminal Essay. and as regards the religious troubles ibid. monuments the all the charge that they were Zanadakah. manieres que ne rois les Badrun. I sauroient when the reason I "My Al-Mas'udi. p. chapt. As " he knew the wherefore didst thou slay him : an life. induces connected with his " faith. a well-known " philosophically remarked. *4 O my lord. xxiv. they had plied the Caliph with forgotten that. the poet. Reprobates. cxii. 362 and passim. According supporter/' is For the vol. is it 1 8 dear would " Ibn 4 'Olayyah asked him." a term properly applied to those who study the Zend but popularly meaning Mundanists. but the day (of their power and prosperity) had been long and Fakhr al-Din says whatso endureth long waxeth longsome. "The zeal said to have is him rooted in his heart. chapt. Diet. i. 309. Positivists scripture. (p. especially would have Nor was created who detractors it 141 money for matters many and it and * . . abused powers by being too peremptory with Harun and its in Zubaydah. 4 This accomplished princess had a practice that suggests the Dame aux Camelias. Atheists and . took see Ibn Khallikan. grammarian and 3 quotes who traditionist Sa'i'd immediately broke out in ibn Salim. In heresy. before the spread of Al-Islam. violent religious troubles Ibn Khallikan Baghdad. presided over the Naubehar or Pyraethrum of Balkh remarked anent Yahya. "On attribue encore leur ruine aux manieres fieres et orgueilleuses de Djafar (Ja'afar) et de Fadhl (Al-Fazl). find signs of Ja'afar's suspected I For Al-Rashid's hatred of the Zindiks see Al-Siyuti. Omniscient. 3 Biogr. Of a truth the Barmecides did nothing to deserve Al-Rashid's severity." 27). ii. for magianism. it may be noted that." liberties Ja'afar 29 of The Nights. 301 .

1 We must not take seriously the tales of her Perdition to your fathers. 2 i.Alf Laylah wa 142 Laylah. ix. iv. . the rest of The crime Harun's career: stands it out in ghastly prominence as one of the most terrible tragedies recorded by history. "This concluding Essay I also is through the munificence of the Barmecides. 159. to blame them or fill the void they have left. and. " vol. 179. and vol." I especially allude to must differ in my (vol. wise and enlightened family. His unwise elevation of his two of poison. 181. I bid you spare o Your calumnies or their place replace. See 346. pp. and its horrible details passionately on the subject to this our day. the prospered and devoted and Ja'afar the couplet No Fazl : sire to bin to Rabfa. of the Caliphate never affairs man of intelligence substitute for Yahya reported to have applied to is him : your 1 sire. must have added poignancy to still rival sons filled "sticks fiery off" from his tardy penitence. Aaron the Orthodox appears sincerely to have repented his From that date he never enjoyed refreshing enormous crime. he would exclaim. Payne's admirably written account of it in his and the Lady Zubaydah his views of the Great Caliph every point except the destruction of the Barmecides. Also Roebuck's Persian Proverbs. where the great Wazir is said to " have been "crucified. mourning lastly. 3 i." And he had life if and. iv. ! ample reason mourn to After the extermination of the the loss. a proved a poor and the Caliph . and she far was not worse at her worst than the normal despot-queen of the Morning-land. As of Harun so of Zubaydah it may make men write 3 be said that she was superior in most things to contemporary royalties. 2.)- friend From Mr. Allah's curse on your ancestors. . though letters.e. "Ja'afar and the Bean-seller. sleep he would have given his whole realm to : recall Ja'afar to any spoke slightingly of the Barmecides in his " God damn your fathers Cease presence. for the him with fear the violence and recklessness of the popular 2 Barmecides. whose echo has not yet died away.

her cognomen was Umm Ja'afar as her husband's was Abu Ja'afar and her popular name " Creamkin " derives from Zubdah. in a work previously noticed. she was the daughter of a powerful Sheik of that tribe. having of forfeits from her husband. She was as majestic and munificent as her . The jealousy in 143 Nights. and he proceeds to give ample proof. viii. Edit. by his son Ja'afar term Al-Kasim: her the Almighty . Al-Siyuti relates how she once filled a poet's mouth with jewels which he sold for twenty 1 Bresl. which mostly end in her selling off or burying alive her rivals . place her in the highest rank " . . she acted after the recognised fashion of her exalted sisterhood. Zubaydah was the grand-daughter of the second Abbaside whom The Nights persistently name was Amat al-Aziz or Handmaid of Al-Mansur. vii. vol. in serious matters as in her diversions. 1 lie with the foulest and filthiest kitchen-wench in the palace. but. and being vexed with imposing unseemly conditions when he had been the condemned him to winner." The lady." Al-Maamun and Zubaydah. 296. 212) "The Sitt Lady Zobeide. 261-62.. Grattan Geary. during the last generation." Can this explain al-Zobeide. The history of Cairo. hum of prayer was never hushed in her Al-Mas'udi 3 makes a historian say to the dangerous palace. 2 cream or fresh butter. even were all true. " The nobleness and generosity of this Princess. 2 Mr. tells of dame who committed viceregal the virtues which many a the crimes. the or the "Kasim?" Vol.Terminal Essay. And all characterised secret the difference between the manners of the Caliphate and the " " of the nineteenth century may be measured by respectability the Tale called won a him for game . Caliph Al-Kahir. was so named from the great Zobeide tribe of Arabs occupying the country East and West of the Euphrates near the Hindi'ah Canal . informs us (i. without any of Harun's cousin-spouse. and thus was begotten the Caliph who succeeded and destroyed her son. husband and the . on account of her plumpness and freshness.

000. the will same main lines but all the texts and differs greatly in MSS. 216 and her tomb. but even a wall to direct pilgrims over the shifting sands. i. 185." I Darb al-Sharki or Eastern the road from Meccah to Al-Medinah was due to the piety of Zubaydah who dug wells from Baghdad to the Prophet's burial place and built not only cisterns and caravanserais. 503) in the traces it would especially recommend to students The Porter and the Three Ladies of Baghdad (i. some ten fine through levelled it. 82). 2) were useless to repeat it how it. her conduct virtuous. the Arafat in miles long. with the subrange and the .H. Her charity was ample. in Mirkhond and Kitab al-Uyun M." in was at was long visited by the friends and dependents who mourned the loss of a devout and most liberal woman. Barbier de Meynard back to an abbreviated text of Al-Mas'udi. after A. erected at a cost of 1. 1 cannot wonder that her name and the " Sons of the Holy a protracted widowhood. in to me. head which In the Tale of the Sage Diibdn appears the speaking found is in the Kdmil. Payne's translation with Lane's and mine. exists.700. : (v. The : admirable introduction follows. C. is still We famous among the Badawin She died Baghdad.000 to 2. (i. Ibn Khallikan Laylah* " 523) affirms of her. in general . which still Cities. "Travels in Arabia" vol. She also supplied Meccah. The reader will bear with me while I run through the tales and add a few remarks to the notices given in the notes the glance must necessarily be brief. known minor details as be seen by comparing Mr. which suffered severely from want of water. with the chief requisite for public hygiene hills by connecting and hewn rocks. and the history of her pilgrimage to Meccah and of what she undertook to execute on the way so well-known that is have noted (Pilgrimage iii.000 of gold pieces.Alf Laylak wa 144 thousand dinars. however extensive be the theme. 1 I whose mighty orgie ends so innocently Burckhardt. al-Mushdsh Ayn aqueduct.

it represents but he must have Arab known day the indecent frolic was quite possible in of the highest circles of his beloved To Cairo. some judge by the and changes of person. on the whole. VOL. appears more elaborate and perfected in other pieces. ? and purposely placed there to give the key-note of the book. taste till the romantic the movement dawned when Victor Hugo and Alexander Dumas showed their marvellous powers of faultless fancy. Lane marriage. " raising French Poetry from the dead and not 1 mortally wounding French prose. sometimes called " The Two Wazfrs " is notable and genuine drama-intrigue which. and the day had borrowed for which European the theatre in Boccaccio's And freely through Sicily from the East. X. to kill his cousin- jealous enough wife because a blackamoor in the streets boasted of her favours But after reading what is annotated in vol. . and I skunks of may add that the the human race >f in England. Arab ladies as acting like that during his 746) blames " because it courtesans 145 " . not beneficial. boundless imagination and scenic luxuriance. i. 1 The reverse has been remarked by more than one writer . remarkable deficiency lasted in France. however. Italian. justifies all the texts they cannot be omitted in a loyal The Three Apples following story of notes concerning which certain carpers my What Englishman would be perfectly complain. (iii. whose determined his direction. The Adventure of the Hunchback-jester also containing an admirable surprise and a fine develop(i. 225). he will understand the reasonable nature of the suspicion same cause has commended these to debauched The next women tale. some of the most "archaic" expressions suggest the hand of the Rawi or professional tale-teller style . The richness of for its regular still this Oriental plot-invention contrasts strongly with all literatures except the Spaniard's. yet as they are in The translation. and contemporary French opinion seems to be that Victor Hugo's influence on French prose was. 6.Terminal Essay." The Two Wazirs is followed by the gem of the volume. " .

" in 1240. tne drinking-party (vol. Pietas. gloomy tone of the tale which has variants Hindustani version of the Persian Baghdad garden 25). 2 and and was 3). Fortitudo. Lyons. and what Galland miscalls Noteworthy are the Slaver's address the fine description of the 15). ii. while humour its West. Here also the upon him for the purpose of unpiling at the Oriental tale-teller knows by experience that. and tempered by which the in the (vol. Scientia. and the happy end of the Its brightness is and All. (Acre) who in his sermons. (vol." only by the witty indecency of Its dismal pe'ripeties are relieved Eunuch Bukhayt and the admirable humour of Eunuch Kafur. ii." from the " Tale of The adventures were of the corpse in Europe long before Galland. It its has echoed through the world it 1 gave to Addison the Story of Alnaschar " and to Europe the term Shacabac " (vol. Fair Persian. known " wild but natural " and simplicity are so abounding that to the farthest Laylak. " don't pay. narratives for the plentifully garnished with . the "Storiologist. as shown by three fabliaux Barbazan." who is preparing a work to be entitled informs me the Popular Tales and Fictions their Migrations and Transformations. the crusading bishop of " . 44). ob." Accon first to adapt this witty anecdote was Jacques de Vitry. Barmecide Feast. 317) in is historical and I may add that it told in detail is by Al-Mas'udi (chapt. ii. the ii. hero's misfortunes (vol. i. De Dono Timoris from of Stephanus de Borbone. . Follows the tale of " The Nur al-Dm touches of true humour. Tale of the Four Darwayshes " a . Caliph's frolic (vol. into 11 Exemplum" first gift) gifts " " Exempla or instances example of Syria.A If Laylah wa 146 ment of character. I have noticed that the Barber's Tale of himself (i." S. 343). 31-37) succeeds." a brightly written historiette with not a few " Turkish Kirk Vezir or the in Bagh o Bahar. 21-24). after setting the probably heard it in her Milk-paii to suit in the Liber de Donis or de Septem Donis (or a Milkmaid Fear the of the Rome He had died at of the and Holy Spirit (Isaiah xi Consilium." Book of the Forty Vezirs. and he changed the day-dreamer It then appears as an his "flock. 1261 . ii. as a rule. Intellects et Sapientia use of preachers. W. whose " half-lie " is known throughout the East. : it treated Timor. cxiv). the Dominican. Clouston. lover's agonies are piled last : doleful endings 1 Mr.

. is a model sister . doomed to a miserable and pathetic end Zau al-Makan is a wise and pious royalty Nuzhat al-Zaman. . the curious . vol. palaces : an old lecher The who Zat al-Dawahi merits her Princess Abrfzah appears charming Amazon. though a longsome talker. Lane omits and the best part of two volumes. 221-8. Arab interesting as a picture of mediaeval chivalry and has many other notable points " Allah holds the for instance." showing the license with which he trans- lated . 1839) and H. Dec. 69 Review of the Arabian Nights. p. 1830. Torrens. here and there 249) and bristling with furious characters stand out well. battle-pictures (ii.Terminal Essay. vol. prowess and knightly derring-do. the Wazir Dandan. and Monthly Register (new series. " 147 it because obscene and tedious. contrasts with the Chamberlain." The tale is (iii. out of omission of half-a-dozen passages four hundred pages would for printing in fit it truly 2 any language and the charge of tediousness could hardly have been applied more unhappily. (ii. Sept. ! It relates are a lesson to the the doings of three royal generations and has all the characteristics of Eastern art is a phantasmagoria of castles Holy and caverns. the ancient it and Harems convents. . prepared. is 240) 117. xxx. King Nu'man Dame of Calamities (to her foes) . .. is " etc. edition of the " " Arabian Nights is now being reader will have an opportunity of verifying this statement. an ambitious miscreant gentle and brave . Kanmakan the typical is Arab knight^ : A Now managing the mouthes of stubborn e steedes Now practising the proof of warlike deedes . kingship 86) beginning manichasanism of Christian Europe. title Lady . King Omar bin al-< which occupies an eighth of the whole repertory Mr. the lines " .. the Mac Edit. . The next Nu'man " the long romance of chivalry. Aliens. with gentle landscapes restful tales of princely deserves his death Places. and he was declared that "the set right who 1 by a learned reviewer. a sage and sagacious counsellor. 2 As a household . i. as a . 1 The Asiatic Journal London.

women who had softy may King Omar" fabliaux. the kidnapping is like Romeo and Juliet. woman of a loving " ide*al " to win the love of a beautiful and clever cousin and the the hands of to fortunes of the family are interrupted sodes. p. Mr. bin al- enough by the deaths of doleful off." who the made are killed men passion. Consul Faber. the by the long first tale of Kamar of that name. 162) (iii. or Moon aralzaman " women (iii. 1300 whea Jobst of Reichenegg and Agnes of Sternstein were aided and abetted by a Capuchin of Seikkloster. line 18 " Zahr Shah " is a Schloss Sternstein near Crlli in Styria. the property of my excellent colleague. well highly of artistic. both equally remarkable. 2 sometimes troubled and can die of the so-called " tender 212) of the Age. or dangers difficulties 291) Taj al-Muluk we have the beau the writer's object was to represent a by two epiis the model can * In Aziz daunt. whom no and Az/zah (ii. the " al- Cam- whom Galland introduced into the best European " The Ebony Horse " it seems to have been Like society.D. lover foil Badawi and Ghazban the detestable the villains. simple-minded Stoker serves as a The negro. a Persian youth and the Caliph's concubine Shams Nahar. it is is folly worked out." as well as It is followed Zaman. the kind-hearted. " derived from a common source with " Peter of Provence and " Cleomades and Claremond " and we can . Here the end is "two martyrs. * I have lately found these lovers at ii. The to break her heart. a lesson that the course of true Love that : poetical justice which he receives at " Finally the plot of desired. by a sequence of relieved is historiettes partly men and a subject already noticed. mistake for Sulayman Shah. dating from A. partly apologues proper then mad the actors upon the stage before the all be improbable but The long Crusading Romance sixteen the luck of quite another stamp leaves nothing to be and the gathering of curtain drops the saddening and beasts and We dreary love-tale of have AH Bakkdr. .Alf Laylah wa 148 And Laylak. 285. hardly wonder at its 1 It has been pointed out to me that in vol.

by that interpolated tale a simple and pleasing narrative of youthful amours. the hero. a practical joke which would occur only to the canopic mind (iii. 85) prove that it belongs to the xvth or xvith century and should accompany Kamar al-Zamdn 1 II. Charming. There is at least 228). is weak and wilful. and marvellous feats of indecency. last Despite the hemistich (line* . i). being as human The is troupe again all . The long Ali Ala al-Din. Kaptan (Capitano). 29). life. character and incident as would fill a modern three-volumer and the Supernatural pleasantly jostles the Natural Dahnash the Jinn and Maymunah daughter of Al-Dimiryat. Steingass at the end of The Nights. 300-305). contrasts well with the boiling passions of the incestuous and murderous Queens and serves as a pause before when the parted meet. the . the and ix. (iv. emphasise the recovery of her husband remarkable " blackguard." the of Ni'amah and Naomi The Lady Budur. a in their jealousy Adam. hasty and violent his two spouses are rivals in abominations as his : Amjad and sons. As'ad. sensibly proposes altering the 11-12) tO At one time showing the Moon and Sun. 29) : it is the Girdle-girl a counterpart of (vol. movement." is wholly (iv. 84). renowned King of the Jann. the lost are found. shifty and immoral. are examples of a fraternal affection rarely found in half-brothers one fine by melodramatic situation sister-wives. wedded and all ends merrily as a xixth century the grand cttnotiement the unwedded are novel.Terminal Essay. our old tale of out of place in its present position Nur al-Din and Miriam friend "Aladdin. (iii. drawn with a broad firm Prince touch. wide diffusion containing as the : much tale is brimful of 149 change. i) (iv. and Ma'aruf In page 226 Dr. and about the virtue of their lovers as any children of so their metamorphosis to fleas has 1 the effect of a surprise. the mention of the Shahbandar or Harbour-master Kunsul or Consul (p. the use of cannon at sea and the choice of Genoa-city (p.

304-329). last (vol. handiwork. historical (vol. and by a host correspondent sends 106 and 107) of speech. easily iv. by the Jinn. fill The reach the terminal story. v. novelle of it Emma I the rest of vol. 153) declare. for instance the grim Tale of Hatim (vol. which we vol. friends. 68 and 18). Al-Mas'udi 268) told : first # there aught beneath the sky Egyptian Pyramids compare? In fear of them strong Time hath passed by . : . and Can with is th' gift in is i. . and could appears to It pp. iv. The City of Lubtayt pp. till his secretary Eginhardt. and the two adventures of Ibrahim al-Mahdi with the barbersurgeon (vol. of the Goths. iv. iv. that most of Tayy fiction quasi-historical fabliaux. his pages (vol. vii. 65) names " Burdn " Harun al-Rashid and 1 me Omitted by Lane (vol. Time hath wrought from * * 'My had they the A as usual. Bacher that " " Charlemagne's a's daughter founded upon the legend of is and has been noted in the counterpart This and and the whole of Queen of a few are in them are v. 103) and the Merchant's sister (vol. sundry iv. still 1 some reason unaccountable for his version of the lines which occur in The Nights iv. embodies the legend of Don Rodrigo. " given bodily in is 94) " Meads of Gold (iii. me Not be traced. and the murder of the King lutist carried off Zubaydah being -who refused to islamize. a modification of Solomon's carpet. to last. Iram 176) are in iv. by a succession of followed is historiettes the Serpents (vol. may Many-columned factual and show 19) is 99) to be tricks played with the Pyramids of Ji'zah which (vol. the Magic Couch. 1 his found Behold the Pyramids and hear them teach What they can tell of Future and of Past They would by Al-Maamun the poetess (Ibn Khali. ix. Al-Mas'udi. the Slave-girl (vol.A If Laylak wa 150 Laylak. And everything dreads Time in earth and air. v. iv. and have reached the ears of Washington Irving. evidently a European tale and is it believe with Dr. 113) writers held is by Moslems all have recorded the The germ of Isaac of Mosul who (vii. i). The deeds that (vol. 327) .

" (iv. bed the fescennine device of the Lady Budur. She can next day disown. folk-lore. 77) has given to Cairo a proverb which Burckhardt (No.. in two Shar Miriam the 187) shows at her sale the impudence of and in Ali and 2 'i in The Nights (vol. iv. AH of writers. i. and Zumurrud his (" Smaragdine") " Ruined Man who became and Al-Mas'udi concubine (vii. the Persian Iranian jest-book : is 15* a rollicking tale of fun from Abu Mohammed some hight Lazybones belongs to the cycle of " Sindbad the Seaman." with a touch of Whittington and Cat. 561) renders " The day obliterates the word or promise of the Night.Terminal Essay. 83) an old Joe Miller in Hindu "Kisra Anushirwdn" (vol. 87) is . : identical with Nos. v. Dominie Moslem The Simpleton and (vol. iv. iv." Girdle-girl The etc. v. 289) is historical 281) relates the coquetry of 291) Mahbubah the the historian also quotes four couplets. "Martyrs of Love" with the ozrite ''Ozrite love" of Ibn Khallikan and the Three Poets (vii. v. forth. iv. (vol. 1 18) is the Sharper (vol. another 11): " . said one: Tis mine. etc. said and so like the Foolish by day. 81) smacks of Gargantua "It belongs to me." The promise It suggests of night Congreve's Doris For who for is effaced : o'er night obtain'd her grace. " Harun and the (lib. adding (vol. v. 292) and : who see the slave lords it o'er her lord o In lover privacy and public site: Behold these eyes that one infinite like Ja'afar saw o Allah on Ja'afar reign boons : ! Uns al-Wujud (vol. 537). Then Rich. as well as three Slave-girls " (vol. (vol. 32) is a love-tale which has been trans- lated into a host of Eastern languages Banu Ozrah belong to Al-Mas'ud/'s and The Lovers of the . v. c. v. Harun " (vol. 355).

" u descend from a noble family. (vii. Here we Al-Idrfsi. amongst other things. 3500) preserved on a papyrus " In its actual condition " Sindbad is a fanciful travel-tale of the twelfth at St. of (vol. 369) the disputation of the twelve sages in presence of Barmecide accidents and the Yahya upon the origin. Petersburg. office 109) from the same source as Ibn al-Maghazili the Reciter and a Eunuch belonging to the Caliph Al-Mu'tazad (vol. in maids and presence of his papa (Nights cmxiv-xvi. author of the Book of Natural Questions. vi. Masrur the Eunuch and Ibn Al-Karibi (iii. is 56 "padding" when Nuzhat al-Zamdn like ii. $2 "The King. the essence. ii. Foe's " Captain Singleton. In the Tale of Tawaddud (vol. when the Wazir Dandan (vol. the omnes res of Love.) reports at length the cold speeches of the five high-bosomed the (vol. teste the Admirable Crichton ". of Al-Hajjaj and Ibn Al- 238-240) of tales and annals by the seven voyages of Sindbad the The "Arabian Odyssey are pleasantly Seaman (vol. like De travellers' tales of an immense variety and extracts from Al-Kazwfni and Ibn al-Wardi.C. and in another place Honayn. viii.) mortal pages . the Owl and the Villages of Al-Mas'udi " who also notices the Persian monarch's four seals 204) (ii. 181) shows See also the dialogue or catechism Kirrfya in Ibn Khallikan These 'relieved disjecta (vol. 161). 1 39) we have the fullest development of in the disputations and displays of learning then so " Europe. dynasty (B. is " and . at dreary extension (vol. 195 etc. the . " may. v. undergoing a long examination before the Caliph Al-Wdsik (Vathek) and describing. To of Calamities and Lady when Wird Khan.I Alf Laylah wa Laylak. Yet Al-Mas'udi also relates.) discharges his patristic exercitations and heterogeneous knowledge. like its Greek brother. v. common and these were affected not only by Eastern tale-tellers but even by sober historians. the human teeth. vi. 171)." borrowed from compilation. find the Polyphemus. the Shipwrecked Mariner a Coptic 1-83). us 1 much it. membra i. fags her hapless hearers with a discourse covering sixteen etc.

246).D. a dreadful book for a dreary day. the in magnetic mountain of Saint Brennan (Brandanus). 105) with those spoken to Caliph Al-Mutawakkil by We Abu al-Hasan All (Al-Mas'udi. A rhyming Romance by Henry of Waldeck (flor. 1160) with a Latin poem on same subject by Odo and a prose version still popular in Germany. 1878 . Space forbids any with 1 the .Ajaib sources. like Robinson at Canton. the Malice of Women (vol. i. was incorporated The Nights as an editor's addition and as an independent work it has made the round of the world. (Lane's Nights and Weber's " Northern Romances. In the eleventh century we have the thirteenth the 'Ajaib al-Makhlukat of Al-Kazwfni al. the escape of Persia.") al-Hind (= Marvels of Ind) ninth century. 83). Crusoe the delight of children and the admiration of The hearty life ages. the latter being probably an epitome of the former. This bundle of legends. 153 Pygmies and the cranes of Homer and Herodotus Aristomenes. A. 2 and fourteenth appears in the Persian romance of by Francklin. 305) there were two editions a Sinzibad al-Kabfr and a Sinzibad al-Saghfr. vi. 'Ajaib Devic. 2 lated by Renaudot. the Plinian monsters well known . 122). in Kharidat most of Sindbad to the two latter . vii. translated by J. of Ibn Al-Wardi. far The : Ignorance he had reached China and had formed a centre of trade But the higher merit of the cento is to produce one of the most charming books of travel ever written. (vol. then enter upon the venerable Sindibad-nameh. and about the same date the Two Mohammedan Travellers. Lane (in loco) traces the famous Sayyid al-Idrisi and in the fourteenth the .g. Marcel e. 103. and realism of Sindbad are made to stand out strong relief by the deep melancholy which pervades Brass" all (vol. of which. according to the Kitab al-Fihrist. the aeronautics of "Duke Ernest of Bavaria" 1 and sundry cuttings from Moslem writers dating between our ninth " " Shaykh of the Seaboard Kdmarupa translated The centuries. all the particulars absolutely " " Odyssey is valuable because it shows how Eastward the mediaeval Arab had extended already in The corresponding. trans- iii.Terminal Essay. vi. " The City in of It is curious to compare the doleful verses (pp. Paris. 81 . I have shown.

pitting the superhuman virtues. however. 207) is Egyptian. Like the exploits of Friar John of the Chopping-knives (Rabelais c. The Story of Judar (vol. Day (Contes 152) has Romanorum Gesta in the and '. in which Arabs delight. The long romance is followed " by Hind. of local an almost goodness and forgiveness with a well-nigh angelical diabolical malignity. gives a vii. valour. nobility and success of Moslem. viii. a that she might it. xxviii. who persuaded fair Israelite become the as spitefully Jupiter . 27) it giants. Nu'man 91) : its a fine type of Oriental Chauvinism. her original state. 223). may. also a Jew. 217 and 254) together with its ignorance of Marocco (p. note that the I xiii. 7-14$) and daughter of Al-Nu'man thirteen historiettes all : . same extremes King Omar (vi. 6 to Richard Minutolo The the words of in That most witty and (vol. device (vol.) tale 2) : Nights by the Shaykh al-Nafzawi The Three Wishes indecent tale and (p. compare apparently historical " " Mosul of Isaac (vol. It shows a contrast. i. Boccaccio (Day in quoted almost is it in the La Fontaine modified by 8). to wish loveliest of women. 207). detailed notice of this choice collection of anecdotes for which a volume would be required.) iii.1 A If Laylah wa 54 Laylak. vi.' vi. to judge from its knowledge (pp. vi. bin 207. against the scum of the earth which is all that is non-Moslem. Jehovah granted the consequence was that her contu- macious treatment of her mate made him pray that the beauty might be turned into a bitch and the third wish restored her to . its analogues (No. i. vi. Katha " Wife's (chapt. lib. and we find the the noble-minded Barber and the hideously The excursion to Mauritania novelty to the mise-en-scene. 180) has forced way its Another form of it is disguised as a babe into our nurseries. suggests ridicule cast on impossible battles and tales of paynims and paladins. found in the Arab proverb " More luckless than Basus " (Kamus). her husband. is artfully make it in managed and Gharib and Ajib belongs to the cycle of Antar and exaggerations Abu Sir inhuman Abu Kir.

209-264) lacks originality : we entering upon a series of pictures which are replicas of those preceding. ix. those which popularised. viii. They end 340. Night dcclviii.). the romantic tale of two lovers. M. like Abdullah of vii. they dwell in a denser criticise the contradictory and unreasonable prejudices and predilections of mankind. who has appeared before (vol. This Sea-born not the case with that charming Undine. upon principle." The former. viii." whose soul is of Klazamunae in discretion. Somewhat resembling Swift's inimitable creations. Sayf (vol. 155 two long detective-tales in like 365 and v. 4) better. amongst other things." The Tale are now of Ardashir (vol. 7-145) is a Master Shoetie an a . describes mermen and merwomen. is (vol. brings the wooing to a happy end which upon the mental palate. Julnar the the vii. whose spirit left his mortal frame a outside his The author. wots another. Gaboriau has 136-139) with Al-Mas'udi vii.Terminal Essay. which into every calls the Moslem hero " Say- Here we again meet the Old Man of the Sea or rather the Shaykh of the Seaboard and make acquaintance with a Jinn fal. Knowest thou not that a single mortal than a thousand Jinn " ? leaves a pleasant savour Hasan : is viii. Night cmxl. Houyhnhnms that those who element can justly blame and severely for instance. shows by its introduction that it was originally an independent work and it is known to have existed in Persia during the eleventh al-Muluk century: this has novella found way its language of the East even into Sindi. " body thus he resembles Hermotimos Apollonius. seems to have been a noted character " in a word this Shaykh (Al-'Ukab) and the ingenuities of Al-Mas'udi says : 329). ?) the Crafty and other tricksters and coney-catchers. the Sea (vol. Land and Abdullah of the vie intime of 264-308) which. in Allah's sight. ancient and modern. the prove. (vol. the Rogueries of Daltlah and the " One thief based the Adventures of Mercury AH.). 175) outrivalled in his rogueries Ddllah (Dalilah his wiles ii. (viii. philanthropically remarking (vol. and the Devil" vi. of Bassorah (vol.

but his voyages supernatural and the Though long are the tale drawn with a is The hero with hand. the his hen-like and versifying is Love can find out the fainting " sister. there Nur al-Din say of the concluding stories which bear the to evident impress of a more modern date. (vol. is little (vol. viii. There is and the agency and of earthy goblin. Dr. all of airy . rather fantastic . and accurate diversified with boundless invention. 145-184) is valuable as showing how the fisherman emerges from the squalor of his surroundings and becomes one of the Caliph's Ali favourite cup-companions. Here are exhibited speaking in their real characters. " What- ever might have been the intention of their author. these tales are made instrumental to the of production many characters. fine firm enough and proves that The charming adopted way/' feminine friend should be that she is happy till extend into travels by no means wearisome and the characters persistency of purpose. and complete form." We can Viewed a fairly say this much and as a tout ensemble in full drama of Eastern life. Johnson thus sums up his notice of The Tempest. the tumults of a storm. life. the operations of magic. spirits courtiers princes. far more for our Tales.. and preserved with profound extensive knowledge of opinions. and the whom our passions and reason are effusion of untaught affection. large scale like Sindbad. interesting and than the natural world. a 'study of Eastern life. his weeping. the final happiness of those for equally interested. they are and a Dance of Death made sublime by .Alf Laylah wa 156 Laylah. and the and customs manners of Amazon-land are outlined with a life-like hearted queen with Khalifah the next tale vivacity. the native punishment of guilt. the adventures of a desert island. nature skill in observation of sailors. the model of what the wife silly little she loses happiness who never knows the violent and hard- . ix. 264) and King Night dcccxciv) have been noticed elsewhere and Jali'ad (vol. all the cruelty of a good woman. viii.

" And 1 more. and goblins. Arab passions. 1886). Charpentier. " the characters are finished and quickened by a few The work touches swift and sure as the glance of sunbeams. . the genius of the story-teller quickens the dry bones of history. 157 and the highest emotions. Shadow of upon enchanted mountains Death air-voyages and promenades in the abysses of ocean . the strictest moralist consort with the wicked magician.Terminal Essay. duello. the magic and the pictures of the three great fancy. a gorgeous palaces grisly underground caves and deadly wolds than those of the Hesperid is and by adding Fiction So Hector France proposed Burnous" to (Paris. the scoffer and the debauchee-poet like Abu Nowas where the courtier jests with the boor and where the sweep is bedded with the noble . the learned Koranist and . the Kazi hob-nobs with the Badawi. of fire. pure and pious sit down to the same tray with the bawd and the pimp where the professional religionist. falls into picture . baseness. seas dashing with clashing billows . where virtue is victorious. of water. the beauty and marriage-rite. utterly realistic pauper. by the certainty of expiation and the fulness of atoning equity. the life are war and Musk and Hashish. valleys of the : its glamour and grotesqueness. They form a phantasmagoria in which archangels and angels. the thief. where citizen jostles eunuch meets knight. vice is faith vanquished and the ways of Allah are man. the bravery and the baseness of Oriental here . And lady. men of air. justified to They are a panorama which remains ken-speckle upon the mental retina. 1 the the wooing of maidens and the mournfulness. lamia : where King and Prince meet fisherman and and cannibal ." kaleidoscope where everything and pavilions dens fairer . love. All the splendour and squalor. the battle . and the siege gar- . naturally mingle where flying horses and talking fishes are with men of earth devils . to Fact revives the name dead past his admirably realistic : the volume "Sous le . entitle still it to be called " Blood.

vol. (e. Moslems ii. 277) " of the case the murder of Princess Abrizah "tongue (vol. the Blacksmith in who 271). with the babe sucking generally. viii. A new note of absolutely tragic dignity seems to be struck in the Sweep and the Noble Lady (vol. the picture-gallery weird and striking adventures and shows as a tail-piece. mean in 1 and Song (in (vol. Caliphs and the Caliphate return to Baghdad and Cairo. ^several forms of which lieu commun. v. 281). 10) lady's broken heart on account of her lover's . sentimental portion mostly breathes a tender passion and a simple sadness : such are the Badawi's dying farewell i. The naivete'. 128) . 125). not in Arabic where it is a it in one page (505) of Ibn Kallikan. iv. See three . i. which are described with inimitable terseness and and. the Devotee Prince ill) and the whole Tale of Azi'zah (vol. iii. (vol. showing the piquancy of sentiment which can be evolved from the angelic love is common and 244) is set off the sensuality and selfishness of her the unclean.g. i sad and the gay mingle in the character of the good stoker who becomes Roi the Tale of the could handle fire Mad Crotte Lover . . an idyllic scene of love and wedlock in halls before reeking with lust and blood. 75). Humour. whilst Asmodeus kindly removes the terrace-roof of every tenement and allows our curious glances to take in the whole interior. the last dead mother's breast its moments of good (vol. and the melancholy deepens (vol. opens with a series of This is Finally.A If 158 Laylab wa Laylah. ii. without hurt v. v. the mourner's song and the (vol. (vol. Hammam- ii. (vol. The afterwards carried out in the a masterpiece of originality 1 I pretty conceit of the Lute (vol. v. I have noticed istics Foreword that the two main character- my in of The Nights are Pathos and artistic contrast. the hand being cut off the Wazir's death. alternating with highly and carefully calculated to provoke tears and The smiles in the coffee-house audience which paid for them. 298). is the Arabic) of exquisite European literature. v. perhaps the best proof of their power. 167). whose more by fortunate rivals. vol. 138).

At 51). 159 tenderness and poetic melancholy. the 228)." a peculiar is banter possibly inherited from their pagan forefathers address to the Many* and the City of Brass (vol. v. 98). and as the Cairene "chaff. and Ja'afar and the Old Badawi King Amasis. 213). and in find the true Falstaffian touch. its its acme reminiscence of " chaffy " in the description of ugly The Three Wishes. contrasts with the dully told Story of Lovers of the Kathd iv." chiefly slyness which pervade The varies. the Hashish-eater in Ali Shdr (vol. the Wazir's exclamation. of pathos and of true sublimity are reached in majestic columned Iram (vol. 284). 1 245) where we My (p. iv. 92. i. 113) the metrical part of the latter : . iv. ii. (vol. i. Panza. (vol. 83) shows a luxury of woe it is one long * (vol. the scene treatment of the Water of Zemzem and the Eunuchs Bukhayt and Kafur times (vol. the i. with iSo) . 93) . " pepper vi. 1 39) . the wickedest of satires on in (vi. 49. it humour i. 3) the alter sexrrs (vol. 219).Terminal Essay. i. between the brother. v.Wazirs Gobbo Dog : 244).Lady and her Five Suitors Persian (vol. 172). fun. 222). of rollicking Rabelaisian underlaid by the caustic mother-wit of Sancho as in the orgie of the Ladies of Baghdad (vol. vi. (vol. attention has been called to the resemblance between the But there half-lie is and Job . the (vol. 22). the very depths of melancholy. vi. i 221. staple article for the dryness much degree as differs in it of this are found in the Cock and Cook little (vol. This reaches old age (vol. iv. ! 246). in have compared the humorous vein of the I comic tales with our northern " wut. in the which corresponds and Upakosa and her Four The Man of Al-Yaman (vol. the instances Eunuch's " self-communing of Judar becomes a masterpiece of Too (vol. i. wail of despair which echoes long In my Foreword and loud the hearer's heart. 17) . ii. in Ali the . the wail over the past and the And vain longing for reunion. 197). pathos But it. (vol. the Holy Ointment applied to the beard of Luka the Knight " "unxerunt regem Salomonem (vol. .

the and the sixth fifth (vol. in transmonsters as wind-men. Rouen. who.D. however. Boccaccio (ob. in is profuse in . especially the second. i. E. Then came the Heptameron languages but English ou Histoire des amans fortunez of Marguerite d'Angouleme. THE MANNER OF THE B. e. while even more The Thaumaturgy of demonology and witchcraft ." Next is the amans the days were finished: in 1558 fortunez and in 1559 Claude Guiget Hexameron of A. i. in the immortal Barber's tales of his brothers. The I first will glance at the point to remark is happy framework of the Recueil. the Monkey who picked out the Wedge (vol. She died in 1549 before Pierre Boaistuan published the Histoire des the "Heptameron. affects asterisks and has considerably bowdlerised sundry of the tales. gives the amplest raison d'etre of the work. the Pentamerone or El Cunto de li Cunte of Giambattista Basile (Naples 1637). This tale. which thus has for unity required a great romantic recueil.) and gave . after NIGHTS. and so unlike The Nights easily have heard of The the Sarit : here Thousand Nights and a Night or of its archetype the Hazdr Afsanah. known by the meagre abstract of J. Tawney. and. wherever the honest and independent old debauchee makes his appearance the fun becomes fescennine and milesian. Abu Nowas now. considering the matter.g. Taylor and the caricatures of George Cruikshank (London 1847-50). by the by. 1550)) translated into almost all European the original Italian is now rare. monkey to do with carpentering work whose resemblances are notable both is is ? " as It is curious to compare the Hindu with the Arabic remarkable as their differences. I propose to translate Neapolitan and have already finished half the work. 1610. is found in the Khirad Afroz (i. 128) and " What has a in the Anwar-i-Suhayli (chapt. may 1375). bright. the same : the Indian formation and restoration . And Finally. which 1 is at once so like Dec. which I cannot but suspect set an example to the Decamerone and its host of the peculiarly successors. fire-men and water-men . sweet wa Laylah Laylah. lastly. Reyne de Navarre and : sister only of Francis I. ii. this Pentamerone direct from the 2 Translated and well annotated by Prof. We all perceive this when reading the contemporary Hindu work the Kathd 2 Sdgara.A If 160 and sterling wit. 1 The admirable Introduction. 325 and 343). He was followed by the Piacevoli Notti of Giovan Francisco Straparola (A. 324. language and style of The Nights. in their correspondence in impressionising the reader.rise to the Persian proverb. 2. expressed without of artifice any words. de Torquemada. 28). a perfect mise-en-scene.

the Hetaira and the bawd (Kuttini) play the same preponderating parts as in The Nights. ladies drink spirits Our Brahman (i. . concerning which more presently. he took wealth wrongously. and in the whole . he sat up o' nights. and princesses get drunk (i. in There city a quaint family likeness arising from similar stages and states of society : the for gladness. . He delights in truisms. 476) and it There is She drank in Demons.g. with many choice bits of the same kind." tc. the favourite figure of contemporary Europe. except where the latter falls into Brevity combined with And." and beauty phenomenal universe. he waxed wroth without reason. admirably together looking like Misery and Poverty (i. Again.g. 476) whilst the Eunuch. telling. . the delights (i. a wave of the Sea of : kissed : Beauty tossed up by the breeze of Youth The King played dice. bride. also that grotesqueness which the French detect even in Shakespeare." from the sobriety. as more than one has remarked very hard reading. (i. and from forced allegories. "twin-brother which has illuminating powers he foully reviles old age and he this . $62) . his ambrosial form with thirsty eyes like partridges the . alternately praises and abuses the sex. of incarnation infinite. this : (lovers) Old Age 97. He speciosa miracula of magic weapons. he loved slave-girls. lines and so ? : Dazed with scripture-reading The Moon : The could stones the laughing forehead of the East of the Sea of Love's insolence (ii. the "soft-sided is adorned is " good battles fearful ! ! . whose " fine precision. Ascending the Two babes e. (i. is style leash the liberal is in fact everywhere) Sanskrit and terse by 103. e. the fashion of contemporary Europe (see Palmer in of England chapt. in seized 107. unfamiliar to the finally. such as "It is the fashion of the heart to receive pleasure from those things which ought to give it. 400) fought with the same weapons as the Moslem and rewards his heroes with a "turband of honour" (i. the Svarga-heaven Ace and Deuce of spiritualism. God makes of Death his . there is a something in the atmosphere of these Tales which West and which makes them. What etc. of gazing me by the chin . but the doctrine of preexistence. 266) in lieu of a robe. 61) . : told he despised the good and honoured the bad (i.161 Terminal Essay. 541-43) is the wishing cow. and the Earth- often results from the comparison of incompatibles. X. Evening . (A lake) first (A vow) difficult as standing on a sword-edge My vital of woe There was Transparent as a good man's heart : : : : : : of fools full not help laughing at him 19. vii). a row of birds likened to a garden of nymphs. is in trite reflections and there the wise cannot understand and through whole expressions are puns run his Yet some of his swing of Doubt : frigid conceits Bound assay of the Creator's skill with the spirits boiled a certain convent fire She was like a wave 55. . fine He forth. Like the Arab the Indian is profuse in personification .g. VOL. directness and simplicity of the Arab. 127). strong in love-making is . divine goats in . the rhetorical Hindu style differs greatly motto is writing. he revels in youth. inevitable. L to is me. clumsy for want of a thread upon which the many independent tales and fables should the preamble insufficient is air-going elephants and flying horses and laughing fishes 24) (i.e. Science . he complains of the pains of separation in to mirth. by Allah ") lovers die with exemplary facility . men carry money in a robe-corner and exclaim "Ha! " " (for Good. while the and emanation and an excessive imagery run mad. Untimeliness dice are turned into a brace of . he lies. ever aiming at the Thus we have Immoral Conduct embodied .

begins with the Story of Uda"yana to whom we must be truly grateful as our only guide he and his son Naravahanadatta fill up the rest and end with lib. opinions remind me that the concensus of the sisters. as Vararuchi : but to Englishmen mainly suggesting the "Zoo.Anderson found Night xxix and in the Wortley Montagu. of mdccxxvi ends with Night ccxxxiv and the English translations with ccxxxvi and cxcvii. 9 See pp.." The "Bismillah" of The Nights is much more satisfactory. far " without the Nights no Arabian from holding the " an pauses intolerable interruption to the narrative. As was Nights my said in " and ! Foreword so now. . in places merely the night without interrupting the tale Frenchman . " In days of yore and King. 6 Avertissement des Editeurs. Galland's Edit. Thus the want of the clew " We or plot compels a division into books. Edit. as in Galland. Lib. The : number of Bresl.g. a and of reverend Ganesha" i).A If 1 62 be strung 1 wa Laylah Laylah. ii. 82. critic will be wanting interjects the Upon this point. which begin for instance with worship the awful x." etc. 2 fragmentary MS. Edit. vol. the Sultan relents at an early opportunity. . who cannot remember the reader. breaks away after . would the MS. i. tell upon the sequence without taking notes. $ 1788. tautology and the prose-rhyme serving to attract attention. according to Scott whose friend J. a dialogue between the will differ and the MSS.. to preserve the balanced sentences with which the tales open . the stories. and the consequent disorder and confusion . xviii. xxxviii : Geneva." I attach additional im- portance to these long and intricate and pleasant restful breaks introduced into Indeed beginning again I should adopt the plan of the Cal. I have been careful it in Bengal. opening and ending every division with stories. object to a Hindu (lib. in e. Le Cabinet des Fees. by Galland contains in the Bibliotheque Nationale used only cclxxxii and the many ceases to use the division after A the ccxxxvith Night and in some editions after the cxcviith. times long gone before there was a England where we in the strive not to waste words this 1-5) leads to the Curse of Pushpadanta and Malyavdn who live and Gunadhya and this runs through lib. elephantine proboscis 1 The Introduction on Earth (i. continuing only as an amusement. however. See retro p.

The Once upon a time.Terminal Essay. the of former Hammad is The Alf Laylah. to suggest repose pleasurable of lives and also are artfully closings minor chord striking a 163 rush and hurry after the " : And they led the most the most delectable. also used for Reciters of surnamed Al-Rawiyah (the So the Rhapsode) attached to the Court of Al-Walid. 3) : Et onorevolmente . by the Book of Esther which might form part of Traditions ": much of in the case . . rimase e ancor I " into : vi And (ii. as being indited from the relation of the Rawi. the conteur or professional story-teller. To these men my learned friend Baron A. 4). (vi. it means simply a conteur Greeks had Homerista= reciters of Homer. without work has been written down from the Rawi or feeling that the 1 Nakkal. faccia noi goder del nostro tail formulae Boccaccio's favourite have further docked si this they lived happily ever after. e funne re coronato alia fine (ii." cannot take up the Nights. " To this patter. la Egli conquisto poi Molte volte goderono del loro amore . corresponding with the Hindu Bhat or Bard. there till came to them the Destroyer of delights and the Severer of societies and they became as though they had never been. as opposed to the Homeridae or School of Homer. But is it was meant and how un- shown. 6) E : visse infino : Iddio sua grossezza cosi nella We 8). von Kremer would attribute 'the " Mu'allakat vulgarly called the Suspended Poems. Moreover. who would learn them by heart here and there introducing his " gag " and like a . changeable is Eastern life is old the custom 1 There is a shade of difference in the words a serious subject. The Nights our text the = quotes read in many the places hand-book or guide for the professional. Hence in of the formula Kal' al-Rawi dice Turpino." by of the incidents. in their present condition. also called Kassas and Maddah. a correspondent suggests." frequent interruption reciter . " becomes calculated." " business " possibly we may attribute the ribaldry which starts up in unexpected places How simply to provoke a laugh. si sta (iii." Place this by the side of Scozia.

" conversational style in .A If 164 " On that night (we read in and he commanded sleep. for " reconciling the people to any recent measure of the Sultan and Vizier. i. vi.*' like the * There are women Rdwiyahs Mother of Hasan Hence for the al-Basri (Ibn Khali. stopping only now and then. Scott parts. Preface p. both his his audi- hero or heroine and his Those who happen audience in the utmost embarrassment. where a murder in a these hovels. insisting story being finished before he departs . and Mr. retreat He . He notes tKat '* coffee-house payment to the " had closed Pasha.the rest of the tale to-mono^ . leaving in the when the expectation of adventure. 2 and the auditors suspending their curiosity are good induced to return at the same time next day to hear the sequel. Chap. the Rabab. a one-stringed * the poetical viol. the Persian proverb. could not the i) to bring the book of records of the and they were read before the would declaim the recitative somewhat King The Rawi King. He heard with great attention. pending a sufficient 1 Vol. is commonly is to upon the but he always makes his to detain him. Harems and some have become famous 370). where the Story-teller was used. and not unfrequently some ence interesting makes his escape. he would intone the Saj'a or prose-rhyme and he would chant to the twanging of Dr. Dallaway describes the same scene at Constantinople. said to askers of silly questions. i. " He recites walking to and life-like fro in the middle of the coffee-room. borrows from the historian of Aleppo a picture of the Story-teller." At Tangier. drama or controversy by degrees becomes serious and opposite opinions are maintained with no less warmth than if the fall of the city depended upon the decision. v. be near the door endeavour midst of he breaks off abruptly and raised to the highest pitch. when the expression requires some emphatical attitude. has no sooner made his exit than the **' company in separate 0**-*" fall parties to disputing about the characters of the The the event of an unfinished adventure. wa Laylah Laylah. like the modern "Organs of Government " in newspaper shape. " Baki-e-dastan farda =. chronicles .

as the Irish call him. and decaying and frequented dust. people form ring about the ment besides reciter. unclean booths. a stalwart man affecting little rai- a broad waist-belt into which his lower chiffons are tucked. varying the diction : with breaks of animation. voice and gestures are a word so expressive that even Europeans who cannot understand of Arabic divine the meaning of his tale. cannabis indicd} and sip their black coffee in the muddy streets under a rainy sky. the People and Places. It is then powdery with a foul slope fetid and Bayrut half a that of Suez is . I found Rdwi on Sundays and Thursdays. Here the market- chaffering over cattle for Gibraltar beef-eaters. He usually handles a short stick and. opens the drama with extempore prayer." or large bazar. "Morocco: Edmondo de Amicis (London Cassell. tending their squatting camels and by women. 1882). gargottes and tattered tents." by refreshing enforced platitudes and commonplaces of English travellers. The favourite place was the " Soko de barra. outside the active the town whose condition century ago. The audience stands and motionless surprising strangers by the ingenuousness and freshness of feeling hidden under their hard and savage 1 breathless exterior. and wheels about. tomtom shaped like an hour-glass. broad grin and generally disreputable aspect. wild eyes. proving that he and the audience are good Moslems he speaks slowly and with emphasis. the poorer classes were compelled to puff their Kayf (Bhang. now slippery with viscous mud. and noticeable only for his shock hair. embryo actor volume after the . upon which he taps the periods. illustrating every his features. mere bundles of unclean rags. dotted with graves tombs. 165 where. the market-days. during the hard winter of 1885-86. a Franciscan frock. point with pantomime retires and . abundant action and the most comical grimace : he advances. a most : every silver Its bit. he carries a tiny . and by men wearing the haik or burnus. This Scealuidhe. when drummer and piper are absent. The performance usually ends with the going round for alms and flourishing in air 1 The scene is excellently described in.Terminal Essay.

Turkey is the only Moslem country which has dared to produce a regular drama 1 and to arouse the energies of such 1 brilliant 1 It began. futilities. Chief Sofi of Isfahan in the xviith century. I heard were purely local. of such lecture only a step. two ways. but Fakhri a Bey. is t. including Dr. has this taste wholly died out like for legal studies engineer. and Al-Kastallani. in Persia where the celebrated Darwaysh Mukhlis. When Egypt produced savants and is condemned legists like as futile. is . to mention no others." that marvellous money of All the tales Barbary. they never heard of the popular superstition which declares that no one can read through them without dying my know patrons should is it only Yacoub Artfn Pasha this. the work the long repertory. translated into Persian tales certain Hindu plays of which a . however. cannot rest so the novel-reading class upon writings which had The useful than history and geography. indeed. fliis. copy of The Evidently Nights. Russell. assured The Nights Many are still me that recited there. big coppers worth one-twelfth of a penny." in effect is the Educational the chief of all there are not a few who. Firstly. they failed to find a complete MS. have complained that travellers. and at Cairo without light literature of more Department has always been an The Olema declared war against a mathematician. stories but also From this to all what the fatal Society. fair that declares that the superstition dates from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and he explains ation. young Osmanli domiciled for some time in Fez and Mequinez. it is a facetious exaggermeaning that no one has leisure or patience to wade through it in Secondly. however. Khayri Pasha.e. 9 which they included not only politely entitled Authentic History. contend that the mathematic even " : was thrown back the indelicacy and few of the merits Nights. Al- 'Ayni. nor. Ibn al-Hajar. the taste of the country inclined to dry factual studies and positive science .1 A If Laylah wa 66 " usual honorarium being a few Laylah.

I think. garb. . declaiming to the extreme astonishment and delight of the audience. The Nights glance at for seeing how much It requires only to histrionic matter they contain. as bear in mind to our ideas of the for translating the has been done by Torrens. which were performed at the Theatre Italien. 1 This author. a noble piece of English. Damascus. But this is when Mr. I still hope to see The Nights at the Lyceum. Le Sage (of Gil Bias) Is said to have converted many of the tales of Mukhlis into comic operas. of that journal the translator" of Villon has sundry enemies. London Embassy. writer in annexed Ekrem Bey. and in 1675 he allowed his friend who happened to be at Isfahan." l This conscientious Badal-Schidda (Al-faraj ba'd al-shiddah =r Joy after annoy) exists But to give an original air to his work. has shown abundant art by /ashion of Baron filling up the frequent McGuckin de Slane in deficiencies of the text after the Ibn Khallikan. more appropriate . is no Arabic scholar. Paris. statesman and scholar as and professor Kemal Bey held by some . the reverse is the case A : beautiful version thus traduced is almost entirely free from the blemishes and careless- ness which disfigure Lane's. Lane Tales from the Arabic. it Petis de la Croix. and thus no vrat's on the it is far more But it is staff not belong to the clique and because he does good The faithful to the original. Payne is work when theirs is mostly sham. to copy it. my opinion will ever be that expressed in my Foreword carping critic has remarked that the translator. Secretary of the The we do plays as its from the French I years ago and The Nights . " Hazdr o yek Ruz "= Thousand and One Days. work has never been edited according Consequently there is no just reason whole verbatim et and Payne MS. The Nights we must In considering the style of that the process. when hazarding a change of style which is. regretable. " in his entitled Alfaraga literatim. then it Drama took courage to be original. he entitled in the Bibliotheque Nationale. "as may be seen in every the brilliant and page." If I be a judge. that his severe grace of style treats an unclassical the romantic and irregular would have been a a mere matter of private judgment. As regards the tout ensemble of his work.Terminal Essay. . the Novel having ousted the it lastly first theatre began in its ruder form by taking subjects bodily from Many to be the greatest modern Osmanli-land and Abd al-Hakk Hamid Bey. saw Harun aURashid and the Three Kalandars. their properties in the court- yard of Government House. however. diables enjupponh> who take every opportunity of girding at him because he does secret that sole fault I find with work as a classic. writers literate 167 MuniT Pasha. with deer-skins and all de rigueur.

in many the case of Sindbad the of the earlier Nights are overlong and not a few of the others are overshort disorder and this. while sundry pages are wearisome for excess of prolixity or hardly intelligible for extreme conciseness. i. I is in the distribution and arrange- have noticed Moreover. The first defect of the texts ment of the matter. have attempted to refine "vulgar" note of the and improve it and have more than once threatened to remodel it. as Lane or with heterogeneous matter.. and : Munshis and be severe. but very few. however. Many even but. 61. This would be to dress up Robert Burns to in make it odious. useless. e. i. leading 43. p. often differ in minor are. identical in order. . The perpetual recurrence of mean colloquialisms and of words and idioms peculiar to Egypt and Syria 1 Here I offer 1 also takes from the a few. for fern. 57. pp. etc.g. inconsequence. Even the vagaries has the prime recommendation of variety. sinner in this respect. instances from the Breslau text which is the greatest Mas.1 A If 68 treatment Laylah wa Laylah. as Seaman (vol. but now it is The Nights not merited by as they The Macnaghten. being thoroughly dissatisfied with the popular. of editor and scribe will not account for : all the incoherences. the ordinary and language. (i. 9. In places there are dead allusions to persons and left vol. aid work to undertake the the holes open than patch better leave tells us me friends have asked iii. plain that is. and for the vain iterations which suggest that the author has forgotten what he said. and three times in seven pages. though printed from MSS. tedious and thankless : them with fancy work The learned. 77). digressions are abrupt and nowhere. of Shaykhs. vi. vol. 74. matters. plumes borrowed from Dryden and Pope. lightened by the if labour would the copyists. indeed. the Bulak and the Bayrut texts. required for versions of an is Camoens author like whose works were carefully corrected and arranged by a competent litterateur. The tales which are dark. 740).

372) 367). 336) and Di (for hazah) whither is he gone ? (iv. These few must 172) 309) like and suffice : (dim. (iv. (ix. (iii. 172): Kawdm (pronounced 'awam) (pron. as many have done. rises style only a borrowed from . as Al-Hajjdj and Al-Shabi (Ibn Khallikan. Sdra bitd'k by Allah (passim). 79) or this time (ii. thy pay?) to which the latter " Alfdni. ask me? a favourite form for Ii = Laysh. (=rhow much "Tut. 323) : Kamd badri == he rose early Fayn as rdha fayn =r also. = = I will buy Antl 18). Alfayn (=two thousand !). become thine (ix. 169 Yet we cannot deny that pleasure of the use unadorned language of familiar conversation in this : understanding of the people. It and Persian terms not translation also a vocabulary (v. and 'Ammalin yaakulii Ay for becomes it otherwise the effect would not be reproduced. is of proved by the tale of The former asked " Kara ataa-k?" 6).g. for the adapted Rawi's craft perusal." cried and is the Governor. classically. Bita' Dd '1-khurj 352) and Mata' with the same sense (iii. 425) makes " Sha. a word known to every European (ii. " " answered. : however. thou dreamest. 'awi) rra wind. the bazar and caravan. will supply a number of others.g. to " Khdtun requiring somewhat archaic touch. but In " and literary themselves qualify Moslem lands from Mauritania service in " The Nights said. of shayy) water: = one (for a) stranger. a Wadduni = they carried me (dim. (iii. Rijdl nautiyah thing) in = . (ii. that vulgar and colloquial Arabic modern date we : find it in the first century of Al-Isktm. And = the to ba-ashtar! Alaykf for Alayki 'Ammdl (from 'amala and generally long i for short T. 384). 43) : Katt never (ix. the only written half-way house between the colloquial Arabic which its its best fitted for the is Moreover. for Mesopotamia. strong very. which in style is little (iv. as has been well the coffee-house. ayya shayyin once 385) and Rih kawi =r why do you shayyun (there is no asif bi-tasalnf laysh (ix. = = a small thing. ftjali men sailors when the latter word would suffice: Shuwayh \. 80). Harem. 162). 318) : Kaman = (ii. of Moyyah lastly the abominable Md) a little Wdhid gharib the tale of Judar and his brethren." Min for my sake and Li-ajal al-taudi'a i= for the sake of taking leave (Mac. = = for it is this this woman (iii. who would students necessary to the freely accessible to is day. le present de pouvoir. be supposed. e.Terminal Essay. 370. e. mostly Egyptian. = at fast." not. the as Turkish words like uses thus Shahbandar. = 109) Anti for he did) tahlam they were about to eat ornate highly 315) : = 66) certainly Aywd belonging to. places. It must however. = and . 324) so Mdfish : (iv. is camp and the in has it (i. and thus all. " Kara atau-ka?" is ! to which the poet replied as correctly . ii." various sources Ahna and nahna And 'A"mfl = I for nahnu. Edit. saddle-bag (ix. = md fihi which Herr Landberg (p. do will the wa'llahi = yes.

stones lip is a crumb of ambergris. Arabic differs diametrically from is in the weak while the sense. a better guide than the Katd grouse.A If 170 Laylah approaching the pompous the tale of King wa The Jali'ad. finer-sighted than the horse. A hero the crow. warier than the crane. braver than the lion. David's Job's The eyebrow is a Nun . Laylah. speak in I shall a future page. and here the exuberance and turgid amplifications of the Persian story-teller. .g. Joseph's beauty. florid . more is aggressive than the panther. addresses and of a despatch the two combining to form perfect . moon who his cheek- his teeth are the Pleiades. There are certain stock comparisons. or browlocks are scorpions an emerald (1-letter) girl is his is is his collar rivals the sheen of the sun " " . Maryam patience. mostly admirable 365). the Badi'a or euphuistic style. and abounds It grief. " parleying euphuism. is strong the. the Virgin's chastity. and simplicity/ na'fvet^ The and a singular concision. v. which sound so hollow and unreal by the side of a chaster model. from the dark underworld symbolfsed by mole is curve . The her forehead cupis a her eyelashes scorn by the jet of her idiot-fringe the sharp sword and her glances are arrows shot from the bow of pearl set off . Wazirial the vividness of an artist Of <f word-pictures. the mouth a Mi'm. haiUj young hair on the upper' a swarm of ants or a Lam his enclosing the roses or anemones of his cheek. Jacob's music. a a jujube . greedier than the gazelle. his nose his lower lip . gorgeousness the words are as in the classical Scandinavian books. more prudent than the eye a Sdd. his side ." and of Al-Saj'a. more generous than the cock. in formulae such as repetitions of religious phrases which are unchangeable. as Lokman's wisdom. the prose rhyme. are told with the conciseness (vol. the e. a scymitar grided at the beard is . The characteristics clearness of the whole are imagery not in the language . more vigilant than the The cup-boy is a sun rising dog> and thriftier than the ant. . . ." in battle-scenes. craftier than the fox.

the izdrt or head-stall of the bridle. the dark foliage of the myrtle of the beloved. beauty-spot. the whiteness of the complexion. the gums." Ivooshka. a pomegranate flower . which term denotes also dark sometimes compared also to an ant creeping on a handsome face is the cheek towards the honey of the mouth hair.). or with the The down itself is called synonymous with the is first down on black hair the cheeks of puberty. black hair is night willow-branch or a lance . A the eyebrows. the waist is is self-respect this tree : a a e. both a full moon and day . The often difficult to be understood.wand . or slender flower. ivooshka zelonaia moia 2 So in Hector France (*' n point d'interrogation. sometimes Moslem poets the eye its a willow. musk. from their whiteness and moisture . dark colour or their agitated movements the curve of the izar is 2 .'' branch of the Bdn-tree which we should groundwards vainly As Baron de Slane say. to the and to a Wady Liwa hostile of clan thirsting for the lover's blood and " defilement of separaonly at the Badawin whose blades are ever whose malignant tongues aim Youth is upright as an tion. they are called Scorpions (as the Greek o-kopTribs).g. . is the feeble ." (O Willow. " xxxvi. O green Willow mine !) La vache enragee ") *' Le sourcil en accent circonflexe et I'oeil . the eyelids scabbards and a mole or A mole . and compared to the letters lam (J) and nun (ej). and thus figura- stem of that plant bends recalls to mind the languor Pearls signify both tears and teeth called hailstones. of these stock comparisons (Ibn Khali. k call crooked. crabbed and tive language of and bending as a Alif. the latter are . though living in the next street. either from their the eye is a sword . the lips are cornelians or rubies . The narcissus is languidly under of the eyes. is. camphor. the water of the face 1 In Russian folk-songs a young girl is often compared with . seeking in the dust his lost juvenility. Ringlets trace on the cheek or neck the letter Waw (j). I/I mistress necessarily belongs. bends while Age. i.Terminal Essay.

the creak of the water-wheel and the stroke of hammers upon the anvil from afar. water of his face when he bestows mercenary praises 1 poet sells the on a rich patron. as music. the sough of the wind and the plash of the wavelet. " Ab-i-ru " in India pronounced Abru." This does not sound promising : yet. they occupy the sensorium with a soothing effect. form* ing a barbaric music 1 full In Persian of sweetness and peaceful pleasure. the murmur of the fountain. . Like the distant is frog-concert and chirp of the cicada. occupying the thought and touching the soul.A If Laylah wa 172 Laylah. the persistent repetition of the has been said of same notes in Arab the minor key by no means monotonous and ends with haunting the ear.

SOCIAL CONDITION. worthy successor of Babylon and Nineveh. The Tigris-Euphrates Garden of Eden has been placed.Terminal Essay. A splendid of the mighty Caliph. a Paris of the ixth century. Nile. AL-ISLAM. 1 of vol For further praises of his poetry and eloquence see the extracts from Fakhr al-Din (an annalist of the xivth century A. unrivalled in early ages succeeded human development . HERE propose I to treat of the Social Condition which Nights discloses. 1 zenith of grandeur and the The fall. it was of Peace " essentially The " Palace a city of pleasure. (Ddr al-Salam). the successor of Hira and the magnificent creation site of Caliph Omar. the and the prerogative of a central and commanding position still promises even in the present state of decay and desolation under the it. of Al-Islam at the earlier period of ment. A.Valley as a great centre of advantages of where the fabled Valley. Rayy i . 173 IV.) in De Sacy's Chrestomathie Arabe. which was then con- Greece and Arabia. concerning the position of women and its The develop- about the pomology of the great Saga-book. possessed and climate. the " Smile of the Prophet. fined to was that of Baghdad in the days when the Capital had towered to the and glorious centre of life was already trembling and tottering to human civilization. which had outrivalled Damascus.D. and the metropolis of an Empire exceeding in extent the widest limits of Rome." and Kufah.

it when railways and 1 and city of palaces government offices. by the admirable rule of Al-Islam." Her policy and polity were unique. and a postal service of mounted couriers enabled it The as in a reservoir the wealth of the outer world. while other authorities more than double the terrible "butcher's bill." by my learned friend . from private as well as public sources. was expected to contain a school: 1 these establishments were richly After this had been written I received und das lohnendste Kolonisationsfeld Dr. canaux d'arrosage highways. Aloys Sprenger. suburbs. and the minstrel's lay. future. adorned with all the graceful charms which Saracenic had borrowed from the Byzantines. Heidelberg. bazars and markets.1 A If 74 unspeakable Turk. and . 1886. to collect facilities large sums. personally inspected by the Caliph network of waterways. mosques and colleges. a a noble system of bridges and caravanserais. . a canals shall connect wa Laylah magnificent Laylah. The population of Baghdad must have been enormous the smallest Khan in number of her sons who fell when victims to Hulaku 1258 was estimated at eight hundred thousand. the witching strains of the professional Almah. for education . the shrilling of pipes. hotels and pavilions. " fur endowed Babylonien. A well-regulated routine of tribute and taxation. the thrilling of harp and the "Kayf" hum lute. provided with viaducts. of prayer. were allotted to Mosques. like like villages It was on Rusafah life a surrounded the Eastern by far^ side and Baturanjah. dear to the votaries of pleasure with the roar of a gigantic capital mingled the the trilling of birds. pleasure grounds and orchards. das reichste Land in der Vorzeit die Gegenwart. kiosks and squares. each of which. were upon the most extended scale . lay couched upon architecture the banks of the Dijlah-Hiddekel under a sky of marvellous purity and in a climate which makes mere of luxury extending tranquil enjoyment. The with Europe.

175 and stocked with professors collected from every land between Khorasan and Marocco 1 . 8 When Ibn Abba"d the Sahib (Wazir) was invited to visit one of the Samanides. could claim and appeal to the Caliph who. as usual after such imping. access of a Court of Cassation. and from their decisions the poorest subject. refused." Academy or College. which forms the beau administration. the Empire. the twin 1 The first school for Arabic literature was opened by Ibn Abbas who lectured to multitudes in a valley near Meccah. shoot of exceptional luxuriance and vitality. this rude beginning was followed by public teaching in the great Mosque of Damascus. at once concentrated and decentralized. was a of Arab genius . to Ibn Khallikan pp. xxvii. For the rise of the "Madrasah. The educational establishments devoted themselves to the three main objects recognized by the Moslem world. physicians and scientists who. koranists and literati. he he would require 400 camels to carry only his books. Theology. justice and equity. and old Mesopotamian. all It fabulous presents. government. like these. Under the Chancellors of the empire the Kazis ide*al of Oriental administered law and order. preachers and rhetoricians. the all the honours of Chinese humblest Moslem fisherman or could aspire through knowledge or savoir faire to the artizan The was a grafting of Egyptian.Terminal Essay. of Persian and Graeco-Latin highest offices of fruits. Civil Law and Belles and a multitude of trained Councillors enabled the ruling powers to establish and enlarge that complicated machinery of Lettres . besides receiving high salaries and learned of nations. and immense libraries 2 attracted the was a golden age for poets and panegyrists. one reason being that . as Imdm or Antistes of the Faith was High President with the general approval of the lieges. effect by long Time deterioriated. Moslem or miscreant. -xxxii. a despotism often fatal to the wealthy great but never neglecting the interests of the humbler lieges. were treated with Mandarins. and. upon the strong young stock and the result. see Introduct. Under wise administration Agriculture and Commerce.

and. an engine of In statecraft which in the West seems most difficult to perfect. arts from all parts and luxurious court. the Wali or Chief Commissioner can reckon more or less upon the unsalaried assistance of society : the cities are divided into quarters shut off one from other by night. with irrigation-works inherited Kemi the Mesopotamian Valley a rival of rendered cultivation a certainty of scientific the Black Land. by his law and religion. rewarded the and were personally answer- see at Cairo. for the conduct of their constituents. was preserved first. necessarily flourished. must ever be to those who perforce rely upon the fickle rains of Heaven. secondly. to manufactures and of earth flood of gold by the handicrafts. as we trades. by the their characteristic satisfaction of the turbulence. and not a mere speculation profit. whom the government did not "govern too much": these Shahbandars. punished the fraudulent able. to report their delinquencies and. despite any grievances . in The crafts were distributed into guilds and syndicates under their respective chiefs. women peace were assisted as well as men : But in difficult cases the by a body of these were called private Tawwabun . which poured . navigation laws en- couraged transit and traffic at developing a aimed and ordinances .A If 176' Laylah wa Laylah. The remains of extensive mines prove that this as it source of public wealth was not neglected. still Public order. guardians of the detectives. had few if lieges who. A of national prosperity. himself to carry out the penal code. to keep watch his neighbours. the East. pillars from the ancients. however. if necessary. and industries which such a civili- the presence of a splendid by and by the call for new zation would necessitate. and every upon Moslem is expected. Mukad- dams and Nakfbs regulated the several industrious. by a well-directed and efficient police. made canalisation. the sine qua non of stability and progress. the fisheries for branch of industry which back- is still ward even during the xixth century. Most substantial encouragement was given to trade and commerce.

belief in things unseen. pp. they had given up an even less respectable calling. xi. may all be creeds and retain the clearest signs of their origin. as did the tions. M . the civilisation of Baghdad The contrasting with the barbarism of Europe then Germanic. 321-99). relation to Christianity somewhat extended observations 1. are temporary and transitory no religion hitherto promulgated pect of being 2." that is. primitive creed and require a it is only declension from the and Christendom.Terminal Essay. = 177 the Penitents. its its fair to notice. day they art. need say no more on I . 271). and to this class Dalilah the Wily One. Edit. a history more or falsified and a moral code more or less pure. a less 1 " This " Salmagondis by Francois Beroalde de Vc^ville was afterwards worked by Tabarin. itself the other hand the action of the state-religion upon the state. not unknown and (in our present stage of development) unknowable. Their adventures still Newgate Calendar of past generawe owe the Tales of Calamity Ahmad. which are necessarily limited. Spain and overran Europe Parvenir. iv. because like our Bow-street runners. subject to the senses and therefore In offering the following my standpoints. portions. 3. the condition of Al- Islam during the reign of Al-Rashid. final amongst men shows any or otherwise than home to the old polity in the Nile-valley of science and seat and to this pros- finite. Saladin with the three Chiefs of Police and Al-Malik al-Zdhir with the Sixteen Constables (vol. Religious ideas. delight the vulgar. and which begat Le Moyen de 1 this heading. X. VOL. All so-called " revealed " religions consist mainly of three cosmogony more or less mythical. declare All forms of "faith. the pseudo-Bruscambille d'Aubigne and Sorel. traced . Nights On being the best expositor. Here and in many other places we " " also see the origin of that picaresque literature which arose in (Bresl.

and were devising a series of schisms and innovations. hence a mummer. with Europe has by other three orthodox. the debauchery and variety of vices which would spring up therein. applies to the this time clean " tricks of her former bigotry. were profoundly dissatisfied with the dryness and barrenness of Mohammed's creed. the sons of an inferior artificer " (the Banu Najjar A !). naturally as weeds and cosmopolitan views which the of meeting-place simplicity of the Harun and nations. larva) and signifies In the Promptoriuni Parvulorum we have disguise in a mask. Prideaux " that he was foolish and wicked enough to dispossess certain poor orphans. from an Arabic word Maskharah. and while the many-headed showed itself. In the Tale of fairly Tawaddud (vol. as and ready to do battle about an Azan-call. themselves the to in a primitive the saving faith. 189) the reader has seen a extended catechism of the Creed (Din). is essentially advantage save a fighting faith and The exceeding in the field. some and '* minor modifications." "Mask" . " with of the longer speak Ockley great impostor (mummery J a place of : Mahomet/' nor believe with the learned and violent Dr. though hardly with success. host of books has attempted. who sooner or later leaven the masses. I have noticed. usual. " were sore trials Religion of Resignation " a rich fallow. v. the ceremonial observances (Mazhab) and the apostolic practices (Sunnat) of the Shafi'f school which." derived from the Danish word mummynge go (mummer) nyghte and " Mascarade. as has even fanatical suggest in but the Barmecides were strongly suspected of . " Let us * I mumme in a in women's to mumme . mumm is said to be = mumme. has been it never shows to full wa Laylak^ said." mussacio. violent. or momme in Dutch (Germ. learned. been shown. lapparayle. luxury of a wealthy capital. e*g." " Mummy nge. also derive. so acceptable to the vulgar. to 1 I prefer this derivation to Strutt's " adopted by the popular. were orthodox and his cousin-wife. the heretical leanings.AIf Layla k Al-Islam. such as Mahommerie educated men no " Mawmet " forgotten (an idol !) Moslem worship )." for persona. larva or vizard. vel mussatus'': if was a pantomime in dumb show.

by the books communicated to Abraham. was first taught by Allah. Epist.sive exercitatio supra versibws 12. when of placing their somewhat subsequent to the the Pre-Adamite 1 races and dynasties 4000 or the Adamite religion demanded In process of time. an error which has been so injurious to their science and their progress.Founder of Christianity. to volumes now lost . Meccan Apostle preached that the Hanafjyyah or orthodox belief. therefore. " first man " in circa B. Al-Islam at once avoided the deplorable assumption of the Hebrews and the Christians. were " School of Nazareth of the dross of ages and of the manifold abuses with which long use had infected its early constitution hence to the unprejudiced observer his : reformation seems to have brought original doctrine it nearer the primitive and than any subsequent attempts.Terminal Essay. published (A. superseded and abrogated the Abrahamic dispensation. 14. the Founder of Al-Islam. Here.C. " the founder of the Sabian (not Sabaean ") and faith. building of the Pyramids of the : Moslems remove a great stumbling-block and square with the anthropological views of the present day. Adam 'and that and consigned this primal to certain Holy Writ received additions in the days of his descendants Shis (Seth) Idris (Enoch ?). a restoration and a supple- was revived. or Pentateuch. never pretended to establish a new religion. restored and further developed ment. the "Zabur" of David (a book not 1 The Pre-Adamite doctrine has been preached but with scant success in Christendom. 13. especially the The Judaizing tendencies of the so-called "Protestant" churches.D. It brewed a storm of wrath and the author was fortunate to escape with only imprisonment. 179 enlighten popular ignorance upon a crucial point namely. ' limited to purging the ' His claims. v. Paul. ." contending that Adam was called the first man because with him the law began. a French Calyinist. that . cap. in all its purity inspired and perfection. like the . which he subsequently named Al-Islam. In due time the Torah. ad Romanes. 1655) his Pr3eadamit8e. whose dispensation thus its pristine virtue takes the place of the Hebrew Noah and his Noachidae. " Pyrere. indeed.

Christian Meccan and friends converse An was the fight of the Bishop-voters publishing his Arian tractate) by Calvin." all Moslems do the same. Ehixl. 24) for vilely murdering a sleeping guest . History proves that the former was the though formally condemned earlier faith which. fected unorthodox. claimed a victim or martyr as late as in the sixteenth century 2 and has by no means died out in this our day. "Jan (a pimp or cuckold) Cul (Calvinus)." 2 and Jewish calling as loudly for reform 1 half educated his companions must have apostle that Christianity as Judaism had done. Injil or Evangel quickened and per- by the Koran which means Kartfaxfa the Reading or the Hence Locke. who condones. after inflicting upon them a series of plagues which would be the height of atrocity if the tale were true. . in A. which extended into Africa with the Vandals. confined to the Psalms) reformed the Torah. and allows Jacob to swindle his brother . This Servetus burnt (in Roman convinced exaggerated Trinitarianism or rather According to Socrates the verdict was followed by a free " Over the word consubstantiality. whom Catholics in England firmly believe to have been a pederast.D. for treacherously disembowelling Israel. Jael is biessed above women King Eglon. in return for the good joke Rabie " leesus. is made judge over (Joshua v. the Ascension believe in the and divine the in and when Priestley affirmed that "Jesus was sent from God. Th_ Cations of Canaan are then extirpated. where Ulphilas converted the Goths . Moses He orders in the his son to slaughter an Egyptian and the Jews to plunder and spoil a whole people. simply Arians as opposed to Athanasians.D. 1 overspread the Orient beginning with Eastern Europe." Its deity is an ancient arose. qua patriarch. 3 with A. in the mission of Jesus . Thus they are. I suppose. main point of doctrine connected with the Deity. presented a better anagram. from his Hebrew of the worst type.A If l8o wa Laylah Laylah. The Talmud had been completed a full century before Mohammed's time and the Evangel had been translated into Arabic moreover travel and . " 3 There is no more immoral work than the Old Testament. held Moslems to be Recital. that immaculate is who anti-Trinitarian Christians in Conception. commands every sin Abraham to murder permits or Decalogue to a Jewish patriarch. 325 by Constantine's Council of Nice. the reformed the Zabur and was itself purified. 1553 for meddling with Rabelais who. with many others.

was to be the model of the State. than ist Kings. c'est qu'il n'existe pas. 7. ii. Moslem family. 7 . 23. an incredible number Even and of heresies its had virtually the faith a religio horrid fecundity monstrous absurdities. xviii. able unaided to marry himself. 5 . 12 Henri Beyle. therefore. who. 11 ! n . xi. 5. ." and in France where. during ' " to the our days. daughters. . after an adultery and a homicide which deserved ignominious death. For the horrors the forbidden to the Jews. capping all. a made dethroned the Deity. 2 12-15). viii. alter bases. draw the gloomiest pictures of the the fourth and seventh centuries. cutting some in two with saws and axes and putting others into brickkilns. And these men wonder at being turned out ! . xvii. Mohammed finest 1 seems to have to be tracts After many built his edifice monopolised by " abolished for ever the sacerdos measure a tentative upon two Godhead and the priesthood of the unity of the He heresies/' Syria. xviii. and every father in Al-Islam was pontiff in his own cise (to baptise as in made miniature priest and house. and 27 . 21. xxii. " 1 . 2 . Tobias (Ezekiel iv. and one writers ecclesiastic Christian Church in declares that the " of Kingdom Heaven had become a Hell. Lot and his Amnon and his fair sister (2 Sam. " whose Christus some one acutely said. " Ce qui excuse Dieu. had been covered with hermitages by a gens aeterna of semi-maniacal ever " feracious of superstition. xiii. Esther xiv. Absalom and his father's concubines. distracted by the blood-thirsty religious wars of Copt and Greek. to instruct them in the law~ the horrid deeds of Judith and Esther are made examples to mankind and David. Jeremiah iv. 9. must have practised them. 181 "V" " Fourth Person and Saint-worship Tritheism. 17.Terminal Essay." Egypt. a returned priesthood collected in a few tune of years Peter-pence five hundred millions of francs. is suffered to massacre a host of his enemies. 10. It was the same in England before the Reformation. as Christianity. Isaiah xxxvi. Lord changes human ordure into I add. had allowed maay of her monkeries and nunneries. 15. 12. see Levit. and xx. For obscenity and impurity we have the tales of Onan and Tamar. to circumit were) his children. The existence. the paterfamilias. For mere filth what can be fouler 3. 24 . Song of Solomon. the " wife of whoredoms "of Hosea and. however humble. whilst Mariolatry had and superstition had drawn from muliebris. Cow-chips as man has made him. is the best proof of and whom all know to be its weakest point. where the said Eccl.).

" reconciled ancient with said Cato. fairness or moderation. which in the East means only knowing its abuse . properly so there was none called." is the aspiration of the present Rationalistic School. 1867. truth that cleanliness is By ignoring the next to godliness they paved the way for such saints as Simon Stylites and Sabba who. 22). no ": Scito " No priest at a death. viii. The Meccan apostle wisely retained the compulsory sacrament' of circumcision and the ceremonial ablutions of the Mosaic law . and canonically to bury himself (vol. sums for charity to He set aside certain be paid by every Believer and he was the establish a poor-rate (Zakat) thus he avoided the : first to shame and scandal of mendicancy which. pro tota famili4 rem divinam facere priest at a marriage. beginning in the Catholic countries 1 Deutsch on the Talmud : Quarterly Review. By thus abolishing the priest- no " " modern wisdom. abolished them for . purposes evidently political and propagandist. and the five daily prayers not only diverted man's thoughts from the world but tended to keep his body pure. 1 did something to abolish the use of wine. of the individual en masse and the only admitted approach to a sacerdotal order were the Olema or scholars learned in the legistic and the Mullah or schoolmaster. hood Mohammed dominum. like the lowest Hindu orders of evidence of piety ascetics. and he denounced games of chance. congregational prayers were merely those .A If Laylah ^va Laylah. Ritual. well that the excitable races of sub-tropical climates cannot play with patience." whom Jews from its matter was borrowed. These two institutions had been practised throughout life by the Founder of Christianity but the followers who had never even seen him. . priest at a birth. : made filth a concominant even now English Catholic and an girls are at times forbidden by Italian priests a frequent use of the bath as a signpost to the sin of " the morals contained in readily than did the He Mohammed would have accepted the Sermon on the Mount much more luxury.

' Evidently. honour. can even now write . " So then the ' ' full age to which Clark. Law. in fact. can see no good outside own He had petty pale. done good work in its time ." had. It never rose to the height of the Hindu Brahmans and Lao-Tse (the " Ancient Teacher Pharisees reward. of Zeno the Stoic and believed and preached never dared to say. Europe. " his disciples the noblt that Virtue Do good for is own its Good's sake " 3 . Theodore Christlieb (" Modern Doubt and Christian Relief. length of days> good Christian. he found two longevity. is Christianity made By 183. not distinguishable in kind from the inspiration of the Hebrew prophets. but it is dying of the slow poison of science. : humanity is at . the Kingdom of Heaven. two insight as well as outsight. moderate and temperate. 2 a more popular and practical doctrine. and its ethics are those of the Talraudic Hebrews." Edinburgh . Christianity offered the life. extends Southern of import he found. Faith. we must " own. for the most part. 1 are) its " cannot be a it As Judaism promised energy and to egoism and pleroma": the good Jew all its its degradation needs a Higher it manner of temporal so blessings. power.1874) and ideal standard. But Mohammed the " master mind of the age. with characteristic simplicity. wealth." especially in that puritanical and pharisaic narrowness which. It has a highly immoral distortion. with an alternative threat of Hell. and the taught him that personal and its mean external reformation were In the " purer matters compared with elevating the inner man. a genuine prophetic power. vital defects equally fatal to its These were (and Thus of humanity. as a bribe to lead a godly personal salvation and a future state of happiness." which he was commissioned to abrogate and to quicken. issue. Syria and to as far East as same these and other measures of the the ideal Moslem's life physically clean. These Hebrew Stoics would justly charge the Founder of Christianity with preaching vigour and progress. riches. but a degradation from their more * \ own far higher Dr. but now it shows only decay and decrepitude in the place of 1 It is dying hard. Its cosmogony is a myth read literally: its history is. a sinking of self in the Divine. 2 It who ") .Terminal Essay.

Synod of Dort declared. P to is still My Holy Writ." its Jt of the day. such a expressly to domicile the innocents " of for goodness sake ! present supposed to have attained.1 A If 84 now what is right. " even it wa Laylah to escape Hell and gain Heaven. The degradation is it now inbred. and was some days before he could recover mental equanimity. nafve of Christianity. because does not even for the sake of the good else." A no human less defect in " the " School of Galilee is its low view of Adopting as sober and authentic history an Osirian-Hebrew myth which Philo and a host of Rabbis explain nature. and the light for the anything Laylah. venture to seeks the day for the sake sake and he labours to .). abstract idea of goodness is What is the not an effectual reverence only comment is Jest ignoble! His " " Does Compare this Job serve God for naught ? and immoral view with Philo Judseus (On the Allegory of the Sacred for well-doing (p. lovingly as it " " Fall of man * and seems to revel in the conwere. Laws. acts the part of Satan in selfish. consists in man's doing good purely sees not the hollowness of this bombastic talk. the latter by this insipid theory (dieser * * " * The graven Theorie). does not declare with Cicero. and unconscious. That man has yet to be born whose Who practice will be regulated Idea of goodness per se motive irreligious. acquire what is So own The sum The good man light's " is. " I once immensely infected with the "bribe-and-threat doctrine: scandalised a Consular Chaplain by quoting the noble belief of the ancients. of the orthodox even created a " limbo " . Infantes infidelium morientes in infanti& reprobatos esse statuimus many nay. cap. whose burden of sake. upon the condition temptible to thus grovelling before point was and which " original sin God ad majorem Dei this carried that the is " condemned him To gloriam. hold a Christian babe dying un- still some have a higher existence. each after his own fashion. away. Christianity dwells. should be sought for and not because enacted/' it is " say with Philo Judaeus. 104). far for the egotism. and baptised to be unfit for . good Do good and not of itself." Marcion wrote willed. or in . 1 Of the doctrine of the Fall the heretic deficient in goodness if he not prevent it. now all is it is that right. measure the extent of the fall from Pharisaism to Christianity. in prescience if he did not : "The Deity must either be power if he did foresee. And Iviii.

at times irregular and even retrograde. 1 * In his charming book.Terminal Essay. at ask. Ready damned.000. sings for must be the it Adamical myth we 185 is ! (Bishop) d." This is the answer to those who contend with no means superior to the ancients of Europe years instead of 30. if any where. on the other hand hold. Christianity. Both have proposed an originally perfect being with hyacinthine locks. man fairest of of men since born (!) her daughters Eve. admitting. we come sown quite so thick to this earth our birth. but in the main progressive . earth there has been a savage very little that during man's millions of years upon a gradual advance towards perfection. " India Revisited. that early superior to the brute . its own saints and santons. from the man was evidence of our senses. utterly ignores the progress of humanity. can infatuation or hypocrisy one or the other opposed to human remains which " all But the go farther? our modern studies. perhaps the only which the wise man can take unmingled satisfaction. : much truth that the moderns are by they look-at the results of only 3000 . with the seeds Edwin Arnold." Here. from whose type all the subsequent humans are degradations belief in physical We and moral." the lower are the specimens of " find " has occur. the cloven shows itself and teaches us that the only solid stratum foot is the underlying priestcraft And I never can now is one composed of believe it. The deeper crust. whom kingdom of Heaven. and that a comparison of man in the xixth century with the caveman 2 affords us the means of measuring past progress and of calculating the future of humanity. like Judaism. and hitherto not a single to revive the faded glories of Adam the goodliest His sons.000 or 300. the Thus Lord of evil We 1 dig into the Earth's come my s.

which proud resignation to evil as to good is fortune. even in this world. however. including womankind." for not living in The popular excuse is mere ignorance : in Mohammed's day and early Al-Islam only actual fighters were slain 2 the rest were allowed to pay the Jizyah. . sinned against himself. he made Allah predetermine the career and fortunes. and ideal he acted unconsciously Honheur oblige. suggests that it "seems to Prideaux disingenuously have been purposely raised up by God. but it is much older. man On Hell. especially in the case of Khalid bin Walid. There are a few. not only of empires. Allah loftiest upon the grand dictum of chivalry His prophets were mostly 1 the " Pure of if proposing the in " sinned. and. but of every created being sympathy and tolerance of others. is : 1 * As a maxim the saying is attributed to the Due de Le"vis.Azwar. thus inculcating .1 A If Laylah wa 86 Mahommed was ancient sages : far Laylah." Lastly. he made he encouraged his fellow-creatures to be great and good by dwelling upon their nobler not their meaner side . from rising to the moral heights of the he did nothing to abate the egotism of Christianity . the Sword of Allah. and a self-command rare enough amongst the followers of the " purer creed. he " faultless men . or capitation- by the free use of the sword . a fortitude. he even exaggerated the pleasures of of its nature. the perfectability of mankind. true humanity. but only a few. not only of pagans and idolaters but of Christians. he acknowledged. frightful exceptions to this rule. and his ferocious friend. a\:d a This is the doctrine which teaches the vulgar Moslem a dignity observed even by the "blind traveller/' and which enables him to display a moderation. this. Darar ibn al. Christian historians explain variously the portentous rise of Al- Islam and it's marvellous spread over vast regions. to be a scourge to the Christian church accordance with their most holy religion. He " passed over the "Fall superior to the angels : Heaven and the horrors its he did much to exalt human the other hand with a light hand .

tax. forcible in almost all the privileges conversion would have afforded an explanation of the phenomenal more ground 187 rise eighty years than most been insufficient of an empire which covered Rome had gained in eight hundred. trading travellers. Even now. any land where once it took root. which had rejected the idolatro-philosophic system of pagan and imperial Rome. propagated only by self-educated individuals. North- western Africa. the cradle of the Nazarene. and Caliph Omar only fierce and furious Khalid by the mild obeyed the popular voice in superseding the *nd merciful Abu Obaydah. the Arian Christianity imported " by the Vandals. the scattered quered Syria. enjoying had even it systematically practised. and the same was the case with Syria. there are hardly any instances of defection from the new creed and. while throughout the Arabian.Terminal Essay. in the Indian Archipelago. it is it has never been suppressed spreading over wide regions and especially in in in China. while Christianity But their cruel excesses were loudly blamed by the Moslems. and had fashion. During so short a time the grand revival of Monotheism had consolidated into a mighty nation. subdued Egypt and extended the Faith along feuds. . one of his strongholds. despite Arab their eternal blood- a six-years' campaign had contwo utterly overthrew Persia. Western and Central Africa. humbled the Grasco-Roman. and the Nicene mystery of the Trinity. Saracenic and Turkish invasions whole Christian peoples embraced limits of the monotheistic faith. and Mesopotamia. although both were backed by the all remaining power of the Byzantine empire. the Copts of Nile-land had formally cast out Christianity. after lukewarm its Islam. of and to become Moslems. But tributaries." hailed doctrines of the in accepted. and a tribes . lustre or Within three generations northern Africa as far as the Atlantic. with Koran and has never ceased And while Mohammedanism to enthusiasm the be most zealous speedily reduced the Christendom by one-third. with the exception of Spain and Sicily. when Mohammedanism no longer wields the sword.

it shares with Eastern al] But progress. of a Year's Journey through Central and Eastern Arabia. Dr. In Egypt the rule of faiths in the East. viii. in its accordance with the wide diffusion and The dead hand. . Macmillan. Leitner. Nor can the " licentiousness " this honourable we by reception explain ignorantly attributed to Al-Islam. 4 Chapt." 3 Hence. 29). but fails in it the fact. or . " impregnable position. that which it superseded and that it suited the people better than the creed it has not ceased to be requirements. can adapt than any itself better other and has adapted itself to circumstances and to the needs of the various races which profess spirit of the age. Is 1 by the allurements of polygamy and concubinage. Palgrave's travels 4 which is Paul sends the Christian slave Onesimus Back to his unbelieving which in (?) Al-Islam would have created a scandal. results sine I from limited and imperfect observation and . (Luke table !" the result. pious fraud. I add. joy of the eyes is reserved for the xxxii. cannot quit this subject without a passing reference to an This loo when master. I have elsewhere noted its strict conservatism which. well observes " The Mohammedan religion As vital. " No for their 9-) Some however. like the soul -less soul knoweth what works" (Koran ties. is the principle which governs favoured by events of most different nature. however. " This too when the Founder of Christianity talks of Eating and drinking at his often touched notes have xxii. * woman of Al-Islam. not quietism. and and simple explanation wanted true that this grand Reformation of Christianity was urgently when it appeared. social. humanity and Mohammed it is Ali the Great and in Syria the Massacre of Damascus (1860) have greatly modified the constitution of Al-Islam throughout the nearer East. sexual and their Orientalist. Paul (I Cor. on the Dark Continent exist without strong support from Government. especially those begotten by self-interest. one of the most severely moral of institutions and a " wholly slavery. My upon fhis inveterate prejudice. a foundation of admirably written passage 1 " and motionless stiff a forcible simile for the present condition of Al-Islam is its St.. are very long-lived. " Narrative London. 1865. of ad captandum. Philemon 2 it qua non of similes and metaphors. drinking 2 The the pleasures of the sixth sense.A if Laylah wa l88 makes no progress and cannot Laylak. " . 17) is good in recompense surely as "spiritual" as St. ii. in Mr. sufficient for the practical from his own experience. sensual Paradise" devoted to eating. it.

4< There is no god but God". which has found due specimen of special pleading. a traditional conviction that converts of Israelitic blood bring only misfortune to the Order. 2 writer begins What expression of the Saving Faith. as sin ? : he does What would will they think Inadmissible Grace. he became a Catholic and a Jesuit (Pere Michel Cohen) in a Syrian he finally convent he crossed Arabia as a good Moslem and . I believe. picturesque depreciation of more than one popular volume. to 189 opportunities of comparing creeds of Jewish blood and born a : Protestant.) ill' Allah ? grammar as La Hah ilia Allah " . Palgrave. which he had personally fair his Mohammedanism. the Perseverance of the Elect." clearly shows us deal with and the "depths of his self-consciousness. author of man's existence.honest form. Jesu has. I especially allude to always gained by learning what the the 3 foe man we have to But how could La believers in a system have to say in its behalf." the Arabist write such hideous iliha (accus. compared with the sensible remarks upon the same subject by 1 The Soc. as a should Covenanter.Terminal Essay. who fall. " of a Deity the deliberately carries out into the regions of the extreme his strictures on the one grand vitalising idea of Al-Islam. of the ad captandum and But returned to his premier amour. temptation and pre-ordains sin and ruin ? " Father Cohen finally. genuine and ancient Christianity? sensible a notable is by assuming the and barren Wahhabi-ism. The least . unfair essentially The author has had ample Al-Islam. Anglicanism. Osgood. the Supralapsarian and the Sublapsarian and. 1876). Clarke &y James (Boston. model. which caricatures and exaggerates the false The writer's admission that. Moslem traveller who would make in its Moslems say we say to a the Calvinism of the sourest Good works : What would are an obstacle to salvation. men will the salvation of all and he destines men to of the arid to these propositions of Professor Maccovius and the Synod of Dort God does by no means sin modern studied. appreciation in 1 sin. " Something is portraiture of Mr. 2 an " ' able but most superficial book. the Ten Great Religions F. 3 and his deduc- tion concerning the Pantheism of Force sounds unreal and unsound.

Creed. and fine instances of trations of the " Mohammedanism 1 P- 996 Illustration a Relapse " Muhammad " in vol. and Into Bell and Sons' : this but a pinch out of a camel-load. the Eucharist and the Seven Sacraments. fact. the noteworthy of extremes. 7277) " History of the Saracens" by Simon Ockley. f'. to a legend in the Mischnah. . divulging her " mysteries ". the Presence. companion or counsellor and. he must will " no worse : forgive your sins (iii. held Christianity secure when Symbol. burking the fact that it never occurs in the Jewish scriptures and that the genius of Arabic. which falsehood lands. by Constantine in the fourth century. he keeps from his reader quote no other. fearing the charge of Polytheism. of the Hebrews joins the the love of utterly complaining many God " is absent from in theology. I regret that some Orientalist did not correct the proofs everybody will not detect " "Al-Lauh al-Mahfuz (the Guarded Tablet) in Allauh ho'hnehphoud " (p.D.f. or Oral ignored by the Written even that He ? " mention of the Mohammed's Law Law. to the who have lived in Moslem Such are the ingenious but not ingenuous distortions of the pathetic fallacy. (London. This "heresy " much aided by the "Discipline of the Secret. but from the AhAdis or Traditional Sayings of the Apostle but what importance attaches . catechumens and penitents like the Trinity. and does of subject to it " " predestination Mr." Dictionary of Christian Biography. like Hebrew. does not admit the expression such Koranic passages and still. Metastoicheiosis (transubstantiation). all when Arnobiuscould ask. Real Quid Deo Justin. the est ? and when the higher mysteries. as. This "mental reservation" lasted till the Edict of issued Toleration. equally commiserate Jehovah. of the Mohammedan iii. 8 See also the from Al-Ghazali introduced (pp. B. of course. and it allowed Arianism to become /^popular creed. : the illus- have engendered the worst form of Monotheism. 2 The word should have been Arianism. the Incarnation. 1878). Badger who } sees the abstruseness of the doctrine not care to include mere logical Lay Iah wa Laylak. Finally his views of the lifeless- ness of Al-Islam are directly opposed Leitner and the experience of all opinions of Dr. not from the Koran. it hard and in fast lines or to subject the Upon analysis. 171).i A If go Dr. 29)." supposed of the early Christians was to which concealed from neophytes. Palgrave quotes. could expressly declare the inferior nature of the Son to the Father. etc. cum vino be of apostolic origin. to " " Allah loveth you He pities Allah for having " son. Hence the creed was appropriately called Sign of the Secret.

less. favoured by the learned. went to the extreme length of the Ali-Ilahi the God-makers of Ali and the Zindik. and primitive simplicity of Al-Islam. reading Psalm cxli. 1 whilst the Dahrf found in Al-Islam a rich fallow and gained strength and luxuriance by the solid materialism and conservatism of its basis. by the Abbasides in their jealous hatred of the Ommiades. and empires and The proximity subject.Terminal Essay.g. proposed to sweep away the whole edifice. Romanist 1 The Gnostics played rather a fantastic jrole in Christianity with their Demiurge. their Maio and Sabscho and their beatified bride of Jesus. the change to which faiths races like creeds. who Mu- these threatened even the unity of the Godhead. /Eons by syzygies or couples. Turab (Caliph Ali).. all of Persia and with the Graeco-Romans had things sublunary. and rejects and reviles Abia . their noses or in their . the close are intercourse polished and greatly modified the physiognomy of the rugged old belief all manner of metaphysical subtleties had cropped up. had separated the several schisms some by a wider breach than that which yawns between Orthodox. &c. Sophia Achamoth . with the usual disintegrating effect. 3. a few of the distracting and resolving influences which brought to bear Such were Time had upon the True Believer and which. contended passionately with the Shf'ah who reviles and rejects the other three " 41 Successors and these sectarians. and some of them descended to absolute their ^Eonogony. their absurdities e. the Mundanist and the Agnostic. and : some of saylimah and Karmat had left traces of their or secessors) Mutazilites* (separatists handiwork actively propagated doctrine of a created and temporal Koran. the Tascodrugitae their fingers t upon and the Pattalorhinchitae who during prayers placed mouths. The : the their Khdrijf or Ibdzi. that who know little for those who know volumes written by those is. The neo-Platonism and Gnosticism which had not essentially affected Christendom. after half a dozen 'generations. M In Al-Rashid's day a mighty change had passed over the & j. 191 and which have been eagerly seized upon and further deformed by the authors of popular books.

I have found vii. WOMAN. are what main charm of Amazonian But little by influence they exercise upon public and private life. Many readers of policy not only in England. when the sexes are at civil war. action and manliness than the male. et si bona contigit ulla Nescio quo fato res mala facta bona est. find much astonishment masterful attitude and by the supreme my extent throughout notes that move and have it is in their fiction their Al-Islam to such an remains here to be added. woman- . . I9 2 and Lutheran. but throughout Europe. 28). B. Nor was this scandal the Tartar sword applied to it the sharpest remedy. written in that stage of civilisation. Eccle'* " inspired volume siastes. I have glanced at the subject of the sex all that female characters more remarkable for decision. the old ever-new fable " The books Who drew the Lion vanquished ? 'Twas a man " ! of the Ancients. boldly declares (upright) man among a thousand not found" Petronius (vol.Alf Laylah wa Laylah. and are wonderstruck Women. men make them and the is to see how they live and the world over. so curiously at variance with the stock ideas concerning the Moslem home and domestic me these volumes have remarked to they the with still prevalent. perhaps the strangest specimen of an " One the world has yet produced. make women even more than in real life the creatures of their masters : hence from the dawn of literature to the present day the sex has been the subject of disappointed abuse and eulogy almost as unmerited. all have I pessimism of . THE next point hood in The propose to consider I Al-Islam abated until in the position of is Nights. being without any masculine guidance. but a woman among thus confirming the : Femina nulla bona est.

a devil wendeth with her. like the fly. Eve was created Satan host.Terminal Essay. she 147) i. a monster) and. Rabbinical learning has embroidered these and other texts. and lo its rejoiced saying tells us. etc. I stood at the gate inmates were women." 1 " Take care cried the Prophet to a camel-guide singing Yet the Meccan apostle made. Simonides. insatiables. forth. his popular voice follows with such " nectar and poison and so " . Women is . (169). proa ducing hideous truly Mohammed "They (women) runs.. dictes " " as. more merciful than Ecclesiastes. "-The Book of the Beginnings on the 38. the classics . The blatant with a sweet voice. cat-women.s.e. Hell. " of the glass-phials " Hadis attributed wits : ! its and Thou When faith. and most of ! lack my secret and my Another ! most of A caricature. ends the decade with the admirable bee-woman thus making ten per cent. 17). the trustee of miss not and lo ! " of Hell. (Kathd " by Nature Woman has like the flashings of lightning valueless as a straw to the heroic mind hard as adamant in sin and soft as flour in fear (170) and. although he drew the beautiful character of Alcestis. after naming his swine-women.) N . Women fickleness implanted in her s. 1 5) we have 193 the old sneer at the three Earth and the Parts feminine and (ps vulva)'. In the Psalms again (xxx. seen." woman The " A Wherever wendeth a fairy face same superficial view of holding to be lesser (and very inferior) man is taken generally by and Euripides distinguished himself by misogyny. In mediaeval or 1 "Kitdb al-'Unwan fi Makaid al-Niswan Wiles of Womankind (Lane VOL. X. is \ grey hairs " ! (i. she quits camphor to settle on compost "What dependence there in the crowing of a hen?" " virgin with (women's opinions) says the Hindi proverb also (ii. honest. i. dog-women. as has been own household produce two perfections. art half of shaft wherewith to my shoot and I stood at the gate of Heaven. she is are made of have long hair and short wits " Nor are the Hindus behind hand. I inmates were poor.

exaggerate these . when bed-ridden by age and infirmities. the learned preacher. admirable sketch of conjugal happiness we list. : offal cast by kites where'er they insults of vol. xlix). the perfect mother." suddenly blurts out. in whose pages " gentlemen may find their choice of sweet inventions and gentlewomen be satisfied with courtly expectations. . Univira the widow and the self-sacrificing heroic 216) the sex described as An and the studied do we woman. to mention no other. the perfidious and murderous crone and the old hag-procuress who pimps like Kulsum 1 for mere pleasure. as of the god Wiinsch only expected Women views. during the next three decades she pimped for friend and foe . the less model lover devoted wife. in the luxury of sin. Woman clothed with the Sun. The Nights. ascetic. about by constant . beings .Alf Laylah wa Layla k. also (vol. vii. where Isis was the modern parlance "The The kindly and courtly Palmerin help-mate and completion of Osiris. Shahryar's attestation to Shahrazad's excellence 1 This person was one of the Amsal or Exampla of the Arabs. with an experienced and loving hand. during the last third of her life. women are never " accident or appetite in truth (chapt. and. stable inconstancy. If we chaste find (vol. she had a buck-goat and a nanny tied up in her room and solaced herself by contemplating their amorous conflicts. come upon an ? 43) ." in of England. For her first thirty years she whored . the saintly devotee. The of impulse. iii. meet with examples of the matronly Yet not the dutiful daughter. " every gust of passion in be might East. are drawn Umm . and. 194 Germanic Europe the doctrine of the Virgin mother gave the sex a status unknown to the ancients except in Egypt. iii. 318. only false from the emotional are mostly " Sectaries in blown instability. the in her affection. satisfied by " But being governed by reason.

(i. although the truth has not even yet penetrated into the popular brain. virtue. And 624). woman and aversion to the world a glorious house as the streak of the are always bad e. an Amildar or revenue collector. are devoted to their husbands and 'tis " (ii. The status of legal high. women in that even Hindu.g.. . Since I. come in hosts therein I find. all times she must be moderate and self- possessed. countrywomen subject has apparently undergone a change. have is. bring but here and there you will find a virtuous (i.Hindi perfect woman She must not always be merry (i) nor sad she must not always be talking (3) nor silently musing (4) (2) she must not always be adorning herself (5) nor neglecting her has seven requisites. charming pages of The Nights. the sole but the Lord himself can hardly guard the "Excessive love of the Heavens same with the and dispraise are equally enthusiastic praise chamberlain " (i- 1 of good family are guarded by their unchaste. but the Osmanli proverb of. or And modem Moslem rather a vindication feeling Ashraf Khan. few (and very few) of men. wrote an "apology" 1 for. adorneth arrayeth the breadth King. (6) and. (7) at . own can stem a furious stream and a frantic woman in Thus fair ones. Nearly a century ago one Mirza Abu Talib Khan. naturally your only hero is actions which engender discernment " " see. nine are women! " . after living two years in London. honourable matrons not the case that is true wisdom balance of feminine qualities advocated by our The class-book the Toti-nameh or Parrot volume. person . Women And upon the the parted one. his "Of ten men the secrets of the world to ken. a fact of which womankind in Al-Islam is exceptionally Europe has often been assured. sings'. in the last Katha whose " Women efficient 328). . the Afghan poet. 339)- It is the Who .Terminal Essay. M ? for daring woman who moon So you 346). there " about a series of evil feeble. 195 .

Europeans seeing and hearing that women in the East are " cloistered " as the Grecian matron was wont not walk out with may pany them liable. moreover. 1 judges of one another superficial remark only often Laylak* Nations are where customs : differ the salient distinctive points which. He also wrote a book of Travels translated by Prof. In Meccan Prophet was famed as a good citizen. it is i J[ quoted by Dr. like wife/' ^vSov pcvtiv and oiKovpav . like that of all old dwellers in the East. 100-107) . a view which appears to Meccah and an unscrupulous me eminently unsound and unfair. but. the Trusty. after his ill-advised and scandalous marriage 3 with His Persian paper " On the Vindication of the Liberties of the Asiatic Women" was translated and printed in the Asiatic Annual Register for 1801 (pp. Scott (Introd. compared with the tissue of horrors and bavock which the Law and the Prophets attribute to Moses. incestuous the scandal came from its ignoring the Arab pun* donor. 2 The beginning of which I date from " The Flight. a royal pontiff. et seq." Joshua. and the preacher was merged in the a private station the : Conqueror of his foes and the Commander of the Faithful. Harem went into ectasies of pity and sorrow because the poor things knew nothing of say trigonometry and the use of the globes. But when driven from his home by the pagan faction. like that of all Eastern rulers. I have noted (Night cmlxii. Jon. ending in a most exemplary death. once visiting a living. they were mere blots upon a glorious and enthusiastic life. 8vo. Indeed. was stained with blood . teste his title AlAmfn =. to the mortification of the " sister- have most ignorantly determined that they are mere serviles and that their lives are not worth 'Miss Martineau. it = lit. His rule. p. Sonnini thought otherwise. the separation. he became de facto as de jure a king nay. to and prophets by express commandment of Jehovah. i. to look upon Mohammed the Hijrah.) and by a host of writers. assuming as true all the crimes and cruelties with which Christians charge him and which Moslems confess.Charles Stewart in 1810 and re-issued (3 vols." Stating the case broadly. that wives husbands and cannot their accom- and parties ". that they are always to "balls the ancient Hebrew. a learned lady. popularly has become the practice of modern writers as an honest enthusiast at despot at Al-Medinah. prove to be of minor importance. is directly opposed to this conclusion.) in 1814. but they when examined. xxxiv. 3 It was not however.) that Mohammed. to Samuel and to the patriarchs ' : . vol.wa -Alf Laylak which is still worth reading and quoting. in the fifth year 2 of his reign. and my experience.

chapt. holding it indirect 3236 internal evidence of Mosaic authorship 19) . fends off from astray. 197 Zaynab. 155 ." The Eastern adopts the instinctive. xii.). Smith (' Pentateuch chapt. hearts and their hearts. the Western prefers the rational method. is of obloquy by many the very essence of " Revela- xiii. It : even to the Badawi." and all risks latter. as " the Koran says (xxxii. like by a jealous husband. exiled to Gibral- friend. its object was to deliver the sexes from temptation. 8 II and xxxvi. Colonel Buckle. W. established the Hijab or veiling of his foster-daughter was probably an exaggeration of local usage a modified separation of the sexes. kills eminence 1 it. down comes a revelation " says Ockley in his bluff and homely style." the Koran the concessions freely made " to the But why. said to my lock it up that in a to leave Pasha. xxvii. i. accepted it delight in restrictions willingly and still affect it . which admits such phrases of Al-Islam. is used in the case " And now. 2 This is noticed in my wife's volume on The Inner Life of Syria. who 1 which tend to their honour. that he might not stand in awe of his wives any longer. " as. and they would think very meanly of a husband who permitted them As Zubayr 2 hetairae. (?) Another tone.'' purer will this (practice) be for your The women. The of it if the treasure en evidence upon an with back and bosom bared to the gaze Mohammed has been made a matter who have tion. The former jealously guards his treasure. moreover. tar for another's treason. however. although we may be called upon to believe things beyond Reason. refuse to It is a mere petitio principii to Torah? argue that the latter is "inspired while the former is not ." and he applies this to successive decrees (Numbers xxvi. vol. 32). must long have been customary in Arabian and cities. which extended and still extends women. visiting quarters evidently laid out Arabs think to it precious jewel. they do not desire a liberty or rather a licence which they have learned to regard as inconsistent with their time-honoured notions of feminine decorum and delicacy. surrounds it with go all precautions. so laws originate from the accidents of the way. 'tis " We wiser to about for anyone to take. to the public gaze. the imposter has the impudence to say. in common honesty. after when a man has a box than be exposed. "As the journey (Exodus) proceeds. it is hardly fair to require our belief in things contrary to Reason.Terminal Essay. after placing in ball dress The "opportunism" it not reflected and discovered that time-serving " Says the Rev.

" v . The second and main riage-system which begins with a whom leaves it still man prevails amongst where a lengthened study of doubtful whether the " love-marriage. But the cru- whether Christian Europe has done wisely in offering such temptations. falls household mostly confined to the grandee and the richard. way." the case and the Lastly. during pregnancy and lactation. husband. of society. cial is question is a fiery trial and the few who ." as me the mar- This was the habit of our many generations ago. No.A If LayIah 198 iva Laylah." (Spectator." But in the East. is The " sister-wife " is or would be a likely to prove the happier. 159) is therefore "The Vision of Mister. would brought polygamy. and where often enough hesitate to " nigger assumes a very comparatively it different aspect light. evidently the two extremes. where the sex up is far more where a delicate. like the for three successive Mormon damsel she with a one-wife-man. Mirza Abu Talib "the Persian Prince" 1 offers six reasons why Mirza preceding the name means Mister and following it Prince. not unfrequently proves herself of the family. sore trial to where Caia. monogamic all races like those of Northern Europe. or wedlock with an utter stranger. where religious reasons separate her from her in years girl is . and if it be misled. forbears not it Moslem custom objection to it is called. is being wedded to a girl she knows only by hearsay." the " only man in the boat. claim a higher standpoint in the moral may who have never been safely pass through world than those It it sorely tried. and . but the equal of Caius in most points mental and physical and the " man superior in some. he kills or tries to kill the misleader. Addison'i Vision of Mirza. if burden " patriarchal it be.noble houses in Southern Europe. whilst Holy " is Law and public opinion. the load. neither of which can openly be disregarded. assign command of the household to the equal or first wife and jealously guard the rights and privileges of the others. a bundle of charms exposed to every possible seducallows it take to its own tion.

I'll fondly place on either eye The man He down then lays that can to this reply. Allemande. Anthrop. many " was completed^ centuries of the grossest abuses. Pechuel-Loecksa. Carlo Wilhelmi. the sons going to the sire. Z. especially the latter she alone : directs their early education. eight points in which the Moslem greatly the advantage over her Christian sisterhood take his first as a specimen. males above But the main point " her being a legal sharer" also liberty nights. Moslems and Easterns in general study and intelligently study the art and mystery of satisfying the physical woman. It is Thomas. servants and . Howitt. C. the master and Harem. .) for whom see infra. Dawson. " the liberty of the Asiatic women 199 appears less than that of the Europeans/' ending with. period of puberty is feted by magical rites described by Waitz. to leave her home. and the daughters. Collins. of teaching lads first arrived at puberty the nice conduct of the instrumentum paratum plantandis civibus . " England a in Married Woman's Property Act only in 1882 after Lastly. Muhas (Mem. my " she' Foreword making men have noticed among barbarians the system of I " ! In that is. . Brough Smyth. their choice of faith. i. not only for one or two She has a strange household. but for a or a fortnight. Mantegazza (chapt. 265) and by Professor. Re"clus and Schoolcraft. 1882. a branch of the knowledge-tree which our modern education 1 And women. without consulting her husband visits she takes in case of divorce fifteen] in favour of inheritance is the secured by Koranic law she must be dowered by the bridegroom her whereas legalise marriage and all she gains is secured to to her to . A. p. Reverends Bulmer and Taplin. not contrary to law. slaves. W. Mohammedan mother the stead. their marriage and their establishment in life . de la Soc. are forbidden the Moslem wife is all : week and whilst . wife has and we may Custom. Wood. The course of instruction lasts from a few days to a year and the and often by some form of mutilation. invests with despotic government of the homechildren.Terminal Essay.

cheap form. 216) one of the most out" spoken. undated. usually litho- la taille . in aphrodisiac literature treating. O the last few pages. The mock virtue. called the Halbat al-Kumayt or Racein graphed Course of the Bay Horse. grossly neglects. a 4to of 464 pages.A If Laylah wa 2OO Laylah. The pudibund Lane makes allusion to and quotes (A. a lithograph of 33 pages. use to Throughout the East such studies are aided by a long series of volumes. Exposition in Kitab al-fzdh fi al-Nikah 'ilm the Science of Coition much is : my is credited disputed. by men of social standing and by religious dignitaries high in Egyptians especially delight The office. begins with exclaiming " Alhamdolillah bosom with to the Lord who adorned the and who made the thighs of women " To the of men same amiable breasts the spear-handles also ascribed the 1 Laud theologian are ! "Kitab Nawazir al-Ayk virginal anvils for fi al-Nayk = Green Similarly certain Australian tribes act scenes of rape and pederasty saying to the young. women finest it is Society" sickens at all said abroad that the English have the Europe and in " : know how least them.. the better thou mayst know what to and so forth. i." Mo- : have recounted. If you do this you will be killed. it is reader. and generations. though the authorship work al-Din wholly upon the subject of wassail and women till " This when his reverence exclaims much. hammed. but evidently Cairene. 1 Even the divine and historian Jalal al-Din al-Siyuti with having written. I Shams " entitled." a poetical and horsey term for grapeAttributed by D'Herbelot to the Kazi wine. the most immodest tb modesty of England and of the United States in the xix century. a The Book of copy. ending with condemning all he had praised. thereby entail ing untold miseries upon individuals. as the Turks say. . readily sell off. de la partie au-dessous de and from fifteen hundred to two thousand copies of a new work. avoid . families pronounces the subject foul and fulsome and hence details. many of them written by learned physiologists. N.

?) wa al-Jimd' Alatih (Book of Carnal Copulation and the Initiation into the modes of Coition and its Instrumentation). 7. (8) Niko the Samian girl poetess of (10) Amatory Protagorides. Kitdb al-Bah by Al-Nahli. Kitab al-'Ars wa al-'Arais (Book of the Bridal and the Brides) by Al-Jahiz. fawdid al-Nikah ft = Book an abstract of the Kitdb of the Zone on Coition- we may judge Of the abundance of pornographic literature list of the following seven works given in the second page " Kitdb Ruju'a al-Shaykh Sabdh ila fi 'I-Kuwwat al-Bah * = Book of Age-rejuvenescence in the power of Concupiscence it is the work of Ahmad bin Sulayman. we find erotic specialists (i) Aristides of the the Greeks Amongst Astyanassa the follower of Helen who wrote on androgynisation explanation (2) hence such works are called = Books of Lust. 2. (n) Sotades poem (6) . . Eunius. Bassus Memmius. surnamed Ibn Kamal Pasha. Splendours of the Copse al-Wishah boon. Suidas. the Sybaritic books . 13. his Amongst Hemitheon of (9) Philaenis. wa Jandhib (? ?) 2 Kitdb al-Munakahah wa al-Mufatahah fl Asnaf Kitdb Barjdn (Yarjan 6.. Sabellus (de the modo . 3. Romans we have Cinna. says Art of Love and (12) Sphodrias the Cynic. (7) Musaeus the lyrist . " Cinsedica" Amatory Pleasures. Aedituus. from a of the in Copulation. attributed to Polycrates the Sophist Amatory Conversations. the Mantinsean who. Annianus Leevius (of lo and Pliny the Younger. viii. Kitdb al-Kiyan (Maiden's Book) by Ibn Hdjib al-Nu'mdn. in Athen. wrote the (13) Trepsicles. Kitdb Jami' al-Lizzah (The Compendium of Pleasure) by Ibn 5. Anscr.20 1 Terminal Essay. Kitdb al-fzah fi asrdr al-Nikah (Book of the Exposition on the Mysteries of married Fruition). Eubius. (4) Elephantis the poetess who wrote on Varia concubitus genera . . (5) Evemertis whose Sacra Historia. Erotopsegnion). 4. Cyrene the amatory Tabellae or ex-votos offered to Priapns . Kutub al-Bah. was collected by Hieronymus Columna. Cicero ." is the popular term for the amatory appetite : 3 I have consulted may be fanciful names proper. lit. preserved in a artist of fragment of Q. (in Ausonius). by Aziz al-Din al- Masihi. Pleasures. 3 1 " Bah. 2 I can make nothing of this title nor can those whom is : my only that they . the the Helvius (to Cerellia). Samsamdni. : 1. Libri Milesii (3) .

London and Benares." coeundi) modest . : Cosmopoli mdceclxxxv : for the Kama Shastra Society.R. " Opinion" cares very little for such matters and. Reprint and : for private circulation only. render the medical one of the most important productions of it of the Arabs. including eight pages of is most grotesque illustrations showing the various Asan (the Figurae Yeneris or positions of copulation).e. have copies of the latter it in Sanskrit I and Marathi. in the notions of Eastern nations on these subjects.. 2 It must not be supposed that such The aphrodisiacal. omitting much from. and x. forbidden by law.F. . 1 Cupido) or Hindu Art of Love (Ars Amoris Indica).F. a a translation it is and a very poor attempt. 2 is The local press has often proposed to abate this nuisance of erotic publication which But the *' Empire of most debasing to public morals already perverted enough. the famous Sanskrit work Ananga-Ranga (Stage of the Bodiless One i. Persian and Hindostani : Women). and B. literature Sisenna. which seem to be the triumphs of contortionists. and only the legal pains and penalties keep up the phenomenally high prices. literature is purely and simply learned Sprenger. 66. in the matter of the native press." In England if erotic literature were not generally seems to seek only a quiet life. 384) of a tractate by the celebrated " Leyden Library The number of curious observathe correct and practical ideas and the novelty of the Rhazes tions. 1885). 1 It has been translated from the Sanscrit and annotated by A." can conscientiously recommend to the Anthropologist a study of the " Kutub al-Bah.A If Laylah wa 2O2 To these text-book I in may add Laylah. few would care to sell or to buy it. For these see the Dictionnaire ferotique of Blondeau pp. the Lizzat al-Nisa (Pleasures of Arabic. The first print has been exhausted and a reprint will presently appear. Liseux. Guzrati and Hindostani: an unpaged 8vo of pp. (Paris. a physician as well as an Arabist. the pathic Poet erotist. and adding naught to. says (Al-Mas'udi p. which are contained in this book.F. and I translator of Milesian Fables and Sulpitia the ix. These pamphlets lithographed in Bombay are broad cast over the land.

arid. we- archaic six-quatre-dix " un " expressions as face*tieuse la pete*e. as Egypt. stages for . from matron to prostitute the matter is rather of : naive French traveller said of the Japanese nommer ne s^avent stage of language sufficed upon the strictures where. C. which scientific. and. is often much more immoral because more and seductive than the highest civilization La Glu find M. they cannot be accused of corrupting suggestiveness or subtle insinuaTheirs tion of vicious sentiment. and the pure and perfect naturalness of their nudity seems almost to purify it." les " " to grossiers qu'ils This primitive draw from Lane and Burckhardt most immodest freedom of conversation all the in world over." now is And let attractive. petarade. suggestive me observe that the returning to the language of nature. at times. foutue a la t'es foutue de. a triumph of the realistic school. probably agree that the naiVe indecencies of the text are rather gaudisserie when than prurience. raw word. . PORNOGRAPHY. First we have the mot cru. even indelicate " gross and. Such throughout the East is the language of every man.Terminal Essay. of such " J. etc. " in their terrible frankness. woman and child. In Richepin. Readers who ^ave perused the ten volumes with me The xv. soon followed by the technical and the literary or figurative nomenclature. lastly. there are three several names of things and acts sensual. delivered with mirth and humour. tu putain. the popular term. they " nasty than designed for debauching with infantile plainness. is a coarseness of language. they are indecent. HERE it will Foreword 203 be advisable to supplement what wa* said (p. not of idea. si choses que par leur nom. . " are rather the excrements of wit Crude and the mind. not depraved.) concerning the turpiloquium of will my in Nights. showing that manners than of morals. from all are as the prince to peasant.

" who have been polished in France. Mantegazza. les Equally true are Professor Mantegazza's words plaies du cceur humain au nom de contraire qu'hypocrisie ou peur. The la 3 : Cacher pudeur. use of the most coarse and uncivilised words in our language and utter themselves manner as a clown would blush to hear. to amuse myself with boys was natural to me as for man to eat and drink 4 yet you asked me if 1 I sinned against nature " ! Amongst ! the wiser ancients sinning contra naturam was not marrying and begetting children. Bishop of Ratisbon. one of absolute obscenity utterly repugnant to English readers. and particularly those at Chaeroneia. ideo necesse est cog- noscere immundiciem coitus et multa alia quae docentur in isto libro. 1 those critics of these raw vulgarisms and puerile indecencies in who complain The Nights I can reply only by quoting the words said to have been said by who complained Dr. this subject plan to ignore and the Anthro- do abundant harm who. traduit par Emilien Chesneau. small in 18). even the least prudish. Liseux. Paris. Paris. To forth." often in such a 2 See the Novelle of Bandello the Bishop (Tome I . for shame or disgust. xvi. rightly says Quia malum non evitatum nisi : cognitum. ce n'est au Mr. . Johnson to the lady his dictionary But I and that repeat is " You must have been there (p." par P.A If Laylah wa 2O4 Eh vilain bougre and so ! Laylah. Madam " ! The Nights is it connected with what It is chiefly vice contre nature contrary to nature which includes must looking for them. As the first requisite is careful Albert Bollstoedt. Grote had reason to late lament that when describing such institutions as the far-famed of Thebes. "infamous piece of good breeding. I of the naughty words in as anything can be if 2 all Upon things. where the dying fisherman replies to his confessor " Oh Oh your reverence.) is our neighbours another element in call Le offer details. "men Band annihilated 119) complains of an of the town. as any theme which And pologist. would suppress the very mention of such matters in : order to combat a great and growing evil deadly to the birth-rate the main-stay of national prosperity study. Fetscherin et Chuit. methinks. 1886. 3 Avis au Lecteur "L* Amour dans 1'Humanitl. the Sacred 1 The because make Spectator (No. 1879. does not enter into my interesting to the Orientalist they.

Elutheropolis." si tu me him with women instead of boys." the veteran began to consider his conquest with a curious eye. and in decent nudity not in it now suggestive PEDERASTY. De 1' movements of the animal. was asked indirectly to make enquiries and to report upon the subject and I undertook the task on express condition that my I . the show The version of my to : de vigne. fig-leaf or feuille to " Nights. lay for could speak Sindi.' See . when Sir Charles Napier life. from un des Quarante Imposture du Nazare*en. literature of his valet-de-chambre de confiance proposes to provide exclaims. execrabilis by a chance which permitted him to touch This was inevitable under the a book intended for the public in D. a town let of some two thousand and distant not more than a mile from camp. less and eunuchs. French Consul Bombay Government. when to have the same effect. the former demanding nearly a double hire. 2 This detail expecially excited the veteran's curiosity. he was compelled to a reticence only the surface of the subject. had conquered and annexed venal) but the matter seYieusement. in which not women but boys souls . It was reported to him that Karachi. " Des femmes also infra for " Le ! eh ! c'est comme poids du tisserand. The reason proved to be that the scrotum of the unmutilated boy could be used as a kind of bridle for directing the 1 (Prosper Me'rime'e). B.Terminal Essay. honnetement. An at Civita Vecchia) par mdccclxiv. The 20$ Sind. servais un gigot sans manche. present rule of Cant * same does not apply I proceed discuss to historiquement . report should not be forwarded to the See " H. Being then the only British officer who 2 price. familia of earlier pathicorum" which sought first came before me In 1845. although the same cause might be expected eveiywhere But in Mirabeau (Kadhe'sch) a grand seigneur moderne." (Henry Beyle. I find nothing of the kind mentioned in the Sotadical Greece and Rome . supported no than three lupanars or bordels. favour with despite a fraction (mostly the now defunct " Court of Directors to the Honourable East India Company.

31. they were printed " Selections from the Records of the Government of India. Stocks. etc. John E. Abdullah the Bushiri visited all the porneia * passed many an evening and obtained the in the fullest details townlet which were But the <f Devil's despatched to Government House. Lat. These are (i) Notes on the Population of Sind. Secretariat informed me that my summary A friend in the dismissal from the had been formally proposed by one of Sir Charles Napier's But this successors. Mirza Mohammed Hosayn of Shiraz." bounded westwards by the northern shores of the Mediterranean (N. the Punjab and Kashmir. '47 and March 2. 4. In Indo-China the belt begins to broaden. John Van Voorst. " Brother presently quitted Sind leaving in his office my unfor- duly tunate official: this found its way with sundry other reports 2 to Bombay and produced the expected result. and habited as a merchant. 1855. 43) and by the southern (N. service Subsequent enquiries in many and to arrive at the following conclusions 1. 3. Italy and Greece. Thus the depth would be 780 to 800 miles including meridional France. excess of outraged modesty was not allowed. '48. enfolding China. with the coast-regions of Africa from Marocco 2. Pan 2.A If 206 whom Laylah wa Laylah. whose decease compels me parcere sepulto. Sind." Bombay. whose early death was a sore loss to . the Iberian Peninsula. Mesopotamia and Chaldaea. with my (2) Brief Notes on the Modes of Intoxication. 1852. justice. Submitted to Government on Dec. Japan and Turkistan. Running eastward the Sotadic Zone narrows. There exists what I distant countries enabled me : shall call a " Sotadic Zone. It 1 2 then embraces the South Sea Islands and the New World See Falconry in the Valley of the Indus. etc. Lat. late friend Assistant-Surgeon scientific botany. Mirza mercy or favour. written in collaboration in No. to Egypt. London. and xvii. supporters of the Conqueror's policy could expect scant Accompanied by a Munshi. 30). embracing Asia Minor. Afghanistan. New Series.

The on considerations of lover undertook the education of the beloved through precept and example. Yonder boy is like a girl. which hold to be geographical and climatic. v. the moth to the taper love for the Rose. 5. held such affection. see breaks excels that of any diva. phenomenal world. iv. always 1 suggest sexuality and Easterns add that the devotion of the . followed by the Sufis or Moslem Gnostics. 160) . while the two were con" Glycon the Courtesan in Athen. as a rule. disinterestedly and without any admixture of beautiful objects in this carnal sensuality. held at the worst to be a mere peccadillo. Before entering into topographical details concerning Pederasty. is purer and more fervent than the Bulbul's Amongst the Greeks of the best ages the system of boy-favourites was advocated morals and politics. Sotadic love was. not I offer a few considerations of cause and. . The Nights. 84 declares that boys are handsome only women and in resemble so the Learned The Nights (vol. pure as ardent. the operation and look liveliest disgust. human mate compared with and the boy's voice before it the female. xiii. corporeal and intellectual. t& be the Platonists beau ide*al which united man's soul the creature with the in youths as the most cleanly and Professing to regard Creator. where. I We must must not noble sentimental side. 15 ." For the 1 when superior physical beauty of the vol.origin. however innocent. of the Demiurgus. its forget that the love of boys has its racial. they declared that by loving and extolling the chef-d'ceuvre. They add does the love of women. Within the Sotadic Zone the Vice is popular and endemic." they Lady declares " Boys are likened to girls because folks say. at the time of 207 some discovery. an established racial institution. passing as far less selfish it than fondness for and admiration of the other sex which. whilst the races to the North and South of the limits here defined practise sporadically amid the opprobium of are physically incapable of performing upon it with the it only their fellows who. they are paying the most fervent adoration to the Causa causans.Terminal Essay. The and pupils of the Academy. with its exceptions. is that such affection.

and the woman a tribade. takes the same view in the Letter of Sappho to Phaon and in Tristia ii. Queen of Frictrices or Rubbers. the over-development of clitoris (the veretrum Abu Tartur." Formosum Socrates declared that men their they would be most ashamed to desert even Virgil. could write flavour of : Nisus amore pio pueri. 612) has been retoillee like Mary Stuart. " one in which the whole volume of most powerful concentration into one brilliant focus of the which amatory concupiscence can display itself. because the vigorous disposition it of youths and the confidence engendered by their association often led to the overthrow of tyrannies. is that within the Sotadic Zone there is a blending of the masculine and that temperaments.C. male ftminisme whereby the man becomes patiens as well as agens. La Brinvilliers. much like some of our dull wits who have converted Shakespeare. who could consult documents now lost. And one another. The only me and physical cause for the practice which suggests itself to must be owned to be purely conjectural. in Arabic Sappho (nat. of Tyre (Dissert. Richter. muliebre. 1 1 " Mascula. suggesting that possession discovered Greek # qui pres de toi pour toi seule soupire the sole cure for passion. i) as literature offers the * * * he. Bode.) declares that the Marie Maximus Eros of Sappho was Socratic and that Gyrinna and Atthis were as Alcibiades and Chermides to Socrates : Ovid. of Greek Literature. Welcker have made Sappho a model of purity. xxiv. the Tractatrix or Subigitatrix. modes in into a good 2 British bourgeois.) love symptoms. a 2 votary of mascula Sappho. despite the foul pastor Corydon. a crasis which elsewhere occurs only feminine Hence the sporadically." from the priapiscus. who has been noticed in vol. that most debauched genius. Lesbia quid docuit Sappho nisi amare puellas ? Suidas supports Ovid. O. B. Miiller and esp. Antoinette and a host of feminine names which have a savour not of sanctity. habens cristam) which enabled her to play the man." But Bernhardy. 208 by a joined tie than the stricter Peripatetic strongly advocated Hieronymus the fraternal. K. Erasistratus Mure (Hist. etc. The Arabic Sahhakah. Longinus eulogises the epomKi) fjMvia (a term applied only to carnal love) of the far-famed Ode to Atthis : Ille mi par (Heureux ! esse Deo videtur Blest as th' immortal gods By its is the love of Antiochus 1850) speaks of the Ode * is for Stratonice. to Aphrodite ^Frag. Prof. 26$. .Alf Laylah wa Laylah. "a most lovers army might be composed of boys and valiant for that of all .

Mirabeau's Erotika Biblion. the latter were destroyed by Zeus for rebellion. orgasm which So amongst women through the sexual organs. the primitive true ? The man prefers Hence each men and division seeks the primitive its two others were other half in the woman women. "). The first creation of humans (Gen i. and the question : abnormal distribution and condition of the nerves. X. the artificial penis (the Persian " Mayajang . Hence 134. this pathological one of the marvellous of amorous vagaries which deserve. perversion 1 Plato being in is only glanced at in When androgynes. C'est beau. 28) Talmudists. by intromission. VOL. the banana-fruit and a multitude of other succedanea. who there are tribads procure no pleasure except by foreign objects introduced Hence posteriori. in all cases closely connected. say certain Adam carnally copulated with all races of animals. caused is ob- usually sought is this is evidently superficial this neuropathy. this perversion of the erotic sense. According to him the nerves of the rectum and the genitalia. producing monsters incapable of independent selfreproduction like the vegetable kingdom. and thence it Hebrews passed to extreme India. (Symp. are abnormally so in the pathic tains. not prosecution but the list pitiful care of the physician and the study of the psychologist. (2) Psychical. 27) = Hermes and Venus) masculum et fceminam creavit eos male and ( He them on the sixth day. with the command to increase and multiply while Eve the woman was created subsequently. the As this feminine The Nights I need hardly enlarge upon the subject. where Shiva as Ardhanari was male on one side and female on the other side of the body. the venereal who can a. this . when love a tergo preferred on account of the narrowness of the passage (3) the .Terminal Essay. women and men-women or patte de chat. O . Mantegazza claims to 209 have discovered the cause of love. where Antoinette Bourgnon laments the undoubling which disfigured the work of God. as friction of the labia or by means artificial woman and the latter to and insertion of the ( TpfcecrOai) J its me'canique : clitoris the former this is either when unusually developed of the fascinum. idea was probably derived from Egypt which supplied the with androgynic humanity . Lesbianise (Aeo-^ctv) and tribassare to applied to the love of woman for natural. by an unusual distribution of the Peripherie or anatomical. same sex but is it . 1 iv.) is probably mystical when he accounts for such passions by there the beginning three species of humanity. v. men. the individually divided into equal parts. See L'Anandryiie in was hermaphrodite female created (ibid. Meanwhile. combining paternal and maternal qualities and functions. what causes is But (i) Luxurious. his threefold nerves and their hyperaesthesia distribution of sodomy .

H. especially The ancient Greeks 1 De Die Lustseuche des Alterthum's. H. and it is a medical question whose discussion would here be out of place. Brockhaus." This has nothing in the fe*minisme which betrays itself in the pathic by regard and gesture : it is a something sui generis . but its many writers. " Paederastie " See his exhaustive article on (Grecian) 3 . and the same may be said of the colour and look of the young priest who honestly refrains women and from well-known work." and Dr. " their substitutes. oft met einen Blick. Tardieu. is lost in the night of been carefully traced by 1 Rosenbaum 2 and M. E. 1839. the puffy features and the unwholesome complexion of the professed pederast with peculiar cachetic expression.A If 2IO As Laylak iva Laylah. 3 2 clopaedic ages Paris. Adolph note a peculiar infundibuliform disposition of the " After " and a smoothness and want of folds even before any abuse has taken place. la Femme. The origin of pederasty liistorique has Virey. indescribable but once seen stamp the breed. so I suspect a rament effected by the manifold subtle in the word climate. Meier. tude Medico-l^gale sur Dr. in the He Allgemeine Encycarefully traces it . 1827. Something of the kind necessary to is explain the fact of this pathological love extending over the greater portion of the habitable world. " is his never in justified declaring Alle Gewohnneits-paederasten erkennen sich einander schnell. and Dr. J. Adolph forgotten. Brouardel and Dr. Lyon 1880). Hoffman. G. together with special forms of the male organs in confirmed pederasts. Leipzig. in his les Attentats aux Mceurs. of Ersch and Gruber. Henry Coutagne (Notes sur la Sodomie. Halle. common with womanly gait. Prince Bismarck finds a moral difference between the male and female races of mixed physical tempeinfluences massed together history. But these observations have been rejected by Caspar. grey faces of onanists : Walt Whitman speaks of the ashen the faded colours. from the polished Greek to the cannibal Tupi of the Brazil. 1837. without any apparent connection of race or media.

lonians. long had seen the Grecian main. Minos.' probability that Persians used eunuch boys according to the Mos the Gratia. among other matters. lately reprinted by Liseux. there is no trace of pederasty. (Pol. /.. to it attributing 10) Herodotus. Apologie pour H^rodote. For these details I must refer ray readers to M. 21 1 modern Germans.' dealing with the heroic ages. with much more Plutarch (De Malig. however. and hence. improvers of what other races invented. Against which see Henri Estienne. hear of any luxury. they own. Homer and Hesiod. Omnemque Fcemineam venerem I lie refugerat Orpheus . attributed the formal apostolate of Sotadism to Orpheus. for Malthusian ii. . 79-85. Dorians. Lucian suspected through the several states. in a long subsequent generation. x. the Attic cities and those of Asia Minor. invented nothing but were great. before they Holy Books of the Hellenes. . ^olians. having discovered c. : amorem citraque juventam yEtatis breve ver.Terminal Essay. 13$). (ii. knew far better.) asserts Rawlinson). whose stigmata were worn *by who. the Father of History was a traveller and an annalist rather than an archaeologist and he tripped in the following passage (i. Euripides proposed Lafus father of Oedipus as the inaugurator. whereas Timaeus declared that the fashion of making favourites of boys was introduced reasons into Aristotle said Greece from Crete. like the women the Thracian . Meier j a full account of these would 1 fill a volume not the section of an essay. a society satire of *vi th century. et primes carpere flores. etiam Thracum populis In teneres transferre mares fuit auctor. Ovid Met. In the although. ("unthey have learned from the Hellenes a passion for boys" V - i says modest natural lust" Herod. 80) But that the Orphic and Bacchic rites were originally Egyptian. 1 xiii. "As soon as make instantly I they it (the their Persians) c.

4 $ 21) gives a curious account of the violent abduction of beloved boys by the lover (epao-nfc) to the favourite . Theseus Homer's praises of beauty are reserved for the But the Dorians of feminines. 325) and of the informs us "De amore puerorum intemperantes et in wards " " marriage-ceremonies See also Plato Laws two months. another Dorian deity. human. ] (KAcu/o's) JEneid. 13). Tiros ") who (perspicacity) to be raised amongst the Immortals . Cretensibus accepimus. according to the Cretans. fuerunt. a Doric hero who grew to be a . according to Xenophon (Lac. x. which after- disreputable for a the national Doric 2 god of Crete loved Ganymede Apollo. From a deified 2 ancestor he would of Moab . The more I study religions the more I am convinced that man never worshipped anything but himself. the practice when : legislation came. quod postea it Hence Zeus to lack a lover. Crete seem to have commended and subsequently imported other colonies. quod in totam Graeciam translatum est. who draws a broad distinction between the honest love of boys and dishonest limitation 1 In Sparta the lover was called cicrTrvrjAas or ctorTrnyXo? and the beloved as in Thessaly extras O r dm??." beautiful c. Ganymede (who possibly gave " Catamitus ") was probably some fair Phrygian boy ("son of in process of time became a symbol of the wise man seized by the eagle island chieftain rise to the old Lat. Achilles and Patroclus as he did Orestes and Pylades. loved Hylas and a host of others thus Crete sanctified by the examples of the gods and demigods. in (Ad Laconas The Cretans and their apt pupils the Chalcidians held boy Servius 8. and the chaste myth simply signified But it rotted with age as do all things that only the prudent are loved by the gods. Zeus. loved Hyacinth. who became Jupiter. the subject had qualified But itself for legal and as such was undertaken by Lycurgus and Solon. the become a name would local god. and Pirithous. Ephorus into it in the abuse to Athens and Sparta Strabo Tarentum.A If Lay la/i wa 212 Laylah. especially his favourite Helen. who were entitled liars because they showed his burial-place. For the Pederastia of the Gods see Bayle under Chrysippe. Agrigentum and (x. ii. was an ancient king. lasted of the obligations of the ravisher i. sun-god. . and Hercules. like the Hebrew Jehovah as opposed to Chemosh gain amplitude by long time and distant travel and the old would end in becoming the Demiurgus.

. that will gladiators at certain his Aristippus. Comm..Terminal Essay. Xenophon loved Autolycus. Matthias Gesner. or rather Hence the man. Alcide Bonmaire. Pausanias Zeno with Epicurus. many lovers many . 10) e. ora pro nobis. c. Theodectes docles. Aristotle. 1877. 1879. and Charicles paederasta" 1 2 being See Dissertation sur M. Demosthenes of Pisistratus. who of Alcibiades and violemment les idees Bibliophile. Pytocles ." was the notable Clinias and others. contains * The phrase of J." Anacreon. 19 and Xenophon. degrading to a free love of boys a youth. Empe- J " sanctus under lire Platon. It was founded upon Erasmus' " Sancte Socrate. Synop. the et sur les This and should fight like soupgonne* Lemonnyer. for for their favourites as a frequent fashion in Poets Greece." and the article was translated by M. iv. Liseux. and Theognis sang it The statesmen youth. the Orator took into keeping a youth called Cnosion greatly to the of his indignation wife. pseudonym of the published with Gay. Paris. like that of Harmodius and Aristogiton but forbade it with serviles because lust. Rouen. Gottingen i. vi. . Hermeas. and built an altar to Puerile Eros. Aude. remember affair morales des Grecs in is and women. Soc.g. Octave Delepierre. 1-32. Reg. " sterile Callicratidas for his love of pleasures. which. c. "There was once a boy. 213 They both approved of pure pederast/a. but not the Editio Princeps much more matter. was spoken of like that of women (Plato: Phaedrus. of exceeding beauty and he had very this is the language of Hafiz and Sa'adi. for (iv. Agathon and Pindar affected like Alcaeus. 40) Lucian left in when danger de the abuses Lastly there Socrates. man in Athenaeus youths he had loved funeral . the Par late if I rightly. Sophocles it ." Aristides and Themistocles quarrelled over Stesileus of Teos Pisistratus loved while Charmus who first Charmus loved Hippias son " ^schylus. Eutichydes had a philosophic disregard his Stoics A affecting only pederastfa. and Euripides were allowed to introduce " many men were as fond of having boys women for their mistresses and this was cities well-regulated of of a " beautiful boy in the flower of his upon the stage. Repub. his .

J. Oranges.wide term as Socratic love can We hardly be explained by the lucus-a-non-lucendo theory. pp. Gay. mdccclxvi. Bordeaux). . by V. Degl' Incogniti. almost Venetian. 1 The ancients seem to have held the connection impure. 1652: small square 8vo. Laylah wa ' non semper sine : ab eo plaga 13) declares that Plato Laylah. 14) who speaks of Socratici paediIt is the modern fashion to doubt the pederasty of master of Hellenic the Sophrosyne. a dialogue between Philotimus skit at the Jesuits and . M. Brunet. and at end an unpaged leaf with 4 sonnets. nourri d'etudes in 1644 by the vengeance of the Barberini JFerrante Pallavicini. a small I2mo of longer format. of pp. was beheaded." but such a world. chez 1'Ancien Pierre Marteau. I2mo. pp. par Juann Wart. Adda in 1859. 2 for sonnets: in 1862 the Imprimerie Ra9on printed 102 copies in 8vo. represents Socrates as absolutely intoxicated with his passion for Alcibiades. 1618). are overapt to apply our nineteenth century prejudices and prepossessions to the morality of the ancient Greeks specimen'd such squeamishness in Attic The 1 The Spartans. or Juvenal would not have written .A If 214 mantle c. shown by do not include Alcibiade peculiarities are these and Alcibiades which seems their Pe'che philosophique." 2 vols. A.-io8. 1633) supposed by some but most critics consider it a poor and insipid production. The same Baseggio printed in 1850 his Disquisizioni (23 copies) claims for F. of octavo an 1861 Paris. and in 1863 it was condemned by the police as a liber spurcissimus atque execrandus de criminis sodomici laude et arte. who wrote against Rome. : antiques and a his "Opere Memb. Athenaeus surrexit. P. and 254 copies." traduit de 1'Italien de Giambattista Baseggio et 1' Alcibiade Gustave accompagne'e de notes et d'une post-face par un bibliophile fi^ais (M. This work produced "Alcibiade Enfant a 1'ecole. 1644) at Avignon (nat. the Academic (confirmed by Alcibiade Fanciullo a Scola. who would have salt. Girol. fornaceus. 26 (March 5. including 3 preliminary pp. D. followed cones. of pp. according to Agnon employed many a pen. 78 Librarian of (paged). Fanciullo. . 124 with pp. Then came to be a mere the "Dissertation sur fanciullo a scola. mdclxiii. (v. There is a re-impression of the same date. (supposed to be Pietro Aretino ad captandum?). 102.g." the " by Firmicus (vii. Pallavicini set. Inter Socraticos notissima fossa cinaedos. subject has e. iv." traduit pour la premiere fois de 1'Italien de Amsterdam. His of the Acad. amator Alcibiade Fanciullo to be the origin of ineptus" (Palladii. " before Christian Christianity. he was a bel esprit deregle. Scelte. Pallavicini the authorship of Alcibiades which the Manuel du Libraire wrongly " Amator I have heard of but not seen the attributes to M. Villafranca.

the Aleutridaj . 2 : the a glorious death. and Cicero). Gloria Deo nunquam amatoribus carebit. torpor. officially on the punished fatal last the Sodomy field of Athenians. like those of Karachi . the use became merged in the abuse. : the flowers. in preferring a bull to a husband . Hindu iii. contra and paid a fixed tax to the state. whose name testifying mentioned with three beloveds. who produced iii. Philip's Chaeroneia form their fittest according to 2Eschines. 1 the : Multi ilium juvenes.C. the heresies of love Tim. ! 3 The venerable society of prostitutes contained three chief classes. being loved Narcissus and Hippolytus are often assumed as types of morosa voluptas. narcotism by the infernal gods. 720)^ Ilium impuberem amaverunt mares. 339) famous Narcissus. Peloponnesian War. also about Lycabettus (^Esch. multse cupiere puellse Nulli ilium juvenes. 404. masturbation and clitorisation for certain mediaeval writers found in the former a type of the Saviour representation of the androgynous or first Adam : to me . Porneia the " pueri venales and where Pornoboskeia. nullae tetigere puellse for Epaminondas. with death j but the threat did not abolish bordels of boys. puberem feminae. numbness. and slaves stood.Terminal Essay. lowest were the Dicteriads. Holy Regiment composed of mutual lovers. Plutarch before marriage: hence Juvenal girls in the same way " Lacedaemonius " 173) uses (xi. were offered to the Furies. The word is from vapKiy. the city walls and a certairr tower. so called from Diete (Crete) Minos. treated boys and Plato. near the Pnyx. who The first and imitated Pasiphae'j wife of above them was the middle class. The pleasures of society in civilised Greece seem to have been sought chiefly in Hetairesis 3 and Sotadism. Yet some purity must have survived. reflections At epitaph. nymphomania : and Mirabeau a Narcissus suggests the Vishnu absorbed in the contemplation of his own perfections. even amongst the Boeotians described by Ovid (Met. 8 The verse of Ovid is parallel'd by the song of Al-Zahir al-Jazari (Ibn Khali.) 1 ." as the term was. the majesty of Eros and preferring to a discreditable established life is . and other writers apply for a pathic 215 it After the to a tribade. which ended in B.

" In cute curanda plus aequo operata Juventus. that of a irdoywv) pathic or passive lover. nomenclature of pathologic love its and picturesque enough To Laylah live the life curious are to merit quotation. or " non-conformists. who had studied in Egypt. the Almahs whose Eubcea. Catapygos. calculated that the French of the sixteenth century names four hundred for the parts genital and some of is had for not less copious pederastic terms. the by " unspeakable. whose proceeds swelled the history. 1 5) : factus femina de puero. a city or professional musicians. from Chalcis in who were Hetairai. = song. Androgyne. and and three hundred The Greek vocabulary their use in coition. the ring. The Agathonian Aischrourgfa Arrenokoitfa. the active lover his kinetics or quasi (lascivia fluens) KvW <u8o>s (wowov) = dog-modest. established a vast Dicterion revenue of the (Philemon in his Delphica). Ecce ego sum Ixviii. of Abron (the Argive) i. Cinaedus (Kfnaidos). used in the sense of Nerissa-'s. Chalcidissare (Khalkidizein). Apolaustus and Akolastos. also called Akolasfa. or bordel. dishonest love.A If 2l6 It is wa Laylak. Akrasfa. The grave . of whom Ansonius wrote (Epig. Alcinoan youths.e. etc. of which Meier gives nearly a its hundred. Katapygosyne Dactylion. but applied to the corollarium puerile. Bdtalos = a = puerarius and catadactylium from Badas and badfzein =s clunes torquens : also catamite. and the aristocracy was represented by the them to adorn more than one page of Grecian wit and learning enabled Solon. derived either from Also Spatalocinaedus = a fair Ganymede. Republic. Alegomenos." as the pederast was termed the Council of Ancyra: also the Agrios.

also irrumer en miel. Epipedesis. when the Ital. mollis. cete in Satyricon. = the malpractice. Malta. Malakos (malacus. Pathicus. because Praxis nates. the carnal assault. cap. Malchio.Terminal Essay. a passive. so called from Venus the Ionian city devoted to Aversa also used of a pathic. femina pube vir et tergo est. Pathikos. in Phoenicia generata solebat (Thes. depravity with boys. most actives end within the = cunnilingere in tempore menstruum. Giton Bardache. (woman is Polygeiton. = the Clazomenae buttocks. Paidika. a captive. denotat actum per canes commissum quando . also a^" night-cap drunk before bed and omnium an effeminate lastly one who perambulavit See Encolpius' pun upon the Embasi- cubilia (Catullus). which has = produced the Fr. 2$) Malthinus tunicis demissis ambulat. (Sat ii. . Baradaj. a slave Hippias (tyranny of) the agent. syllaba prima REmi. Mokhtheria. mounts or boy) also Kelitizein cs peccare agitare supernum of Horace. whence paedicare the Latin poet and (act) paedicari (pass) : so in : PEnelopes primam DIdonis prima sequatur. form . patient So Aristoph. Geiton lit. also a sotadic disease. Vehement des le children. Pygisma = buttockry. famed & posteriori for love testicules by 217 mostly applied to . Vesp. " " neighbour the beloved of Encolpius. " iv. Erot. a link-boy at marriages. Arab. Embasicoetas. . Maltha and in Hor. Phicidissare. like facilis). superne or equum bardascia from the the augm. being too much excited for further intromission. Ling. 502. Trimalchio (Petronius). prop. Phcenicissare (^ouWfcu/) quia hoc vitium Latinae) . Et primam CAni.

plura virorum inter sese stupra. the andro- Samos. There were individual protests. attempted to abate by death . Julia Q. I Rome.) . at the in = Cincedus orbem digito temperet? sang (Suet." Augustus the people chaunted Videi. S. however. xlix.) Fornix Birthynicus.<ne ut d'amour the wives and the wife of alF his praise Gallias Caesar subegit. "Ultro With have shown. his Bayle Cinaedus calvus of . Prov.C. Of . Sifanto Island) (<n<i>iaett/. C. makes one of 21) utmost sang-froid. increased luxury the evil grew and Livy notices (xxxix. 13). cap. apage te a dorso te. says great Caesar. Anoscopie). instance. vel testiculos (Suetonius) also applied to pollu* : tion of childhood. says Erasmus Mirabeau's Erotika Biblion. like her religion from those ultra-material Etruscans and debauched Even face. brazen a ii. whence "sterile chrdtiente*. Plotius. Lex ?). and his soldiers Nicomedes Caesarem " sobriquet lii. the in exclaim. under his the Plautus Republic characters meo!" amator. 612) punished Luscius. Scantrnia (Scatinia popularly derived the Tribune and of doubtful date (B. Q. Fabius Maximus Servilianus (Consul U. 226 the scandal by fine and the Lex No class ?). cies. digito podicem fodere ad pruriginem restinguendam. Thrypsis Pederastfa had in Greece.A If Laylak 2i8 lambunt cunnos iva Laylak. borrowed her (Casin. the was the husband of the husbands in The from Scantinius pleasures:" Ton n'attachoit point alors a cette espece une note d'infamie. and a private fceminarum. comme The en paYs de Rome all (Suetonius. quam for son for dubia castitas . soldier. Bacchanalia. ^arnorium flores (Erasmus. noble and ideal its malpractices. under "Anacreon.C. (see = the rubbing. hod. killed his military Tribune.) alluding to from Siphnos." his of infamy which surged in with the trifling obstacles to the flood Empire. gyiiic prostitutions of Siphniassare xxiii. but they were seems then to havs disdained these Catullus. for unchaste proposals. side : and with polity.

the Romans. with his pisciculi by the bond of flesh 1 Oi' this (Seneca Quaest.). like sleeved raising the si made by closing middle finger as les poulettes (in the turpiter ligati. refine- ment. Ausonius recounts of Caligula he M. stood for of the Grand i. Duke of Tuscany). hire : who began the inmates of these cauponae wore dalmatics like women.. invented the' Symplegma or nexus of Sellarii. showing a circle of thirty men . from Catullus. cxix. tater 1 As modern Egypt pathic boys. agentes et patientes. hence the Athenians called it 27) suggested to "Caravaggio his picture of St. Pythagoras who was (or so beautiful Nero was lost patience that before the sacrifice was married to formally Doryphoros) and afterwards took to wife Sporus subjected to castration of a peculiar fashion first her he .Terminal Essay. i^apicb. Hadrian openly loved Antinoiis and the wild debaucheries of Heliogabalus seem only to have amused. Qua plures teneantur a catena. we learn haunted the public baths. Debauchees had signals Skematizein was and their career as early as seven years. stuprum duo perpetiuntur . was then named Sabina after the deceased spouse and claimed . museum the if ont Tceuf: This and Saint Paul (Romans Rosario and tunics in freemasons whereby they recognised one another. " Othonis et Trajani pathici " were famed . instead the great of disgusting. Tres uno in lecto And al Englishmen Martial had said : (xii. forcibly entered the priest The completed. Lepidus. Nat. Uranopolis allowed public lupanaria where adults and meritorii ipueri. which in the earlier pari of the nineteenth century was renewed by sundry (Epig. in which the spinthriae (lit women's bracelets) were connected in a chain Tiberius. The queenly honours. 43) Quo symplegmate quinque copulentur. Ausonius wrote i). 219 and greges exoletorum. hand The Greek to represent the scrotum to feel whether a hen had eggs. etc.

uses digito scalpit caput. whose dry worthy of The Nights? No wonder that it has made the grand tour of the It is found in the neo-Phaedrus. The modern Italian does the same by inserting the thumb-tip between the index and medius to suggest the clitoris* wittier than the now trite Tale of the Ephesiatt Matron. That marvellous Satyricon which unites the wit of Moliere8 with 1 Properly speaking " Medicus" the third or ring-finger." Abel Remusat shows in his Mr. " Of the Contingencies of Death and Treating our Dead. and Contes Chinois that it is well known to the Middle Kingdom. 46) . 13) that early the Emperor as a profanation. as shown is by the old Chiromantist verses. who introduces it into his chapt. 2 The ix." But in those days divines were not mealy-mouthed. because sacro- fire virilis In the pagan days of imperial between Verit. sive puella tibi. 8). it. <c Widow which was comforted. tenet. sed Jupiter indice gaudet. Kelly remarks. boy and 26. who is a mine of such pederastic :- Sive puer arrisit. li. Walter K. Rome her literature makes no Horace naively says girl. the tales of Musaeus and in the Septem world. i. Similarly the Spaniard Martial. finger Another sign was head with the minimus to scratch the caput scabere (Juv. prostitution of boys and we may agree with Grotius (de Christianity did Theodosius punished it to 1 1 ii. . Catapygon or sodomite and the Romans digitus impudicus or " of Rabelais and the Chiromantists. Cor. allusions (xi. forbidden by Domitian . . much digitulo was animse. vi. that the most singular place for such a tale is the " Rule and Exercise of Holy Dying" by Jeremy Taylor. At c. the " medical L infamis. putain sur la fosse de son Mari. v." As the '* Fabliau de la Femme qui Sapientes as the 3 What can be humour se fist is it tempted Brantome and La Fontaine . (Sat. a Greek. had formally expressed his abomination of Le Vice (Rom.A If 22O Laylah wa^Laylak. I33). Sol medicumopo. Est pollex Veneris Saturnus medium 8 So Seneca . last i. 8): Ancilla aut verna est praesto puer and with Hamlet. but in a dishonest sense Man Nor woman : delights me not neither. suppress with sanctum esse debetur hospitium difference first but Saint Paul.

cunnos. P. But no dialogue between man and wife in extremis could be more pathetic than that in the scene where shipwreck is Imminent. Quant au Chevalier Pierre is Pierrugues. P. treated as boys comatus curled with crisping-irons muliebria patitur . Paris. auctore P. a handsome curly-pated hobbledehoy of seventeen. whilst the writer has been described. like Rabelais. a kind of Triumph of Geiton the hero. 1826. Gay writes. habere dues. capillatus or ' simplicity/ are being hence Martial. translated by Piron. xi. qu'on designait corame I'auteur de ce savant volume. also called calamistratus. the darling and he is an Effeminatus i. forth "The : man were it had he wept not not behaved to her well?" so Erotic Latin glossaries 1 give some ninety words connected with " Pederasty and some. a"n engineer who made a plan of Bordeaux and who annotated the Erotica Billion.221 Terminal Essay. as purissimus in impuritate. the Draucus. with his calinerie and wheedling tongue.e\ qui or a Delicatus. 44) The Roman morum ofi The. which speak with " Aversa Venus " peculiarly expressive. Other glossicists as Blondeau and . legum et Romanes women uxor. etc. the debaucheries of Piron. 71). the Tarentine skipper. addresses : Mistress Martial (x. Glossarium eroticum linguae Latins. is Pederasty. Lycus. sive theogoniae. le Baron de Schonen. Elsewhere every one seems to attempt his neighbour: a alte succinctus assails Ascyltos would force Encolpius finished touch (cap. " On s'est servi pour cet ouvrage des travaux inedits de M. son existence n'est pas bien averee. P. and so vii. supposed to be Chevalier Pierre Pierrugues. (Parisiis. in 8vo). is . Dondey-Dupre. dying man having manumitted yet : we have the neat and lamentation was very fine (the his slaves) albeit his wife How as though she loved him. Puerarius (boy-lover) or 1 alludes to : Teque puta. like is courted one of the sequor sexus: his lovers are inordinately jealous of him and his desertion leaves deep scars upon the heart. Forberg have been printed by Liseux. nuptialium apud explanatio nova. et quelques bibliographes persistent a penser que ce nom cache la collabora- tion du Baron de Schonen et d'Eloi Johanneau. slave or eunuch for the use Dominus (Mart.) .

= praepostera seu postica Venus. to mere barbarism. Arabs. and he cites the saying May you sail to Massilia ! if it were another Corinth. Strabo. Benjamin conquerors in our eighth century. Diodorus Siculus (v. incestare se invicem is described as which the two take turns to be active are also called Gemelli and Fratres Illicita libido is by the Laylah. ii. and nates pervellere are The fine distinction between Depilatus. of Amazigh). resembling the American Octaroon's. are Duprat). a negro innervation last are the of old date Low and The latter are well described in Co. Hanoteau. 1 the Moors proper are 1 This magnificent country which the petiy jealousies of Europe condemn. = picturesque phrase compares (seu puerile arid passive in they : paedicatione. my late friend ' ' Morocco and the Moors. is tenanted by three Moslem races. pusio. glaber. Indeed the whole Keltic race charged with Le Vice by Aristotle (Pol. putus. except where imported by foreigners into such kingdoms as Bornu and Haussa. who call themselves Tamazight (plur. 238). 32). puera. vii. and indicare "a is expressed incurvare) aliquem. Trin. 437). while dejicere Pathica puella. or facere (Plaut. 199) Roman civilisation carried to Northern Africa. now Marocco. are the Gaetulian indigenes speaking an Africo-Semitic tongue (see Essai de etc. quadrupes. Grammaire Kabyle. Athenaeus 26) (xii. 66). Arthur Leared. laevis allusions to the Sotadic toilette. descended camel-breeders. ii. scarabaeus and smerdalius explain themselves. by see reprinted. (Sampson Dr." in mentulam or Juvenal's Hesternae Facere vicibus (Juv.A If Layla k wa 222 Divisor so called from his practice Hillas dividere or caedere^ is like Martial's cacare something mutuum vice. The and nomads mostly par A. (iv. demittere and caput are worthy of a glossary. a mixed breed originally Arabian but modified by six centuries of Spanish residence and showing by thickness of feature and a parchment-coloured skin. pullipremo. like the glorious regions about Constantiuople.." etc. 1876). From Rome the practice extended far and wide to her colonies especially the Provincia now called Provence. divellere pilos. while the negro and negroid races to the South ignore the erotic perversion. whose work I should like to . " charges the people of Massilia with acting like women out of " as " luxury ". The Berbers. Paris. where it is and pederasty also took firm root. the race dwelling in towns. pygiaca sacra. from the Third and Moors proper. In old Mauritania. occurrere caenae.

from behind them arm was argued He therefore shut his doors the matter: and presently the riotous assembly attempted to climb the wall when Gabriel. if references to Lot and the Sodomites xxvi. must have been Fellah villages. then punish them both. seeing the smote them on the face with one of his wings distress of his host. notable sodomites 223 Moslems. In the first 78 xi . a sore temptation to the sinners and the godly man's he his visitors because felt straitened concerning unable to protect them from the erotic vagaries of his fellow townsmen. read .Terminal Essay. the angels. 28-35. even of saintly houses. insult or scourging. in chapters vii." the penalty being some hurt or damage by There are four distinct public reproach. : to banish from the Yet pederasty " And home " that horrid boy. 20 we two (men) among you commit the crime." forbidden by the Koran. the rain of stones : these were clay pellets streaked white and red. 77-84 . Gabriel. were Gabriel thrust his wing under them and raised them so high that the inhabitants of the lower heaven (the lunar sphere) could hear the dogs barking and the cocks crowing. 160-174 and xxix. if uplifted : moved off crying for aid his house. to distinguish from the ordinary and each bearing the name of its them destination . and blinded them so that all Lot had magicians in that which. " Proceed ye to a fulsome act wherein no creature hath foregone ye ? Verily ye come to men in lieu of women lustfully. are permitted openly to keep catamites. nor do their disciples think worse of in one case the English wife failed their sanctity for such license . and saying Hereupon the " cities " they ever existed. appeared to Lot as beautiful youths. or having some mark baked Then came in hell-fire." We have then an account of the rain which made an end of the wicked and this judgment on the Cities of the Plain is Here repeated with more detail in the second reference. the prophet commis- sioned to the people says. is In chapter iv. generally supposed to be three. Michael and Raphael.

The general opinion of his followers fornication unless But is law it made the offenders here.Ashram. 1 " were " Cities turned upside down and cast upon Lastly the like the missiles These circumstantial unfacts are repeated at full length the other two chapters but rather as an instance of Allah's earth. as in adultery. Ghilman or Wuldan. Psammenitus. As in Marocco so the Vice prevails throughout the old regencies of Algiers. power than as a warning against pederasty. and held some hundred and ninety years. Tunis and Tripoli and Mediterranean seaboard. although I the idea : is nowhere countenanced have often heard debauchees refer to in it. marvellous to relate. have noticed I (vol.C. 211) the vicious opinion that the i. whose armies. in Priapi Carm. 1 Thus somewhat agreeing with one of it. that classical Proceeding East- region of all abominations which.Alf Laylak wa Laylah. and. whilst all the cities of the South unknown it is to the Nubians. flourished in closest contact with leading 'the purest of religion and virtue. of Amongst the ancient Copts Le Vice was part and portion of the Ritual and was represented by two male partridges alternately copulating (Interp. the Berbers and the wilder tribes dwelling inland. for During these the multitudinous six generations modern theories that the Pentapolis was destroyed by discharges of meteoric stones during a tremendous thunderstorm. men models of moderation and morality. the counterparts of the Houris. in . despite sundry revolts. which Mohammed seems to have regarded with philosophic indifference. . the learned look upon the assertion as scandalous. ward we reach Egypt. would have gained strength by the invasion of Cambyses $24). but where are the stones ?. Possible. the that is should be punished like a public act of penitence. 224 which destroyed the host of Abrahat al. will be lawful catamites to the True Believers in a future state of happiness Al-Islam . the beautiful boys of Paradise. The evil (B. lives. after the victory over settled in the Nile-Valley. xvii). somewhat too clement and will not convict unless four credible witnesses swear to have seen rem in re.

" liberator and saviour of Egypt " (B. extinguished the native dynasties Eunuch being a matter of of the Macedonian for Bagoas the From history. at its worst during the (A. still (chapt. 332). In the present age extensive intercourse with Europeans has produced not a reformation but a certain reticence amongst the upper classes they are as vicious as ever." which (p.D.Valley and for a present the Moors say liadiyab. before offering his opinion upon the subject. of abominations. 1 Nor would the evil be diminished by the the late Rogers Delta of the Hellenes who. as mark upon Lower Egypt and Bey proved. seems to who is thoroughly trustworthy. 1 Persic words which are not "Bakhshish. xv. . 1717). Jaubert Les Arabes quelques-uns de nos prisonniers Alcibiade. another ancient focus this Iranian domination I attribute the use of many strangers. favor. and the sodomy fallait peVir II in his et les letter During the to General Bruix Mamelouks comme ou y passer. the Iranians left their 22$ especially.) formed the "delight of the Egyptians. and social morality when Sonnini past century The French officer. and highly respectable Consul*General for the Netherlands. de Ruyssenaer. regale or yet obsolete in Egypt. upon the Fayyum the most ancient Nile. Neither Christianity nor Al-Islam private life could effect a change for the better have been travelled . dit-on. X. VOL. the high-dried active and passive. is not intelligble in the Moslem regions west of the Nile." Socrate ont traite* traitait. the love : that time and under the rule of the Ptolemies the morality gradually decayed . P. draws the darkest picture of the widely-spread criminality especially of the bestiality Napoleonic conquest " 19) says.Terminal Essay. under Alexander the Great. Old Anglo-Egyptians chuckle over the tale of Sa'id Pasha and M." for instance.C. the Canopic orgies extended into and the debauchery of the men was equalled only by the depravity of the women. who was solemnly advised to make the experiment. but they do not care : for displaying their vices to the eyes of Syria and 1 To mocking Palestine.

A If 226 wa Laylah Laylah. their very temples disgrace see men amid general groans enduring miserable ance and becoming passives like women their in dalli- (viros muliebria pati) and they expose. Damascius explained the tenet by the powers of the atmosphere. . * Their companies of priests cannot duly serve her unless they effeminate their faces. the Jove. self-mutilated but not in of Atys 1 . 1 also Isis was a hermaphrodite. in pornologic parlance is a capon." Here we find the religious significance of eunuchry. smooth their skins and You may masculine sex by feminine ornaments. in Phrygia called Cybele. cock. of Juno or the Virgin Venus. as Arnobius and Tertullian. =a work of man's brains and armed him with their creation truly dreadful. the song of Jupiter (Air) All things from Jove descend Jove was a male. and all-fruitful Hence the fragment prolific attributed to Orpheus. with boasting and ostentation. with the arrogance of their caste and miserable igno- its rance of that symbolism which often concealed from vulgar eyes the most precious mysteries.fold sex. the castrated votary of Rhea or Bona Mater. the idea being that Aether or Air (the and lower heavens) was the menstruum of generative nature . moon Luna and the women to Lunus. they made God the merest a despotism of omnipotence which rendered * Callus lit. the pollution of the impure and immodest body. Firmicus relates that "The Assyrians and part of the " " Africans hold Air to be (along the Mediterranean seaboard ?) Julius the chief element and adore consecrated under the name its fanciful figure (imaginata figura).' dicere!" know everything . of two. call Air. used to taunt the heathen for praying to deities whose sex they ignored : These men would "Consuistis in precibus 'Seu tu Deus seu tu Dea. It was practised as a religious rite by the 2 Tympanotribas or Callus. Jove was a deathless bride For men ." the deities. a castrato. borrowed from Egypt and exaggerated the worship of Androgynic and hermaphroditic the old Nilotes held the men sacrificing to Plutarch (De Iside) notes that to be of " male-female sex. and by a host of other creeds : memory even Christianity.

But sect arose in the circle of Uglitseh in the early part of the last and century (1715-1733) a in Moscow. and thus they justify the But the traveller cannot judgment which they read literally. Zeboi'm and Zoar The legend has been amply embroidered by the Rabbis. were metropolitans of Kiew the former was brought thither in A. 250) the castrated sect called Valerians who. 5. when it became. Paul preached (i Corin. a something Hence for peculiar worship. could not altogether cast out the old possession. at first called Clisti or flagellants which developed into the modern Skopzi. a matter of superstition. St.D. xix. Assuming a nature-implanted tendency. xxiii. like cannibalism. 29 and Col. when two Greeks.Terminal Essay. were wounded he was fined for bloodshed and was compelled to one cut off the ear of a neighbour's ass he was condemned to keep the animal till the ear grew again. vi. we see that it was held to be the most acceptable offering sacrifice goddess in the Orgia or sacred ceremonies. ix. These eunuchs first appeared in Russia at the end of the xith century. 12. Gomorrah 'Amirah. 22? 1 sundry texts show. 1089 by Princess Anna Wassewolodowna and is called by the' dispersed by the Emperors Constantine and Justinian. Isiacae sacraria Lunae) were centres of Isis sodomy and the religious practice was priestly castes from Mesopotamia to Mexico and Peru. John and Jephrem. Berlin. the Arab rigorously Matth. xviii. Origen mutilated himself after interpreting too But his disciple. live with his wife as if Women iii.^ Here too we have an explanation of Sotadic love in its second stage. and if doctors declare the people to have been a race of sharpers with rogues for magistrates. have examined the lands at the North and accept carefully 1 The Luke texts justifying or conjoining castration are Matt. i . Valerius founded (A. 29) that a The he had none. 8-9 Mark . Adama. the cultivated country). vii. if a man or Bela. 1875) an d Mantegazza. xix. We adopted by the grand find the earliest written notices of the Vice in the mythical destruction of (= like to the the Pentapolis (Gen. chapt. I it. persecuted and became the spiritual fathers of the modern Skopzis. For this extensive subject see De Stein (Zeitschrift fur Ethn. Sodom. in Rome as in Egypt human God- set apart the temples of (Inachidos limina. who make the Sodomites do everything a Venvers : e. fee the offender The Jewish . man 43-47 . : chronicles Nawjfc or the Corpse.g.).D. and was duly excommunicated. should Afoelian heretics of Africa abstained from because Abel died virginal.

See the marvellously absurd description of the glorious Purchas v. 84. both of them have committed an abomination they shall surely (Levit. remains of water is meteoric stones " " the : asphalt which named no the a mineralised vegetable washed out of the limestones. basin from would also account for the Dead lower Jordan and the Murchison used wrong-headedly to I. fissure containing the late Sir R. 15-16 threaten with death man and .228 A If Laylah wa at the South of that most beautiful whose tranquil Laylah. of Depression fable " : abnormal Sea. Moses or the Moseidae. 19) : lieth If a And he speaks with with a beast shall surely be put prejudicial to the increase of population. be put to death their blood shall be upon them where v. so far resembling the scandalous and absurd legend which explained the names of the children of Lot by Pheine' and Thamma as " Moab " (Mu-ab) " the water or semen of the father. Dead Sea. xxii. There shall be no whc^re of the daughters of Israel nor a sodomite of the sons of Israel (Deut. "Dead Sea" in the . xx. man lie with mankind as he lieth with a woman. xxii. the so-called backed by the grand plateau of Moab. Whoso to death (Exod. The first would I be to deter the Jew from the Malthusian practices of his pagan upon whom predecessors. Osarsiph. lie . and " Ammon as mother's son that is. and the sulphur and lake without issue. no signs of vulcanism. loveliness. obloquy was thus cast." But I found nois 1 traces of craters in the neighbourhood. which the call a " Volcanc* feature. lake. myth which salt are brought down by the Jordan into a must therefore look upon the history as 3 may have served a double purpose. was doubtless to discountenance a perversion no uncertain voice. 1 5). with beasts). that cuts off the river- this geological natural outlet the Gulf of Eloth (Akabah). The bastard. 13 woman who .v. a* object of admiration to all save patients suffering from the " strange disease Holy Land on the Brain. its date from myriads of years before there were " must Cities of the Plains/' But the main object of the ancient lawgiver. Again.

not only destroyed the inhabitants. identified with the Ishtar in Accadia. 2 the Anaitis of Armenia. and in opposition to Jehovah to . but I can mistaken in bringing from Max Miiller and Sir G. like that which drove Brennus from Delphi." the still 8 Ankh or ever-living : The idea of Yahweh. the Underworld) in search of her lost spouse Izdubar. was learned at Babylon and is the etymon.v. Ashtaroth or Ashirah. The name still survives in the Shajarat al-Ashara. Jehovah. the great goddess. The Hebrews entering Syria found by Assyria and Babylonia. however. = she was Venus Mylitta Moon- In another phase the Procreatrix. The 229 Sodom-myth are most unsatisKadesh. a few Fellah villages destroyed by a affect with impunity. Of distinctly the o'f trees near the village not primarily the planet Venus . as others. or Yah is palpably Egyptian. 3 who is queen of Heaven and Love. into even this Pentapolis was diligently practising in the present day. Cox are Dawn and her attendants. whence Accadian Ishtar had passed west and had become Ashtoreth.g. . Parkhurst. neither any grass must be owned that to and dealt very hard measure for religiously a popular rite which a host of cities Naples and Shiraz. India Aphrodite the clump Hermon. acknowledge the Heavens as the cause of fruitfulness in1 therefore dependently upon. "Nous faisons les Dieux a notre image et nous portons dans le ciel oe que nous voyons sur la terre. in Chaldaic Mauludatd 1 Jehovah here is made to play an evil part by destroying men instead of teaching them better. which all brimstone and was before salt that is groweth therein. it religionised the Phoenician Astarte and the Greek Aphrodite. a Al-Ghajar (of the Gypsies 3 One I am ?) at the foot of not quite sure that Astarte is HariU. Sodom and of the their sodomitical impurities they meant the peculiar propriety of this punishment of neighbouring By cities. by raining upon them not genial showers but brimstone from heaven. This again is pure Egyptianism. Roscher seems to have proved Moon Vedic that she is sinking into Amenti (the west. storm. the Sun-god. s." It as the garden not sown nor beareth. " From hence we may observe old commentators on the factory e. affect for simple The myth may probably luxury reduce itself to very small proportions. But. found amongst the cuneiforms. but also changed that country. to mention no and of God. the Charites hardly doubt that Prof. however.Terminal Essay.

women and 55) describes a school " men who were manner of abominations not honour of the in Here the Phrygian symbolism of Kybele and Attis (Atys) had become the Syrian Ba'al Tammuz and Astarte. change the women vice versa the sexes are . 6). they suspend to a tree entitled Shajarat al-Sitt which. all Const. she who bringeth in worshipped by men habited as women and reason in the Torah (Deut. iii. find the consecrated servants and votaries of Corinthian Aphrodite called Hierodouli (Strabo viii. of impurity at Aphac.'. still pilgrimage to the Orthodox the Great Lady. which feeds the River Ibrahim and Vuns purple to the The We still at times Adonis 1 sea. a Christian province in the Libanus. of the two greater lights. and doubtless gave themselves up to bit. and the peasantry of Shiite tenets. the anthropomorphic forms (Venus). Bayt Ashirah. Eusebius (De men Laylah. travellers. being Kadeshah. is One by no means obsolete. also hold high festival under the farfamed Cedars and This survival of their women sacrifice to Venus like the Kadashah of the Phoenicians. for which forbidden Kadesh the to holy. inhabited by a peculiarly prurient race." which I would derive from and address by Horace. a people of Persian descent and " Bilad B'sharrah. The male dress.A If 230 and wa Laylah Arabic Moawallidah. Moslems accuse them of abominable orgies and point to ruins their the Lady's tree an Acacia Albida found only here and at Sayda (Sidon) where an avenue exists. where " practised Demon 5) She was forth. The people of Kasrawan. prostitutes were called great excesses. c. fitting frame-work for the loves of goddess and demigod and the ruins of the temple destroyed by Constantine : contrast with Nature's work. who aided the ten thousand courtesans in gracing the Venus-temple from this : excessive luxury arose the proverb popularised 1 In this classical land of Venus the worship of Ishtar-Ashtaroth The Metwali heretics. is to missionary " Handbooks. according to old superstition is some unknown the anthropologist. is a glen of wild and wondrous beauty. The site. Apheca.' but amply deserves the study of . the lamps and rags which vows to the Sayyidat al-Kabirah. xx. the glorious fountain. and the Grecian Dionaea and Adonis. now Wady al-Afik on the route from Bayrut to the Cedars. Phoenicians spread this androgynic worship over Greece. splendidior vitro.

C. : he " took the reproductive powers the figure of a setting hen. the Turlupius. c." 2 In the reign of wicked were also sodomites in the land Rehoboam (B. 3 Her name was Maachah and her title. 20). sceptered and mitred The sexes when worshipping a man.C.nations which the Lord cast out before the " children of Israel The scandal was abated by (r Kings xiv. I have noticed it in one of the derivations of cinaedus and can only remark that it is a vile libel upon the canine tribe. whose sectarians. . 958) Priapus whose grandmother 3 was high- (princeps in sacris Priapi) Some commentators understand "the tabernacles sacred to women " and the Rabbis declare that the emblem was . 632). stood bearded the simulacre of a Aphrodite with feminine body and costume. King Asa zealous priestess 1 of of (B. before becoming private property as a wife. relates ii. 231 of the head-quarters of the cult was Cyprus where. cratians. us that a practice very much like the in certain parts of the Island of Babylonian " " found also is noticed by Justin Cyprus " " and Benoth or the it Succoth (xviii. The Jews seem very of Samaria. followed in the xith century by Tranchelin. like and here the virginity was offered in sacrifice exchanged habits it Herodotus : (i. 2 "Dog" is applied thus they understand by the older Jews to the Sodomite and the Catamite. 975) and they did according "There to all the abominations of the . 199) describes this defloration at Babylon but sees only the shameful part of the custom which was a girls before Everywhere mere consecration of a tribal rite. The same usage prevailed in ancient Armenia and in parts of Ethiopia and Herodotus tells . " King's mother " she Temple (Deut. long infested Savoy. even in the matter of the "dog. and of a dog" which could not be brought into the the "price xxiii. as Servius (Ad JEn. marriage belong either to the father or to the clan and thus the maiden paid the debt due to the public. : founded the sect of Communists who and made adultery and incest Such were the Basilians and the Carpopart of worship in their splendid temple.Terminal Essay. 18). rejected marriage . 5) probably explains Damsels' booths which the Babylonians transplanted to the cities : it is c. according to some. 1 successfully to have copied the abominations of their pagan neighbours.

" brake down the houses of the sodomites that were by the house of the Lord. " Syria has not forgotten her old praxis. their complaints. Turkey. for the etc. with the mammae stantes of the European virgin. which prevails over mammae all this inclinatae.. the jacentes et pannosae. Persia." The Sotadic Zone covers the whole of Asia Minor and " Mesopotamia now occupied by the unspeakable Turk/' a race of born pederasts and in the former region we first notice a .A If away Laylah wa Laylah. 641) who amongst other things. As (Travels in Syria. peculiarity of the feminine figure. King Josiah 9) . 7). are noted even after parturition. . climate only . sometimes even before the the hemispheres take the form of bags. the women first 1 A virginal . inhabiting a damper for fine firm breasts of course prevails more in the and towns of Asiatic Turkey than are infected those of This cannot result from and hotter region than Kashmir.C. a and (B. the sodomites out of the land prophets were loud in Kings xv. cities yet even these contrast badly in this enormous development of the . Afghanistan and Kashmir lose of the bosom. part of the belt. Druses we have Burckhardt's authority p. " except the Lord of Hosts had very small remnant. (i Isaiah (B. Yet the 12)." At Damascus I found some noteworthy cases amongst the religious of the great Amawi Mosque. alienis (pueris adhaeseverunt) appear have to been near the Temple. all 1 in the villages nomad Turcomans noted exception is Vienna remarkable for the bosom which soon becomes pendulent. especially the so-called we should have been Sodom as strong measures were required from good to us left " (i. 202) "unnatural propensities are very common amongst them. women to the North and South have. 760). where the women wove " Thebordelsof boys hangings for the grove (2 Kings xxiii. and after it of Maratha-land. Le Vice while the the fine curves child . local ex- Whilst the ceptions.C.

Amongst is 'llah = Allah assain thee often fanciful but it the classics Mercury taught the ' would be held Art of le Thalaba " Pan who wandered about the mountains distraught with love for the Nymph Echo and Pan passed it on to the pastors. 233 The Kurd point with the Gypsies. 2-11. and meddling with the father's slave-girls and concubines would be risking cruel punishment by turns. See Thalaba in Mirabeau. bred in the bone. facilities to a certain extent discouraged is now Persians many Youths arrived is by circumcision. Entering and. . Paterfamilias returns the to Ganymede. as proved by 2 (masculine) Gen. account for find it Onanism be its origin. the the object : xxxviii. barbarous invader has almost obliterated the ancient civilisation which ante-dated only by the Nilotic is Babylon nowhere survive save in certain Mandaeans. to prostitute themselves for will is. atavism recommend the custom to and begetting heirs. I believe that Iran borrowed her pathologic love from the peoples of the Tigris-Euphrates Valley and not from the then insignificant But whatever Greeks. boys : that the great and The Nights in was a habitual pederast. glorious Saladin their national have noted I : Georgia Turkey supplied as gain with In Mesopotamia the catamites whilst Circassia sent concubines. a facere if not death. media. despite Herodotus. when uncontaminaled by travel. and the Arab poet but the Arab* is a Badawi. at puberty with which Europe supplies fornication. ignores pederasty. and the general and after marrying such Arabic exclamations as 'Afaka 1 as Alish-Takish. Hence they use each other " " puerile practice vicibus or mutuum known facere. is population is of Iranian origin. which means that the evil deeply rooted character women but prefer The Armenians. those Badawin of India. the Devil-worshippers and Persia we find the reverse of Armenia : the mysteries of old obscure tribes like the the Ali-il4hi. the odes of Hafiz are addressed to youths. the corruption begins in boyhood and It by paternal none of the J may severity. Hence all . .Terminal Essay. Lat Temperament. 2 The reader of The Nights has remarked how often the "he" in Arabic poetry to his son denotes a "she" .

An illus- Shiraz concerning a certain Mujtahid. and. and the assurance of would be the result " ? The holy the chin of doubt upon the collar of meditation . ! been wanting who have done their utmost to uproot the Vice : in the same Shiraz they speak of a father who. . . depilation. etc. or shampooers .Alf Laylah wa $34 Laylah. perfect privacy. Alipilarii who plucked the hair. Chardin isolated cases." " is A It a garden of roses and hyacinths with the evening breeze waving the cypress-heads. corresponding with a prince-archbishop in Europe. put Such him to death like Brutus or Lynch of Galway. Mujtahid friend once said to him.. us that houses of male prostitution were women were unknown those of : common the same in Persia whilst the case in is tells the present day and the boys are prepared with extreme care by diet. So amongst the Romans we have the latroliptae. Sa'adi thereto When the Isfahan lota. however. youths or girls who wiped the gymnast's perspiring body with swan-down. coarse and immodest to address an imaginary tration of the penchant is told at 1 girl. etc. is a question I would O this. man bowed sitting side by thy prithee." replied the Divine. " Another favourite piece of Shirazian " chaff 1 its man mocked by comparing the bald pates of Shirazian the bottom of a ii the host of artists in cosmetics. a practice renewed by the professors of " " Unctores who applied perfumes and essences Fricatrices and Tractatrices Massage 8 . a fair youth of twenty What. presently whispered. etc. 2 So Mohammed addressed his girl-wife Ayishah is to declare that in the masculine. finding his son in flagrant delict. baths. Ask and There I lack " fear not. likened mention elders to a brass cup with a wide-necked opening used the witty poet turned the well-abused its aperture upwards and podex of an Isfahani youth.. Dropacistae. can effect nothing. Figure thee in ! " your Eminence but fain address to the daring to do so. Hammam.. "Allah defend me from such temptation of Satan " Yet even in Persia men have not too honest to lie. the head of the Shi'ah creed. unguents and a Le Vice crops Shaykh looked upon at most as a peccadillo and is in up every jest-book. corn-cutters.

a man famed for facetious blackguardism." was subjected last generation Persian Prince-governors. 235 know a muscle : if the patient he smiled and trick to get over that we apply . used to invite European youngsters serving Bombay Marine and Next morning ply them with liquor till same Eastern irritation " " Scrogin and soreness would ask in the they were insensible.slaves. we Persians for strangers and throw them once asked a Shirazi how penetration was possible said. He was in blaspheming and presently placed on all and firmly held by the extremities. version-mania " dishonoured person the full whom . on their replying in the negative. the middies mostly complained that the had caused a curious his champagne The in la parte-poste." by one of the he had infuriated by his con- memoirs he alludes in his : to this gross insult to it by mentioning but English readers cannot comprehend About the same time significance of the confession. and with the price meal: hence the saying Khakh-i-pai kahu=the The root Isfahanis retort with the name buy another soil at the lettuce- of a station or halting- place between the two cities where. the . a grey-beard slave was dragged struggling with all his strength. under pretence of travellers raped stow away their riding-gear. resisted with all the force of the sphincter "Ah.Terminal Essay. and. Governor of Bushire. " hence : ! and expose them I A Harem caught in the many Zin o takaltu tu bi-bar and saddle-cloth " = carry within saddle punishment or to strip to the is embraces of the grooms and negro. his guests if they had ever seen a man-cannon (Adami-top). Shaykh Nasr. making a Shirazi had been favourite Persian Gynaeceum he pro- that he can sell the result meaning rice. his bag-trousers were down and a dozen peppercorns were inserted ano suo the fours let target : was a sheet of paper held at a reasonable distance . when an Isfahan father would him with a pound of vides set up his son in business as compost for the kitchen-garden. a sharpened tent-peg to the crupper-bone (os coccygis) and knock A well-known missionary to the East during the till lie opens.

Persian the women We can hardly wonder at the loose conduct of perpetually mortified by marital pederasty. The same may be 1 It is a parody on the well-known song (Roebuck i. . During unhappy campaign of 1856-57 in which. and the slaughter of Macnaghten.A If 236 Laylah wa Laylak. although the Himalayan tribes to the north and those lying and Marathas. Sir James Outram and the Bombay army showing how badly they could work. with the exception of we gained no glory. kadr-i-kunrd Kdbuli The worth of coynte the Afghan knows Cabul : The Afghans : prefers the other chose are commercial travellers on a large scale ! ! and accompanied by a number of boys and lads almost in woman's attire with kohl'd eyes and rouged cheeks. Burnes and other British officers. Kash- . Ali. south. and the husbands trudge patiently by their : sides. 1841). princely birth could not be kept out of the officers' quarters. match was applied by a pinch of cayenne in the nostrils the sneeze started the grapeshot and the number of hits on the butt . long tresses and henna'd fingers and toes. In Afghanistan also a frantic debauchery broke out amongst the women when they found incubi who were not pederasts. the Rajputs said of the sect. decided the bets. jewellers worth of jewelry The worth of rose Bulbul can tell and Kambar's worth his lord. . ignore it. there was a formal outburst of the Harems and even women of a few brilliant skirmishes. No. and the people sing Kadr-i-kus Aughdn ddnad. The cities of Afghanistan and Sind are thoroughly saturated with Persian vice. 2.. 1602) : The goldsmith knows the worth of gold. Resuming our way Eastward we find the Sikhs and the Moslems of the Panjab much addicted to Le Vice. and the scandal was not the most insignificant cause of the general rising at Cabul (Nov. riding luxuriously in each caravan is Kajawas or camel-panniers they are called Kuch-i safari. or travelling wives.

repeat. hold pederasty in abhorrence Gand-mara Englishmen would regiment.* all wfth a scatter of verdigris-green milk-bush some forty The miles north of Karachi the head-quarters. 99) has Kunbu (Kuroboh) See vol. vi. M. az in sih jins giri . to the " doer." and his pathic Gulab Singh inflicted upon Cashmir as Yet the Hindus. dirty heap of adjacent native yet only one case of pederasty came to light and that after a tragical fashion some soldier A young Brahman had connection with a comrade of low caste and this had continued till. and Kilicians the proverb says. 2 See " Sind Revisited " i. . Eki Afghan. : Agar kaht-i-mardum 237 to the tria Kakista. all Victor Jacquemont's Journal describes the pederasty of Ranji't Singh. the " Lion de Voyage whom of the Panjab. i. and ogling their admirers the coquetry of bayaderes. mirians who add another Kappa Kretans. dovvurn Sindf. voice Lahore of infamies much Gandu as my flat for his treason. as and women. in an years afterwards. kam uftad. was stationed at a sandy by way of paying scandalised by being called (anuser) 1843-44 1 ruler the English and are (anus-beater) or During the years be. in contempt 1 like Arab. almost Presidency. a Panjdbi peasant and others vary the saying ad libitum. Sindi and rascally Kashmiri. with flowing imitating the feminine walk and locks under crowns of flowers. is not an object of and the high-caste p. unhappy hour. 156. Al-Fa'il Al-Maful = For "Sindi" Roebuck (Oriental = the " " done Proverbs Part .Terminal Essay. could hovels. the Pariah patient ventured The latter. 133-35. Louis Daville the describes Lakhnau where he found men dressed with as and fashion of speech. which the represented woman not supply a single . 1 siyyum badjins-i-Kashmfri men of Though : there be famine yet shun these three Afghan. gestures." become the agent. mud-and-mat village. Hindu Sepoys of the Bombay a purgatory called Bandar Gharra. Kappadocians.

bracelet of caoutchouc studded with points 1 They have every They must now not be confounded with the grelots lascifs^ the swell : could so arti- The Chinese 2 takes the place little bells of gold or by the people of Pegu in the prepuce-skin. Pekin was plundered the Harems contained a number of balls a larger than the old musket-bullet. I have broaden out embracing Chinese. sepoy. dissolved in water and erotic the glans penis. and described by Nicolo de Conti who however refused to undergo the operation. 137 : Recherches Bologna 1875 : also philosophiqucs sur . polluted doomed of to endless by exiting life. aphrodisiacs. as far as and vorous The China. little made of thin silver with a loose pellet of brass inside somewhat like a grelot J : these were placed by the women between the labia and an up-and-down movement on the bed gave a pleasant titillation articles when nothing of artifice luxury. Hyderabad and. Mirabeau (L'Anandryne) describes the tribadism of their women in When hammocks. when martial at musket and his his court wishes were asked last he begged in vain to be suspended by the feet. Paro's p." would be transmigrations through the lowest forms that his soul. are they : are the chosen people of debauchery and their systematic bestiality with ducks. all we know them omnifutuentes Sotadic Zone begins to the stated. stung by remorse and revenge. Such are the applications. goats. to pills perfumes and singular which. de"couvertes in Ramusio faites (i. cause it to throb and according to Amerigo Vespucci American ficially women increase the size of their husbands' parts. Beyond India.A If 238 Laylah wa Laylah. Turkistan and Japan. and other animals is equalled only by their pederasty. silver set 2 Relation des Vespucci's letter les Ame'ricains. applied be procured. par Colomb 131) and etc. to better was. omni- in the great cities. loaded shot deliberately his He was hanged by paramour. Kaempfer and Orlof Torde (Voyage en Chine) notice the public houses for boys and youths in China and Japan. the idea being " below the waist.

professed tribades. is the Priapus-god to also the whom the Vestal Virgins of neck-charm in phallus-shape. are familiar with that of the strong man who by enormous phallus shivers a copper pot trast of the and escape know 132) offers and wrinkled of Women shrivelled. 8 . cit. Chinese and Japanese is highly developed All their illustratibns are often facetious as well as obscene. singing-boy surrounded by his admirers. that imitation statement.Terminal Essay. of the Arbor phallus and fascinum. little. confirms from a blow with his and the ludicrous con* . " counterfeit hair for Captain Grose (Lexicon Balatronicum) explains merkin as women's privy parts. Manilla a tailed The Jesuits brought man whose moveable home from prolongation of the os 1 See Mantegazza loc. 1 which was bound between Of the glans and prepuce. which the Latins called vitae or passatempo and " French stuffed with cotton and 3 " to a cone of ribbed horn slit with an it artificial vagina : two tapes The to the back of a chair. every kind abounds. Fascinum is Rome. For the use of men a heart-shaped article of thin skin and one below lash erotic literature of the and letter an instrument of torture. Thomas Sanchez the Spaniard had (says Mirabeau in Kad- are addicted to to decide a difficult hesch) question concerning the sinfulness of a peculiar erotic perversion. See Bailey's Diet. or Annulus hirsutus." The Bailey of 1764. Abel Hureau de Villeneuve. Schuyler in his Turkistan " Batchah " a illustration of (Pers. in the Isle Of Turkistan we know Dolittles. = " or catamite). diletto varying from a stuffed which looks Soter Kosmou." at the top the penis succedaneus. who borrows from the These de Paris of Dr.-" does not contain the word which is now generally applied to a cunnus succedaneus. true but what we Mr. an " improved edition." The learned casuist Dr. 239 cf the Herisson. like the French godemiche* and the Italians 2 (whence our "dildo"). Of They Sodomie or Buggerie. bachcheh my an it. " Frictiones per coitum productae magnum mucosae membranae vaginalis turgorem. they have the "merkin. 419). huge-membered wights who land presently Domine (i." 2 Fascirius sacrificed ." the Tartars Master " Purchas laconically says (v. ac simul hujus cuniculi coarctationem tarn maritis salacibus quaeritatam afferunt. the male member.

Geography chap. tail sodomy and simple was incomplete verdict For the islands north of Japan. In in many parts was accompanied by another confirmed cannibalism. enjoying one naturally while the other used his The as a penis succedaneus. of Pinkerton's by Walckenaer.A If Laylah wa 240 Laylah* coccygis measured from 7 to 10 inches: he had placed himself between two women. fornication. Hyperboreans "possess all the passions supposed to develop most freely under a milder " " The of the and half-frozen which are temperature (i. under a temperature of almost perpetual 1 I have noticed phenomenal cannibalism in my notes to Mr. The Native Races of i. London. 2 The by me 3 Ostreiras or shell in mounds Anthropologia No. Caudish's Circumnavigation. Pacific Bancroft. by Herbert Howe . States of South America. the of the Brazil. translated Passing over to America we find that the Sotadic Zone contains the whole hemisphere from Behring's Straits to Magellan's. 1875. where the births of both sexes are about equal and female infanticide vof New World the is this perversion not practised. polygamy North American Indians. Hakluyt Captivity of Hans Stade of Hesse this excellent translation of : Society. Bancroft 3 proves the abnormal development of sodomy amongst the savages and barbarians of the Even his New World." and the "nayle of tynne" thrust through the prepuce to prevent sodomy. sometimes 200 feet high. 4 of Master vi. 1873. Longmans. voluptuousness 58). 1 depravity of taste ^Campos abounded unnecessary and therefore The forests and game from the deer to the pheasant-like penelope. and the seas and rivers produced an unfailing supply of excellent ferred the A and fish shell-fish meat of man 2 . " prevalence of mollities " astonishes the anthropologist. see Litx Thomas ii. yet the Brazilian Tupis pre- to every other food. the "Sodomitical Sea. This who is apt to consider pederasty the growth of luxury and the especial product of great and civilised unknown to simple savagery cities. Albert Tootle'g " " The London. and vol. glance at Mr. are described Oct. mdccclxxiv.

Of the Nahua nations Father Pierre de Gand Q (alias . teaching him only domestic duties. They went by the name of Camayoas.Terminal Essay. in Arriving at the age of ten Nutka Sound and the Aleutian Islands. the youths being called Joya (Bancroft. or fifteen years. 1. and other authors. associating him with women and order to render his effeminacy complete. Torquemada. perform the functions of them " (i. The same is " man who regards These male concubines (the authorities quoted being Lisiansky and Marchand). Of most remarkable instances. male concubinage prevails to a great extent. are called Achnutschik or Schopans Holmberg.41 5 and authorities Palon. keeping will select her him at women's work. the case in girls. The most repugnant A that of male concubinage. he is married to some wealthy such a companion as a great acquisition. where "male concubinage obtains throughout. Choris. these loathsome semblances of humanity. Mofras. 585). Boscana. Ribas. Duflot and Pages). and other parts of Central America. Billing. can quote only a few of the I Kadiak Island the Koniagas of " 81-82). but not to the same extent as amongst the Koniagas. Crespi. Pederasty practised by the peoples of Cueba. as soon as destined for the unclean office. Colonies Hi. and were hated and detested by the goodwives $ 773-74)- VOL. The Caciques and some of the headmen kept harems of youths who. was systematically upon beasts. of all Kadiak mother handsomest and most promising boy. Langsdorff. and the Thinkleets we read their practices is 241 (i. New Mexico "In according to Arlegui. 515). and dress and rear him as a girl. X. of the women." The objects of " unnatural " affection have their beards carefully plucked out as soon as the face-hair begins to grow. winter is far greater than that of the most sensual tropical nations" (Martin's Brit. Careta. and their chins are tattooed like those In California the first missionaries found the same practice. were dressed as women. 524). The Comanches unite incest with sodomy (i. whom dress themselves to in call beastly were a slander the clothes and the use of weapons being denied women.

In Yucatan images were found by Bernal Diaz proving the sodomitical propensities of the people (Bancroft Pauw (Recherches Philosophiques sur 1771) has much De 198). if it by some Chin and by others by committing the fathers gave their sons a boy act with another to use as a woman. the if it was Pederasty also general throughout Nicaragua. pe*che* ce pays que. x. in men married youths who. etc. Mexico generally: to say about the subject in the northern provinces v. Mayas of Yucatan Las Casas declares that the great " " lust made parents anxious to see theif prevalence of unnatural progeny wedded as soon as possible (Kingsborough's Mex. and Solemne Feasts. tous etaient si adonne*s que memes enfants de six ans les (Ternaux-Campans. jeunes ou vieux. Among viii.). taught Some god. form preferred by Speaking of the its v.A If de Musa) writes. in the original in tells read (vol. and the early explorers found it amongst the indigenes of Panama. London. Tom. did not justify. . the Deuill so farre prevayled in their beastly Deuotions that there were Boyes consecrated to serue their Sacrifices in the Temple and . " Un certain de femmes. the In Vera Paz a god. were forbidden to carry arms. p. dressed like women^ According to Gomara there were and from Diaz and at Tamalipas houses of male prostitution Both in others we gather that fatpecado nefando was the rule. Conquistadores. sed eorum &ait commun dans si tnfecte's . Cavial and Maran. beginning with Cieza de Leon. loco nombre de pretres n'avaient point' Ce pueros quibus abutebantur. the Lords and at the times of principall men . Indians he Peru and who must be adjacent lands. called 135). Voyages. dtaient y ils " s'y livraient Laylah wa Laylah. Ant. or in the translated extracts of Purchas not in the cruelly castrated Council of the Hakluyt Society. We have authentic details concerning Le Vice 942. and any other approached this pathic he was treated as an adulterer. les Ame'ricains. the New Granada us that " at Old Port (Porto Viejo) and Puna. SeVie i. Mexico and cruelties of in Peru the it might have caused. 197).

243 " i. abused them to that detestable filthinesse the Generally in peculiar worship. " and Iviii. Devil. do not commit the abominable sin and the Serranos. even from the time of their childhood. who were probably the large-limbed Caribs (Carafbes) of the Brazil they will be noticed in page 244. a Europeo-American version of the Sodom legend. AH Peruvian historians mention these giants. God brought upon them women they were they killed All the natives declare a punishment proportioned to the enormity of their offence. a from Heaven with a great Hi. although so near the peoples of Puerto Viejo and Guayaquil. When their accursed intercourse. . Hakluyt Society's bowdlerisation being "very vicious. fire. were not so much addicted to sodomy. for or two every men or more which were attired like women. Cieza says (chap." The Indians j also. Hi. 1 : .e.Terminal Essay. under pretext of holiness and religion. their principal men on principal days had commerce. because in using their them. with these. as sorcerers " . 2 There remained a few bones and skulls which God allowed to bide un- issued a shining consumed by the as a memorial of this punishment. or island mountaineers. Speaking of the arrival of the Giants* at Point Santa Elena. had introduced the practice temple or chief house of adoration kept one . imitating them in everything . 2 This sounds much like a pious fraud of the missionaries. and magicians inferior to the coast peoples. we find exceptions. In chapters of Huancabamba. wherewith at one blow they were all killed and the fire consumed them.). out of the midst of came down which there Angel with a glittering sword. performed their hill-countries the under the show of holiness. and their that men also in another way. 24) him a woman. detested by the natives. it is thought little of and they call offence (p. many of we read of the Tumbez In the Islanders them committing the abominable " "If by the advice of the Devil any Indian commit the abominable crime. they were engaged together in fearful and terrible fire noise. and spake like them.

There were sodomites in some not openly nor universally. " nor was it a habit of all the in- who habitants but only of certain persons it practised privately.Alf Laylah wa Laylah. to show commanded that the whole village should so Elseif one man fell into this habit (Lib. Franck. we Nuno de which was taken. 13). Guzman in 1530. his abomination. he was held infamous for One of the the to having reported generals many days. F." V. and thus the Devil acted that the Gentiles commit < it in public as a traitor to for this felt and in remove the veil of shame crime and to accustom them to common. woman. . " The last fought most couragiously. In some parts they had them in their temples. Lopez draws Under the reigns which followed that of Inti-Kapak (Ccapacc) Amauri. he be treated " where we learn. for which 1 was a are told I of pathologic love in Peru." the ruler ordered that the criminals should be publicly burnt alive and and their houses. because the Devil persuaded them that the Gods took great delight in such people. but some particular provinces. crops trees destroyed : moreover. early period of the Peruvian history the people considered the crime "unspeakable:" if a Cuzco Indian. Ynca Ccapacc Yupanqui that there were some sodomites. 244 of the Yncas shows that the evil wa* The Royal Commentaries of a modern comparatively In growth. cap. that from a childe he that filthinesse. Paris. not in all the valleys. the country was attacked by invaders of a giant race a frightful picture coming from the sea : they practised pederasty after a fashion so shameless that the conquered tribes were compelled to 1 Les Races Aryennes du Prou. and which rule throughout Peru. 1871. which confessed by man in the habite by of a had gotten his liuing caused him to be burned. not of Yncarial blood. 271). though men and in secret. iii. fly (p." During the times of the Conquistadores male concubinage had become the At Cuzco. but one here and one there. addressed the angrily term pederast to another.

^taient jaloux les uns des autres. Roko Sinchi ebb. Peru had lapsed Into savagery and the kings of Cuzco preserved only the name. les moyens de remedier au mal employaient des herbes des recettes et diaboliques Elles . mais en vain. 245 Under the pre-Yncarial Amauta. have remarked that the Tupi races of the Brazil were infamous for cannibalism as proved by and sodomy . avec certaines herbes. Antonio Augusto da " A crime which in Brazil e os Braziieiros. elles leur qui ramenaient bien quelques individus. this point. a ceux dont elles e*taient I jalouses" (p. and the morals at ni les lois the s^veres promulgue*es n'avaient pu extirper enticement centre nature. or priestly dynasty. prudence de la si II reprit et le xcist lowest qu'il pdche" avec une nouvelle violence. . soit dans les aliments. Toutes ces hontes bestialite* et la infames. avait Ni (the xcvth of Montesinos he found Tinea. pleuraient ensemble en leurs reunions sur le miserable dans e*tat lequel elles dtaient tombe*es. et les femmes grand nombre jalouses qu'un Les devins du l'e*tablissement jusqu'a (p 277). " de choses constitua un e*tat dura qui gouvernement des Incas" When Cet les sorciers les d'elles tu&rent passaient leurs leurs journe*es & fabriquer. mais ne pouvaient arrter progres incessants du vice. of Garcilazo) became Ynca. sur le me*pns avec lequel elles dtaient * * traite*es. la de voir offensees de deux vices et toutes ces miseres provenaient nature la Les fefnmes surtout sodomie. Costa Aguiar 1 is outspoken upon 1 O Sr. frustre'e de tous ses e*taient Elles droits. veritable moyen age. 291). en furent maris. et les fernmes en faisaient prendre. et * * hommes * cherchaient. 1862. Santos. des compositions magiques qui rendaient fous ceux qui en mangaient. soit dans la chicha.Terminal Essay. nor could the latter be only racial the fact that colonists of pure Lusitanian blood followed in the path of the savages. s'aimaient * * monde Le e'tait les renverse*.

30). who used Shanatir. women and . known from his long ringlets as " Zii Nowas. by way of punishing such of this Empire. Le Vice is sporadic." One of Her Majesty's Consuls used to " a tale of the hilarity provoked in a " fashionable assembly by the open declaration of a young gentleman that his mulatto" ** patient agent. endemic : have said. 1 Africa certain " Chibudi. as a peccadillo of the wild " clothed in tell .A If 246 England leads Lay Iah wa to the gallows. pathologic love for amongst the Luso-Brazilians has been reduced to the normal limits. the European immigrants following the practice men who were naked but not. 478. innocence. insisting upon becoming Now. induced earlier than is in country sites." in A. Lctylah- and which the very measure of is abject depravity." The negro race is mostly untainted by sodomy and Yet Joan dos Sanctos found in Cacongo of West tribadism. ou de muitos). tyrant of have long been and of Zu to entice still young men are thoroughly infected. as Columbus said. which are 1 men Aelhiopia Orieotalis. passes with impunity amongst us of almost pating in Ah the wrath of ! if crimes it (delictos)^ all or of many Heaven were more than one to city by the partici- (de quasi todos. however. and cause them into his palace be cast out of the windows: this after use to unkindly ruler was at last poinarded by the youth Zerash. Outside the Sotadic Zone. has been most lands. more than a fall " dozen. not yet the physical and moral effect of great cities where puberty. under the influences of improved education and respect the public opinion of Europe.D. 1 558. had suddenly turned upon him. San'a the capital of Al-Yaman and other centres of population History tells us " Arabia Felix. causing modesty to decay and pederasty The Badawi Arab is wholly pure of Le Vice yet . Purchas attyred like it. the same I in to flourish. would pass into the category of the Sodoms and Gomorrahs Till late years pederasty in the Brazil was looked upon (p. they say.

which systematically decried Le Vice. peu the case of a celibate priesthood such scandals are witness the famous Jesuit epitaph Ci-gtt un Jdsuite. book of De laudibus bene pueri. there have been remarkable exceptions. and quotes " Aux mois embrasser et bien d' the n'ont proverb boire. also delighted in dancing Madagascar In the Empire of girls. Master Christopher Burrough describes on the western side of the 1 Volga " a very fine stone castle. Liseux. 243. and Again iustice of God. Usus et amplexus " (Tardieu). Sodom> by the into the earth for the vvickednesse of the people. ." But inevitable : pas qui in R. London. 247 behaue themselves womanly. done as they Mantovano. called by the Towne adioyning to the same a * * # which W as swallowed called by the Russes. de la Curiosite* Litteraire et Bibliographique. and esteem that vnnaturale damnation an honor. Dahomey and singing boys dressed as noted a corps of prostitutes I kept for the use of the Amazon-soldieresses. venery being colder in summer than in winter." .Terminal Essay." petition Hence the Faeda Venus of Bayle rejects the history for a curious reason." temperatus. Archbishop Sodomiae/' vulgarly known The same writer refers (under " Sixte del Forno. Berlin and Paris for instance. iv ") to the report Dominican Order. Bayle notices (under "Vayer") Giovanni della 2 of as " Capitolo Casa. etc. that the had presented a request to the Cardinal di Santa Lucia that sodomy might be lawful during three months per annum. Battista demand. North of the Sotadic Zone we find local but notable instances. June to August "Be it and that the Cardinal had underwritten the . In our modern capitals. although as a rule : Christianity has steadily opposed pathologic love both in writing and preaching. 1 Purchas 2 For a iii. Perhaps the most curious idea was that of certain medical writers in the middle ages " : salutaris medicina infamous the " Benevento." name Oueak. literal translation see l re Se'rie Paris. ashamed to be called men are also married to men. 1880.

1860. : submitted to the public. Puritanism and Chauvinism in religion." Naples invidious to detail the scandals which of late years have startled the public in London and Dublin consult the police reports. self-styled Les Cravates Noires in opposition. England sent her pederasts whence originated the term " to Italy. Berlin. manners and not a whit better than her neighbours. despite her strong flavour of Phariseeism. to only a few places. 1863. 1 a many interesting cases especially an old Count Cajus and his six accomplices. the Scottish Highlands and St. is morals. Amongst many correspondents one suggested to him that not only Plato and Julius Caesar but also Winckelmann and Platen (?) belonged to the Society. Belot. adduces Dr." and 1 His best known works are (i) Praktisches Handbuch der GerechtHchen Medecin. by no means more depraved than Berlin and London whilst the latjter hushes up the scandal. que ce plaisir est peu agr<able a mon cultiver. Once a philospher of the kind in Germany is : it the latter informed the Sage again and provoked the exclama- twice a sodomite " ! The a society at Frankfort and hood. Frenchmen do not Paris but. Frederick the Great is said to have addressed words to his nephew. Berlin.A If 248 Laylah wa Laylah. also. last revival its neighbour- I suppose. A few days afterwards of Ferney that he had tried " tion. . the Vice seems subject to periodical outbreaks. Petersburg. well-known authority on the subject. Caspar. his the Louvre. : for these the curious will Berlin. par experience personelle. and he had found it flourishing in Palermo. and (2) Klinische Novellen zur gerechtlichen Medecin. "Je puis vous these name assurer.*' This suggests the popular anecdote of Voltaire and the Englishman who agreed upon an " experience " and found it far from satisfactory. For France of the xviith century consult the " Histoire de la " La France Prostitution chez tous les Peuples du Monde. II vizio For many years. to Les Cravates Blanches of A. is hence we see a more copious account of it . and especially to would be It Inglese.

which Urquhart renders Ingle for Boulgre. (the French Heliogabalus). head-quarters of male prostitution were then in the Champ Flory. who gave to Italy the term bug iardo liar. " objections to Rabutin's delicacy and excuses for Petronius' grossness in his Eclairctsse" ment sur les obsce*nites ( Appendice au Dictionnaire Antique). fait que cette ville (Paris) est un 1 author printed another imitation of Petronius Arbiter . as part of the pageant." as In Voltaire philosophique. the favourite youth. before noticed. his " Apologie de " veuve Champ The 1 death of Pidauzet de " la Secte Anandryne In those days the Alle*e des " fief reserve* Sodom being des Ebugors the maitresse en " 2 titre. . sous se provoquaient mutuellement des progres considerables. de Flore.. 1564) '* " showed. Veuves in the Champs Elysees had a " in the language of folle. an "indorser.Terminal Essay. I cannot however. the Se"vigne*. invented <c . highly approved of U. Bougre and Bougrerie date (Littre") from the xiiith century. after the was published in L'Espion Anglais. Pierrugues of Bordeaux. quoique moins en vogue que du temps de Henri 3 III. 93 et seq. a la Palmers ton. 1779). Francais a tte le quand the term temporary recrudescence " and." derived from the Bulgarus or Bulgarian. Le gout des pdderastes. . the privileged rendezvous of low courtesans. At the decisive moment of monarchical decomposition Mira- beau declares that pederasty was reglemente'e and adds. but think that the trivial term gained strength in the xvith when the manners of the Bugres or indigenous Brazilians were studied by Huguenot refugees in La France grand Flte in Antartique and several of these savages found their way to Europe." there was a Pe'che' Mairobert (March. Comte de Rabutin. 1 The same 4 On sous sait le regne desquel les hommes les portiques du Louvre. sings. 4 Called Cbivaliers de Faille because the sign was a straw in the mouth. Kadesch (pp. *>. * Th Boulgrin of Rabelais.three hundred men (including fifty Bugres or Tupis) with parroquets and other birds and beasts of the newly explored regions." a 2491 *' which generally follows treatise L'Histoire Amoureuse des Gaules" by Bussy.) Edition de Bruxelles with note* by the Chevalier P. the xviiith century. A Rouen on the entrance of Henri II. and Dame Katherine de Medicis (June 16. devenue Italienne. the "Larissa" His cousin. 3 Erotika Biblion chapt. See Bayle's story of Theophile Viand. The proces- sion is given in -the four-folding woodcut "Figure des Bresiliens" in Jean de Prest's Edition of 155*1.

m. had its mot de passe^ was Thomas des Louvre.m. siderable de la Ceux qui . in the The police more vigilant favourite club. bien faits. seconde classe femmes en usent tandis ils .A If 250 chef-d'oeuvre de police . sont soigneusement enclasses On taires s'^tendent jusques-la. on the right male gynaeceum and the left winter and 8 p. et composent qui preside a ces plaisirs. . moutarde fine de Caudebec. nus sur un matelas ouvertpar les place tout deux ve'rifie caressent de leur les mais celle Pour cet effet. y a des lieux publics il se destinent la profes- car les systemes r^glemen- . ou se font payer tres-cher par les eVeques et Ceux les financiers. mais qui don- sont encore chers.reason. and Two street-doors. for the . s'inscrivent commz pattens purs. qui sont beaux. troi- siege des Apres un quart d'heure de cet essai. 1 I opened at 4 p. vermeils. en consequence. sion. which Rue Doyenne. Les jeunes gens qui autorises cet effet. servent a ces e*preuves et ne donnent aucun signe d'^recJ comme patiens k un tiers de paie seulement/ The Restoration and the Empire made the in matters of politics than of morals. on leur introduit dans 1'anus un poivre long rouge qui cause une irritation conde'sirs ve'ne'riens. i for the female. quoiqu'ils aient tous ces organes ndcessaires au plaisir. on filles leur impuissance. sont reserve's pour les grands seigneurs. in summer. forment parceque Ceux qui sont privet de leurs les la du tisserand. the house was a hotel of the xviith century. wa Laylah Laylah. et Ton passe le gland au camphre. examine les a ceux qui peuvent . ou en termes de Tart (car notre langue est plus chaste testicules. pendant qu'une sieme frappe doucement avec des orties naissantes le . re'sistent tion. in have noticed that the eunuch in Sind was as meanly paid and have given the . qu'ils servent qui ne sont plus susceptibles direction tant aux hommes. on pose sur les ^chauboulures produites par les orties. old quarter St. poteles. ils sont use's. etre agents et patients. qui n'ont pas \zpoids nent et re^oivent. qui nos mceurs). la troisieme classe: la moide* infeVieure mieux.

Ix. p. one hundred and fifty men met. under pretext of making water. Under Louis He according to the Marquis de Boissy. so well dressed as that even the landlord did not recognise them. with big and this continued 1826 when the police put down the house. promenaded outside till . This nuisance was at length suppressed by the municipal administration. charmingly dressed 251 women's in haunches and small waist. which purses. all 2.Terminal Essay A decoy-lad. London. 8 Place de la Madeleine where. Balls of sodomites held at No. at least so we A gather from the Dossier " La general gathering of " was held des Marais where.m. fle'au sion spread to civilian society and intensity that in cities and it large towns may be . were some women There was also a club for sotadic debauchery called the Cent Gardes and the Dragons de rimpe*ratrice. and declared that of the African wars was an dffrayable ddbordement pe'de'rastique. The Empire did not improve morals. ambages of mceurs Arabes the result complained without in even as the verole resulted from the Italian cam- paigns of that age of passion. French regiments. the xvith century. no police: man or ronde de nuit dared venture in it . it in and 593. touched the part most attracted them and were duly followed by it. At the Alle*e des Veuves the crowd was dangerous from 7 to 8 p. on Jan. '64. and nobles came with full in the old many resorted They ranged themselves along the walls of a vast garden and exposed their podices richards military and the Vice took such expan- Sainte Congregation des glorieux Pe*de*rastes Rue From the said to have been democratised des Agissements des PedeVastes. mdccclxxix. after the theatre. 1 1 They copied the imperial toilette and kept Centuria Librorum Absconditorum (by Pisanus Fraxi) 4to. the had Philippe. Privately printed. . Petite evil results. the conquest of Algiers : bourgeois. cords were stretched from tree to tree and armed guards drove away strangers amongst whom. they say. clothes. was once Victor Hugo.

300-306) and the not less hardi jest of the slave-princess Zumurrud (vol. La Roche-Pouchin Rochfort S. D'Assoucy. London. Castagnary to the Progres de it : discusses the letter of Lyons and declares that the Vice had been adopted by plusieurs corps de troupes. son of the General. and its being affected by so many celebrities. ii. Saint Megrin. Marquis de Custine. 1 declares that the servant-class and that the Vice is is most infected commonest between the ages of . iii. Emperor wisely quashed proceedings. The second 1 A friend is in the grimmest and most earnest phase of the learned in these matters supplks Those who marvel pederasts* at the wide me with the following of famous list diffusion of such erotic perversion. Due de la Valliere. Edit Francois Hugo) and Moliere. as these belonged to not a few senators and . Archi-Chancellier Cambacere's. The indices will Fieve'e. We find Theodorus Beza. Count Zintzendorff. latest For its developments as regards the chantage of the fantes (pathics). Frederick iii. Beuve and Count D'Orsay. Louis xiii. practical joke of masterful Queen Budur (vol. D'Epernon. Julius Caesar and Napoleon Buonaparte held themselves high above the moral law which obliges common-place humanity.. Composer). the Grand Pierre Louis Farnese. and of Holland and Charles xviii. Layla ft wa Laylah. ii. des Veuves. the an " Les " ^chappds de Sodome article. Conde. Tardieu's well-known He fetudes.. the names. Marquis de Villette. edited by M. William of Parma. M. Luliy also Shakespeare (the (i. De Soleinne. (before supply . Sainte- Fraxi . Louis.A If 252 the general wardrobe hence " : The used carnally. will bear in mind that the greatest men have been some of the worst: Alexander of Macedon. Lerminin. faire l'Impe>atrice " meant to be a splendid hotel in the Ailed site. iv. During the same year La Petite Revue. Theodore Leclerc. 1885. Of Kings we have Henri of Prussia. Henne (the Spiritualist). 226). as the unseemly of three categories. The club was broken up on July 16. Loredan Larchy. and xv. and fifteen twenty-five. All three are charged with the Vice. '64. printed dignitaries. Count D'Avaray. Centuria Librorum Absconditorum alluded to) and Catena Librorum Tacendorum. For others refer to the three volumes of Pisanus Index Librorum Prohibitorum (London. was discovered by the Procureur-GeneVal who registered all the names but.. iii. Admiral de la Susse. Comte Horace de Viel Cast el. 1877).. The pederasty The Nights may briefly be distributed into The first is the funny form. Peter the Great. ii. the reader will consult the last issues of Dr.

dwell upon the " Ethics of the " Pornography " Dirt and the " Garbage of the Brothel " and will lament the " wanton dissemination of ancient and fiction.. v." . or encouragement to the loose by But these are not lascivious matter. filthy (!) 1 Of clearly contraried their character. after a risqu And and suchlike things which are conformable neither to good conscience nor nature. to be severely blamed. find ideas He and we still holds " Mundis omnia munda". yet he Abu Nowas hymned the joys of sodomy. the ^claircissement des The Nights " of that modesty which distinguishes Amadis de Gaul . whilst in the third form learnedly discussed. Reverend To debauches the three l Woman is it wisely and by the Shaykhah or (vol. for these in reason lightly to pass over. 43). 154)." must e'en take the Eastern as we " him. us the mixture of a lie doth add to pleasure. yet he was more than a he-goat was greedier than a dog passionate for . as Bacon assures oriental Arab enjoys the startling and lively contrast of extreme virtue and horrible vice placed in juxtaposition." . perversion. Abu This . yet he was Mohammed ibn Hzim praised contentment. my conclude this part of subject. they deserve." whose readers will regret the absence from Many obsc^nites. Naturalia non sunt turpia." " a maid together says. v. holding who Nor have we them in slight man ought esteem as Palmerin of England less respect for " Herein scene declares. In an age saturated with cant and hypocrisy." together with and. where 253 Abu Nowas 64-69). here and there a venal pen will mourn over " of The Nights. himself being an atheist more Ibn Khallikan remarks this peculiar character whose works salacious Abu Hukayma's women . man and author when leaving a nothing shall be here related . verses proved his impotence. is no offence offered to the wise by wanton speeches. for instance youths (vol. than a baboon. Those who have read through these ten volumes will agree so the F me with that the proportion of offensive matter bears a very small ratio to the mass of the work. and self- " There were four poets al-Atahfyah wrote pious poems (ii.Terminal Essay.

to onanism. to adultery and fornication. explain the. Latine loqui less . so respectable and so impure. Shakespeare and RabeBurton. The Reviewer Reviewed " which At the end of my work I propose to will. why without republished a word of protest does not this inconsistent puritan purge the Old Testament of its allusions to to carnal copulation human ordure and the pudenda \ and impudent whoredom. and Chaucer. sodomy and not do. . but he is scandalised at stumbling-blocks To important in plain English. Horace" " perhaps even Martial and Petronius. motif of the writer of the critique and the editor of the Edinburgh. a landscape of magnificent prospects whose vistas are adorned to such I with every charm of nature and at a 1 little art. the whited sepulchre To ! bestiality ? this he will critic of the But the interested Edinburgh Review (No. me " " show that when men. amongst other things. I return my warmest dies are onethanks for his direct and deliberate falsehoods : legged and short-lived. with which boys* and youths' minds and memories are soaked and saturated at schools and colleges. Swift and a long list of works which are yearly reprinted and Lastly. and venom * It appears to evaporates. in a popular Review books which have been printed and not published is hardly in accordance with the established courtesies of write a paper " literature. because veiled in the decent obscurity of a learned language . 1886). Sterne. reads Aristophanes and Plato.A If Laylah wa constituted Censor morum LayIah. they point their unclean noses heap of muck here and there lying A virulently and in a field-corner. unjustly abusive critique never yet injured its object : in fact it is But to notice generally the greatest favour an author's unfriends can bestow upon him. much be consistent he must begin by bowdlerising not only the classics. 335 of July. but also Boccaccio lais . " he allows men and Virgil.

ACCORDING my to promise in SAJ'A. Calcutta. I to offer a few observations concerning the Saj'a or and the Shi'r. The former has three distinct forms. next is Saj'a periods. the of sentences final letter. unwisely For detailed examples and specimens see Rhetoric. of prose. hemistichs or couplets letters correspond. THE A. all fleuri. it Thus been abused. here proceed is the basis of written in it . 255 ON THE PROSE-RHYME AND THE POETRY OF THE NIGHTS. or Arabic euphony. (parallel).). Saj'a although differing muwazanah (equi- 1 differing in final letters. Al-Saj'a. is full agree rhyme and : in measure. and faj'a 1 "prose universally used the assonance has necessarily its excess has given rise to the saying rhyme's a pest etc. 10 of Gladwin'* " Dissertations oa .. Saj'a ending assonance and is. thirdly. when is the mutarraf (the end in words when the affluent)." " p. or measured sentence. xiv. metrical or unmetrical. and the same is The whole the case with the of the Makamat of Al-Hariri and the prime master-pieces of rhetorical composition : no translation of the Holy Book can be satisfacand where it is not the Assemblies become the prose without tory or final. The most common. is . in fact measure and number librium) in mutawdzi words whose terminal in rhymed prose the verse of in composition. 1801. Foreword (p. also termed Al-Badfa. Al-Saj'a English translators have.Terminal Essay. that Nights. the fine style or style Koran our applied to the balance which affects words corresponding measure but euphuism.

my wedded | wife. viii. Had the cooing-dove" because un-English. have and to hold | in sickness and | in . 1 For instance from this : I. (ix. | to for richer for poorer. by is he therefore systematically neglects it " " style the semblance of being scamped with the pleasant in our language and gives rhyme " of the original in their natural order plan compelled either to use the arrange the disjecta " that . Anthony Munday. vii. Payne's dictum better alternative. is to remodel Intending to produce a faithful copy of the Arabic. I the text.A If Laylah 256 wa Laylak. rejecting it. M. it it. Payne's membra it and. | to for better for worse. 383) that " the Seja-form English prose and that utterly foreign to the genius of is preservation would its The English vigour and harmony of style. even in the proverbs. and my with great late friend in his Gulistan. (Pref.) irregular sentence with the iteration of a jingling his Mr." and of Eastern delight in antithesis of The weight not : object of saving study and trouble. of authority was against to disregard deems 379) (ix. day forward. 60) artistic be in places . facilities for the language. Mr. while Germans have not. should be so or become so in our it declares that " the effect of the p. was compelled to adopt the former and still hold it to be the Moreover I question Mr. agreed in English and introduces an air of flippancy": this was certainly not the case with Friedrich Riickert'j version of the great original. and I see no reason why Torrens tongue. the balanced periods of the I I Anglican 1 marriage service or the essentially English system of alliteration. Preston assures us that " rhyming prose is extremely ungraceful in I think. he omits me rhyme afforded kinds all wholly. me but my The dilemma was simply " method and Saj'a or to follow Mr. | | take thee N. aiming elaborately at grace ." of England. Payne an " excrescence born of the excessive whether of sound or of thought of style. attempted success as have before noted I Edward Eastwick made rejected the should "Cadence of have adopted use of it fatal to all translator of Palmerin it (vol.

| till not introduced The Nights may death do us part. his position proved by the bald literalism of the passages which he rendered in truly prosaic prose and succeeded in changing the fades and present- ment of the work. through the loss of measure " generally intolerable to the reader. 283).Terminal Essay. than ten thousand lines and these less not but render in rhyme or rather in monorhyme. abounding in the figure Tajnis." He and rhyme. as Their intro- in nature or art. our paronomasia or paragram.. The Shi'r or part of metrical amounting to not The Nights is considerable. if it the Tale-teller arises felt from a suddenly compelled to break into the rhythmic strain. R : e. its For the unequal distribution throughout to cherish. S attention lart : damours it also is was solicited for the titles of books est enclose.g. 1 la See Gladwin VOL. p. Here it becomes mere In that delightful old French of course. X. or they are used to convey a vivid sense of something exquisite whim duction seems due to or caprice. cit. 316). have a charming They come ear." THE VERSE. = alliteration (Ibn Khali. 1 varieties. etc. like the Saj'a. the Saj'a frequently appeared Le Romant de Shi'r. These melodious fragments. a defect in prose style. not to speak Bf other therefore omitted the greater part of the verse as tedious and. Nights. these it. " of critic writes eddies of song set effect I and mostly as dulcet surprises recur in highly-wrought situations. | and to love and blank verse which is. . ou tout loc. B. but really profound study of the situation. De Sacy has been a bugbear to translators. requiring some such aid artful 257 to distinguish from My the vulgar The recitative style the elevated and classical tirades jn attempt has found with reviewers more favour than and a kindly little on the expected . is when Rose. of which there are seven distinct He rhetorical flourishes. ii. health. like gems in the prose. I could This portion noticed the difficulty Lane held the poetry untranslatable because of the task (p. arbitrarily.

e. the oldest of that Imr al-Kays. was asked who was the best poet of the Peninsula he answered that the " Man of Al-Kays. her beautd du diable. And this is true to nature." worshipper of the Priapus-idol. would usher them Here he only echoed the general verdict of his loved poetry and. " The Wander- Christian Fathers characteristically termed poetry Vinum Daemonorum. contain very historical or realistic . as memory once fought a duel about a Before discussing the verse of enlarge a little of the origin antiquity. as a rule. which is lost and the oldest bards of said. as that rise to one-fifth of the may the mechanic (the British mechanic material because the theme little whilst in stones of love of Rose-in-hood. epoch assuming the is The stricter Moslems called their bards and when the Prophet. al-Nu'man and Tawaddud. despised poets. " it one can type and conventional process of treatment which presages inevitable decay. the enemies of Allah . !) is and courtship. whole. who hated verse and could not even quote it correctly. she has lost is youth. when the Muse of Arabia place them about A." i." The results it from has already assumed that Arab period is included in the century Mohammed and songsters. Addison The Nights fair it even* Hume whom we of object of dispute. Love. makes and Joe poetical. 500. to know nothing the depths of in have any remains belong to the famous epoch of the war Al-Basus. of their poetry." study the earliest poetry without perceiving that the cultivation of centuries and that artificial Its noblest preceding the Apostolate of is the prince of ing King.Alf Laylak wa 258 be accounted for of rule by Laylah. first all shows she her first not only fully developed and mature. Some art. which would Moreover. and she characteristics of an age beyond " No middle age. may be advisable We upon the prosody of the Arabs. the proportion Omar bm like tales. The all into Hell.D. countrymen who earliest complete pieces of any volume and substance saved from the wreck of old Arabic literature and familiar in our day are the seven Kasfdahs (purpose-odes or tendence-elegies) which are popularly known as .

In fact the general practice of writing began only at the end of the first century after The Flight. we in all of these find. the ear and the mind.! by all traditionists. the legend proves that Mohammed could read and write even when not "under inspiration. with an elaboration of material and formal art which can go no imagery and stock ideas which suggest a long ascending line of model ancestors and predecessors. a subject-matter of trite best Arab poets were. the and the warrior's chaunt of the heroic ages simple. .Terminal Essay. unconstrained flow adapted it . upon which the most complicated system of metres subsequently arose. vulgar idea would arise from a pious intent to add miracle to the miraculous style of the Koran. It . to describe 1 He make an called himself it that it was not essential difference the Rajiz originally between the who speaks Rajaz. However that may be. was called Al-Rajaz. and " They addressed spoke verse/' learning this reciter again trans- to the musician whose pipe or zither accompanied the minstrel's song. Sha'ir who speaks poetry and consisted. but only his most ignorant followers believe that he was unable to read and write. Scholars are agreed upon the fact that many of the earliest and further. a theory that name of Ali as his Caliph or successor when " Omar. exclaimed. suspecting the intention. were upon which the Mohammed Shi' ah or Persian sectaries base." The intended to write down the ." because it reminded the highly imaginative hearer of a pregnant she-camel's weak and tottering steps. of iambic dipodia (* " "Nabiyun utnmi = illiterate prophet. by it boasted himself. His last words. betic * as Mohammed or rather could neither read nor write. not without probability. Its merits and demerits have been extensively discussed amongst Arab grammarians and many. The Prophet is delirious have we not the Koran ?" thus impiously preventing the precaution. technically.w -). accepted " Aatini dawata wa kalam" (bring me ink -case and pen). not the eye. lover's lay This was the carol of the camel-driver. literally " the trembling. Poems the Gilded or the Suspended 259 and . and its well for extempore effusions. noticing divided into hemistichs. The rude and primitive measure of Arab song. unalpha- rote mitted it and dictating it They to the Rawi.

Sofar Arabic metre is true to Nature movement of language "I is iambic : : impassioned speech the in " we say I will. Ahmad. Although Labid and Kasidah or regular poem in mere prose. the hemistichs in is Mohammed rhyming and the assonance being confined to the couplet. discovered by the ear the Then came Pythagoras. ii. in name time came the of Abu Abd Tami'm al-Farahidi clan). al- (of al-Yahmadi (of the as Al-Khalil ibn Ahmad al-Basri. Ibn Khallikan relates al-Isfahani how this 493) on the (i. AlHariri also affects Rajaz in the third and fifth Assemblies. grammar of Ibn Malik can held by some authorities. i. Amru. three syllables being optionally long or short. of first whom " by the different falls nature. authority of grammar and Hamzah satisfied Azd i." For many generations the Sons of the Desert were with Nature's teaching . the first Rajaz was by Al-Aghlab al-Ajibi temp. generally be read like our iambs and. being familiar.) relates how this Graeco- . i. "father of Arabic discoverer of the rules of prosody" invented the science as he walked past a coppersmith's shop on hearing the hammer upon " two objects devoid of any quality which could serve as a proof and an illustration of anything else than their own form and shape and incapable of strokes of a a metal basin : leading to any other knowledge than that of their 1 own I cannot but vehemently suspect that this legend was taken from tions. inevitable prosodist under the formidable Rahman al-Khalil. The dipodia the English ear. as Al-Akhfash ibn Masadah). scanning verses they say. 68. the fine perceptions and the nicely trained ear of the bard needing no aid from But art. Antar composed in iambics. popularly known of Bassorah. where he died A. We have Jubal the anvil.A if 260 the first wa Laylah Laylah. fathers. to be (Sa'id is It the Alffyah- : Rajaz Muzdawij. I/O (= 78687). al-Azdi (of the Yahmad tribe). the Farahid sept)." the semi-mythical who. I will" not will. in set. in the former case is Rajaz pleasant to are repeated either twice or thrice ." 1 much older tradi- of his hammer on rude music that pleased the antediluvian Macrobius (lib.H.

(i. Newton and Galvani." and the Mafruk. and the kettlethe falling apple and the copper hook which inspired Watt. or consonants are moved by vowels and the last is jazmated or made quiescent by apocope as " Lakad . and the same was effected from two strings of similar length and size. To what an absurd point this has been carried we may learn from Ibn Khallikdn Galileo's discovery of the lid. " the Majmu'. adopted for metrical details the language 1 cf the Desert one line. when the two moved con- Egyptian philosopher. and he ascertained by experiment that such was the case when different weights were hung by strings of the same size. the one having four times the tension of the other. The grammarian. observed that the sounds were grave or acute according to the weights of the hammers . A poet addressing a single individual does not say "My friend!" "My two friends! " (in the dual) because a Badawi required friends !" but or "My a pair of companions. tongue : all syllables are . The he named distich.261 Terminal Essay." of two varieties which the two first The 3 . tent or house To hemistich Misra'ah. " " the syllables were Usul or roots divided into three kinds the first or " Sabab " (the tent-rope) is vowelled and a quiescent consonant as or tent-peg of three letters united. the one being double the length of the other. see at the end of Dr. : a Watad " letters. our feet. " which amongst Arabs is looked upon as Bayt. According to others he was passing through the Fullers' Bazar at Basrah when his ear was struck by the Dak-dak ($* &) and Dakak-dakak the &*) of the workmen. 2 For further Sabab." nighting-place. and the . this "scenic " simile all the parts of the verse were more or less adapted. Watad and Fasilah. the or of a vowelled consonant latter long or short as Ba and Ba followed by a consonant as Bal. gave the diapason-interval or an eighth . true to the traditions of his craft which all looks for poetry to the Badawi. or disunited. details concerning the this Essay the learned remarks of . one to tend the sheep and the other to pasture the camels. passing by a smithy. the one leaf of a folding door. The " metres. 1 114). were called Arkan/' the stakes and stays of the tent . Belonging to the same cycle of invention-anecdotes are pendulum by the lustre of the Pisan Duomo . Steingass. a foot in is composed of two a Lam. The next discovery was that two strings of the same substance and tension. Bau (^). In these two the expression which characterises the Arab (^ onomapoetics we trace composed of consonant and vowel.

Alf Laylah wa Laylah.

262

sonants are separated by one jazmated, as " Kabla." And lastly
the " Fasilah " or intervening space, applied to the main
pole of
the tent, consists of four letters.

The metres were

called

Buhur or

"

seas

"

of Bahr), also

(plur.

meaning the space within the tent-walls, the equivoque alluding to
and other treasures of the deep. Al-Khalil, the systematiser,
found in general use only five Dairah (circles, classes or groups of
pearls

metre)
all

;

and he characterised the harmonious and

upon the original

built

Kamil

(the

extended)

complete),

stately measures,

Rajaz, as Al-Tawil (the long) \ Al-

Al-Wafir (the copious),

and Al-Khafif

(the light).

2

Al-Basit

These embrace

;

(the

the

Abu Tam-

Mu'allakat and the Hamasah, the great Anthology of

mam

all

but the crave for variety and the extension of foreign inter-

course had multiplied wants and Al-Khalil deduced, from
original five

Dairah, fifteen, to

added a sixteenth, Al-Khabab.
to nineteen

:

the

first

which Al-Akhfash

The

(ob.

Persians extended the

four were peculiarly

Arab

;

number

the fourteenth,

the fifteenth and seventeenth peculiarly Persian and

were Arab and Persian.

the

A.D. 830)

all

the rest

3

Arabic metre so far resembles that of Greece and Rome that
"
the value of syllables depends upon the "quantity
or position of

upon accent as in English and the Neo-Latin
Al-Khalil was doubtless familiar with the classic

their consonants, not

tongues.

prosody of Europe but he rejected

it

as unsuited to the genius

of Arabic and like a true Eastern Gelehrte he adopted a process
Instead of scansion by pyrrhics and spondees,

devised by himself.

iambs and

trochees,

anapaests

invented a system of weights

1

e.g.

the Mu'allakats of

"

and

("wuzun").

e.g.
3

the

simplifications

he

Of these there

are

Amriolkais," Tarafah and Zuhayr compared by Mr. Lyall

(Introduction to Translations) with the metre of

2

similar

Abt Vogler,

e.g.

Ye know why the forms are fair, ye hear how the tale
Poem of Hareth which often echoes the hexameter.

Gladwin

p. 80.

is

told.

Terminal Essay.

words used as quantitive

nine 1 memorial
"

the root

"
fa'l

and Hebrew

. w

grammar and varying from

fa'ul,"
-),

the

to

(* -)

anapaest

Shahndmeh of

signs, all built

upon

which has rendered such notable service to Arabic

"

Persian
(wu

2

263

I

complicated

Thus the

+ iamb.

the simple
1

"

fa'al," in

Mutafa'ilun

"

prosodist would scan the

Firdausi as
Fa'ulun, fa'ulun, fa'ulun,

fa'ul.

O-

u

w

These weights also show another peculiarity of Arabic verse. In
English we have few if any spondees the Arabic contains about
three longs to one short hence its gravity, stateliness and dignity.
:

;

But these longs again are

peculiar,

and sometimes

the

strike

European ear as shorts, thus adding a difficulty for those who
would represent Oriental metres by western feet, ictus and accent.

German Arabists can
attempts

Englishmen none.

:

an

register

occasional

My late friend

such

success in

Professor Palmer of

Cambridge tried the tour de force of dancing on one leg instead of
two and notably failed Mr. Lyall also strove to imitate Arabic
metre and produced only prose bewitched. 3 Mr. Payne appears
:

1

Gladwin

(p. 77)

gives only eight, omitting Fa'ul which he or his author probably

considers the Muzahaf, imperfect or apocoped form of Fa'ulun, as Mafa'Il of Mafa'Ilun.

For the

complications of Arabic prosody the Khafff

infinite

(hard breathing)

of every

line);

;

the

the Sadr and Aruz

Hashw

dah or Al-Musammat
specialists as

(first

and

(soft

breathing) and Sahih

last feet), the Ibtida

(cushion -stuffing) or body-part of verse

(the

strong)

and other

details

I

must

;

and Zarb
the

(last

'Amud

foot

al-Kasi-

refer readers to

such

Freytag and Sam. Clarke (Prosodia Arabica), and to Dr. Steingass's notes

infra.
2

The Hebrew grammarians of the Middle Ages wisely copied their Arab cousins
by turning Fa'la into Pael and so forth.
3
Mr. Lyall, whose "Ancient Arabic Poetry" (Williams and Norgate, 1885) I
reviewed in The Academy of Oct. 3, '85, did the absolute reverse of what is required :
he preserved the metre and

For instance

sacrificed the

in the last four lines of

No.

rhyme even when it naturally suggested
what would be easier than to write,

xli.

Ah sweet and soft wi* thee her ways bethink thee well
The day shall
When some one favoured as thyself shall find her fair and fain and free ;
And if she swear that parting ne'er shall break her word of constancy,
When did rose-tinted finger-tip with pacts and pledges e'er agree ?
:

!

be

itself.

A If Laylah wa

264
to

me

"

to have wasted trouble in

the stanza, the

movement

There

is

only one part

of

observing the exterior form of

rhyme and

of the

number of the

the identity in

Laylak.

(as far as possible)

composing the

syllables

admirable version

his

beits."

concerning

have heard competent readers complain ; and that is the
metrical, because here and there it sounds strange to their

which

I

ears.
I

have already stated

my

conviction that there are two and only

two ways of translating Arabic poetry
represent

it

by good heroic or

One

into English.

lyric verse as did

Sir

is

to

William

Jones the other is to render it after French fashion, by measured
and balanced Prose, the little sister of Poetry. It is thus and thus
;

only that

we can

preserve the peculiar

old-world Oriental song

is

spirit-stirring as a

"

of Libanus, to

"

blast of that dread

It is

the clean contrary of our nineteenth century effusions.
cally

speaking,

This

"
heady as the Golden
the tongue water and brandy to the brain

horn/' albeit the words be thin.

Wine

of the original.

cacJiet

Techni-

can be vehicled only by the verse of the old

it

And Badawi

English ballad or by the prose of the Book of Job.
a perfect expositor of Badawi

especially in the

good
and gladsome old Pagan days ere Al-Islam, like the creed which
it abolished, overcast the minds of men with its dull grey pall of
poetry

is

life,

They combined

to

form

a

marvellous

realistic

superstition.

picture

those contrasts of splendour and squalor amongst the sons

Under

golden and ultramarine
above and melting over the horizon into a diaphanous green which
of the sand.

airs

pure as

suggested a reflection of Kaf,

aether,

that

unseen mountain-wall of

emerald, the so-called Desert changed face twice a year;

brown and dry
with

infinite

as

summer-dust

;

now

then green as Hope, beautified

verdure and broad sheetings of rain-water.

The

vernal and autumnal shiftings of camp, disruptions of homesteads

and partings of kith and
many-sided as

it

kin, friends

and

lovers,

made

the

life

was vigorous and noble, the outcome of hardy

Terminal Essay.

26$

essence of
frames, strong minds and spirits breathing the very

The day began with

and independence.

liberty
"

the dawn-drink,

the crystal
generous wine bought with shining ore/' poured into
the cooling breeze.
goblet from the leather bottle swinging before

The

rest

was spent

in the practice

of weapons

in the favourite

;

arrow-game known as Al-Maysar, gambling which at least had the
merit of feeding the poor in racing for which the Badawin had a
;

mania, and

in the chase, the foray

of his

serious business

scenes

and the fray which formed the

And how

life.

picturesque the hunting

the greyhound, like the mare, of purest blood

;

and coney

cast at francolin

;

the gazelle standing at

desert ass scudding over the

ground-waves

antelopes browsing with

bovine

their

night-talk round the camp-fire

the gleeman,
in

traught
w

whom

gaze

;

and the ostrich-

The Musdmarah

!

the

was enlivened by the

lute-girl

or

and

the austere Prophet described as " roving dis-

every vale

To-day we

the falcon

the wild cows or

;

calves

chickens flocking round the parent bird

;

"

and whose motto

in

to-morrow be sober

shall drink,

;

Horatian vein was,

wine

this day, that

day work." Regularly once a year, during the three peaceful
months when war and even blood revenge were held sacrilegious,

Ukadh

the tribes met at

(Ocaz) and other fairsteads, where they

held high festival and the bards strave in song and prided them-

upon doing honour to women and

selves

of their tribe.

Brief, the object

to be brave, to be wise

was and

name

was

dying

The

to have

"

to suffer.
stirring

:

was

to be

to be free,

while the endeavours of other peoples

"epitome of life" to be, to
Lastly the Arab's end was honourable as his
their

few Badawin had the crowning misfortune of

the straw-death."

poetical forms in

or hemistich
I

;

life

to have wealth, to have knowledge, to have a

and while moderns make

;

do and
life

is

of Arab

to the successful warriors

is

half the

have rendered couplet

The Nights
"
t(
Bayt

:

this,

are as follows

which, for

:

The Misra'ah

want of a better word

however, though formally separated,

A If Laylah wa

266
in

MSS.

looked upon as one

is

Laylah.

one verse

line,

hence a word can

;

be divided, the former part pertaining to the first and the latter to
the second moiety of the distich. As the Arabs ignore blank
verse,

when we come upon a rhymeless

an extract from a longer composition
is

a fragment, either an occasional

couplet

we know

that

it is

monorhyme. The Kit'ah
piece or more frequently a

in

portion of a Ghazal (ode) or Kasidah (elegy), other than the Matla,
the

initial

differ

Bayt with rhyming
in

mainly

length

eighteen couplets

nor

;

is

all

the others,

e.g.,

aa

same assonance be repeated, unless

the

may

popularly limited

is

to

of indefinite

upon monorhyme, which appears twice

built

and ends

in the first couplet
etc.

the former

:

the latter begins at fifteen and

:

Both are

number.

The Ghazal and Kasfdah

distichs.

+

+

ba

ca,

at least seven

In the best poets, as in the old classic verse

couplets intervene.

of France, the sense must be completed in one couplet and not

run on to a second

cohere

and, as the parts

;

very

loosely,

separate quotation can generally be made without injuring their

proper

A

effect.

favourite form

is

the Ruba'f or quatrain,

made

by Mr. Fitzgerald's masterly adaptation
ba but it
the movement is generally aa

familiar to English ears

of Qmar-i-Khayyam

+

also appears as ab

+

:

cb, in

which case

;

a Kit'ah or fragment.

it is

The Murabba,

tetrastichs or four-fold song, occurs once only in

Nights

98)

(vol.

i,

it is

a succession of double Bayts or of four-

rhyming aa

lined stanzas
first

;

three hemistichs

The

+

be

+

dc

+

ec

:

rhyme with one another

in

strict

form the

only, independently

of the rest of the poem, and the fourth with that of every other

+

stanza, e.g. 9 aa

ab

-I-

cb

+

db.

The Mukhammas,

cinquains

or pentastichs (Night cmrxiv.), represents a stanza of two distichs

and a hemistich
burden

:

monorhyme, the

fifth line

aaaab + ccccb + ddddb and so

a simple popular song in four to six lines

given

"
"
being the bob or

each succeeding stanza affects a new rhyme, except

fifth line, e.g.,
is

in

in

the

Egyptian grammar of

my

forth.
;

The Muwwal

specimens of
friend

in the

the

it

late

are

Dr.

Terminal Essay.

Wilhelm

The Muwashshah,

1

Spitta.

two main divisions

:

ornamented

or

one applies to our acrostics

form a word or words

initials

267

the other

;

consists of three couplets or six-line strophes

the

first

are in

the three

monorhyme

the assonance of the

No,

i,

first

set

and

It is the

forth.

the hemistichs of

all

:

It

fourth resumes

by the third couplet of
aaaaaa + bbbaaa + cccaaa

followed

is

serving as bob or refrain,

and so

(cmlxxxvii.)

new rhyme, but the

hemistichs take a

first

which the

second and following stanzas

in the

;

has

a kind of Musaddas, or

is

The Nights

sextines, which occurs once only in

in

verse,

e.g. t

most complicated of

the measures and

all

held to be of Morisco or Hispano-Moorish origin.

is

lines

of Lbn Khallikan

literati,

as our sole authori-

Mr. Lane (Lex.) lays down, on the
(i.

476,

ties for
all

and other representative

etc.)

pure Arabic, the precedence in following order.

First of

ranks the Jahili (Ignoramus) of The Ignorance, the ApaStas Zpuov

0i>o$:

these pagans

left

hemistichs, couplets, pieces and elegies which

now mostly forgotten.
a man of Persian descent

once composed a large corpus and which

Hammad
(ob.

al-Rawiyah, the Reciter,

A.H, 160

recited

by

=

777)

who

Mukhadram

Moslem

bards.

2

Al-Walid two thousand

After the Jahili stands the

or Muhadrim, the "Spurious," because half Pagan

half Moslem,
after the

collected the Mu'allakat, once

first

rote in a seance before Caliph

poems of prse-Mohammedan

is

who

flourished either immediately before or soon

preaching of

at the

Mohammed.

end of the

first

The

Islami or full-blooded

century A.H.

process of corruption in language

;

and,

(=

lastly,

720) began the

he was followed

See p. 439 Grammatik des Arabischen Vulgar Dialekts von ^gyptien, by Dr. Wilhelm
In pp. 489-493 he gives specimens of eleven Mawawfl
Spitta Bey, Leipzig, 1880.
1

varying in length from four to fifteen lines. The assonance mostly attempts monorhyme
in two tetrastichs it is aa + ba, and it does not disdain alternates, ab + ab + ab.
*

Our knowledge

Al-Siyuti, p. 235, from Ibn Khallikan.

of oldest

Arab verse

:

is

from the Kitab al-Aghani (Song-book) of Abu al-Faraj the Tsfahani who
it was printed at the Buiak Press in.
flourished A.H. 284
356 (= 897
96?)

drawn

chiefly

:

1868.

A If

268

Laylah

wa

Laylah.

by the Muwallad of the second century who fused Arabic with
non-Arabic and in whom purity of diction disappeared.
have noticed

I

may

The Nights

A.) that the versical portion of

(i

be distributed into three categories.

poems which are held

classical

by

First are the olden

modern Arabs

all

;

then comes

the mediaeval poetry, the effusions of that brilliant throng which

adorned the splendid Court of Harun al-Rashid and which ended
with AI-Hariri (ob. A.H. 516); and,

lastly, are the various pieces

circonstance suggested to editors or scribes

not

my

object to enter

by the occasion.

de

It is

historical part of the subject

upon the

:

a mere sketch would have neither value nor interest whilst a

would lead too

finished picture

far

:

I

must be contented to notice

a few of the most famous names.

Of

the

prae-islamites

we have Adi

"celebrated poet" of Ibn Kkallikan
full-grown)

al-Zubydni who

bin
(i.

Zayd

188)

;

al-Ibadi

the

Nabighat (the

flourished at the Court of

Al-Nu'man

whose poem is compared with the
"
"
satirist,
pertinacious
Suspendeds," and Al-Mutalammis the
"
About
Prize Poem."
friend and intimate with Tarafah of the
in

A.D.

580-602, and

"

*

Imr al-Kays " with whom poetry began,"
Amru bin Madi Karab al-Zubaydi,
to end with Zu al-Rummah

Mohammed's day we

find

;

Ka'b ibn Zuhayr, the father one of the Mu'allakah-poets,
and the son author of the Burdah or Mantle-poem (see vol. iv. 115),
"
his
and Abbas bin Mirdas who lampooned the Prophet and had
Labfd

;

"
tongue cut out

i.e.

received a double share of booty from All.

In the days of Caliph

Omar we have Alkamah

bin Olatha followed

by Jamfl bin Ma'mar of the Banu Ozrah (ob. A,H. 82), who loved
Azza. Then came Al-Kuthayyir (the dwarf, ironice), the lover of
Buthaynah,

"

who was

so lean that birds might be cut to bits with

her bones:" the latter was also a poetess (Ibn Khali,

Hind

bint al-Nu'man

who made

1

See Lyall

i.

87), like

herself so disagreeable to Al-Hajjaj

loc. cit.

p. 97.

Terminal Essay.

the

J ar * r al-Khatafah, the noblest of the Islami poets in

A.H.95).

(ob.

first

is

century,

noticed at

together with

his

Hammam

Homaym

be

or

Ommiade

the

lost

"

*

269

full

Ghalib al-Farazdak, the

bin

294)

(i.

Abu

poetry and debauchery,

in

rival

length by Ibn Khallikan

Firds

Tamimi,

poet "without whose verse half Arabic would

he exchanged

and died

satires with Jarir

forty days
Another contemporary, forming the
poetical triumvirate of the period, was the debauched Christian

before

:

him (A.H. no).

poet Al-Akhtal al-Taghlibi.

They were

al-Ansdri whose witty lampoons banished

Red Sea

Al-Ahwas

followed by

him

to

Dahlak Island

A.H. 179 =r 795) by Bashshdr ibn Burd and
by Yunus ibn Habib (ob. A.H. 182).
The well-known names of the Harun-cycle are Al-Asma'i,

in the

rhetorician

(ob,

;

and poet, whose epic with Antar

gotten (ob. A.H. 216)
Persian origin)

al-Rakashi

;

Al-'Utbi

;

Abu

(ob.

Ibn Khallikan

A.H.
i.

Mosul (Ishak bin Ibrahim of
the Poet" (ob. A.H. 228); Abu al-Abbas

Isaac of
"

al-Atahiyah, the lover of Otbah

Abu Tammam

al-Walid al-Ansari;

Hamasah

;

for hero is not for-

"

;

Tay, compiler of the
"
first class

a Muwallad of the

230),

392)

of

Muslim bin

;

Mus'ab (Ahmad ibn Ali) who died

A.H. 246)

A.H. 242

in

(says

Abu Nowas

the famous or infamous

;

Abu

;

the satirist Dibil

al-Khuzai

(ob.

perscribere

longum est. They were followed by Al-Bohtori the
A.H. 286) the royal author Abdullah ibn al-Mu'tazz

Poet"
(ob.

(ob.

and a

;

Ibn Abbad the Sahib

;

al-Hallaj the martyred Sufi

many

(ob.

A.H.

357)

nicknamed Al-Mutanabbih

1

of

Manazjird

A.H. 334)

;

Mansur

Abu

the Sahib ibn

Abbad

;

Al-Ndmi

A.H. 399) who had

(the

model

(ob.

;

Faras

Chauvinist Al-Mutanabbi,

"wide-awake"), killed A.H. 354

(ob. 427)

;

His Diwan has been published with a French

Labitte. 1870.

(ob.

;

encounters with that

Al-Mandzi

nunc

others quos

"

A.H. 315)

al-Hamdani

host of

;

Al-Tughrai author of the

translation, par

R. Boucher,

Paris,

A If Lay la h wa

270

Lamiyat al-'Ajam

A.H.

(ob.

516)

Baha al-Din

(ob.

A.H. 375)

Al-Hajiri

;

Al-Hariri the model rhetorician

;

of Arbela (ob.

al-Irbili,

al-Sinjari, (ob.

Laylah.

A.H. 622)

;

A.H. 632)

;

Al-Katib or the Scribe

Abdun al-Andalusi the Spaniard (our xiith
(ob. A.H. 656)
century) and about the same time Al-Nawaji, author of the Halbat
;

"

al-Kumayt or
wine.

may

third category, the pieces d'occasion, little

refer readers to
1

56, 179, 182,

Having

;

and

in vol. v. 55

ii.

34,

of

He

friend Dr. Steingass, to undertake in the

deeply indebted

have been

The

me from
knowledge I am

has been kind enough to collaborate with

the beginning, and to his minute lexicographical

"

35,

Arabic prosody

following pages the subject as far as concerns the poetry of

Nights.

:

in vol. viii. 50.

a mortal aversion to the details

my

need be said

notes on the doggrels in vol.

my

86 and 261

have persuaded

I

poetical slang for

1

Of the
I

Race-course of the Bay-horse "

for discovering not a

few blemishes which would

The

learned Arabist's notes will

nuts to the

critic."

be highly interesting to students

:

mine

(

V.) are intended to

give a superficial and popular idea of the Arab's verse-mechanism.
"

The

principle

or

standard,
1

man
(ob.

I

find

raa)

also

ob.

of

'Ilm

Arabic

al-'Aruz,

Prosody

'Aruz,

(called

science of the 'Aruz),

in

pattern
so far

minor quotations from the Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Askari (of Sarra
Ibn Makula (murdered in A.D. 862?); Ibn Durayd

A.D. 868;

A.D. 933); Al-Zahr the Poet

(ob.

A.D. 963)

;

Abu Bakr

al-Zubaydi (ob. A.D.

989); Kabvis ibn Wushmaghir (murdered in A.D. 1012-13) Ibn Nabatah the Poet
(ob. A.D. 1015) ; Ibn al-Sa'ati (ob. A.D. 1028); Ibn Zaydun al-Andalusi who died
at

Hums

(ob.

(Ernessa, the

Arab name

for Seville) in

A.D. 1071

al-Shantarani (of Santarem)

j

Al-Mu'tasim ibn Sumadih

A.D. 1117); Ibn Sara
Hind and died A.D. 1123; Ibn al-Khazin
A.D. 1172) Ibn al-Ta'wizi (ob. A.D. 1188); Ibn

A.D. 1091); Al-Murtaza ibn al-Shahrozuri

who sang

the Sufi (ob.

of

A.D. 1124); Ibn Kalakis (ob.
;
(ob. A.D. 1198); Baha al-Din Zuhayr (ob. A.D. 1249); Muwaffak al-Din
Muzaffar (ob. A.D. 1266) and sundry others. Notices of Al-Utayyah (vol. i. Ii), of Ibn
(ob.

Zabadah

al-Sumam

(vol.

i.

87)

and of Ibn Sahib

al-Ishbili, of Seville, (vol.

i.

100) are deficient.

The most

notable point in Arabic verse is its savage satire, the language of excited
" keen for satire as a
"destructiveness" which characterises the Badawi he is
thirsty
:

man

for

water ;" and half his poetry seems to consist of foul innuendo, of lampoons,

and of gross personal abuse.

Terminal Essay.
resembles that of classical poetry, as

271

chiefly rests

it

weight, not on accent, or in other words a verse

on metrical

measured by

is

and long quantities, while the accent only regulates

short

Greek and Latin,

In

rhythm.
syllables

depends on their vowels, which

its

quantity of the

however, the

may be

either naturally

become long by position, i.e. if followed by two
We all remember from our school-days
or more consonants.
short or long, or

what a

fine string of rules

had

memory, before we were able
without breaking

its

to

be committed to and kept

Greek

to scan a Latin or

neck by tripping over

verse,

In

false quantities.

Arabic, on the other hand, the answer to the question, what

long or short,

metrically

is

exceedingly simple, and flows with

is

stringent cogency from the nature of the Arabic Alphabet.
strictly

in

speaking, knows only consonants

(Harf,

pi.

This,

Huruf).

The

vowels which are required, in order to articulate the consonants,

were at

They had

to be
"
motions "
supplied by the reader, and are not improperly called
(Harakat), because the move or lead on as it were, one letter to
first

another.

not represented in writing at

They

are

all.

number, a (Fathah),

three in

i

(Kasrah),

u (Zammah), originally sounded as the corresponding English
vowels in bat, bit and

butt respectively, but in certain cases

modifying their pronunciation under the influence of a neighbouring
represent

consonant.

them

When

the

necessity

made

itself

felt

to

sake of fixing the

in writing, especially for the

were rendered by additional
placed above or beneath the consonant, after which they are

correct reading of the Koran, they
signs,

pronounced, in a similar
English
is

shorthand.

called a

such vowel

"

moved

is

way

A

as

it

consonant
"

is

done

in

some systems of

followed by a short vowel

a consonant without
;
"
"
called "resting" or
quiescent
(Sdkinah), and
letter

(Muharrakah)

can stand only at the end of a syllable or word.

And now we

are able to formulate the one simple rule, which

determines the prosodical quantity in Arabic

:

any moved

letter,

A If

272
as

ta,

li,

mu,

counted short

is

quiescent one, as

wa

Laylah

Laylah.

any moved

;

letter followed

by a

any closed syllable beginning
and terminating with a consonant and having a short vowel
taf, lun,

mus,

i.e.

between, forms a long quantity.

This

certainly a relief in

is

comparison with the numerous rules of

classical

by not a few exceptions, which

instance

Grammar

elementary Latin
Before

fill

moved and the

letter, first

quiescent

the metrical elements, then
it

will

obviate a few misunderstandings, to which our

The

Arabic into the

line

Dr. Smith's

in

the prosodical unities, the

the feet and lastly the metres are built up,

literating

Prosody, proved

eight closely printed pages.

how from

proceed to show

I

for

Roman

be necessary to

mode

character might give

of trans-

rise.

:

" Love in

runs in Arabic
"

my

heart they

lit

and went

their ways," (vol.

i.

232)

:

Akdmu

al-wajda

fi

kalbi

wa sru," (Mac. Ed.

Here, according to our ideas, the word

i.

179).

akamu would begin with

and contain two long vowels a and u according
The word begins with
to Arabic views neither is the case.

a short vowel

"

Alif,"

in the

and

a,

its

second syllable kd closes

same way,

as the third syllable

Zammah

(w) after

The

;

in

mu

Alif after Fathah

closes in the letter

(a),

Waw

(u).

question, therefore, arises,

what

is

" Alif."

It is the first

and has through the medium
of the Greek Alpha nominally entered into our alphabet, where it
of the twenty-eight Arabic

now

plays rather a misleading part.

Greek

'

(

Curiously enough, however,

has preserved for us the key to the real nature of the
In 'AA<a the initial a is preceded by the so-called spiritus

itself

letter.

lenis

letters,

),

a sign which must be placed in front or at the top of any

vowel beginning a Greek word, and which represents that slight
aspiration or soft breathing almost involuntarily uttered,
try to

pronounce a vowel by

itself.

We

need not go

when we

far to find

For Europeans.Terminal Essay. S .Alif bearing the sign when a native Arabic Dictionary does not begin with Bab al-Alif (Gate or Chapter of the with Bab al-Harnzah. What the Greeks call Alpha and have name for the vowel a. how the This spiritus lenis is the silent h of the life. as Professor Palmer styles it. in pression of the upper part of the windpipe and forcible emission of breath/' imparting a guttural tinge to a following or preceding by no means a mere guttural 'vowel. is. Turks and Persians. who do not belong vowel-sound. French "homme" "honour. sign case by the abovewherever we make an Arabic word begin with fitly silent h. just as it to represent i In each (]). The ear. which in Sir This latter restriction Richard Burton's translation of Nights. The 'Ayn is " is whose very name 'Ayn described as produced by a smart com- used to represent the Arabic letter c it is the in transliteration a vowel not preceded by any other sign. early was sympathetically asked. occurs. be rendered i. as frequently in books published in this country. whose mere prop the Alif exactly to the it and the English stands at the beginning of a word : transmitted to us as a else but the : Zammah sign Kasrah moved by Fathah. but it is to the Israelitic dispensation. if not impossible to acquire. might have the (i) superscribed to express u (f*. how deeply rooted this tendency 273 and to what exaggerations is it Witness the gentleman." corresponding Arabic Hamzah.e. ( \ ). for a at the top ( \ ). as well as its exact -pronunciation is most for difficult. Hamzah-Alif. dear old ladies were. or the subjoined (~) but Alif). X. is in fact nothing Arabic Hamzah. who after men" " on the tioning that he had been visiting his favourite haunts will sometimes scenes of his lead. although scarcely audible to our letter and might mentioned refers to the sign ' the real . for first the purpose of instance to keep syllable can begin with a vowel. In reading Arabic from transliteration scanning poetry. in we have therefore in the mind that no Arabic word or VOL.

deals signs for the short vowel-sounds were purpose. might be written kah. similarly to the German word the h related to by another consonant. of prolongation (Harf al-Madd). but imparts a lengthened sound to the a and it in this sense in reality a silent h. and are generally not repre- later for a special sented even in printed books. I must letter letter repeat that the Arabic Alphabet. has been stated above that the syllable ka It letter Alif after closed by the closed by the Fathah. and I may add now. either at the draws out or lengthens the preceding vowel and called : a vowel mu and fi are written in Arabic muw and form long quantities not because they long by nature. never into or Ak-dm-u. called weak letters these vowel-sounds particular organic affinity to Hamzah." A (properly : for instance. Hamzah is the guttural class. be divided into the syllables Ak-a-mu the previous syllable. which have a the palatal Ya. in the same way closed is as the syllable by the mu is Waw. a. there are three. where only quotations from the Koran or poetical passages are provided with the vowel-points. which homogeneous with is of the weak letters follows a vowel of end of a word or being itself its followed own mind a letter that the is is Thus.g. Where any u. Ha)T-ka-mu. 274 Where our mode would make or this of rendering Arabic in the appear to be the case. in The Nights. as the word ft is Ya (y). added can only was it originally written. bearing in In like manner fly respectively. To make this perfectly clear. Roman Hamzah initial. which and the labial is akin to Waw. the syllable is i. and the only It follows as a self- evident corollary that wherever a single consonant stands between two vowels. either the sign 'Ayn (represented by element to be taken in the real is ') account as a letter. as The only with consonants. but always closes " Akamu. contain " sah.Alf Laylah wa Laylah. but because their initial ." ka where not pronounced either. the various editions of e. character (silent h). never it Our word opens the next one. which But among those consonants (Huruf al-'illah).

are 275' mus. however. 1 In the two of which five letters. as vowel before the the h sounded as in the English word "hero. Arabic goes a step further If the letter preceding Waw or Y is moved by Fathah. and three vowels. trisyllabic " (pillar) or designation for which we Arabic a quinqueliteral portion). . by a " Sakinah. so as to this Hamzah is its I'ami.Terminal Essay. forms a word of consonants. article it is pronounce simply to keep the two vowel sounds le dros with a slight hiatus between. the article does not ami becomes Hamzah Wasl. and." 1 . read with the following noun almost as one word : le for instance he*ros. lun. There to the is one important remark more to be made with regard Hamzah junctive. pronounced like ou in "bout." but the effect of the aspirate and drop is homme the other hand. If. If article. consisting also of but five letters ' all consonants. Bacchius. the h altogether. (w -). nor The reference to the French so-called the latter. as by is either con- Hamzat al Kat' compared with the above mentioned is preceded by the loses its vowel." exactly as in the syllables taf. on h. ignoring the silent becomes 1'homme (pronounced lomme) as This resembles very closely the Arabic le silent h. a French word begins with an aspirated noun. and "Juz" it Metrically - quantities more frequently represents one short and two long by superadded external either merely in Latin a the technical " Rukn called foot. in forming signs. (part. or disjunctive. or shall introduce presently. : Hamzat difference is at the beginning of a word al-Wasl. they produce the diphthongs au (aw). the intervening vowels being expressed in writing not at all. is apart. exactly what happens in the case of the Arabic Kat' With regard to the Wasl. pronounced as i in " bite. in Arabic Roman represents the it combination H(a)k(a)hm(u)w. "Muharrakah" is followed previously mentioned Akamu transliteration. best illustrated aspirated h. as initial of a noun." and ai.

" the night was Talati '1-Laylah.e. by the reading r of instead Le wa iyyaka. on the contrary. 276 In the French example. . . seen it the silent h is eliminated the i. coalescing with the preceding wa'yyaka. which in our altogether. and the preceding vowel." (Wasl) between the dative particle governs must take place. Another example antecedent make will this = (for h(a)l it has Hebrew the this where hal). would quiescent letter is Hamzah Kasrah: become is preceded by a quiescent letter. in the sentence li-Allahi. in Arabic. just as it wa is at it into Hamzah was the case with the French he*ros." li " be Praise but the junction and the noun which According to the French it principle. one of prolongation.Alf Laylah wa Laylah. than French. is it is their by supplanted most common instance of the Hamzah Wasl But we have The clear. as in "Al-hamdu" at the head of the Fatihah. the mostly drops out and the Harakah of the next preceding letter becomes the connecting vowel between the two words. of the particle takes the place of the following Hamzah and we read li 'llahi instead. or to put differently. "Talat al-Laylah. sound only at the beginning of a sentence or speech. Fatihah we meet with the verse Here the Hamzah of iyyaka (properly hiyydka with silent h) disjunctive. which are Arabic both the Hamzah and its own Harakah. If the two words stand in grammatical connection. vowel following short are it. it If. and therefore its pronunciation remains the same the beginning and in the middle of the sentence. however. this junction would be effected at the cost of the preceding element and li Allahi would the kasrated fathated 1 become 1'Alldhf . as we cannot say Al-Hamdu to God. quoted above. If the conjunctive this takes generally longsome." Thee do we worship and of Thee do we ask aid. or in " " Alldhu at the beginning of the third Surah. the two words are kept separate. Proceeding in the " lyyaka na'budu wa iyyaka nasta'mu. the article al moved by Fathah. in .

edition. in Arabic are the moved and the quiescent letter. following a simple criterion applies to the whole give in alphabetical order the first lines and the the poetical pieces contained in the Mac. see Terminal . feet. The initial short. in pause. and we are now going to show how they combine into metrical elements. that literation moved list. Hamzah the ft. 1 which consists of two khaftf (light) or sakfl 1 For the explanation of Essay. Tnul. represents a long quantity. of its initial which al-bayti. prosodical unities. bf. The the same reason. and metres. why the is. and be found at the end of this volume. syllables syllables because the accent in the trans- to a quiescent The same one. mean. : this (heavy)'. that so. is. in spite it consists short vowel. Ffl would be over- long and could. then. that the end-vowel of the parlance would shortened before the elided fil-bayti.. and eight long quantities. because Arabic letter. stand only in certain cases at the end of a verse. for the same reason why the syllables containing three short unaccented a is da and wa are letter. The metrical elements (Usul) are The Sabab. I. 261. that the syllable fil. purposes it syllabifies into : A-kd-mul-vaj-da ft kal-bf wa sa-ru." in the house. kal are so. according to Arabic prosody. is in poetry read where we must remember. The now be attentive reader will able to fix the prosodical value For metrical of the line quoted above with unerring security. p. sd.Terminal Essay. kd. or silent h.e. i. are long for ru. name and A moved letters and is letter followed either by a those of the following terms. Arabic in word first is "ft written f(i)y h(a)l- is '1-bayti. i. and which we b(a)yt(i) 277 of transliterate ft Thus the second. in which metre of which The corresponds all will I it corresponds to an Arabic moved by Fathah. because of a moved letter followed by a quiescent one. where a natural tendency prevails to prolong a sound. waj.

or Ajzd. between the two moved letters. <uu-). 'u khafif. the Sabab. ii. to form a Sabab ( a Sabab ^^ As the afore-mentioned like syllable. which the feet are named.e. If the quiescent. are derivatives of the root. taPi. i. Idtu (= lahtu). in there Arabic is another by a quiescent. by its Sabab khafif the say. second Harf. consisting of four a Sabab remember. The Fasilah. Watad mafd is 'ilun. and consequently no mention saldl followed foot. These three elements.followed by a Watad majmu'. the Watad called is equivalent in the Trochee 3. making or the second letter its quiescent. Laylah. of three letters. fa'l. ='uw. Fasilah. the (= corresponds to the classical fa'uw). 1 which as This Fdsilah is the student will more accurately normal of it was needed moved . Watad and bine further into feet Arkdn. like for sakil. ). com- of Juz.A If a i. in for its measure only a shorter khafif. or of occurs only as a variation of a letters . But it an integral element in its composition. the greater. is a Sabab sakil followed by a Sabab the classical ). . fact. pi.e. The technical tefms by two words explained supra p. one fa'ii is ones. ( consisting of three letters. 1 mafruk (separated). mus. and has ~ ( ^ containing four + 'ala both tun. on the contrary. pi. 'iy. which we lun. as mafah). letters in succession. in tlu text. of Rukn. The Watad. may now add fa = fah. the smaller one Fasilah kubra. as in fa'i (= fah'i). 'i = taf. the quiescent intervenes or separates ). followed by a quiescent. of the moved ones as muta classical 4- name fa. and it which of moved quiescent follows the two called rnajmu* (collected or joined). constitute name would be classical Pyrrhic Latin and Greek. 275. to do. or Anapaest. and which. quiescent. that can be evolved into a sakil latter contracted the into to is by moving former. 'ala. Iambus w ( If. ( closed wa Laylah which the muta. they are equal in weight and in can frequently interchange. not as serves called sughrk. 2. corresponding to the classical long quantity Two moved ).

e. the feminine termination ah is subjoined after the Ldm means " to do Since these and similar changes are with a thing reciprocally.. 'Ayn (f). any other Arabic like and. we say obtain fa'al. for its which has Kdf e. From (t) letters are* in this case called its a root. first letter or Fd. syllable. " to " do/' doing. Pronouncing the first letter with Zammah (u). we is " " meaning in colloquial Arabic he did (the classical or literary form would be fa'ala). t Grammar form the Auzan or weights. cannot 279 strictly Lam ('). maf'ul would be maktub == written. Mufd alah. t. . fu'il. and the zam- mated 'Ayn followed by a lengthening Waw." unvarying regularity applicable to all roots. 'Ayn and Ldm. the second with Kasrah (i). means "done". to which words are derived from Fa letters root. letter. writing. second letter 01 Ldm would be katb fa'al whose = to write. Td fot its third letter or fa'l root. fa'l. where the for instance. is the Infinitive or verbal noun. (letters letters means "doer. with fd'il." is = preceded by a fathated Mi'm (m).g. also 'Ayn where the for instance. for the introduction I make of any vowel-sound would it initial Fd moved by Fathah is cease to be a root and change The above into an individual word. t " it by was done Many more (classically fu'ila). scribe . the grammarians use the derivatives of Fa'l as model-forms for the corresponding derivations of any other Fd. accordance with It consists of the three roots. moved by Fathah. (1). where in addition to a prefixed and inserted letter. in speaking be pronounced.Terminal Essay. and Bd (b) . forms are derived prefixing. was written = writer." it If the (a). inserting or subjoining certain additional called Huruf al-Ziyadah radicals first " : Fd quiescent of increase) to the original an Alif of prolongation in the maf'ul ( maf'uwl). (k) for its 'Ayn. would be katab =r he wrote fu'il would be kutib := fd'il would be kdtib it .

therefore. It has once grasped the original meaning of a root. enables the student. no connection between of the foot that is its : we must this learn both Taf'il in Arabic is name and by Fa'ulun. as soon as he has learned to distinguish their radical from the letters We familiar root.). direction time : in But it proves none the less useful in another simply naming a particular foot prosodical measure and character. of course. and Ajza far'iyah or secondary feet (from in which it is reversed. The advantage who of this system is evident. asliyah or primary feet (from Asl. root). that the inventor of Arabic Prosody. = to write reciprocally. as its shows at the same it will now be explained in detail. in which this precedence observed. the Watad has the precedence over the and again the Watad majmu' over the Hence the Prosodists distinguish between Ajza Fasilah. has in this nothing to do with the etymological meaning of those typical forms. readily availed himself of the same plan own The Taf 'il. and hundreds. by current derivatives of fa'l. to form scores of words himself. number : . heart: In Latin the metrical value But we understand if we are told at once that it composed of the Watad majmu' fa'u (--) and the Sabab lun ( .A If 280 wa Laylak mufa'alah would be mukatabah Laylah. of in his words. In combining into Sabab and the Watad mafruk. the Sabab khafi'f two letters. The former are four in is Far' = branch). ends. 275 that the word by two long ones which the classics would u Akamu . there is foot. and as the Watad contains three.- consists of a and consequently short syllable followed ( forms a call Bacchfus. We have seen supra p. cor- respondence. nay thousands. recourse to the Dictionary. that is for his the represen- tation of the metrical feet case. ). without understand to readings. as it is here called. feet. of increase. it forms a quinqueliteral foot or Juz khamasf. and letters in recognises them a cannot wonder.

Watad majmu' i.tun.u . consisting. we have 281 ( followed w ( - ww followed w by Fdsilah = the ).e.'i.taf. To current derivative of the initial tain the fa'l.lun. followed ( u ) fc .'f.fa'u.i ld.e. 2 and 4 contain two Sabab. 3. 4.). Fa Watad would be tedious to specify Mafd. transposition Lun. Fd.e.e. case. for 'f. of the secondary feet increases to six.mafd. the (for succeeded by Iambus i. which by Watad majmu' i. according to both Sabab or only one changing place with regard to the Watad. Watad mafruk Epitritus secundus The number w ( . Sabab must be made of the root.lun.'ild. by two Sabab khafff ).w .tun. 6. 2. 4. Maf. Watad majmu' just seen of a = the Latin Bacchfus Latin Epitritus primus Mufd. Fci. Watad majmu' followed v ( Latin Iambus followed by Anapaest Fd'i.e. the Latin Creticus ( .'ilun. The ( for Ld. reversed Mufa.'u. and the first letter i.lun becomes by 5.'f. followed by a Sabab khafff. by Watad mafrdk two Sabab 'Alatun.'ilun 9. = the Latin i.u .e.mafd. The primary Fa'ii. in it By similar each separate : Mus. followed .tun. they " branch out " into two derived feet each.ld. and 'ilun for fa'ii.fa'i. Fd'. Epitritus tertius for Lun.'ilun.lun. by two Sabab khafff ). as 1. = the khafff.'ilun.Terminal Essay.'alatun) = the last namely Latin Anapaest two secondary feet : two Sabab Latin Epitritus quartus khafff. Mutafd. by Watad majmu' u w .- Epitritus secundus are transpositions of No.).mufa. 7. Mafa. Fa'u. ( w ). i. are They : = Sabab khafff followed by Watad majmu'. or : Watad majmu' between two . to con- the two remaining forming together the above Fd.tun. bring this into conformity with a ones in their proper order. = the i. 8.ldtu.).( ). Sabab khafif Fdsilah = the Latin = the Latin followed i.e.lun becomes substitutions. for as No.'alatun.e. is therefore substituted for lun.

two Sabab " The (No. because composed of feet of various length.* Sabab and Watad principle of the taking precedence over Fdsilah. named of " the varied " metre. or a quadriliteral Saba'i Fasilah (i.- | w | | Fa'u from the beginning of the line to : Lun. will be seen. They 3). 2) with their it is secondaries Fa'ilun. 7 and 5) becomes : important to keep in mind that the seemingly identical feet 10 and 6. it com- Madid Basit.fd'i. first is. Dairat al-Mukhtalif. if Sbab and Watad .lun Mafc.fa'u Lun.'ilaturi prises three and i Buhur or metres (pi.lun. i. sea).tafi. 5-7). (---- Epitritus tertius branch "-foot Fa. khafi'f 5). Fa'ulun a triliteral khafi'f therefore.- u ^ | If we the end. with either two biliteral Sabab 2) " primary or secondary. J and 3. Tun. A.'flun Fa'ii.'ilun (No. rules the arrangement of the Arabic metres. " its root (see supra i. the five-lettered Fa'ulun (supra ii.la. (ii.fa'u which. are.mafa'/ Lun. i) and the seven-lettered Mafa'i'lun (ii. consisting of twice Fa'u. Al-Taw/1. = the Latin like feet. = seven lettered. the Taw/1. for 10. 282 Mus. consist necessarily of seven letters. The be explained. (i. is Watad mafruk between Le. the classical scheme for which would be w .mafa'i Lun. and of Bahr. Mustaf. The same iii. as they contain Watad ).) called. i). by the relative positions of the constituting elements in either pair.Alf Laylah wa Laylah.lun Mafc. occupy different places with regard to each other. that Sabab and Watad are subject to different kinds of alterations. transfer the it Watad would read .'flun. after the substitutions indicated 1 It is above (ii. All other quinqueliteral. circle of Dairah) so called pi. which are divided into five circles for reasons presently to (Dawair.'ilun and Fa. are distinguished For as it is it evident that the effect of such alteration upon a foot will vary. .

The same process applies to all the following circles.mafa.mafd and Lun. mode .'ilun.- w-|- w -|- - : w -[.fa'u. 5 3. which suggested to the Prosodists an ingenious device of representing them by circles (hence the name Ddirah). but our limited space compels us simply to enumerate them. 1 i. while each moved letter is faced small loop. vertical to the circumference. Watad we obtain of the second foot 'flun. and that is corresponding to the 'Ayn of the next Mafd'flun as the beginning of the Basit.fa'u res'flun. that corresponding to its 1 (of the Sabab lun) as the beginning of the Madid. Then.Terminal Essay. their ii. and 'jflun. and 6. 283 Al-Mad/d.'ilun FaVilun Mustaf. is effected and they become by the same substitutions as in : Basft.fa'u Taf 'il pectively. each quiescent by a small vertical stroke circle. consisting of twice F^'ildtun F.u -| Thus one metre evolves from another by a kind of rotation. in conformity with the classical scheme . returning to the Tawil.fa'u as metrically (two Sabab followed by Watad) and Lun. consisting of twice Mustaf.e. 2.'ilun Fl'ildtun F^.'ilun FaYilun. round the cir- cumference of which on the outside the complete Taf'fl of the original metre is written. Lun. without further reference to the of their evolution. the loop corresponding to the initial f of the first Fa'ulun marked as the beginning of the Tawil.mafd (one Sabab followed by Watad) are = 'flun. in the case 1 by a inside the of this present Ddirat al-Mukhtalif for instance.mafd we make the line the break after the : Lun. which may be by the represented scheme classical -u--|-v-|-u--|-w-| If again. together with their Buhur.

'ilun (ii. " B. 8) - uw~u"ju\^~w"Juu u~j where the Anapaest takes the first C.'alatun Mufa. so called because its feet agree It contains each. in each foot precedes Jthe Anapaest. consisting of seven letters : Al-Wafir. its place in every foot. composed of twice Mufa. 1. 3). circle of " the agreeing metre. " the brought on " metre. so seven-lettered feet are brought on from the first . circle of called because circle. all in length.A If Laylah wa Laylah.'alatun ~ 2. consisting of twice Mutafl'ilun Mutafl'ilun Mutafa. and its : Al-Kdmil.'alatun Mufa. Dairat al-Mujtalab. \s-\j\j-\\j-\j\j-\\s-\s\j-\ where the Iambus reversal (ii. Dairat al-Mutalif.

'iUtun. I. 285 AI-Hazaj. 6 and 9) = --u-[--v-|-v-w| 2. v -| . w (ii.'ilun (ii. consisting of twice MafaVilun Mafl'flun MafaVilun = 2. 4. twice Mustaf.V--J-V--J D. twice Mafl'flun Fd'i.'ilun. consisting of twice FaViUtun Fl'iUtun Fi. almost identical with the Iambic Trimeter Drama : .. the trochaic and vice versa.ldtu Mustaf. 5. 7. 6) = --w-|---w|--w-| 3.'il^tun (ii. 9. in this full of the Greek form.'fldtun Mustaf Uun Fd. another a Watad mafruk. 2) . w j. so called from its intricate nature. 9. Dairat al-Mushtabih. 6. circle " of " the intricate metre. primary mingling with secondary feet.'ilun Maf'u.| Al-Muktazib. and one foot of the same verse containing a Watad majmu'. 2) |w---|^--~| \\j Al-Rajaz.- u -|- - w -| Al-Ramal. 10.'ilun Mustaf. twice Maf u.. twice Mustaf'ilun Mafu. 7) = -w|--v-|-w--| 4. 1. Al-Muzdri'.Terminal Essay. 9) . Al-Khafif.lltu (ii..latu Mustaf.e.- 3. and.- Al-Munsarih.litun Mafd-'ilun . the trochaic counterpart of the preceding metre = -u--|.Utu (ii. i.'ilun Maf u.|^. 6. consisting of twice Mustaf. twice Fd. the iambic rhythm alternating with Its Buhur are : Al-Sarf.'ilun Mustaf." *. w (ii.'ilun Mustaf.

Azrub.lun Fd. circle of " the concordant" metre. and the licenses in latter of variations modification or partial suppression An Arabic poem (Kasidah. inventor of the 'Ilm al-'Aruz. 10) v-|-u--|--w-| E. although in made between the first line as well. that of every even line remaining feet stricter is may be termed Hashw odd and even with regard to the and Zarb on the other. are however to a certain merely theoretical numerous . wa Laylah Laylah. bound together by a connects the first two and lines is repeated at the end of every second line throughout the poem. assigns to 1. the practice admit former of brought about by of the feet final a verse.A If 286 6. not seven-lettered as in the Mutalif.e. pi. couplets. so called for the i. The last foot of every Aruz distinction of in odd line is the sense of Prosody which A'airiz. the only one metre it : Al-Mutakarib. 7. in numbering less than ten couplets. ZuhaT . " being here. or Kat'ah) consists if of Bayts or which continuous rhyme. and the parlance a further distinction foot of every Now called 'Aruz (fern. Hashw on the one hand. Dairat al-Muttafik. 10. i) = ^--|w--|w--|u--| Later Prosodists added 2. and the 'Aruz changes which the normal (deviation) and 'Illah feet undergo. the are of two kinds: Zuhaf is masc. twice Fa'ilun Fa'ilun Fa'ilun Fa'ilun (ii. 5) = -u-|-u-|-u-|-u-| The extent feet and metres as given above. twice MustaFi. : Al-Mutadarak. the agreeing/' Al-Khalil. twice Fa'ulun Fa'ulun Fa'ulun Fa'ulun (ii.lun = (ii. (defect). Al-Mujtass. called Zarb. in contra- is (stuffing).'ilatim Mustaf i.) pi. same reason why because the feet all B circle harmonise called is in length. however quinqueliteral.

both - w w and where a Spondee can take the place of the Anapaest after or before the Iambus respectively. We cannot here exhaust matter any more than those touched upon until now. - and as above). by by w ^ - ). ( uu means - ( first it will - u syllable.* (ii. 6. the by suppression of Mufa'altun. Sabab and Watad. by substitution Fa'ilatun may be substitution that wherever the foot Mustaf.'ilun occurs in the a poem.or Muta'ilun. 6. poetical license change into Diiambus. by the scheme w ( - uuu = vu - - v ). even to cutting them off altogether. by tertius can. for instance. by ) or Musta'ilun.e. 278. being Besides the changes already mentioned. again. a Sabab sakil. of a Sabab in those feet part of 287 making a long syllable short by suppressing its quiescent final. or the f of the second. by it khafi'f Mufta'ilun substitution. but only in the 'Aruz and at the same time constant and obligatory Zarb of a couplet. but must be satisfied with an example or two. or Paeon quartus. 2. Sabab their final substitution substitution 3. by rendering quiescent a moved letter which stands second in In Mustaf'ilun (ii. - v uu == ) Hashw w _. the second applies to both way of modifying the primitive or normal feet. = u =--u ). Mutfa'ilun. as letter a. or contracting two short quantities in a long one. verse. or w become accordingly Mutaf ilun. . we can represent (ii. 'Illah. (ii. This would be a Fasilah kubra spoken of in the note p. and optionally to the second which compose the Hashw or body- occasionally rule. of Choriambus and Mutafa'ilun and muta may become Harakah and thus turn into 'ala Mafa'ilun Mustaf ilun (ii. a applies. to show the proceeding this and indicate in general 1 its object. ---). = the s of the dropped and Mafa'ilun. ). it consists in adding one or two letters to a Sabab or Watad.Terminal Essay. In Mufa'alatun 8. or curtailing them more or less. In other words the two feet correspond to the schemes u j-u This the Epitritus i.

) in those Besides being . because by a Juz or foot. the final Fa'ilun becomes the first is is suppressed. first will that 'Aniz or Class of the Basft with its introduced. latter kind can naturally only occur whose couplet forms an octameter (A. E. and we may here notice that the former kind of lessening the number while circles.). changing first Zarb of which Arab use amongst in is tution Fa'lun into Fa'ilun obtained by submitting the Fa'ilun the final n of the quiescent it makhbunah. This complete form.A If Laylah wa 288 We Laylah. of the 'Aruz. and for Mustafilun may be the poetical licenses. have seen that the metre Basft consists of the two lines : Mustaf. D. one called mashturah because the number of feet is reduced from four to two. the Fa'ilun of results. C. however. line is shortened (halved). the first Fa lun three feet of each line. called A the second line to the same process. three called majzuah.( : Mustafilun Fd'ilun Mustafilun Fa'ilun Mustafilun Fd'ilun Mustafilun \ _ ( As in the Hashw. 1 substi- . explained above. If poets.e.'ilun FaVilun Mustafilun Fd'ilun Mustafilun Fd'ilun Mustafilun Fd'ilun. of feet the is frequent with the hexametrical circles (B. here acting as 'Illah. the Khabn can likewise be applied to the medial Fa'ilun. i. made not by the Zuhdf Khabn. A'ariz. this two Zarb or subdivisions be represented by the scheme to say in the is first \j u ~ -* v v ( -J subdivision of this form of the Basft both lines of each couplet end with an Anapaest and every second line of the other subdivision terminates in The each Basft has four more a Spondee. the Alif in Watad final second Zarb 'ilun is cut off (- ^ -). if in and the preceding by the 'Illah Kat' thus giving Fa'il and by Thus the formula becomes ). it Basft.

( u : . . see syllable. an with produced by the 'Illah Tazyil. produced by the ). repeated several which 1. Maf ulun. number amounts times). but in vastly different proportions. N. Mustafilun. 2. and we must to illustrate the general refer the reader for the method of the remaining classes and subdivisions of the Basit as well as the other metres to more special treatises on the subject.385 pieces (some. sahihah (perfect) consisting of the majzuah. may be represented by the : The above will suffice Prosodists. sixteen Mac. addition of a quiescent letter at i. with a view to facilitate the of the student in an important. or the of later Prosodists. out of The total to 1. by dropping the the formula 277). Hence supra ( . substitution Mustafilan) Maf ulun page has three Azrub: final overlong 289 n and final substitution : Mustafilun Fa'ilun Mustafilun Mustafilun Fa'ilun f Mustaf iten \ Mustafilun I which. Maf ulun). known The Nights. instances of thirteen occur in the edition.Terminal Essay.128 belong to the only 257 for the remaining three. to which this Essay is merely as an introduction. with scheme its allowable licenses. It .e. but field If we I fear intended first steps somewhat neglected of Arabic learning. however. the second 'Aruz is normal foot Mustafilun. VOL. the end (Mustaf 'ilunn. first two The same circles. to al-KhaHl. x. we now turn to the poetical pieces contained in find that out of the fifteen metres. is Mustaf il and by Kat' 'Illah Mustafilun. leaving disproportionality T . p. (see the preceding making the by . like the 'Aruz 3. quiescent becomes 1 Mustafilan I.

. 164. . ddrak (E. li-ya shdiku. Sir Richard Burton translates the first An Where can I my all quit Cairo ways and her pleasances o Bayt (vol. 286. according to the same humu and kumu may The end-vowel short. I 290) i. . 1249 at Cairo). p. remains for it Finally me to quote a couplet of each metre. and lastly Neither the Muta- the Muttafik by 37 instances of Mutakarib. is generally read .u-| Fa-ayyu makanin ba'dahd 1 In pause that is at the end of a line. 1 186 vicinity. are met. a short vowel counts either as long or dropped. and what relation they bear to the theoretical formulas exhibited on p. hope to : find so gladsome ? Professor Palmer renders Must I What In Arabic it it : Egypt where such joys abound ? place can ever charm me so again leave scans : v/~u|u---|w-w|w A-arhalu 'an Misrin wa - w~| tfbi na'fmihi * \^-v>jw---jc~-|w-. are written in poem which has Mekkah at found for its author or in its One it. 52 of San" against 18 of Munsarih and 15 of Mujtass nor the Muzari' and Muktazib (D. alpha- of these belongs to a Bahd al-Dm Zuhayr (born A. I. and the final u of the enlarged pronominal be either short or long. nominal affix for plural forms. and is to be in full in Professor Palmer's edition of his works. showing how to scan them. 2). masc.. 5) with.A If 290 Laylah wa Laylah. preponderance of the Tawfl over It is characteristic for the the other metres. that the first four lines. In the Hashw the u or i is of the pro- the third person sing. according to the exigencies of the metre. . 282 to p. ob. although it is of the pronoun of the written with Alif. with which betical list begins. 4. exigencies. represented by 331 instances of Tawi'l and 330 of Basft against is Kamil against 143 of Wafir the Mujtalab by 32 instances of Ramal and 30 of Rajaz against i of Hazaj the Mushtabih by 72 instances of Khafif and Madfd 3 of the Mutalif by 321 instances of . obtains with regard to the metres of each The Mukhtalif circle. . first person ana".D.

this of blessing. either Fa'ulun also. or Mafa'ilun. 2 p. i. 282.) The Taw/1 has one first or Mafa'il would represent the third or fourth subdivision of respectively. we find that . As an example of the Madfd we quote the original of the (vol. that of bane o holdeth Life a twain of halves. has changed ) ( as 'Illah. this of pleasure. The first lines translated vol. with a twofold Zarb.Terminal Essay. lines : and with it lived my life 'Twas seared with fire and burnt withj loving-lowe. 131) I had a heart. p. shatrani z hazaru v*-|uw-j safwun wa zd kadaru. Fa'ulun. with the formula (iii. N. 'Containeth And The Nights instance of the Basi't occurring in In Arabic (Mac. 1 1) : -u-|-w-|--u-|wu-| Al-Dahru yauma*ni za" amnun wa - --u-|-w-|Wa VAyshu Turning back to p. i. the student will have no difficulty to recognise the. will Fa'ulun (<---) has become Fa'ulu Kabz (suppression of the and that The m first u - the by ) <- ( u - called quiescent). 283). In referring to A. . Bayt as one belonging to the first Zarb of the first 'Aruz. z where the A'an'z and Azrub of the Basft are shown. If the second line did terminate would be the it did end in Fa'ulun if it ( w . iii. it p. A. the same 'Aruz it ( - u latter alteration of the - letter of a foot if fifth Hashw be seen that in the the 'Ariiz and Zarb Mafa'ilun in Mafa'ilun into 29! Zarb of ( ^ . is it --- same Zuhaf acting Mafa'ilun. I. as in the original scheme. by a Zuhaf ) shows the couplet to be of the second Zarb 'Aruz of the Tawi'l. 25 are thej : Time a twain of days. v. They read in Arabic : u Ka"na If Fa'ktawk If we compare this u vs u kalbun a'fshu bihi bi'1-ndri wa'htarak. that of pain. 283.) this first class other 'Aruz.

Ishak of Mosul.). and so rare. ( -u-- )." which is Mafd'ilun. N. therefore. ( eliminating Fa'ilun Azrub as that of the present lines. C. and Fa'lun reduced to Fa'al ( w . line " Translated. shortened by a foot is 'Ariiz of this it . 275 the word akdmu. In the second 'Aruz is. that " the dead . is Fd'ilatun consists of Fd'ilatun loses its it end syllable tun by the 'Illah Hafz (suppression of a final Sabab . the native poets consider the metre the most difficult of writers. might prima facie with the third Mafd'flun shortened by (see above) into Mafd'i for which Fa'ulun would be sub- 1 On p. first and Laylah.w Fd'ilun is subkhafff). into the language of the Prosodists it will be taken for a line be: Mafc'flun 1 'Mafc'flun Fa'ulun. to v u Fa'ilun. standing by of the Hazaj Hafz (iii.I I '1-wajda f f kalbi wa saru. and it is This accounts for its iii.e. Mac. were. ). syllable of Fd'ilun. for which Shortening the stituted.A If Laylah wa either line of the couplet The majzu. ) so difficult deaden the quick and to quicken Mad/d scarcely ever attempted rare occurrence in where only two more instances are and " it indeed. and this. as read by itself. as Kamil have a natural Let us revert to the Rajaz. and becomes Fa'ila ( ). 244 404. further here. as it Hazaj and : w | Akamti affinity to the ^ . metre abbreviated called sahfhah (perfect) because is the normal third foot. was identified with the foot Fa'ulun. to be found. 4 :he we Alif by Khabn. . itself. The second and the Wafir and third circle will best be spoken of together. who - - all. i). like : improvises the piece. ii. Here k must be read together with the following syllable as "akamulwaj. calls went nigh it ( again by Khabn. first obtain the third 'Aruz 'Aruz. which has two the i. The by as later Nights.

It must. seen (p. it is considered to be can change into Mafd'i'lun. Van Dayk. one of his poem in all. and the isolated couplet u w ^ : . if in poem counts no longer as Hazaj now under consideration. Mufa'alatun of the It should be Hazaj. be remarked that the Hazaj is not in use as a hexameter. the former measure appears even in one foot only along with the latter. . the it seems. forms undoubtedly part of a although 1 it does not contain the foot Mufa'alatun at Prof. Anglice Far lies I (vol.- | | | Yarfdu '1-mar-u an yu'ta munahu o u | Wa yaba 'llahu ilia Man wills his what he wish to him accorded be. 52. 296) camp and the : those who camp therein . with the second form of the Rajaz. p. identifies this form of the Wafir. it is the Bayt where the characteristic foot of the Wdfir second appears first : c---ju-uv^-jv/~-| Naat 'annfl-rubu'u wa sdkmfhd \j-\j\j-\\j-\j\j-\\j--\ Wa kad ba'uda '1-mazaiu fa-Id mazaru. when every has become Mafd'ilun. We have stituted. which is likewise majzuah. and the In the piece but as Wdfir.Terminal Essay. Palmer. Wdfir Thus 328 of his Grammar. Hence it is only in the second 'Aruz of the Wdfir. Hashw Professor Palmer was misled. p. iii. but only with an 'Aruz majzuah or shortened by one foot. however. that the ambiguity as to the real nature of the metre can arise 1 . and the original measure. o Far is her tent-shrine where ne'er shall tent. 287) that and 293 how the foot Mufd'alatun any poem which otherwise would belong to the metre Hazaj. authorities. . by an evident misprint in Muhit al-Dairah by Dr. wills (vol. iv.- |* md yurfdu | But Allah naught accords save 157). being hexametrical.

the latter foot can. 'Aruz of Rajaz.- ( o ).Alf Laylah wa Laylah. ( u --- (vol. 319) : unworthy. 65). 8 the first of two Bayts of a 23rd Assembly of Al-Hariri we quote from illustration little poem taken from the : --\j-\--\j-\v\j-\j-l Yd khdtiba '1-dunyd '1-daniyyati innahd v>u-w-jwo-u"j---j Sharaku '1-radk wa kardratu '1-akddri --w-|--w-|--u-| Ddrun mata md azhakat ---- ff yaumihd i__ u _i___l Abkat ghadan buMan lahd min In Sir Richard Burton's translation O who woo'st a World thou Perdition's net A to the first iii. Steer ye your steps to none but me Who o shortened to Mafa'ilun ( u - u 377). ) is further the metre resembles the second ). ddri. N. assigning the piece or perfect (sahihah) class of the Kdmil. In the Hashw of the opening line and in that of the whole second Bayt this normal Mutafa'ilun has. 294 'the solitary instance of abomination. as we have seen. same change has taken for it is by license. The 'Aruz (vol. learn o 'Tis house of evils. 'tis : house where whoso laughs house of fume and fret. v. By way Hazaj. a peculiarity which this metre shares with a few others. by license. beginning with The Nights in Hazaj is Abu NuwaV : Fa-Id tas'au ilk ghayri ---. where. become Mustaf'iiun. N. Kclmil bears a similar relation to the Rajaz. the ii. take the place of the The bears normal MustaPilun . and the place in the 'Aruz of the second couplet . of the first this day shall weep o The next couplet is . then perish Mutafd'ilun.|w---| Fa-'indi ma'dinu '1-khayri (Mac. as the Wafir to Mac. to . have a mine of luxury second ' Aruz of the Wafir Mafailun If in the ii.

Abu Sayd of Sariij. the after If this scheme with the Maf ulun applying the as above. in reality have appropriated a poem of his by lopping off two . 295 allow certain alterations of the kind Zuhaf in the 'Aniz and Zarb as well as in the Hashw. whose first 'Aruz Mustaf ilun has two Azrub : isolated. by the rhyming lines substitution Mafulun ( ) which terminates cent of the foregoing quotation. obtained from Mutafa'ilun by suppressing the rendering the / quiescent the Zarb of the third .Terminal Essay. to Baghdad knight errant. his pretended pupil. for Mutfa.- Fa'lun is ( from Mutafa'ilun by cutting off the Watad and dropping the medial a of the remaining Mutafa. belong to the second Zarb of the Kdmil. Consequently the two couplets taken together. were the metre of the poem through- licenses peculiar to the Rajaz would be: U \J w The pith of Al-Hariri's Assembly is that the not to say the arrant wight of the Romance. the Zarb of the a substitution for Mutafa'il which . the other substituted for Mustafil Mustaf ilun. one equal to the Aruz. n and final .). 288) to out. it changes into Fa'latun. and the metre of the poem with presented by the scheme o o Taken its 'Ariiz first licenses of the be may re- : \J on the other hand. the second Bayt might be of the metre Rajaz. like the 'Ariiz Fa'alatun ( uu . but here 'Illah Kat' (see p. derived If we make the : ) 'ilun the 'Ayn of the second Zarb Fa'alatun also quies- by the permitted Zuhaf Izmar. Zarb of the is second is latter is first This class has three subdivisions Mutafa'ilun. accuses before the Wali of his son.

of and of numerous didactic poems. the and each Bayt has a rhyme of lines of every This own. The iambic move- the trochaic a wail of sad- the former resembles a nimble pedestrian. Ibn Malik's Alffyah able grammatical Yazijf. | |--o-| Ff yaumihd abkat ghada". composition is for instance. a iambic metre pure and simple. as well as the remark- work of the modern native which a notice ditties. where . the most popular. they : --u-l Yd khdtiba | '1-dunyd '1-daniy- wo-w-|uu~w-| Yati innaha sharaku '1-rada . done is in the quoted lines.. The Rajaz. when the two called Urjuzah. in which even the Prophet was caught napping sometimes. and its second couplet tallies of metre. of it. as opposed two first-named metres. the form in which written. While the Hazaj and Rajaz connect the third circle with the first and second. be found in scholar.A If Laylah wa 296 feet of every Bayt. * : and the reversal ^). is is will Bayt rhyme. Nasi'f al- Chenery's Introduction to his Translation of Al-Hariri. of its In the latter case. is because the easiest.v Ddrun matJt md azhakat v. striding apace with an elastic step and a cheerful heart toiling along on the desert path. the latter his foot is is like a man ever and anon . at the dangerous risk of following the perilous leadership of Imru '1-Kays. the Ramal forms the link between the third and fourth Ddirah. with a different rhyme and The amputated of a different variation Zarb of the third piece belongs to the fourth 'Aruz of Kdmil.-) it. Mafulatu Its ( to the iambic of the measure Fd'ildtun (.- -I. with the second sub- division of the second class of Rajaz. ment has a ring of gladness about ness . affect the trochaic rhythm. read If this Lay Iah. It is the metre of improvisation.

N. 359) : u-u~|--w-|~u-| Wa fakhitin kad kdla ff nauhihi _. whence probably the name of the metre). o Bewail I my parting from Mujtass. Zarb and 'Aruz (Mac. 356) O Eternal. v. 361) : w . abounds in verse. 47). both in N. being throughout a story of love. the only 'Aruz (majzuah sahfhah. 48). San". N.Terminal Essay. ii.w -| Yd Ddiman shukran I heard a ringdove chanting for this misery " soft and 'ala balwatf plaintively. ii.u -|. Both combined in regular alternation. second Zarb of the first 'Aruz (Mac. 33. thank Thee. Khafif. Examples of these more or less plaintive and pathetic metres are numerous in the Tale of Uns al-Wujud and the Wazir's Daughter. full or perfect form (sahih). N. v. as has been noted. Ramal ten out of the thirty-two instances of Nights. 297 burning sand (Raml. w -|-. vol. first u '1-bulbuli ii. which. foot and perfect) with equal i. contains in occurring in The : Zarb of the - w Inna - - v> | li 'Aruz (Mac. admirably to express fit the conflicting emotions of a passion-stirred mind. 44). We quote first particular. whenas dawn is husni '1-watar nigh * Tells the lover from strains of strings to fly (vol. v. I (vol.~ J | sautan ff '1-sahar -w--Jwu--|-w"| 'l-'a'shika 'an Ashghala The Bulbul's note. shortened by one 367) : . v.e. Ramal. im- sliding back in the part an agitated character to the verse. : o - Y* - -|w-v-|*w--| li-man ashtakf '1-ghardma bi 'llazf ww--Jvi-u-|-v/--| Wa O to shujuni wa furkatf 'an habfbf whom now of my desire complaining sore shall my fere compelled thus to fly (vol. Zarb (Mac. o " ii. and.

a several rhyme for each couplet. Mac. The Mutakdrib. Mohammedan warlike and heroical character. with stanza of the Persian epos On to 237). find the -vu-|-w-v|-ov-| md Arba'atun 'jtama'na kattu siwa v-w-|-u-v|-uw-| Ala azd mujhati wa Four things which ne'er conjoin unless my blood (vol. shed In the form of trimetrical double-lines. foot. that the metre hence. because how dear o want not wealth untold I it me affords I (vol. v. This would be Rajaz with the license Mufta'ilun for Mustaf'ilun. 'alayya habfbf 1 La hajatan To me As in The Nights. But the following Munsarih lines of the fragment evince. In is fact. it safki dam! be o To storm my vitals and the last of the metres employed in The has gained a truly historical importance by the part which in Persian literature. ascertaining the correct reading of a text. iii. a clerical error must lurk somewhere in the second. proves for we my an instance of the Munsarih.A If Laylah wa 298 Ruddu Lay la h. N. 55). give the second occurring an opportunity to show the knowledge of the laws of Prosody frequently Mac. . 296 : . on page 833 of the same volume. : it Firdausf's immortal " in it. it has become the " Nibelungen-" and Nizdmi's Iskander-namah are written orthodoxy. Book plays account of its of Kings " not to mention a host of Masnawis in which Sufic mysticism combats therefore. N. we here the first couplet reads and piece repeated. I choose for Nights. iii. student 33 restore 1 bi-malin If useful a find the line : -uw-|*vw~|~wu-| Arba'atun md 'jtama'at kattu iz. an example the knightly Jamrakdn's chal- lenge to the single fight in which he conquers his scarcely less valiant adversary Kaurajan. i.

we owe acumen of a people. I have tried to show springs naturally from the character of the language. myself: to mean. amongst other it is. with the grammatical system of the quite worthy of the things.Terminal Essay. for instance w | short- suppress the Kasrah of also allowable in pause. which Ibn Khallikan tells in His son went one day into the room where little anecdote the following words.- v | 'l-Jamraka"nu kawiyyn '1-jandni v--|w-v|u--|u--| Jamfu Here the ened by third syllable of the second foot in each line license. 286. and on him scanning a piece of poetry by the rules of prosody. therefore.- w j And %r | v * | 299 . .| u : - 'l-Jamrakdnu kawiyyu '1-jandn . which line to final Kasrah of the is E. the prejudice frequently entertained.- - w [ v/ Mutakdrib and make the second saying. we obtain the powerful and melodious metre in which the Shih- namah sings of Rustam's lofty deeds. of the tender love of Riida- bah and the Shall my tragic downfall of ambition to become a conqueror. V . Ruckert. and the exhibited p.| J w j La-yakshk kitli shijd'u 'l-zamdn. rhyme with the is standing in first line. as al-Janani.u w . takhsha kitaU 'l-fawdrisi . as to Siyawush. If i. from concluding with a anent al-Khalil. even by sody that is it Arabs. the invention of Algebra. intimately connected. and. and shared my in a accomplished countryman. that Arabic Pro- a clumsy and repulsive doctrine. we u And u first. his father was. finding . iii. I conquer. confess that in writing the foregoing pages I it appears to me whom. he ran out and told the people that his father had lost his wits. the stepping-stone of our whole modern system of Mathematics. the metre being the full form of the is pause. it has been modest way. I cannot refrain.. long.

sexual as well as social. Without pudor malus or over-diffidence fulfilled logical the promise contained in my would claim to have I Foreword. and had you known what you said. but assist the student of Moslem and of Arabo-Egyptian manners. as every . the labours of a quarter-century and " Behold ! To which " poets' Poet." HERE end. and I knew that I you were ignorant." Nothing of importance now indeed remains to estimate the character of my readers.A If 3OO They went in wa Laylah Laylak. to here must perforce say with the I my sorrow. But you did not understand me. The anthropo- notes and notelets. To assert that such lore is unnecessary is to state." I see the haven nigh at hand. and bear up with the land have accorded to thus successfully to complete the decade. form a repertory of life Eastern knowledge in its esoteric phase. thanking them my work and for me me but briefly to take cordial leave of for the interest they these volumes and for enabling . so you blamed me. I mean my Vere the main The which shete. afore wearie course to bend to is fairly be ken'd. you would have excused me. on which he addressed his son in these terms " Had you known what : was saying. I should have blamed you. so I pardoned you. which not only illustrate and read between the lines of the text. immediately and related to al-Khalfl what they had heard. customs and language in a multitude of matters shunned by books.

as Easterns more politely say. That the work contains errors. ignorance. at a my expected to write like a young lady is and never to notice what underlies the most And I of topics usually taboo'd and est bien loin d'en ide*e. superficial stratum. .Terminal Essay. surtout des classes voulait la devoiler. crowned with gold unknown "alekta" Men have been the Capitol for lesser services rendered to the Respublica. not the naive innocence of Saint Francis who." In this matter for L'Europe also maintain that the free treatment and held publicity Empire of Opinion. refuserait son service. the most unfriendly and interested Yet critics many a lapsus. la langue serait insuffisante. shortcomings and I am I must also notice that the maculae are few and the first and foremost to declare. si " La celui qui connait la vie de tous les jours des Orientaux." unfitted for time too when the best. traveller writes. e'leve'es. and . traveller " knows. in justice to far have between myself . half his life in long more are has lived the midst of the wildest anthropological and yet who absolutely ignores all that India or Burmah enacts under his very eyes. seeing a man and Heaven a maid in a dark corner. familiar with plume Syria and Herr Landberg. avoir la moindre I have done hapless English traveller young ladies. And before pronouncing the " " Vos " I or. Against such lack of knowledge I may my notes are a protest A claim success despite the difficulty of the task. plaudite implore ! that my poor name may be raised aloft on the tongue of praise." startling than the vision of a venerable infant. an 301 Few phenomena who absurdum. raised his hands to and thanked the Lord that there was still in the world so much of Christian Charity. This is crass vagaries and monstrosities." will to be be a national in benefit to an whose very basis and buttresses are a thorough knowledge by the rulers of the ruled. . Palestine. even failed to point out an abnormal number of slips.

and courteous favour which the the fair field Persian poet expected from his readers. BURTON.A If Laylah wa 3O2 let me invoke Laylah. J Jj^ nor jibe nor jeer RICHARD ATHEN/EUM CLUB. : of faults and failings clear t) F. ^ (Veil it. an fault thou None may be found ^Iksc find. . September 30* '86.

58 . . . 153 . Artists in cosmetics Bazar (locked at night) . .. seqq.90 tiveness as a cotillon) .. send us aid) 29 41 Book . Betrothed "intended (for . = corner-terminals of a = cane -honey Katr = drip-honey 'Attdr (savoir faire) 55 160 54. ABD ALLAH al-Mu'tazz ibn . Bougre.146 6 'Amir one who inhabiteth.. 234 for greed) . . rtf . Coffee (mention of) . Coquetries (requiring as much inven- 38 8 26 .e enemy) Cannibalism in the New World Cask 1 . 8 Astarte (primarely the planet Venus = perfume-seller. = Marvels of Ind = sturdy (A1-) al. .. . .. sibility) (polite (history of the family) Battal (A1-). II knowing him ... Abdun (convent of) Abu al-Sa'adat (Pr.. prince) (poet- 39 ... . CAIRENE jargon 32 n . (bonhomie) . Bougrerie (derivations of the terms) . 38 Boulgrin. The Nights Bresl. Alnashar (story of) ... . 15 ?) 229 ..e. (mean colloquialism Burckhardt quoted . 74 . to th. . A'laj (will .. .. = are honoured 2 25 litter 32 . . Edit. .. . 3 Caravaggio (picture of St. 190 86 .. story of (give thee quittance of respon- = 'Amm = uncle father-in-law) Anasa-kum = ye 6 5 . al-Nasr Barmakis PAGB = Sublime Porte .INDEX. . . N. .. Castration (texts justifying or enjoining it) Character-sketch (making amends for abuse of women) . druggist *Aysh = that on which man lives (for bread) thereof) .. Prosperities Abu Mijan (song of) Abu Tabak =i Father of whipping 'Adillyah (Mosque in Cairo) (the fable -writer) Aesop .) . .. (black as her) Brides of the Treasure by . quoted will . Rosario) . 'Asakir Ash'ab (proverbial 13 be 117 Arabs (for plundering nomades) Arianism and early Christianity Arms and Armour Asal Kasab to married with regal ceremony ") Boccaccio and address to a . Clairvoyance of perfect affection . (knows . . .. . = Father of . 6 miscreants make 5 Gate of Victory = ... 'Ajaib al-Hind Allah 40 BAB Bab 35 33 240 219 227 24 of the maiden = a native of) . 13 (will send thee thy daily bread) .144 ..'Ali .. things easy .. . 3 2 .. haunter . . . .... (for "home" wine) Children (one of its 249 169 3! 8 10 28 his fellow-Cairene) Calamity (i.. .

girl dressed as a boy to act cup-bearer white blaze = 39 on a horse's brow 4 Giants (marrying in Peru...160. . . . . .) Hazar Afsanah Hippie Syphilis Hetairesis and Sodatism (the heresies = show 18 . .. 96 in .. .. 84 seqq.. " " fair sex in Egypt) Cruelty (of the must be cried). Glossarium eroticum 191 40 first appearance HANDKERCHIEF of dismissal Hariri (lines quoted from) = brown Sagara .. the Ancients 4 .. Kathir r= much. I. needs Cry (that . 3 53 Jauza FARf D .. Grelots lascifs (their 243 .. 201 *I4 12. . . 135 Arabs) 40 29 100 . . . sisted by ear and tongue) Lentils (cheapest and poorest food 238 Europe) Kammir (Imper) Katha 133 Gazelle's blood red (dark red dye) German Translations of The Nights Ghulamiyah seqq. . 57 153 201 27 Jadid 1 14 141 = new . probably .. . 40 = effeminates. ANTOINE (memoir of) 96. 3 209 (much appreciated by the 175 .. seqq.. naivete") (Pr. 34. (coin). . (the* 19 14 . KAFR . . of love) 93 . the Caribs of the Brazil) Gnostic absurdities (liquid . = Alexander Italian Translations of Romance of) Erotic specialists . = village (in Egypt and Syria) Sumatran (eagle-wood) Kakili GALLAND. 71 burn. heresy) Jackal's gall (used aphrodisiacally) Jazfrat ibn 54 Fox and Gold The Nights 12 fast Ghurrah 230 (according to J A' AFAR the Barmacide (his suspected for light . Kutubal-Bah . .. 535 70 Languages (study of should be .. etc.123 . Libraries . . chopper = Gemini Omar (islarjtd . So. 47 . II. Garden (the Perfumed of the Cheykh Nefzaoui . owing to France) Kunafah Vermicelli-cake Books of Lust. Ikhtfyan al-Khutan 'IDDAH and (simply Dunya 36 ring) Street (in "5 as. 123 12 38 and town -on the Tigris) Jink (A1-) jackal (confounded by the . Ephesus (the Matron of ) Euphemism obsolete in Syria) among . . 44 . Ernest (Duke of Bavaria. . many-columned) (the the Arabs) in strange = . 45 21 72. Arabic dialects) . .. . 90 215 Hizamzzrbelt (not Khizamrr nose- DARB AL-AHMAR = Red 8 Cairo) Death pathetically 47 sketched) .A If 304 Lay la h wa Laylah.167 (in Turkey and Persia) Dramatic scene (told with charming Drama 43 9 Iram 29 . 220 .. N. = Vino d'Oro) . .221 . . . I . "no end" Kitab al-Fihrist (and its author) = 27 bread) 89 in . . Kalandars (order Gypsies ... Egypt) Lesbianism . Harim al-Rashid and Charlemagne Sarit of) 36. 19.) ELEVATION = the World 9 27 . = 12 112.. 10 .. Irishman (and his "converter") Ishtar-Astaroth ( her worship not Iskander (nothing sudden) = (A1-) period of widowhood Khaitan (?) . Curs them on the (set cattle a miser money. seqq . Kohl'd with Ghunj languor-kohl'd Koran quoted (Ixxxix) Koran (first English Translation ing plague) 57 . = unique union-pearl. . . 52. = LA KABBATA HA"MIYAH =(no Lane quoted. food Faturat = early break.

. races) . X.. .. 81 . .. . 189 104 .Islam . VOL. segq.164 ... ..130 .14 30$ Peche philosophique (The. and .. . Mummery . (cruelty of) . Poets (four whose works contraried of the jakes " .. = 88 used (also for . of the hair . 52 . Mustahakk = deserving . 27 . 163 Resignation (noble instance of) . "Masculine") 22 Sawad= blackness 27 Schools (attached to Mosques) 215 the ..150 . j 104 .128 U .. . wedding-morning Sacy. 140 .. .. (notable in- stance of) lib Rub' al-Kharab (probably Arabian Desert) .. ..22 in sign of holiday- their character) 222 -67 . 167. 51 Making men" (and women) Marocco (tenanted by three Moslem . Lion . Narcissus and Hippolytus (assumed as types of morosa voluptas) ..26 .. 76 208 . Sisters (their abiding together after PAIN (resembling the drawing of a 21 tooth) Palaces in ruins (for want of repair) Palgrave and Al. " Mahornmerie" Munkar and Nakir .. . and (before Morbi venerei Moslem . Parisian MS..18 . .. Hijtah) . 44 (discouraged by circum- cision) Simurgh (guardian of the Persian 233 mysteries) . . Sylvestre de (on the origin of The NXnf KA . . . . one's self believes the . .. Naghten's Edition Malakay Powders (coloured i . fast . of Payne quoted 40 142. 61 ... Signals of Debauchees . . .. 45 .Adamite doctrine 199 "cock's " with a difference Mashhad head-and-foot stone of 'ill =" . 74 . 174 Shamtarzthe grizzled (name for wine) 38 Shaykh al-Islam (his mention sign of modern composition) 19 . marriage frequently insisted upon) 56 Socrates (' sanctus paederasta ") 213 segq. Naka = = sand-hill let .Index. . favour bayti '1-rahah = slabs . 52 the . . 240 . . . Pre. = a grave Merchant (worth a thousand) Mohammed after Pun Mudarris = professor . for thegreat 42 42 8 178 47 52 SABIHAT AL-'URS =gift on Sappho Nights) (the . Sodatic zone 206.. . to be truth) lie . 253 (heightening the effect of the tale) (on a name) 53 8 RAwf 50 n. making) Prolixity Metrical portion of The Nights(threefold distribution of) . Pyramids (verses on the) resignation (noble instance of) 56 . Mashallah =: the English .219 Sijn al-Ghazabnr Prison of Wrath .179 .. .118 Sultan of the beasts jealous (as of a man's power) Lokman Love (three of the 34 name) Lying (until . 60 . .. 50 . OLEMA (time-serving ones) Onanisms . in France) * of famous) Pehlevi version of the Panchatantra . . .. The Nights . 249 Pederasts 252 120 Penis (and its succedanea) Plato (his theory of love) 239 209 (list Play "near and far loose" MA'ARrjp Mac " = kindness.. . . suffice thee it . Sodomy (abnormally developed New amongst the savages of the World) Story-teller (picture of the) Sufyism (rise of ) . ... . . 42 Rijal = Hallows Roman 196 story-teller reciter of Traditions) superficiality 14 .

giddiness 9 . Kulsum (one of the Amsal of the Arabs for debauchery) . 80 . Time-measurers (of very ancient dale) .Alf. (likened to a bride displaying charms to man) hf wa . . . Tobacco (mention of) Touch of nature (making 85 .. Woman. 39 f .128 . = dung VISVAKARM A = the Anti-creator 'Urrah WHOSO 69 . 9 .Laylah Sun Syphilis (origin of) 90 ..89 .. . all . of) . . 54 . 38 . ..20 of the chin-veils twain " ZARABIN 131 15 Womankind 44 I (treated leniently in Yellow-girl (for light-coloured wine) VMM 194 and then blameth praiseth 91 98 . (hippie) TASAWWUF (rise Taysh = vertigo. Umm . . women AL-RAAS = crown of the head a Kazi's court) 24 YA ABU AL-LITHAMAYN 4 (their status in Al-Islam) ="O = slaves' shoes 195 sire .. lieth twice the world kin) Trbutien quoted Laylah.

Hppcndix .

= APPENDIX II. F. Alphabetical Table of the Notes (Anthropological. I MAKE no apology for the number and extent of bibliographical and other lists given in this Appendix they may cumber the book but they are necessary to complete my design.D. Ph. 1251 Version. III. " " native Thus he will be correspondent." &c. an Oriental Romance. the jeux d'esprit and especially the Koranic citations scattered about the text and my indices will enable him to hunt up the tale or the verses which he may require for quotation even when writing an : . Author of Ed-Dimiryaht. ordinary letter to a spared the wasted labour of wading through volumes in order to pick up a line. . like a " Ghorawala " (groom). Kirby. Alphabetical Table of First Lines (metrical portion) in English and Arabic. IV. This has been to supply throughout the ten volumes the young Arabist and student of Orientalism and Anthropology with such assistance as I can render him and it is my conviction that if with the aid of this version he will master the original text of the " Thousand Nights and a Night. 1839-42). II. Payne's Bulak Edition (A. the verses. and their Imitations. Steingass. Lane's and my Version." "The New Arabian Nights. By W. Index to the Tales in the ten Volumes. D. Payne's Version. The following is the list of Indices : APPENDIX I. MEMORANDUM. . and the A. The Macnaghten or Turner-Macan Text (A. Steingass. with a Table shewing the contents of the principal editions " and translations of the Nights.D. prepared by Dr. I. C. The Unfinished Calcutta Edition (1814-18). . The Breslau Text (1825-43) from Mr. from Mr. etc.A If 308 Laylah wa Laylah.D. B. Najd and Mesopotamia and be able to converse with them like a gentleman not. as too often happens in Anglo-India." he will find himself at home amongst educated men in Egypt and Syria. Contributions to the Bibliography of the Thousand and One Nights.H. A. The same with Mr.) prepared by F. 1835-36). With this object he will learn by heart what instinct and inclination suggest of the proverbs and instances. Tables of Contents of the various Arabic texts.

iv. 29. The History of Gharib and his brother. 124.lg . 269. AH AH bin Bakkar and of Cairo. Abu Sir the Barber. iv. Alexandria (The Sharper of) and the Master of Police. 80. iv. 162. ix. vii. v. Shams al-Nahar. Abd al-Rahman the Moor's story of the Rukh. Abu Kir the Dyer and Abu Sir the Barber. Abu al-Hasan al-Durraj and Abu Ja'afar the Leper. Abu Yusuf with Harun al-Rashid and his Wazir Ja'afar. his slave-girl. The Loves of. 229. Abu Ja'afar the Leper. 114. 257. 162. Abu Hasan al-Ziyadi and the Khorasan Man. The Imam. ix. Abu Kir the Dyer and. The Birds and Beasts and the Son of. Abu al-Hasan al-Durraj and. iv. 134. v. v.Appendix. 261. of Mercury. Adam. v. Abu al-Aswad and his squinting slave-girl. Abu Nowas. Harun al-Rashid with the damsel and. v. The Adventures iii. ix. fe. 294. 145. INDEX L INDEX TO THE TALES AND PROPER NAMES. iv. 172. The Imam. Ala al-Din Abu al-Shamat. 285. 122. bin Ma'amar with the Man of Bassorah and Do. iii. v. how he brake Wind. v. Adi bin Zayd and the Princess Hind. vi. Abu Nowas and the Three Boys. Abu al-Hasan of Khorasan. v. Sppentrir J.v. Ajib. 165.B. 64. N. Abu Suwayd and the handsome old woman. 294. Abu Mohammed hight Lazybones. 153. v. bin Fazl and his brothers. 135. v. Abu Hasan. ix. Do. 163. 304. Abu al-Husn and his slave-girl Tawaddud. ix. iv. The Roman numerals denote the volume^ the Arabic the Abdullah the Fisherman and Abdullah the Merman. Abu Yusuf with Al-Rashid and Zubaydah. Abu Isa and Kurrat al-Ayn. 134. 69. 189.

Asma'i (A1-) and the three girls of Bassorah. and the Rich King. v. v. v.. of. 48. Anushirwan. Apples. iv. The Sweep and v. iv. v. Ali Ali bin Tahir Amin (A1-) and his uncle Ibrahim binal-Mahdi. Aziz and. Do. 166. 254. 264. Ardashir and Hayat al-Nufus. The. 3IO Ali Nur al-Din and Miriam the Girdle-Girl.Barber's Third Brother. and his Wife. iv. 314. viii. viii. Story of the. Badr al-Din Hasan. Story of the. 187. Ass. 328. Aziz and Azizah. 250. Story of the. Harun al-Rashid and the. The Woman whose hands were cut off for. 124. Barber's Fourth Brother. Anis al-Jalis. Baghdad. The Haunted House in. . Ja'afar the Barmecide and the old. (The ruined Do. Arab Girl. Omar bin al-Khattab and the young. Badawi. The. Nur al-Din Ali of Cairo and his son. of. i. Al-Malik al-Nasir (Saladin) and the Three Chiefs of Police. 335. v. i. vii. Do.Alf LayIah wa Laylaft. Barber's First Brother. v. Barber's Second Brother. Angel of Death and the King of the Children of Israel. Barber's Tale of himself. The Caliph Hisham and the. v. 24. Story of the. of. The Lovers of the. The. Ape. 82. and her Son King. . i. . 195. 99. The Lovers of the. ix. Anushirwan. Kisra and the village damsel. ii. i. Porter and the Three Ladies man of) and i. 298. 152. iv. 271. 79. 108. i. Story of the. 87. Julnar the Sea-born. 319. vii. Lady iii. . . Ali the Persian and the Shar and Zumurrud. The. The Do. 297. iv. Khalifah the Fisherman Do. i. ii. ii. 125. Sayf al-Muluk and. 70. 298. Badi'a al-Jamal. Banu Tayy. 248. 264. 137. 281. 209. 317. 324. Arab Youth. v. vii. 101. The Wild. The Ox and the. v. Musab bin al-Zubayr and his wife. 91. and the girl Muunis. 98. i. 164. 149. his slave-girl. Almsgiving.! . vii. iv. The King's daughter and the. The Fox and. ix. 186. v. Badr Basim of Persia. Do. Banu Ozrah. . The Three. 331. i. Barber's Fifth Brother. . The. vii. Tale of. 246. 145. the noble Bakun's Story of the Hashish-Eater. vii. I i<x 16. Nur al-Din Ali and the damsel. . v. Do. i. The Righteousness of King. v. with the Proud King and the Devout Man. Ayishah. Kurd Sharper. Azizah. Ass. Do. iv. i.

Behram. and the Princess Al-Datma. Caliph Al-Ma'amun and the Strange Doctor. iv. The Wazir's Son and 69. 154. . The Adventures of Mercury Ali of. vi. . Belvedere. Blacksmith who could handle fire without hurt. The Goldsmith and Cat and the Crow. 130. 172. ix. 273. 304. Birds. The. iii. 40. Story of the Chief of the. iv. Abu Nowas and the Three. Budur and Jubayr bin Umayr. ix. Story of the Chief of the. iv. vi. The. 293. i. Boy (The woman who had to lover a) and v. Wardan the Butcher's adventure with the Lady and the. Story of the. 169. vii.' 3 11 Appendix. The. 35. of. The Beasts and the Son of Adam. iii. Abu Kir the Dyer and Abu Sir the. 64. 83. 14. iii. 188. a man. The page who feigned to know. 159. v. vi. 293. 185. Wardan of. 98. Police. the. the other who had to lover v. 16. and the old Badawi. 149. The. Boy and the Thieves. Barber's Sixth Brother. viii. 2 1 Bukhayt. no. and the Mouse. The Falcon and the. Story of the Chief of the. Adventures of. . Bath. Cairo (New) Police. . 134. 343. Man and the Cripple. iv. 165. Bear. 262. ix. Jinn. 271. The Fakir and his pot 228. 184. 261. iv. vi. Birds (the Speech of). Ja'afar the. Cashmere Singing-girl. Abdullah bin Ma'amar with. Boys. Birds and. v. . the. 95. The House with the. 73. Barber. the. iv. 103. The Loves Budur. 75. Boy and Girl at School. vii. 274. ix. The mock. and the Bear. the. girls of. (Hasan Do of) and the King's daughter of the The Lovers of. Bulak Bull and the Ass (Story of). i. ii. iv. (Old) Police. Do. The City Broker's Story. v. ix. Al-Asma'i and the three Do. Butcher's adventure with the Lady Butter. 16. Harun al-Rashid and Zubaydah in Bathkeeper's Wife. v. vi. Story of the Eunuch. Blind v. 1 iv. Caliph. The Christian. iv. The. Birds and Beasts and the Carpenter. The pious. Ja'afar the Barmecide and the. i. iii. 150. of. iv. iii. Kamar al-Zaman and. Barber. The Loves of the. vii. Black Slave. 130. Do. v. Do. Do.Surgeon. Barmecide. Beanseller. The. 49. 7. Brass. vi. Ibrahim bin al-Mahdi and the. 2. Bassorah (the man of) and his slave-girl. Bulukiya. v. Prince of Persia. 1 56. 271. 67.

Ibrahim of Mosul and the. vii. vii. vii. do.A If 312 Laylah wa LayIah. ix. 262. . ix. iv. Drop of Honey. 127. 265. 155. v. Tray-maker and his wife. Do. Cloud (The saint to whom Allah gave" a) to serve him Cobbler (Ma'aruf the) and his wife Fatimah. Abu Eagle. * v. i. iv. man v. 277. v. Dalilah the Crafty and her daughter Zaynab the Coney-catcher. 67. v. The Rogueries of. * 246. i. iii. 19. Muslim bin al-Walid. Dyer. Egypt (The Elders. 144. The. vi. 142. 34. vi. ix. Taj al-Muluk and the Princess. v. 152. Desert (The old woman who dwelt in the) and the pilgrim. 134. The. The Physician. 274. City of Labtayt. ix. Israelite. Dog's Dish of Gold. The woman who made her husband sift. 283. vi. v. the two wicked. 143. 250. Cripple. Do. Prince. The. iii. x. vi. and Abu Kir The Sparrow and the. Women. Datma (The Princess A1-). and the Rich King. I. 150. the Fox and the. 208. Debauchee and the Three-year-old Child. 283. 83. 53. of Upper) and his Frank wife. v. The Cat and the. and the Serpent.vi. Death (The Angel Do. The. the. The. The man who stole the Dog's. The. i. The. iv. Chaste Wife. 265 Dream. the two wicked elders. Devil. Dust. Durraj (Abu al-Hasan al-) and Abu Ja'afar the Leper. The ruined man who became rich through a. 45. Do. . Dish of Gold. The Lover's Trick against the. and Isaac . 113. Dunya. do. 289. with the Proud King and the Devout Man. The Fishes and Crab. iv. 136. The. 132. The. ii. Confectioner. of) and the King of the Children of Israel. Crows and the Hawk. v. 46. The. The man who stole the. Dibil al-Khuzai and v. Sir the Barber Ebony Horse. Champion (The Moslem) and the Christian Lady. 122. Do. vi. vi. The Blind Man and the. v. The. 97. 97. 294. Do.. The Devout woman and toe. in. the. 264. 184. Craft and Malice of the. 149. vi. woman and and v. iii. 135. Doctor (The strange) and the Caliph Al-Maamun. Prince Behrarh of Persia and. Crow. Device (The Wife's) to cheat her husband. vi. The. The. iv. Crow. 185. his Wife and the Parrot. ix. 248. 186. Devout his mistress Do. Christian Broker's Story. Duban. v.

Hajjaj (Al-) Hind daughter of Al-Nu'uman and. 86. AH Nur al-Din and the. The. Khali fah the. 45. 96. Fisherman. 50. 153. 43. The. 93. The. Do. 288. Envied. Generous friend. ix. Gharib and his brother Ajib. 81. v. ix. i. iii. v. 211. of the Boy and. 69. The. . Folk. Foolish. ix. The ix. Hakim (The . 288. Fox. ii. vi. Do. v. and the pious man. The. Girls of Bassorah. 81. Frank King's Daughter. 269. The. vi. I. v. 40* Falcon and the Partridge. The Fox and 165. The Lady and her. 151. vi. do. Yahya bin Khalid and the. 123. The poor man and his. The Wolf and the. Kafur. and the. Envier and the Envied. Al-Asma'i Harun al-Rashid and the three. The History of. Falcon. 1 10. Five Suitors. i. Harun al-Rashid and the Arab. Francolin and the Tortoises. v. Girl at School. 156. Fox and the Folk. v. ii. 27. 172. Goldsmith's wife. The. viii. and the Jinni. of Baghdad. Tale of the. iii. and the two. The. Fox and the Crow. vii. Ghanim bin Ayyub the Thrall o' Love. Fuller and his son. The Envier and the. Eldest Lady's Story.Appendix. Fatimah. 1 8 1. i. Do. Do. vi. Frank wife. 211. ix. vii. iv. 162. The water-carrie^ and the. Goldsmith and the Cashmere Singing-Girl. Tale of the. Khusrau and Shirin Fishes and the Crab. 89. 138. The. Enchanted Spring. 123. i. i. Si- Fakir and his jar of butter. 38. 145. ix. the. 49. iii. King Sindibad and his. vi. The Loves 264* vi. Do. The. iii. viii. 108. v. The. i. vi. 145. Do. Eunuch Bukhayt. The. 19. Ferryman of the Nile and the Hermit. x. . 113. The. Do. Caliph A1-) and the Merchant. vi. 257. 91. Abdullah the Merman and Abdullah the. The. The man of Upper Egypt and his. First Old man's Story. Ma'aruf the Cobbler and his wife. . Fath bin Khakan (Al) and Al-Mutawakkil. iv. ii. Flea and the Mouse. Girls. Do. and the three. v. vii. Girl. 132. Youth. 134. Forger. i. The. 150. 73.

Alf Laylah wa Laylah.

314

Hammad

the Badawi, Tale

Hariri (A1-)

Abu

of,

ii,

Zayd's lament

104.
for his

Final Note to vol.

impotency.

Harun al-Rashid and the Arab girl, vii. 108.
and the Slave-Girl and the Imam Abu Yusuf,'iv. 153.
Do.
Do.
with the Damsel and Abu Nowas, iv. 261.
Do.
and Abu Hasan the Merchant of Oman, ix. 188.
Do.
and the three girls, v. 81.
Do.
and the two girls, 81.
and the three poets, v. 77.
Do.
Do.
and Zubaydah in the Bath, v. 75.
Hashish-Eater, Bakun's tale of the, ii. 91.
Hasan of Bassorah and the King's daughter of the Jinn,
Hasan, King Mohammed bin Sabaik and the Merchant,

Hatim al-Tayyi his generosity after death,
Haunted House in Baghdad, The, v. 166.
Hawk, The Crows and the, ix. 53.
:

iv.

viii. 7.
vii.

308.

94.

Hayat al-Nufus, Ardashir and, vii. 209.
Hedgehog and the wood Pigeons, The, Hi. 156.
Hermit, The Ferryman of the Nile and the, v. 288.
Hermits, The, iii. 125.
Hind, Adi bin Zayd and the Princess,

v.

1

24.

Hind daughter of Al-Nu'uman and Al-Hajjaj, vii. 96.
Hind (King Jali'ad of) and his Wazir Shimas, ix. 32.
Hisham and the Arab Youth, The Caliph, iv. 101.
Honey, The Drop

of, vi.

142.

Horse, The Ebony, v. I.
House with the Belvedere, The,

Hunchback's Tale, The, i. 255.
Husband and the Parrot, The,

vi. 188.

i.

52.

Ibn al-Karibi, Masrur and, v. 109.
Ibrahim al-Khawwas and the Christian King's Daughter, v. 283.
Do.
bin al-Khasib and Jamilah, ix. 207.

Do.

of Mosul and the Devil,

Do.

bin al-Mahdi and Al-Amin, v. 152.
bin al-Mahdi and the Barber-Surgeon,

Do.

Do.
Ifrit's

Do.

vii.

113.

and the Merchant's

mistress and the King's Son, The,

iv. 103.

Sister, iv. 278.

vi. 199.

Ignorant man who set up for a Schoolmaster, The, v. 119.
Ikrimah al-Fayyaz, Khuzaymah bin Bishr and, vii. 99.
Imam Abu Yusuf with Al-Rashid and Zubaydah, The, iv.
Introduction.
I

Story of King Shariyar and his brother,

ram, The City

i.

153.
i.

of, iv. 113.

Isaac of Mosul's Story of Khadijah and the Caliph
Isaac of Mosul and the Merchant, v. 129.

Maamun,

iv.

119.7

viii.

315

Appendix.
Isaac of Mosul and his- Mistress and the Devil,
Island, The King of the, v. 290.
Iskandar Zu Al-Karnayn and a certain Tribe
Israelite, The Devout, iv. 283.

Jackals a"nd the Wolf, The, ix. 103.
Barmecide and the Beanseller,

Ja'afar the

Do.

of poor folk,

Janshah, The Story of, v. 329.
Jali'ad of Hind and his Wazir Shimas, King,

Kamar al-Zaman and

Jewish Kazi and his pious Wife, The,
Jewish Doctor's Tale, The, i. 288.

v.

252.

v. 98.

Ja'afar bin al-Hadi, Mohammed al-Amin, and,
Jamilah, Ibrahim bin al-Khasib, and, ix. 207.

Jeweller's Wife,

113.

iv. 159.

and the old Badawi,

Do.

vii.

v.

ix.

93.

32.

the, ix. 246.
v. 256.

The Fisherman and the, i. 38.
Jinni, The Trader and the, i. 24.
Jubayr bin Umayr and Budur, The Loves
Jinni,

of, iv.

228;

Judar and his brethren, vi. 213.
Julnar the Sea-born and her son King Badr Basim of Persia,
Justice of Providence, The, v. 286.

vii.

264.

Kafur, Story of the Eunuch, ii. 51.
Kalandar's Tale, The first, i. 104.

Do.

Do.

The
The

second,
third,

i.

Kamar al-Zaman and Budur,
Do.

and the

i.

113.

130.
iii.

211.

Jeweller's Wife,

ix.

246.

Kazi, the Jewish, and his pious wife, v. ,256.
Khadijah and the Caliph Maamun, Isaac of Mosul's Story
Khalif the Fisherman of Baghdad (note from Bresl.
Edit),

Khalifah the Fisherman of Baghdad,

viii.

of, iv.
viii.

145.

Khawwas (Ibrahim al-) and the Christian King's daughter,
Khorasan, Abu Hasan al-Ziyadi and the man from, iv. 285.
Do.
Abu al-Hasan of, ix. 229.
Khusrau and Shirin and the Fisherman, v. 91.
bin Bishr and Ikrimah al-Fayyaz, vii.
99.
King Jali'ad, Shimas his Wazir and his son Wird Khan,

v.

Khuzaymah

King of the Island, The, v. 290.
Do. and the Pilgrim Prince, The- Unjust,
Do. and the virtuous wife, The, v. 121.
Do. and his Wazir*s wife, The, vi.
129.

ix. 50.

King's Daughter and the Ape, The, iy. 297.
Do. son and the I frit's Mistress, The, vi. 199.
Do. Do. and the Merchant's Wife, The, vi.
167.

Do.

Do. and the Ghulah, The,

vi.

139.

119.

184.

ix.

32.

283.

A If

316

Laylah wa Laylah.

Kings, The Two, ix. 65.
Kisra Anushirwan and the Village Damsel,

Kurd Sharper, Ali the Persian and the,
Kurrat al-Ayn and Abu Isa, v. 145.
Kus

Police

and the Sharper, Chief of

The

Labtayt,
City
Lady of Baghdad,

Lady's Story,
Lady and her

The

of, iv.

iv.

the,

v. 87.

149.

iv.

276.

99.

The Sweep and
Eldest,

i.

the noble,

iv.

125.

162.

five suitors, The, vi. 172.
Do. and her two Lovers, The, vi. 138.
Ladies of Baghdad, The Porter and the Three,

Laughed again, The man who never,

i.

82.

vi. 160.

Abu Mohammed hight, iv. 162.
Abu
al-Hasan al-Durraj and Abu Ja'afar the, v.
Leper,
The
mad, v. 138.
Lover,
Lover who feigned himself a thief (to save his mistress
Lazybones,

Lover's trick against the chaste Wife, The,

294.

honour), The,

lv.

l$$.

vi. 135.

Lovers of Bassorah, The, vii. 130.
Do. of the Banu Tayy, The, v. 137.
Do. of the Banu Ozrah, The, v. 70.

Do.

The Lady and her two, vi. 138.
of Al-Medinah, The, vii. 139.

Do.

The Three

Do.

unfortunate, v. 133.

Loves of the Boy and Girl at School, The, v. 73.
Loves of Abu Isa and Kurrat al-Ayn, The, v. 145.
Do.

Isaac of Mosul's Story of Khadijah and the Caliph,
(A1-) and the Pyramids of Egypt, v. 105.

Do.

and the strange Scholar, The Caliph,

Maamun,

Ma'an bin Zaidah and the Badavvi, iv. 97.
Ma'an the son of Zaidah and the Three Girls,

Mad

Lover, The,

Madinah

(A1-),

vii.

iv.

M9

iv. 185,

iv.

96.

139.

The Lovers

of, vii. 139.

Magic Horse, The, v. i.
Mahbubah, Al-Mutawakkil and his favourite, iv. 291.
Malik al-Nasir (A1-) and the three Masters of Police,
Do.
and his Wazir, vii. 142.

Man and his Wife, The, ix. 98.
Man who never laughed during the rest
Man (The Woman who had to lover

iv.

271.

of his days, The,

vi. 160.

a) and the other

boy, v. 165.

Man of Upper Egypt and his Prankish Wife, ix. 19.
Man of Al-Yaman and his six Slave-girls, iv. 245.
Man who stole the dog's dish of gold, iv. 268.
Man who saw the Night of Power (Three Wishes), vi.

i8a

who had

to lover a

$17

Appendix.
Man's dispute with the learned Woman about boys and
Maruf the Cobbler and his wife Fatimah, x. i.
Mansur, Yahya bin Khalid and, iv.
Masrur and Ibn al-Karibi, v. 109.

girls, v. 154.

179.

Masrur and Zayn al-Mawasif, viii. 205.
Merchant of Oman, The, ix. 188.
and the Robbers, The, ix. loo.
Do.

and the two Sharpers, The,

Do.

Merchant's

Sister,

Wife, The

Do.

iii.

King's son and the,

Wife and the Parrot, The,

Do.

Mercury

158.

Ibrahim bin al-Mahdi and

Ali of Cairo,

i.

The Adventures

the, iv. 278.

vi. 167.

52.

of, vii. 172.

Merman, and Abdullah the Fisherman, Abdullah
Miller and his wife, The, v. 82.
Miriam, Ali Nur al-Din and, viii. 264.
Miser and Loaves of Bread, The,

Mock

Caliph, The,

iv.

vi.

the, ix. 16$.

137.

130.

Mohammed al-Amin and Ja'afar bin al-Hadi, v. 93.
Mohammed bin Sabaik and the Merchant Hasan, King,
Money-changer, The Thief and
Monkey, The Thief and his, iii.

Moslem Champion and

1

308.

59.

the Christian Lady, The,

Mouse, The, and the Cat, ix. 35.
Mouse and the Flea, The, iii. 151.
Mouse and the Ichneumon, The, iii.
Muunis, Ali bin Tahir and the

vii.

the, iv. 275.

v.

277.

147.

girl, v. 164.

Musab bin al-Zubayr and Ayishah his wife, v. 79.
Muslem bin al-Walid and Dibil al-Khuzai, v. 127.
and Al-Fath bin Khakan, v. 153.
and his favourite Mahbubah, iv. 291.
Mutalammis (A1-) and his wife Umaymah, v. 74.
Naomi, Ni'amah bin al-Rabi'a and his Slave-girl, iv. i.
Mutawakkil
Do.

(A1-)

Nazarene Broker's Story, The,
Necklace,

The

Stolen,

vi.

i.

262.

182.

Niggard and the Loaves of Bread, The,
Night of Power, The man who saw the,

vi. 137.

vi. 180.

Nile (The Ferryman of the) and the Hermit, v. 288.
Ni'amah bin al-Raby'a and Naomi his Slave-girl, iv.

Nur
Nur

al-Din Ali and the damsel Anis al-Jalis, ii. r.
al-Din of Cairo and his son Badr al-Din Hasan,

Ogress,

The

King's Son and the,

Old Man's Story, The First, i.
Do.
Do. The Second,
Do.
Do.
The Third, i.

vi.

27.
i.

32.

36.

139.

i.

i,

195.

A If

318

Laylah

wa

Laylah.

Old Woman, Abu Suwayd and the handsome, v.
Omar bin al-Nu'uman and his Sons Sharrkan and Zau al-Makan, The Tale of
King, ii. 77.
bin al-Khattab and the young Badawi,

Omar

Oman, The Merchant
Otbah and Rayya,
Page who feigned

of,

vii.

to

v. 99.

188.

ix.

91.

know

the speech of birds, The,

vi.

169.

Paradise, The Apples of, v. 141.
Parrot^ The Merchant's wife and the, i. 52,
Partridge, The Hawk and the, iii. 138.
Peacock, The Sparrow and the, iii. 161,

Persian and the Kurd Sharper,

AH

the, iv. 140^

Physician Duban, The, 1.45.
Physician's Story, The Jewish, i. 288.
Pilgrim and the old woman who dwelt in the desert, The,

Pilgrim Prince, The Unjust King and the,
Pious black slave, The, v. 261.

ix.

v,

1

86.

50.

The Hedgehog and the, iii. 156.
The
Two, vi. 183.
Pigeons,
Platter-maker and his wife, The devout, v. 264.
Poets, Harun al-Rashid and the three, v. 77.
Pigeons,

Police of Bulak, Story of the Chief of the,

iv.

273.

Do. of Kus and the Sharper, the Chief of the, iv. 276.
Do. of New Cairo, Story of the Chief of the, iv. 271.

Do. of Old Cairo, Story of the Chief of the,

iv.

274.

Do. (The Three Masters of), Al- Malik, al-Nasir and,
Poor man and his friend in need, The, iv. 288.
Porter and the Three Ladies of Baghdad, The,
The Tale of the, i. 173.

1.

iv.

371,

82.

Portress,

Prince

Behram and

the Princess Al-Datma,

Do. the Ensorcelled, i. 69.
Do. and the Ghulah, The,
Do. The Devout, v. 1 1 1.

i.

vi.

184.

ix.

50.

54.

Do. (the Pilgrim), The Unjust King and,
who became a Moslem, The, v. 141.

Prior

The justice

Providence,
Purse,

The

Stolen,

vi.

of, v.

286.

209.

Pyramids of Egypt, Al-Maamun and

Queen of the Serpents, The,

v.

the, v. 105.

298.

Rake's trick against the chaste Wife, The,

Rayya, Otbah and,

vii.

vi. 135.

91.

Reeve's Tale, The, i. 278.
Rogueries of Dalilafc the Crafty aad her daughter Zaynab the Corcy*ea*cber,

The, vii.

144.

Appendix.

Uns al-Wujud and

Rose-in- Hood,

the

Want's Daughter,

v. 12.

Ruined Man of Baghdad and his Slave-girl, The,
24.
Do.
who became rich again through a dream, The,
ix.

Rukh, Abd al-Rahman

the Moor's Story of the,

iv.

189.

v. 122.

and the Barmecides, v. 94.
Allah gave a cloud to serve him, The, v 274.

Sa'id bin Salim

Saint to

whom

Saker and the Birds, The, iii. 154.
Sandalwood Merchant and the Sharpers. The,

vi.

202,

Sayf al-Muluk and Badi'a al-Jamal, vii. 314.
School, The Loves of the Boy and the Girl at, v. 73.
Schoolmaster who fell in love by report, The, v. 117.

Do.
Do.
Serpent, TW

The Foolish, v. 1 18.
The ignorant man who
Crow and the, ix. 46.

Serpent-charmer and his Wife,
Serpents,

The Queen

of the,

ix.

set

up

for a, v. 119.

56.

v. 298.

Sexes, Relative excellence of the,

v.

1

54.

Shahryar and his brother, King (Introduction), t
Shahryar (King) and his brother, i. 2.
Shams al-Nahar, Ali bin Bakkar and, iii.

I.

162.

Sharper of Alexandria and the Chief of Police, The,

iv.

269..

Sharper, Ali the Persian and the Kurd, iv. 149.
Do. The Chief of the Kus Police and the, iv. 276.

The Simpleton and the, v. 83.
Sharpers, The Merchant and the Two, iii.
Do.
The Sandalwood Merchant and
Sharrkan and Zau al-Makan, The History
Do.

his Sons,

ii.

158.
the, vi. 202.

of King

277.

Shaykh's Story (The First), i. 27.
Do.
(The Second), i. 32.

Do.
(The Third), i. 36.
Shepherd and the Thief, The, ix. 106.
Shimas, King Jali'ad of Hind and his Wazir, ix. 32.
Shipwrecked Woman and her child, The, v. 259.
Shirin and the Fisherman, Khusrau and, v. 91.
Simpleton and the Sharper, The, v. 83.
Sindibad and his Falcon, King, i. 50.
Sindbad the Seaman and Sindbad the Porter,
Do.
First Voyage of, vi. 4.

Do.

Second Voyage

Do.

vi, I.

of, vi. 14.

Do.

Third Voyage of, vi. 22.
Fourth Voyage of,vi. 34,

Do.

Fifth

Do.

Sixth

Voyage of, vi. 48.
Voyage of, vi. 58.

Omar

bin

Al-Nu'uman and

Alf Laylah wa

320

Laylak,

Sindbad the Seaman, Seventh Voyage of, vi. 68
Do.
(note from Cal. Edit.) vi. 78.
Singing-girl,

The Goldsmith and the Cashmere, vi. 156*
The Man of Al-Yaman and his, iv. 245.

Six Slave-girls,
Slave,

The

pious black, v. 261.

The ruined man of Baghdad and his, ix. 24.
Slave-girls, The Man of Al-Yaman and his six, iv. 245.
Slave-girl,

Sparrow and the Eagle, The, Hi. 155.
and the Peacock, The, iii. 161.
Do,
the Wind, The, ix. 59.
and
Spider

The Enchanted, vi. 145.
Squinting slave-girl Abu al-Aswad and

Spring,

his, v. 80.

Stolen Necklace, The, vi. 182.

Do.

Purse, The,

Suitors,

vi.

209.

The Lady and her

Sweep and Noble Lady
Tailor's Tale, The,

i.

five, vi. 172.

of Baghdad, The,

iv. 125.

300.

Taj al-Muluk and the Princess Dunya, The Tale of,
Tawaddud, Abu al-Hasan and his slave-girl, v. 189.
Thief,

Do.

The Lover who
and the

Shroff,

feigned himself a
iv.

The,

iv.

ii

263.

155.

275,

and his Monkey, The, iii. 159.
Do. The Shepherd and the, ix. 106.
Do. turned Merchant and the other Thief, The,
Do.

Thieves, The Boy and the, ix. 95.
Do.
The Merchant and the, ix. loo.
The Two, v. 107.
Do.
Three-year-old-child, The Debauchee and

Three Apples, The, i. 186.
Three unfortunate Lovers,

v.

v. 107.

the, vi. 208.

133

Three Wishes, or the Man who longed to see the Night of Power, The,
Tortoise, The Waterfowl and the, iii. 129.
Tortoises,

Trader

The Heathcockand

(the)

and the

Jinni,

i.

the, ix. 113.

24.

Trick (The Lover's) against the chaste wife, vi. 135.
Do. (The Wife's) against her husband, vi. 152.

Two
Two

Kings, The,

ix. 56.

Pigeons, The,

vi.

183.

Umaymah, Al-MutalammSs and his
Unfortunate Lovers, The Three, v.

wife, v. 74.
133.

Unjust King and the Pilgrim Prince, The,

Uns al-Wujud and

ix. 50.

the Wazir's Daughter Rose-in-Hood, v, 33.
Upper Egypt (The man of) and hi? Frank wife, ix. 19.
Walid bin Sahl, Yunus the Scribe and the Caliph, vii. 104.

vi

321

Appendix.
Wardan, the Butcher, Adventure with the Lady and the Bear,
Water-carrier and the Goldsmith's Wife, The, v. 89.
Waterfowl and the Tortoise, The,

Wazir and the Sage Duban, The,
Wazir, Al-Malik aUNasir and his,

iii.
i.

iv.

293,

129.

45'

vii.

142.

Al-Yaman and his young brother, The, v. 71.
Do.
Wazir's Son and the Hammam-Keeper's Wife, The, vi.
Do. Wife, The King and his, vi. 129.
Weasel, The Mouse and the, iii. 147Weaver, The Foolish, iii. 159.
Wife, The Badawi and his, vii. 124.
Do. (the Chaste) The Lover's Trick against, vi. 135.
Do. The King and his Wazir's, vi. 129.
Do. The Man and his Wilful, ix. 98.
of

152.;

Do. (The Merchant's) and the Parrot, i. 52.
Do. (The Virtuous) and the King, v. 121.
Wife's device to cheat her husband, The,
trick against her

Do.

vi. 152.

v. 96.

husband, The,

Wild Ass, The Jackal and the, ix. 48.
The Man and his, ix. 98.

Wilful Wife,

Wind, The Spider and the, ix. 59.
Wird Khan (King) and his Women and Wazirs,
Wolf and the Fox, The, iii. 132.
Wolf, The Foxes and the, ix. 103.

Woman

(The shipwrecked) and her

child, v. 259.

Woman's trick against her husband, v. 96.
Woman who made her husband sift dust, The,

Woman whose hands

were cut

Women, The Malice of, vi.
Do. The Two, v. 165.
Yahya bin Khalid and
Do.

Yaman (The Man
Do.

off for

iv.

281.

Almsgiving, The,

iv. 281.

,

122.

the Forger,

iv.

181.

and Mansur, iv. 179.
and the Poor Man, v.

Do.

-^

ix.

92.

of A1-) and his six slave-girls,

iv.

(The Wazir of A1-) and his young brother;

245.

v. 71.

Yunus the Scribe and the Caliph Walid bin Sahl, vii. 104.
Zau al-Makan, The History of King Omar bin al-Nu'uman and
Sharrkan and, ii. 77.
Zayn al-Mawasif, Masrur and,

Zaynab the

Zumurrud,

vii.

AH

VOL. X.

Dalilah

144.

in the Bath,

Harun al-Rashid and,

Shar and,

iv.

187.

Sons

205.

Coney-Catcher, The Rogueries of

Daughter,

Zubaydah

viii.

his

v.

75.

the Wily, and her

A If Laylah wa

322

INDEX

Laylah.

//.

ALPHABETICAL TABLE OF THE NOTES
(ANTHROPOLOGICAL,
Prepared by

A'AMASH

(A1-)

=

one with watering eyes,

= partition-wall (chapter

of the

Koran) v. 217.
A'araj (A1-), traditionist, v. 81.
Aaron's rod,

ii.

242.
staff)

cloak

of

hair,

ii.

133

j

ii.

205.

188.

= the grim-faced)

iv.

ii.

(black

138.

61.

banners and dress)

ii.

64

;

292.

'Abd = servile,

iii.

Abd al-Ahad =
vi.

44.

Abdun (convent
Abhak = Allah

(poet-prince)

of) x. 40.

bless

him and keep

body and clothes) viii. 240.
Abjad (Hebrew- Arabic alphabet)
(logogriphs derived from it)
Ablution (difference of fashion
it)

(see

v. 229.
viii.

in

93.

per*

v. 112.

(obligatory after copulation) viii. 305.
(an Imam to mankind) ii. 203.
(place of)

of the

iii.

v.

272

;

iv. 148.

= mediaeval

St.

;

Abraham)

vi.

270.
Abtan (Al-) = the most profound
vi. 221.

205

(see

Bdtini)

Abu al-Abbas al-Mubarrad (grammarian)

iv. 7-

Abd al-Rahfm = slave

ii.

(the Friend

Kadiri order) iv. 41.
al-Malik ibn Marwan (Caliph)

Abd

of the Compassion-

221.

Abd al-Sala"m = slave of salvation, vi. 211.
Abd al-Samad = slave of the Eternal, vi.
221,

181.

(traditionist) v. 8l.

al-Mu'tazz

ibn

iv..

(traditionist) v. 8l.

Abraham

Abd al-Aziz (Caliph) a, 166.
Abd al-Malik (Caliph) ii. 77, 167.
Abd al-Kddir of GiMn (founder

ate, vi.

Abdallah bin Salim

One (God)

222.

319;

304.

Abdallah bin Malik al-Khuza'f,

forming

slave of the

v. 141.

Sal'am) ii.-24'Abir (a fragrant powder sprinkled on face,

Abbasides (descendants of the Prophet's
uncle)

name\

x. 39.

etc*, ix. 54.

Abbas " hero eponymus " of the Abbasides,
(

i,

Abdallah

42.

Aba al-Khayr = my good sir,
Abad = eternity, without end,
i.

(a neutral

Abdallah bin Mas'ud

=

Samanhudf^

Abdallah bin Abbas, companion and tradi*
tioner,

v. 238).

Aba"ah

(for

87.

Abdallah bin Abi Kilabah, iv, 113.
Abdallah bin al-Zubayr, iii. 318.

(becomes with Moslems Moses*

viii.

vi.

Abdallah

96.

A'araf (A1-)

Aba,

SlElNGASS, Ph.D.

Abd al-Samad al-Samudi

(A1-), traditionist, v. 81.

A'amash
vi.

F.

&c.)

v. 138.

Abu al- Abba's al-Rakdshi (poet) v. 77.
Abu al-Aynd, v. 164.
Abu al-Hamlat = father of assaults, burdens,
pregnancies,

vii.

149.

323

Appendix.
Abu al- Hasan (not Huso) iii. 162.
Abu al-Husn = Father of Beauty (a

fancy-

name) v. 189.
Abu al-Hosayn (Father of the Forllet)=fox,
iii.

Abu

al-Lays (Pr. N.) = Father of the Lion,

ix.

Abu

132.

211.

al-Muzaffir
166.

iv.

Abu

= Father of the Conqueror,

=

al-Nowa"s (Pr. N.)

Father of the

Father of the Feather-

=

al-Sa'adat

viii.

148

Father of Prosperities,
Munificence,

vii.

vii.

142.

Abu Bakr (Caliph) ii. 167, 197 v. 235.
Abu Bakr Mohammed al-Anbari (gramma;

rian) v. 141.

Abu Dalaf

al-Ijili

liberality

Abu
Abu

and

=

Faris

soldier

(a

ix.

culture)

famed

for

School)

Father of Spoils (lion) v. 40.
(founder of the Senior

ii.

Abu Hassdn al-Ziyadi,
Abu Hazim, ii. 205.
Abu Horayrah (uncle

258.

of

Mohammed)

nose,

of a Smeller of

269.

i.

of Mustachios,

i,

269.

=

Shihab, Father of the Shooting-star
evil spirit, i. 221.

Sir (corruption of Pousiri

ix.

=

Busiris)

134.

=

Sirhan

Father of (going out to pray

by) Morning, iii. 146 ; ix. 104.
Abu Tabak = Father of Whipping, x.

Abu Tammam (poet) v. 157.
Abu Yakzan = awakener (ass,

cock)

5.

i.

16,

18.

Abu Yusuf (the Lawyer) iv. 153.
Abu Zanad (traditionist) v. 81.
Abu Zarr (companion of the Prophet)

ii.

v. 1 02.

;

Abyssinians (hardly to be called blacka-

moors)

vi.

63.

102.

vii.

Account of them

will

them

leave

be presently given

=

for the present," vii.

157v.

Father of the Fortlet (fox)

211.

Acids applied as counter-inebriants,

Ishak

(Hdrun's cup-companion)

ii.

viii.

of the

Horn

(unicorn?)

vi. 21.

Abu Kidr =

Father of the Cooking-pot,

i.

=

Father of the Pitch (Abou Kir)

pardon me,

of all possible claims after
business transactions (quoted on Judg-

Acquittance

ment-Day)

iii.

Coolness (Chamae-

285.

294;

ix.

viii.

291.

of Caliph

Omar)

162.

i.

65

;

174.
v. 124.

Adab = anything between good education
and good manners,

165.

Abu Lahab and his wife,
Abu Luluah (murderer

Abu Maryam

iii.

ix.

of the prehistoric Arabs)

'Ad bin Zayd (poet)

ix. 134.

Abu Kurrat = Father of

306.

=

(formula of dismissing a servant) vi.

'JLd (tribe

304-

leon)

of responsibility

76.

243-

Abu Karn = Father

Kir

me

Acquit
ii.

302.

ii.

Abu Shammah = Father

32-

Abu Hosayn =

Abu

Father of the Cheek-mole,

269.

"we

iv.

81.

Abu

(a toy) ii

Account asked from outgoing Governors,

207.

(scourged for refusing to take office)
210.

vi.

i.

200

189.

Hanifah

ii.

Abu Shamah =

Abu

133.

Abu Ali, see Di'ibil al-Khuza'i.
Abu Ali al-Husayn the Wag, vii. 130.
Abu Amir bin Marwan (Wazir to Saladin)

an

(hero of

335.

93-

Abu

x. 29.

;

Abu al-Sakha = Father of

viii.

Abu Musa al-Asha>i, ii. 162.
Abu Riyah = Father of Winds

Abu

kin, viii. 77.

Abu

older tale)

Abu Shawarib = Father

Sidelocks, iv. 55, 264.

Abu al-Ruwaysh=r

Abu Mijan (song of) x. 41.
Abu Mohammed al-Battl

i.

132

;

ix.

41.

Adam's loins, iv. ill.
Adam's Peak (Ar. Jabal al-Ramun)

vi.

65.
(*

term of contempt)

viii.

Adaref = an Adamite (opposed to Jinn)
169.

ix.

A If Laylah wa

324
Ad a rigour Adeh,

viii.

248.

Address without vocative

more

particle

emphatic, vii. 125.
Addressing by the name not courteous

vii.

Laylah.

Ahmad al-Danaf (Pr. N.) = Calamity Ahmad iv. 75.
bin AM Dawdd (High Chancellor
to the Abbasides)

ix. 244.
bin Ilanbal (founder of the fourth

114.

Adi (son

Hatim

of

al-Tayyi)

iv.

95.

Adii (Al-)= the Just (Caliph Omar)

v.

103.

'Adiliyah (Mosque in Cairo) x. 6.

Adim = leather

(Bulghdr, Morocco)
ix. 206.

viii.

80.

and second)

(first

Adi = just

vi.

269.

(ironically) iv. 271.

Adm (Udm)=any relish, iv.
Admiral

vi.

(fishing for the King's table) ix.

begins with) v.

100.

v. 105.

287.

near," ix. 317.
= Smiter with the evil eye, i. 123.
Air (I fear it for her when it bloweth)

'Ajaibal-Hind=marvelsoflnd,
Ajal = appointed time of

= yes

299.

Adultery (none without an adulterer) v. 90.
(to be proved by four witnesses)
'

v. 97.

viii.

i.

(son

of, to

one's

ix.

child)

iii.

x. 153.

74.

=

region not Arab,

Persia,

2.

esp. Persian,

Ajib (Pr. N.) = wonderful,

331.

own

life, i.

verily, vii. 195.

'Ajam (A1-)

'Ajami= foreigner,
(son of = base-born)

vi.

woman, highly

Ajuz, for old

i.

120.

257.
insulting

i.

174.

219.

'Ajwah = dates pressed
and deified, vii. 14.

wEolipyla, ii. 101.
JEsop the fable-writer, x. 117.

Afa = o$t9

(a snake) ix. 37.
Affirmative and negative particles,

Akabah (mountain
vii.

Afridun (Furaydun) absurd name

Greek king,

ii.

195.

for

a

Akakir = drugs,

i.

master, sir, gentleman (politely
applied to a Eunuch) i. 235 ; ii. 50.
(A1-) for chief police officer,

vii.

156.

Ahassa bi 'l-shurbah = "he smelt a rat,"

nant,

wa al-Mfsak=oath and cove-

ix.

327.
to Ak'as)

i.

Ahirah = strumpet
al-Kassdrin

(see

=

Fajirah)

viii.

109.

falling-stones,

viii.

Akh= brother
word),

Akh

vi.

=

the person of the house

Ahmad = the
326.

praised one,

75

;

ix.

of the royal Chosroes)

(wide signification of the

=

Brother of Ignorance,

162.

grey,

ii.

fresh

cheek-down) ii. 292.
Akik (A1-), two of the name,

(applied

vii.

to

140.

=

viii.

carnelian ("seal with seals of")
228.

Abu Talib)
Akka=Acre, ix. 19.

269.

Mohammed,

(two) brothers ger-

man, viii. 340.
-khir al-Zaman = the latter days, v. 304.
Akhlat (town in Armenia), vii. 88.

Akil (son of

(euphemistic for wife) vi. 199.

Ahlan=as one of the household,

i.

243.

al-Jahalah

iii.

'Akik

334-

Ahl al-Bayt

Meccah)

spices, vii. 147.

Kisra- Kings),

= sor.s

Akhzar= green,

213.

Ahja"r

-

Akhawan shakikdn =

144.

Ahdab = hunchback (opposed

near

V. IO.

17.

Agha =

(A1-)

(

(

= Broad-'o-Brow,

pass

323-

60.

Aftah (A1-)

mass

into a solid

v. 295.

Akdsirah

82.

Africa (suggested derivation of the name)

vii.

Pyramids,

and province of Khuzistan)

(city

53-

(land of Arabia) vi. 94.
Adolescent (Un, aime toutes les femmes)

Ahd

258.

= the

'^.in

Adndn (Arab genealogy

vii.

(Al-)

"Aidance from Allah and victory are

128.

159-

vii.

ii.

irreligion,

Ahram
Ahwdz

Adi'm al-Zaukt= lack-tact,
Adites

Moslem School) ii. 204.
Ahnaf (A1-) bin Kays, ii. 160.
Ahr (ihr) = fornication, in the sense of

Akkam =
iv. 40.

Cameleer,

viii.

172.

Caravan -manager,

we (be praised whatso be our case) vi. iii. vii. Infidels . (corporality of?) Alas for his chance of escaping = there none. Alchemy ib. 337- Akmam. 65. = = flag of the faith. vi. ii. 16. = Alhambra family). swearing by. 112. 28. 236 . is Alast (day of). Red. 121. Akr Kayra wan = ball of silver-dross. the (succour All-knowing (is bin Mercury Ali) for ib. viii. ii. 75 ib. (Dar) ib. 210. Ali Shar (Pr. 289. viii. 150 Ala al-Din (Aladdin) = Glory of the Faith. = "thank 171. (will 172. ib. v. vii. iii. v. any how. 309. telling (it 49. i. 267. iv. iv. 60. ib. 275. ix. formula used when an improbable tale. 108. vii. iv. 225. 191. . (sight thee = Tahfr (Governor) v. as tests of calligraphy Ha. 7. ib. I don't (unto. formula of quoting the said) (hath Koran. Alhamdulillah (pronounced to avert the evil eye). 36. of the Himyarite Kings. 104. al-Hamra. 168. for debauchery). the Mohammed vi. hard swearing) iv. v. Akras = cakes. iv. Alcove (corruption of Al-Kubbah). Akyal. (give thee profit) iii. 64. Opener) is (confound the far One. omniscient). i-32. " Manifest Truth ") (the vii. He who "Gospel truth") Ali bin Abi Talib (Caliph) v. 29. (we seek refuge with him from the error of the intelligent) ib. 249. Ala judi-k = to thy generosity. Akun fida-ka = I maybe thy ransom. kulli hal = in any case. 50. etc. 199. 319. 104. 18. (the ib. (his deeds of prowess) ii. vii. you") ib. 164. 225. 65. 200. 213 . know) ib. Alam = way-mark woman and man Takish (acting alternately) v. 216. i. you (requite Alexander (of the Koran) not to be confounded with the Macedonian. (is Alcinous (of the Arabian Odyssy). viii. (His name pronounced 272. against the all-knowing. from gainsaying forbid that I should oppose 53. Al (the Article with Proper Names). 183. Waw will be the refusal. Akl al-hishmah = ix. iv. vii. (murder of) ib. (I seek refuge with) ib. Alish Ala mahlak = at thy leisure. Alak = clotted blood.) Alif (stature like one) iii. title viii. Alk raghm = in spite of. al-Muluk = high of (among the Kings.. Albatross (supposed never to touch land). (names of) ib. (perpetuate his shadow) ib. (names. ib. viii. al-Zaybak (Pr. 327. eating decorously. 187. iii. Allah (will open thee) a formula of All will not be save well Egyptian Moslem) ib. Wa'llahi tayyib (exclamation of the evil eye) iv. A' laj = sturdy miscreants. iv. (I 354- N. iv. Alfi = one who costs a thousand. make no way for the over the True Believers) ix. 35. Kumm = of pi. 293.= gives by our means) 233. Ala 33. ib. 34. vii. bin comprehendeth not) 155. petal. (its practice has cost many a life). abundantly (seeking refuge with) Alexandria (praise of). 93. take refuge with thee) Abdallah Caliph 159. 17. against thee) God viii. 170. Alama = ald-ma = apon what? wherefore? 201. 283. 19. 83. 34.325 Appendix. N. 38. 61. sleeve. by Edwin Arnold) ii. Al Baud (David's Aleppo (noted 317. vii. Him 283. 214. ix. den) ii. v. 175. our tale is no 209. bin are returning) (desire unto) v. ix. x. forbid- (is 26. in. (not Ilm) al-Din = it worse for him. 3.33- viii.

94. Amshat (combs) perhaps = Kanafah (vermicelli) Amud i. ! God. 2. 71 Alnashar (Story Aloes. discende non ascende. 150. 'Amariah (Pr. showing that the speaker does not believe in another's (the Provider) ib. (grant thee grace = pardon thee) ib. 266. Amorium. after (initiatory formula) 37'Amm = uncle (polite address to a father- 50. 26 r. Amru (pronounced Amr) 325. handsome.64 . a Syro. Amend her case = bathe her.. Aman = quarter. N. 39. - = ix. Ammi ba'ad = but Karim= Allah Mesopotamia. Amir = military commander. affair. = command.) v. - vii. 295. v. 259. to secure their - of) x. knowing. 32.) ix. Amor Amr (not "damask-") lipped i. Amdm-ak = before thee. 185 . 44. colour) viands. or Zayd = Toro. effemi- 327. t iii. etc. of Matr. etc. 170. 39. vii. 'Amal = action. 145. 89 . 152. things easy aid) x. 342. Adamas. (pi. Allusions (far-fetched. i. 239- Amsar Amaim ii. viii. (raised the for tricking. 141. etc. (yasturak = will veil thee) ib. vi. 96. i. 371. make (gi ve vii. is bountiful) 283. 106. 277. 176. 346. matter. v. Ambiguousity. Ambar al-Kham = rude Ambergris. toccccxxiv. in Amfr al-Muuminin = Prince Allah! Allah 353. 154. 311.A If 326 Laylak Allah (He was jealous for Almighty) ix. 169. 58. 274. is all Allaho a'alam = God beneficent. 324. mercy. (pi. (from Night ccclxxxi. (sole Scient of the hidden things. Almd = brown- upon thee gain) or . v. nate. 6. of a town) tale) ib. bin Masa'dah (Pr. 263. 124. in respect Him verned by ib. 32. vii. ii. bin Ma'adi Karib (poet) (well viii. in my Amalekites. (for the love of) (Karim = God ib. 8 viii. Amir = one who inhabiteth. heavens without columns.v. in Eastern appreciated medicine) ix. 265. Brown and ib. Allaho akbar (as a war cry) vii. is all i. Amm extolled) ib. i. Alpinism (unknown) iii. Almas = Gr. of Laun. 104. 83.. al-Rashid. Amazon (a favourite in folk-lore) ii. ! =I conjure thee by (AJ-)-the Trusted of Allah. 131. - to drugs etc. (Al-)' Amrad= beardless and v. Amazons (of Dahome) viii. 123. classical 323. (pardon thee. 2. v. Amtar. ix. 309. q. wa Laylah. vii. iv. vi. iv. haunter. to reverend men ii. fanciful and obscure) hi. Allahumma = Yd Allah with emphasis. Amsei = he passed the evening. Dick or Harry. iv. 146. send thee thy daily bread) i. Amir and Samul = Jones. dishes. 240. i. 324. ' Robinson. iii. in-law) x.) ib. II. iii. son and successor of Hartin i. Alms prayers. 67. 166. (the finest used for making Nadd) 23. laka au 'alayka = either to thee (the Amma i. L 250. Alwan (pi. settled provinces. x. ib. 196 . v. IOO. N. 13- vii. iv. (the loss) ix. 265* of the Faithful 112. 2. (will 264. 93. be (will Amid (Amidah) town = will send us thee quittance of responsibility) ib. 147. . cletian's column) Amurfyah = the " Ana " viii. ix.) of Imamah) = turbands. 167. Allah 85. Almond-apricot.Egyptian 43. operation (applied fear (I him of=I am go- 'Amala hilah dealings with) vulgarism. 106. see Sabr. vi. al-Sawdri = the Pillar of Masts (Diopi. loo. Amin (Amen) = So be it ix. i. Almenichiaka. Al-Safar Zafar = voyaging is victory. v. ii. 66. of Misr) = cities.

Angels (taking precedence in the order of of) i. . ib. Anista-na thy 181.) in (masc. Anthropophagy (allowed when it saves (expressing auspiciousness) iii. i.woman. Aristomenes and his fox. 126. 268. 219. ancient tribe) 346. Arab-land and Ajam=:ail the world over. vi. 270 Nb)= grinder . 231. 181. 190. Antiochus and Stratonice. 263. 1 (for plundering nomades) x. 45. = vi. of slaughtered) v.. 60. 254 . Ardhanari = the half. (tooth-stick of the wild caper-tree Ardka = I see thee) iii. 'Ar (Al-) = shame. viii. Apes (remant of som (isle of) vi. = the Cheerer of the Com- (the noble merciful) (shop) al-Jalis ii. company gladdens us. viii. Arabs (and the Chosroe) vi. Andalusian = Spanish vii. = barbarised Arabs. i. (style compared with Persian) vi. Arakiyah = white scull-cap. #. 134. 239. 55. 95. 183. 275. bushels. ib. Ape-names (day of) ii. 209. iv. Ant (chapter ix. Ardabb (Irdabb) = five ?. 87. 7. 282 teeth. Apricots (various kinds) viii. 285. ( Andalib viii. ix. viii. lights. created beings) ix. Arianism and early Christianity. 146. vi. Arabs. i. 83. (useful phrase). ii. Andam = the gum Anis 203. 92 . Ana fi jfratak =I crave thy intercession viii. iii. Analphabetic Amfrs. 295. Ar'ar ix.*. v. (Derivation of the name) 301 . viii.327 Appendix. 138* Arab. three Persian Kings of the name. iii. i. ix. (many a goodly one rotten iv. Ardeshir (Artaxerxes). 136. iii. x. 306. 140. 314. v. 54. temperament. 25. Arabian Night converted into an Arabian Note. of tribes the 101. x. admirably managed. Apodosis omitted. Arish (A1-). (shouting under his ruler's palace) (exaggerates generosity) . where the victims are not 86. 10. frontier town between Egypt and Palestine. ii. life) v. 246. 23. ix. 163. Arab al-Arba" = prehistoric of Vandal-land) ib. ib. at the core) al-Musta'aribah = naturalised Arabs. 225. 159- Apes 112 al-Muta'arribah = Arabised Arabs. called dragon's blood . " = vi. of the Koran) v. 176 iii. town on the iv. 289. (and their lustful propensities) (gathering fruits) vi. Anwa. 292. vii. Anklet-ring and ear drops (erotic meaning ii. iv. (/. v. pi. ix. (contest with Khosrewan) vii. 213. 367. (ride piebalds) vi. ii. Anushirwdn v. 286. 231. 46. 36. vi. Arabian Odyssey. 39- 81. II. 88. 152. of Nau. Antar (Romance quoted) iv. (appearing to Sodomites) ib* 140. etc. auxiliaries. heath. viii. viii 101. Arif (Al-) 'Arishah = arbour. ib. 215. Apple (wine) iv. Animals (have no fear of man) to. Anbar (pronounced Ambar). vi. Euphrates. 169. 325. = Sweet of 266. panion. Ana a'amil = do I will it (Egypto-Syrian vulgarism). 54. 104. Anemone on a tomb. cap (Turtur) iii. nightingale 282. 101. 156. Ants (a destructive power in tropic mates) cli- = Anushin-rawan Soul. 187. 143. vii. Anwar = Anyab (pi." Juniper-tree. 293. Ara"k (capparis shrub) ii. = monitor.. brazil-wood. 41. v. Arab horses (breeds of) v. A'rab= dwellers in the desert. flowers. 318. 263 . (pathos) (shooting down the Jinn) viii. Anbar Ambar) = ambergris. . Ansar=Medinite vii. Arafat (Mount. Anasa-kum = yeare honoured by knowing him. ix. 54. 56. 5. 125.z>. Anagnorisis. ix. al-Musta'ajimah ib. .

cockles. 307 . of Ayishah bint Talhah (grand -daughter Abu = lion) iv. Attraction of like to like. shame. i. Ukiyah. Arun (Heb. probably for Arslan vii. pi. most ungrateful (voice of the higher numerals) ix. conquering) thou hast made 'Auj = Aun (of Jinns. vi. iii. v. = sparrow-olives. Asal Nahl = bee's honey. Aylulah 78. A wak = ounces (pi. etc. 290. i. 86. in cosmetics. Atsah (A1-) viii. Awahl Awa"h! = Aks Alas ii. 235- noon.v. 355.white. Asim = defending. Ashirah clan. for Vi. 116. 59. 318 . Ashab al-Ziya" = Feudatories.} viii. 108. Armenians (porters of Army (the wild. drawing 240. of 'Alimah ! = dancing 12. A-Sharif anta=art thou a noble. 346. i. Aysh (Egypt. 32. 236. Ashka'nia'n. jarrdr tent-ropes. 347. Laylah. v. 79. 304. bride (tropical Asal Kasab = cane -honey. Askar = vi. Asidah (custard. 142. . = i. 27. vi. Atheist (Ar. ii. what.'Ariis 25. 220. (divided into six divisions) Arsh = the ninth Heaven. ix. author of Antar. x. 214.) iv. Arms and armour. (for any perfume. 3. Asian (Pr. 'Atb Aurat 271. = i. 116. Asma'f (A1-). 182. == i. 295. = hucklebones. = no. Arm-pits (taking a dismounting person under the. Zindik) viii. x. N. 190. 'Awdshik 37. nakedness (woman.A If Laylah wa 328 Arithmetic mastered (not by Moslems) v. x. Ark al-Halawat = vein of sweetness. vi. 255. 92: viii. with his hoof) Atbak = trays. 117. 118. ii 296. 88. x. vii. Avanie (Ar. Aslah = head-kerchief. x. reproach = Atnab for greed) x. iii. Armanfyah (Armenia) iv. Ashab al-Sufifah. eye (for helper) v. i. viii. vi. 183.Arubah (Al-) = Friday. 60. 15. 133. Ashdb al-Rdy (epithet of the Hanafi school) Ashjar time or prayer of mid-after- Aswad = black Atr Asaf bin Barkhiya (Solomon's Wazir) 99 . Arithmology (cumbrous in Arabic Ass (held ill-omened) (-goad) iii. iv. Ayn = 159. vii.) = in bis shirt. me desolate. Artal. Bakr) = prayers. 114. 321.62. 327. 229. = the viii. girls. Awwa (name of Satan's wife) iii. vii. iii. race of Persian Kings. ix. *Asakir = corner-terminals of a litter. vii. 151. 229. 78. be chased like a dog. 217. = ix. ii. (A1-) " 112. ' for lack ii. Ash'ab (proverbial 2. jArtists wine) "handy 240. a sign of respect) iv. 8. Ashhab = grey. after morning 178. for iii. 167. classical . i. Awwadah = lute-player. (used for any dark colour) 268. rags = = (of 146. door-posts or wooden bolts. pap) blame. Ayat = Coranic verses. Asal Katr = drip-honey. 268. (or ") iii. wife) 30. = 'Attar 'Awalim. As'ad = more name most) fortunate. 242 iii. v. 264. 231. 121. 127. 79.) =Ayyu Shayyinfor " Ma" i. 142. Ayat al-Najdt = Verses of Safety. Asr (A1-) penis.. of Satr = chopper ?) viii. slumbering ii. 102. Kuch (?) ix. vii. man and woman) vi. ii. iv. (*>. Atmar 203. q. ! vii. . 8$. Asta"r (pi. father of our sextant. vii. Gharamah) viii. = sneezing. vi. 45. Auhashtanf vi. viii. 191. Constantinople) i. 78. iv. Asar = traces. 51. Astarte (primarily the planent Venus?) x. ix. 314. druggist. Avaunt = Ikhsa. 184. Asoka's wife and Kundla. iv. Ayns (verset of the 140) v. Ashab = companions. . Persian town. 234. 123. Arman = Armenia. 273. Asafiri x. (for disgrace) viii. iv. army. perfume-seller. Astrolabe. ii. travelling clothes) vii. v. see Rotl. 24.

Bahr al-Kunuz = Sea of Treasures. (baser sort) saloon with estrades. Badrah= 10. (op- v. 274. v. ii. 282. 4. 390. Aywd (Ay wa'lla"hi)= Ay. 306 . i. iii. 278. iii. 8. 246. Azarbija'n Desert (noble) ib. Job. Badhanj 185. applied to cattle. Babylonian eyes = bewitching ones. vii. " deuced " or Azlm "mighty fine. 238. 318. ii. Badr Basim = full moon smiling. . ix. Bakh 1 23. 88. Back-parts compared to revolving heavens. 51. iv. Azdashir. tail-less. x. 88. 45(such as to water) Bakk = bug. large river. vii. (Issus of Cilicia) iv. of the World) is 70. Bahimah. 3. i. 4o. excellent. ! iv. 'Aziz (A1-) al-Misr ix. = *Aysh on that has a bitter man which life. prized. 297. 249. a sepulchral cave) ix. Bachelor not admitted in Arab quarters. Ayyub = Azal Badawi the sister-wife Aywan = Ayys (for 308. N. Koran (not used in the (bonnet) ib. Azrak = i. vii. viii. 294. Ba"b al-Luk (of Postal) Bab al-Nasr iv. 54. Bahak = white iv. 298. Bakh ! = bravo ! iii. opposed to the Ubiquity (of Nullity. iii. Baghdad = Garden of Justice. = Kohista"n. 205 . 334. i. viii.329 Appendix. prayer) ii. 71. . 76. iii. viii. i. 4. 6. 209. ix. Badmasti = le vin mauvais. 58. sea. 121. 209. 311. 51. Azghdn = camel litters. Babes of the eye = pupils. '33- Bahram ( Varanes) = planet Mars.(sometimes for i. 45. 286. ii. 143. 257. camp (bluntness without eternity for 140. Azizah) = dear. v. and v. Bahadur = the brave. 281. v. Bab al-Salam (of the Al-Medinah Mosque) vi. Babel = Gate of God. iv. 8$. al-azrak (A1-) "Blue Nile. ii. Baboon (Kird) has a women. ib. (call to = iii. v. 164 . (shifting beginning = infinity) ii. in spring) ib. -. 318. Ayshat al-durrah murrah ?) v. 339. i. iv.000 dirhams. 100 iii. 75. ix. 44. Edb = gate. 101. 331. Bahaim (pi. natural penchant for Bdbunaj = white camomile. 136 of) plain-speaking General under Saladin) = Ba'al'scity. 5. not River. iv. ii. 13. Damascus. = Blue . 3. ix. leprosy." 178. posed to Abad Az'ar ii. brava ! 329. Bakhkharani = he incensed me. Bahr = water cut or trenched in the earth. i. . v. Badinjein = Solanum pomiferum or S. 129. almond-pastry. 347. 4. = vii. 102 iv. Bdb al-Bahr and Bab al-Barr. Baghlah = she-mule.Egyptian. I v. vii. viii. Bakkt = Bakldmah make a bath-man's mouth ix. raim. 17. Bdb (A1-) al-' AH = Sublime Porte. 240. Bad -i-Saba = breeze o' the morn. iii. = Allah. having thin hair . Azrar (buttons) ii. . Si. mostly = black cattle. (cannot swim) 303. Bahr i. 55. greengrocer. (a fool as well as a rogue) 195. Bahr al-Muhit = circumambient ocean. chapter. 259. 69. 295. i. blue-eyed (so 146. = the falcon !) vii. 371. vii. Bahramdni = Brahman. of Bahimah = Behemoth) v. Badawi's dying farewell. Bahrwa"n (Pr. for Bihrun Bactrian camel. 328. misprint for Ardashir. 288. iv. (House of Peace) viii. 151 . Bakhshish naturalized as Anglo. Badal = substitute. ii. Melongena 104. 37. 98. by vii. Bab al-Faradfs = gate of the gardens at = i. 191. = Azdn i. Magnifico of Mis- 119. = windshaft. 100. highly (fern. ix. ventilator. ix." viii. Gate of Victory (at Cairo) 234 x. Badlah Kunuziyah = treasure-suit. iii. iii. 151. lives Arab) bread) x. Baha al-Dfn ibn Shaddad(Judge Advocate- Bahriyah = crew. = Aziz ix. ib.

17. 213. viii. Barmudah (eighth Coptic month) v. Baldricks (Ar. i. 70. 4.(history of the family) = = Bathers pay on leaving the Barmahat (seventh Coptic month) v. 55. vi. coition) 135- (setting x. Batiyah=jar. it be a blessing to thee) vm. Barr al. Bath viii. 340. Barr al-Manakhah in Al-Medinah. 101. Basil of the bridges 194. Bataikh (Batatikh) = water v. ii. (admirably portrayed) iv. it a-working. Banat i. 18. = Ballanah Baltiyah black stones. vi. 189. Banal al-Na'ash = the Great Bear. from 213 i. Tamim good (commonly -pronounced v. Battash al-Akran = he who assaults his vii. 125. Shayban (tribe) iv. Baramikah) i. 254. 294 . 141. Bawd 61. = (al-) guerdon. 36. 145. 188. 247 iii. Labrus Niloticus Ban = myrobolan. Barijah Bismillah) (and privy. 139. ii. insipid) Post. 244. i. Hammam. . Barsh Batanah water. Bartaut ii. 74. 345. = Ballur (Billaur) = crystal. (daintily deviced) = millah. peers. protegees. Bastinado of women. Barmecides (Ar. (suggesting freshness Kahtan. 231. Cyprinus Bynni. 283. 183. Barzakh = bar. Battle-pieces. . story of. 89. 290. 75. . hot and cold) 24. Banu Abbas pennyroyal. vi. i. without vi. Basharah = Ballan tire-woman. Battal (A1-). Bat (has seed like a man's) v. matting. ix. to a spear sign of investi- 307 iii. i. bawarij) = Jarm. iv. x. 39. (tribe) vii. 150. Banj 170. gift the Indian Tulsi. Barsh (Bars) commonest form of Bhang. 260. Batrik (Bitrik) = patricius. Balabil pi. = daughters. 244. ii. Bastardy (a sore offence amongst Moslems) (their colours white) vi. Bandukaniyah (quarter of Cairo) = = Nibanj Banner (bound Banni(Bunnf) Banquets i. (fish) viii. vi. iv. shows that consummation has taken place) iv. Bashik (small sparrow-hawk) body-servant. 31. 233. 86. vii. vi. 29. Batinf = gnostic a reprobate. i. Jinns) Baradiyah = wide-mouthed jug. Umayyah 'Uzzah v. 262. 24. Barid for love passion) vi. (their colours black) vi. 19. (not to be entered by drawers) men ii. 208.ic ruins give rist to the idea of men transformed into Balah = green date. 55. 149. Balid = simpleton i. iii. iii. vi. vii. 212. 139. = pronouncing the formula Bis* 206 . i. viii. 115. cold (vain.. 319. basilicum. of Batarikah (half ecclesiastic half military iv. (tribe tiding*. Basaltic statues in Haurar. al-Asfar (people of the yellow faces) ii. great disaster (battle of Badr) vii. melons. 89. 200. ix. favourite haunts of the 7. Batrak (Batrik) = patriarch. i. flagon. 330. famous Barid = iii. 28. = Berthold. 220. Hamail) v. Bathsheba and Uriah (congeners vii. Barley. turning on the ix. 323. 332. viii. vii. ii. iii. viii. = 101. 226. vi. Basmalah 322.!. barge. vi. 30. Hades. viii. 158. al-Kubra = the Batshat 325. . after sickness) (first. ix. 129. = Basil 311. v. 8. 266. . Ficus Indica. spawn. iv. 304 Banyan = . Barijah) = Ocymum 91. ii. Baras = white leprosy. food for horses. = vii. 311. 137. I. foolish. of bulbul (nightingale) and of balbalah (grief) v. 221. of) vi. term) Batarikh 86. 6l. (pi. 85. 81. 256. Israfl. viii. roe. lining. Nabhan. ii. 232. partition. Bandaged eyes (before beheading) Bands of bandits. 24. 221. iii. 70. (coming out of. 314. etc.A If 330 Laylah wa Laylah. ii. (royal) iv. vi. (may Barge (Ar. ture) Nepenthe.

Bayt Shi'r=a Ba"zf iv. 235. peregrinator. iii. 295- i. faithless wife lawful but connived at. 150. (for cage) v. aI-Sulta"ni = the best kind of gypsum. 32. Kamar) viii. v. al-Filfil = home of pepper (Malabar) Bika'a 55. seen by Abu Bakr in the cave. understanding i. 391. 325- vii' (applied "Bilking" (popular form of) Bilkis and her throne. iv. language) "Ben" Birkat as opposed to but. 50. = Land iii. (greatly i. vi. 123. honour) viii. of 75- Bishr (al-Hafi chairs) vi. falcon. Bayaz = Silurus Bajad (cat-fish) viii. Beast-stories (oldest matter in Belle of the Blacks (our = daughter of the bridegroom (Ichneumon) iii. Bayzatan = testicles (egg. Nights) ours) vi. word) v. 21. viii. is (the creative with 162. Beckoning (Eastern fashion the reverse of dies ii.N. 270 ."iv. Bayt Sha'r= house of hair. (combed by the eye) fingers in the Bint Wuzu) The iii. = "with two singles" (for two baskets) viii. viii. 147. " 306 in safety (to avert the evil Bir (Al-)ai-Mu'utallal 114. (Pr. 79 into a cup (signal of delivery) Bean-eating in Egypt. Bazar of Damascus famous in the Middle i. v. 189. Bilal Bead thrown vii. j 106. ix. 38. their 169. Baydah (Al-) = pawn couplet. 243. = low-land) ii. provoke hunger in the Ruined Well. 382. Birds (sing only in the pairing season) vi. al-Rum 339Bilad al-Sudan 138. Bint 'arus Beast with two backs (Eastern view of) Beauties France) 75. i. 240. 35- Orientals. in chess. Belt (Ar. Birkah Arab shop to (pretended 219. Bazar (locked at night) x. Barefoot) ii. fourchette = 346. Baz) 71. 29. to . common amongst Egyp* tians) iv. Before the face of Allah God. (Pers. 132. 167. 93. Muazzin) (first Bi 'i-Salamah v. 55. viii. Bawwalc = trumpeter (a discreditable cha- Bestiality (fatally Betrothed racter) viii. Better largesse than the mace. Bayaz = whiteness (lustre. vi. characteristic of a Persian) iii. (forked. 269. Bayt aI-Mukaddas= Jerusalem. un- (left 181. viii. hawk. 163. 26. ii. al-Habash = Abyssinian pond. 13. 324. = con vents. Bhang (its kinds and uses) ii. iii. BE and ! IT = F. iv. and short wits) iii. Bird-girls. ( vi. 63. (preparation of) Bayt (Al-) = the house Ages. iv. Beheading or sacking of a = (huge ones discovered on the African for the love of coast) vi. 189. 135. ii. Bisat 132. (drugging with = tabannuj) Bida'ah = innovation. '1-masnad = carpet and 55. 145. v. pilgrimages to) v. Kursf al-Wihidah) = (A1-) wa cushion. viii. Baz (vulg.) = Daughter of Pride of nature iii. 198. = hadba) iv. for Tabl) = kettledrum. Bilad 2. viii. Beard (long. Berbers from the Upper Nile (the " Padvi. Benches (in olden Europe more usual than vi. = pool of standing wafer. 31. 109. Bayaz 33* ii. . 91. 109. ' vi.story) ii. 62. 80. 299. i. 209. 15. 211. 17. 192. 203 . 288. ( Bilad iii. 125. 156. ix. Birth-stool (Ar.Appendix. Bier (the bulging Bi-fardayn 279. v. of Egypt) watch over wives) (songs and cries of) v. 247. (properties of the drug) 270. Bawwa"b = door-keeper. 82. Belle passion in the East. ii. Soudan) 286. respected) ix. viii. 160. of an = Shumukh vii. 18. Bird (created by Jesus) v. "intended to be marrie'd (for with regal ceremony ") x.

. 266. 113. 96. 213. 26. . 242. I. Bread and salt (to be taken now '"cum 202. 211. vi. (of crocodiles. ii. 31- vii. Judgment-day) viii. 76. = prescribed to iv. 178. Bow. of Boycotting (Oriental forms of) viii. 168. 321. 150. vi. 259. 129. Breeze (rude but efficacious refrigerator) iv. 341. 108. Biunes. 54. Blinding a common practice in the East. 12. 342. 203. 327. women. 17. 326. 123. 84. 185. 100. 202 262. iv. 173. N. 168. Breast broadening with delight. lah) iv. Blind (The. 363. Braying of the ass. name from Boulgrin. Bridal couch (attitudinising thereon) = friends v. 353. 302. (consists x. lookers out for a better . rarely conceived in. 164. a cowardly weapon. 75- 134- Body-guard 33. 44. 330. 251. i. Bostan (female Pr. Boccaccio and The Nights. 29. (of Folly iii. 273. 181. v. straitened.v. viii. 196. Nuhas asfar) vi. 159. q.. vii. Bridle (not to be committed to another) 304. 7. wa 199. etc.A If 332 = Bismillah in the name Laylah of God. 5 6 37> iv. ix. serpents. 243. 12. 367 Christians and Jews. 81. 211. Ghurrah. iii. iii. (of trust : 305. women robed with the Abbaside 292 . the converse the of pre- v. family original occupation. Breast. 14. iv. Breslau Edition quoted. Bride of the Hoards. 3. 63. 180. Blue and yellow turbans 343. i. 32. (sworn in Allah Almighty) v.bone (Taraib) v. (for kinsfolk) ix. 264. 168. vii. 71. 329. ii. 151. = Now Laylak. 310. Edition (mean colloquialisms thereof) x. vii. as her) x. = Ignoramus) ("of the Persians ") iii. vii.) = flower-garden. 29. 77 113. 46. . 273 . 172. 132. 109 . 148. 275. 324. 197. Bride's throne. 316. 247 now done. 53 54. i. 181. etc. 362. 9. = 197. Boasting of one's tribe. 'Ulbah) viii. hungry. notorious for insolence) i. Box-trick (and Lord Byron) vi. 169. 156. 75. (said before taking action) form of dismissal) (civil ( = (= fall to) i.) vi. Brasier (Kanun. 354. 112. debauched by 6 i. So. Biza'at = Black (colour nails) sign of 38. 80. 234. Brass (Ar. x. ii. 155. i. 177. i. Biting the finger ends (not confusion. and brethren of society and acquaintances) ix. Bougrerie (derivations of the terms) x. Bostani = gardener. Blue-eyes = blind with cataract or staring. viii. bisexuals and the sun. 52. i. iv. (of the 345. i. Bride-night.350. Blackamoors preferred banner) vious. 138. 217. 18. 255. Brotherhood (forms of making) iii. 207. 315. Blue-eyed (frequently i. i. of Futurity world. 245. fierce-eyed) 192. grano salis ") iv. 345 Black-mail (paid to the Badawin of Ram- iii. 82. Box (Ar. Bougre. Blast (of the last trumpet) v. two of divisions) 62. 24. 227. v. i. 294. etc. 133. Blessings at the head of letters. vii. 168. 202. 223. 119. . Book (Hack Books 187 . 242. business concern. Boccaccio quoted 174. 150. Brain (fons veneris in man) v. 147 . 36. 27.) iii. . v. i. 169. Boils and pimples supposed to be caused by broken hair-roots. 27. name) please go to sleep. 117. 163. Brethern glittering. 86. 42. 42. 98. ii. Breath (healing by the) capital. 162. v. vi. ii. 331. 160. 98. ii. 320. 57. Blaze (Ar. 43. 206. 66. 40 i. enter in Allah's (parodied) Bismillah Nami viii. vi. 215. 279. 200. 59. Brother (has a wide signification amongst Moslems) vi. 12. 264. 46. Bread and salt (bond of) viii. = (of Purity) a very iii. Minkal) v. 145. i. 249. (of Ignorance fool) ii. 83. Ii8. 48. Breslau x. 77.

Mahdf (A1-) vii." ii. exceedingly debauched. ii. iv. 324- Bum = 166. 27. ii. 197. = Gdw-i-Zamm) to) v. 268. Caliphate (defective 57. n.ii. Pulad) = steel. 91. i. 112. 69 . ii. 99. ii. (?) ix. 152. iv. Kayyum = Bunn = kind Bakr. 310. to the enemy) x. iii. ix. viii. ix. Moor. ii. ix. 'ala 'llah. see Misr. 308. 23. 164. iii. . 136. Calcutta Edition quoted. 116. vi. iv. AH. 78. 48. 307. 163 215. ii. 8. (slangl iv. = our breaking iv. (nothing without the Nile) Bukhayt = little good luck. 80. Musta'fn (A1-) bi 'Hah. 160 viii. 'Hah. II. ii. title Caliphs 'Abd al-'Aziz. 7. 48. 147. 278. 196. 72. beer. ii. 383 . 158. Bulbul i. Bukhti (dromedary) ii. 17. 167 51. 259. 211. 151. 17. 27. iii. j Hishanfbin 'Abd al-Malik. Budakak (Butakah ) = crucible. bi-Amri nosebag. 1 72. 33. Buka'ah = Coelesyria. 52 . viii. ix. . 'Othman. Budur (Badoura) = full moons. 318. Calligraphy. 185. Zahir (A1-) bi'llah. (poem of the) = Burning Buzah 167. vii. (a foretaste of Hell-fire) ix. 109. 232. 81. 95. Bruising the testicles a feminine mode of murdering men. ix. i. Harun al-Rashid. Bystanders forcing on a sale. 317. 228 249. Buttons (Ar. 93. 116. 144. 3. ii. 296. 81 . 119. 67. Caesarea. 35. Bulad (Pers. 93. . Hakim (A1-) v. 212. ' Burka = mantle or plaid of striped 185 v. Ii Walfd (A1-) 'llah. Amin (A1-) i. 232. 192. vii. Mu'awiyah. II<>. Camel (how iv. 77. 138. i. vi. 170. 2ii . 93. Englished by "Nightingale") v. 167 Spiritual Sciences. bi' llah. 59. Cairene (vulgarism) (jargon) x. vii. 286. 274 . 31. 101. . Caitiff Bulak Edition quoted. . 173. 104. 249. i. 147. 298. 29. 83. stagnates) iv. . . Bull (of 295. (savoir faire) x. ii. 185 52 . vii. (bohomie) 1'eau 181. Cairenes held 68. (knows Buhayrah = tank. 229. 18. 10. Buka'at al-dam = place of blood (where it Bukjah = bundle. Byron (depreciated where he ought to be honoured most) vii. 103. Mustansir (A1-) 'Omar. Maamun v. iv.77. v. v. ix. Tommy 18. 317. iii. 181. 1 15.'v. iii. ii. 185. iv. 215. iv. 226.333 Appendix. 95. 5. viii. 285 j " x.. ii. 217. 8. ii. 139. 187 . 58. 117. ix. Mutawakhil (A1-) iv. iv. the Eternal) viii. i. quoted. 142. Bursting of the gall -bladder of the heart.' 162. iii. iii. 181. ii. 156. vi. ii. 131. Cairo. Calamity (i. i. 177 . cistern. . iii. 21. viii. 100 1 06. I45 2 3 J " i. of cake. vi. 153 . Sulaymanbin 'Abdal-Malik. 136. 214. 2IO. 322. . (chaff) iv. ii. 109. Azrar) ii. ii. the Earth Abu owl (introduced rhyme with to Burckhardt 143 iii. 359. Wasik 77. vi. = iv. . (A1-) i. iii. x. with (departed vii. 291 242. Ta'i (A1-) 273. vii. ii. Brow (like the letter Nun) iv. 153. Burdah 319 1 08. 167 77. 158. 98. 75. 'Abd al-Malfk. 347 . 160. Buffalo = bceuf vi. 246. 109. 161. Mu'tasim (A1-) bi 'llah. stuff.269. 325. v. Burying a rival. 29. 45. 159. (Al-)iii. . "of Armenia. ix. 68. CABBALA = . i. slaughtered) i. Bull (followers preceding) ii. = Captivus. . Mu'tazid (A1-) Mu'tazz (A1-) i. his fellow Cairene) x. 179. 156 48 91. 66. 28. (fable anent his death) iv. 278.e. Mansur (A1-) ii. 80.

132. ix. King = to the ii. 66. Caravaggio (picture of St. x. vi. and conse- quently vicious ones) v. Citadel (contains the Palace) ix. 209. ii. 135. Cask viii. fislularis) = Chamberlains. Mehrfyah) Camphor of death 92. . (female) v.) v. Baydz) viii. etc. that none may see it 39. emblem of constancy. 219. vi. US- Carmel viii. Clapping hands preliminary to a wrestlingbout.. 217. (-men do not accept drafts on futurity) Camel-load ii. Child of the nurse. 176 . (God's vineyard) him come 189. Claimant of blood-revenge. iv. women. Laylah. = delicately reared. iv. Ar. 91. way of extracting it) Cannibals and cannibalism. 45. 226. King is dead. iii. 23. viii. Cities 294. ?) Camels (breeds iv. 184. i. iii. Capotes melancholiques. Cannibal tribes in Central Africa.:l. vi. 189. a (simile for (primitive used jiose-ring 120. 315. 8l. Cannibalism in the New World. vi. bianco. Ceylon (Ar. shoulder) (one of Carnelion stone bit with pearls = lips bit with teeth in sign of anger. King's as referee) ix. after. = the iii.. Cat (puss. ii. 34. ix. 150. (haltered dromedaries) j IO. 38. 277. Caravan (each one has to keep his place in a) women) Checkmate 36. Clairvoyance of perfect affection. 15. (-colts roasted Capo Auerbach's Keller. 2K vi. x. 66.A If Laylah wa 334 = 300 Ibs. Carpet-room Carob (Cassia 43. 173- summon servants. Carat ( = Kirat) iii. iv. 150. Rosario) x. under 5d. iv. Carrier-pigeons. = Karam-El iii. iv. (seen in a dream is an Carpet ii. ii. 4. Turkish baths) (for x. Chawashiyah Chewing a document Carelessness of the story-teller. before the bean. -243. on and vindictiveness) (feeding v. 126. Isfidaj) vi. why omen of) (names) iii. 239. (rising to highest rank in Turkey) 225. Character-sketch (making amends for abuse no. 203. (let 165. 175. 24. China (kingdom) iv. for long journeys 250 Ibs. Cervantes and Arab romance. ii. Carpet-beds. iii. fair face) iii. viii. 267. ii. i. (red the best kind) for iii. 134. Shardb al-tuffdh) 121 241. sign of good breeding. vii. (in 147. viii.ware displayed on . Claims of maidenhead. 213. i. . 334. Chinese shadows. Champing. i. Chaff. its = a native of) x. something (= modest to Chastity (merchandise in trust from Allah) 174. iii. i. etc. for large 102. iii. iv. Change (sudden. Chin-veil donned (showing intention to act like a man) viii.) Cider (Ar. 179. 64. . yi. of frequently causes love. 279. 193. 152. 327. Canton (city of) vii. iv. 36. woman a towards Chess and chessmen.shelves. A of a dinar or miskal. 277. 190. 109. or banter allowed even (Bactrian)v. ii.io. coda verde. Circumdsion (how practised) v. vii. x. 308. n 131. 371. 48. ii. 177. I 67. 149. Cask in whole) v. 3. Cat-fish (Ar. Cheese a styptic. 227. throne-room. iv. = iii. upon hip or Children (carried astraddle i. ii. 247 Castration (texts justifying or enjoining Catamites (Pers. Clapping of hands to i. Cheating (not only venial but laudable under circumstances) viii. 26'. Chameleon (Father of Coolness) Chaste Camphor-apricot. 243. 303. China. 8. forbearance 217. 151. (Mehari. City of Brass (Copper) iv.) iii. vii. and Defendant. it) x. (two-mosqued. Sarandib) 69. iii. 104 Chess anecdote. 52. Ceruse (Ar. 277. 345. " home " of the maiden wine) v. 157. 3. of disposition) viii. 190. 99.

171. 43. of street-scenery. 145. 161. seldom 184. 53. religious of "chaff") of men) 209. affection 243. Clerical error of ii. Clever young ladies dangerous in the East. Contrition for romancing. vii." (tribal. Colours (of the Caliphs) vi. tance. Jama'ah) v. 7. iii. 57. Coloquintida (Ar. 93. Clout (hung over the door of a bath shows women are bathing) ix. Cloth of ix. the sense of " burden- eth. mention shows a comparatively (Ka"hin) ish. 169 vii. Cloak (Ar. ii. Consul (Shdh-bandar) late date) ix. 205. 86.of the Koran) v. i. mythologies viii. in dignities requested by office-holders from a new ruler. iv. of that of arms my vi. 304. . chapter of the Koran) v. of the Faithful "Compelleth" (Kunsul) visitations to. 274. iii.335 Appendix. Corpse pollutes the toucher. viii. on the criminal's part required 279. 177. Contract or abusive tirade. Rustam and slight between (artful gorgeousness) ix. 43. ii. Colossochelys = colossal tortoise. . and the (the forbidden Closet bird-girls) (of and cloth of gold. 86 29. iii. 145. 19. ix. Converts. Kubkdb. excision. iv. Zambur) and Clitoris (Ar. ii. 165. Coral (name of a slave-girl) ii. ii. " Sohrab. fool. " board " for " Cloth " (not playing chess) frieze Clothes (tattered. 84. 304. 225. iii. 261. 141. (anachronism) viii. Confusion (of metaphors characteristic of The Nights) i. a characteristic of the servile class. Coquetries (requiring as much inventive* ness as a cotillon) x. 215. 285. Kallak^s) vii. 192. 55. ix. of) iv. Colocasia (Ar. Connection vi. Cow (chapter ii. i. (local excellences of) viii. iii. 173. "Come white. (Ar. (derivation of the in squalor tically despised. Combat reminding to seven Copa 151. (mention of probably due ix. 227. 86. esp. sign of grief) Clothing and decency. by Omar) degrees d'agua. 89. 170. Comrades of the Cave. Cocoa-nut (Ar. 1 68. Jauz al-Hindi) Coffee (see Kahwah) mention (first ii. Composed of seed by all men superfetation of iniquity. vii. iii. Consecrated ground (unknown to Moslems) x. 242. 182. its Confession after concealment. 121. (postures of) shed 15. (title acquain- introduced 247. (universal in the undeveloped Conjugal 158. viii. 92. Cold speech = a (striking Constipation (La) rend rigoureux. 90. Conjunctiva in Africans vii. 255. 114. 33. i. no. = diviner priest. and 66. Conception on the bride-night rare. i. 295. (its way by 152. 319. (the seal of love) viii. Cowardice equally divided. 101. apology for a splendid banquet. 128. Cousin (term of familiarity = our " coz ") ii. one of the pleasures of the Harem. 15- Climate (water and air) ii. i. Coptic convents. 211. Copulation (praying before or after) ii. customary. 58. of) Continuation Coition (postures of) iii. theoretically respected and prac- 7. 93. Abdah) = Clogs viii. by 274. v. of). v. Moslem 42. name) vi. vii. iv. affronts an Arab if she marries any save him without his leave) vi. Compliment (model of a courtly one) viii. 29. Bulak Edition. Cohen mind 78. Jew- (ablution obligatory after Cold-of-countenance silly = a it) viii. (has a prior right to marry a cousin) (first. to the scribe) ix. 305. vi." vii. 153. ix. viii. viii. that law. (names picture Contemplation 221. Conciseness (verging on obscurity) ix. i. Covered (The. 161. 4. Commander my Commune Comorin vi. in of) vi. Hanzal) v. = still iii.

69. Daulat (Pr. 236. i. Crew Crocodiles (breath of) Anti-Christ. Bahriyah. 249. 137. breaking bounds. = wwguiding Dalilah f. Darakah = target. Craft (many names change) connected with for. v. Crescent of the breakfast-fete.e. 190. Danish (Al-) = the Amazed. permission.. Dakkah = settle. 83. 109.) x. 231. Creases in the stomach insisted upon. Elephantiasis) Daud = David. iv. woman from the sight of men-invalids) ix. 9.) = tooth.) = for tune. 190. for sanguinary 295. in. empire. Cubit (the Hashim{=l8 inches) Dar al-Na'fm= Dwelling of v. Dakhfl-ak = under thy protection. swearing meaningless. cobwebs against (set them on the money. i. Hid-deke!) i. ill* viii. (off the right hand. 104. Crow omened bird) vi. 77. 150. (of the bier = Ursa major) iii. i. ix. Dalhamah (Romance of) iii.Alf Laylah wa 336 Cowardice (proverb anent) viii. 37. iv. " fair sex " in (of the Egypt) x. Crenelles = Shararif. 28. Curtain (screening a reverend ment Delight. 95 Danaf (Al-):= distressing sickness. (from nothing) ix. 112. . viii. 347. 346. etc. 179. Arabic) ix. ix. 312. Daughters of God = Sa'adah (of zebras) iii. v. = show a miser etc.Kail = divinely he spoke who said. hills) 317. iii. Nawatiyah) Criss-cross row. 204. i. 180. 333. (an Laylah. Dairah = circle. 17. 220. 282. navel string preliminary to naming the babe) = i.) viii. ii. 286. 329. Darr al. v. ix. v. vii. kingdom. ii. ii. i. 61. ii. bawd. and it (is its Empire not His ?) Dabbus = mace. Crescent-like ix. inclosure.e. ii. i. ix. Cruelty (the mystery of) explained only by a law without law-giver) ix. 29. 217. iv. 18. 295. vi.. 269. v. (in Cairo) x. 244. 254. Dadat = nurse (Pers. . 45 Cry (that needs must be cried) x. N. i. 84. viii. Damascus women famed 300.P.vi. Street called Yellow. ii. 371. Dani wa Gharib = friend and foe. Damsel of the tribe = daughter of vi. 347. 93. iv. coat of ring- infection. 75. to be mended) how (of the Fellah. 8. Datura Stramonium (the insane herb) Darrij vi. Cup and cup-bearer. 20. 138. vii. vi. 209. Cowrie small etc. Dar abukka= torn -torn. Cross-bows. jealousy. (kills iii. = emaciated. 112. for worship and Creation to prepare for futurity) vi. = Let them slide. vii. 5' ": . Darfil = dolphin. 311. 21. 349. 165. Dandan (N. 250. Dalak = foot-rasp. Cuirasses against pleasure. 29. 231. men and i. " " (the three) vi. Cutting (alluding to the scymitar) ii. Darbar= public audience. for (shells. Curs ii. intelligible. iv. the chief. 327.. 274. ii. Daughter of my uncle = my wife. 96. 36. viii. 42. vii. iv. 287 (for a basin surrounded by Dajlah (Dijlah) = Tigris (Heb. vii. Koranic punishfor theft) (of the i. 344- DAA AL-KABfR viii. (bones before flesh sharp as a =" razor ") iv. Dandan (a monstrous fish). 66. 91. 130. Crow-claw and camel-hoof. the rope Cynocephalus vii. Cursing cattle mail. 221. (Ar. Damon and Pythias. woman. vi. Darb al-Ahmar=Red Street Darb al-Asfar=the although English. rapes women) (Great Evil) = Daa al-Fil (Elephantine Evil. Dara' (dira')= habergeon). 65. 170. iv.. Dakianus = Decianus. Danik = sixth of drachma or dirham. Created for a mighty matter (i. Dastur= leave. viii. iv. Cundums (French letters) vii. 62. 183. 24. Dajjal (Al-) = Moslem Dalil = guide Crepitus ventris and ethnology.

108. = the 171. and "Dog" Doggrel i. 213. crowd as good as a feast " 141. Diyar-i-Bakr = maid-land. iv. (sad) v. 228. in a viii. ii. viii. 134. sketched) pathetically iii. Dirndgh = brain. Death (from love) - cutting of very ancient date) Diaphoresis (a sign of the abatement of a 94. = warlike as the ix. ii. 70. (royal) v. 286 Devotees (white woollen raiment vi. Diamond Diamonds ix. 263. Dijlah (Tigris). 155. perverted 105. ix. ii. Delicacy of the female skin.000 = about 1. soldiers of " Death 214. Destructiveness of slaves. 297. 212. Deity of the East despotic. (fanciful iv. Dawn -breeze. Daric. etc. human i. (for head). = large copper cauldron. Dissection (practised on simiads) v. lands) 10. 94. (sword of Antar) vi. (ye shall be saved from Daylam vi. . 125. (manners 250. 166. ( parents = (description of one) ix. . " after the fashion of each race. its misery) ir. 225. origin 08. Deposits are not Damietta. ii. Him = He i.250) vii. v. X. 47. 122. Hima) viii. Demesne lost v. vi.) ix. Do not to others what thou wouldest not they do unto thee. David (makes costs of mail) ii. ix. dis- 26. hot-damp 266. of. iii. Di'ibil al-Khuza'i (poet) v v. 82. 315. 181. Diras= thrashing sled. =37 5) Diversion of an 55. sacred the to 311. v. viii. 128. Disposition (sudden change of) viii. Diwdn appointeth not. Daylamites. Dihliz alluvial vi. ii. 127. Dhdmi=the Trenchant (not worse than usual) Dogs (clothed in viii. I wittol. 168. 206. i. 256. 167. etc. (every soul shall taste of it) (of a good Moslem) v. v. ix. i. viii. 292. Dirham = silver-piece. Deeds of prowess not exaggerated. vii. Dimyat 190. vi. symbolised by colours) (Persian proverb) meningx 7 8. Dayyus = pimp. 294. retaliation) 299. (phenomenal) v. 202. 82. 146. Dawat = wooden inkcase with reed-pens. 32. Despite his nose = against his will. sight. ix. 33. vii. ix. (stoned at Mina) v. countries) iv. 1 Despotism (tempered by assassination) Destiny blindeth Faith. Debts 271. (A1-). Death-prayer (usually a two-bow prayer) (A1-) al-a'raj children) ix. (simply and Dfn x. iv. "3Dawa' = medicine (for a depilatory) ix. thousand abuse. Dist (Dast) i. 108. "hog" popular terms of 188. 171. 297.. (buried at once) (of (its 325. (in Eastern Don Juan quoted cities) vii. 16.weight = 48 grains avoir. "Delight of the Intelligent" (fancy of a book) vi. 190. 67. 288. (allowed to go about the world and seduce mankind) ix. Diwan al-Barfd = Post-office. River and Valley of Peace. 66. 18. 267 (Ar. 177. (length of) etc. (when wealth availeth not. Eastern Potentate. 264. Devil (was sick. Dmar=gold-piece. 340. viii. Daylamites. Divining rod (dowsing rod) Divorce (triple) iii. Dirhams (50. vi. Dead of) vii. vi. iii. Day of Doom (mutual ix. Dirham. 334. dead Dumfyat) (vulg. 73 of the word) ix. in (occurring = passage. 220. 118. 225. Dinghy (Karib) iv. Depilation (Solomon and Bilkis) with title iv.) ii.337 Appendix. Devotees (address Allah as a lover would his beloved) v. 321. Democracy of despotism. Dauraki= narrow-mouthed jug. VOL. vii. 55. 51. 316. 36. to. 80. disease) ix. 203. Miskdl. ii.

ix. ii. 286. 71. 246. 132. 204. 198. iv. 34. Drinking ii. vii. Camel). first vi. 206. Dreams " leads to imprisonment for 9. Dung buttery j cupboard .v. 258. arrears. vii. characteristic. 23. archi-) polisonnerie. " Drop unknown to the Eastern gallows. iv. v. tbe excess of his beauty. 232. Due demanded Dunya 352. ii.) (Pr. ii. iii. Donkey-boy. Door (behind it the door-keeper's seat) v. 55. 217. 243. East and West (confounded by a beautydazed monk) viii. 167. to 88. 27. 93. iii. viii. 120. 326. Durka'ah= lower part of the floor (opposed (vulg. meet in) v. iii. iii. an important part (play in the iv. Double entendre. 324. etc. at their dawn. (modern version of the same) vii. 251. whirlpool. (in the dark disliked) ii. 162. ii. x. to Li wan) iv. Drama . iii. 153. (guided by a nose-ring) iii. 202. of the heart) iv. Elephant-faced. Dress (scarlet. like our "post-boy. Drunk with Drunken Donning woman's Drunken attire in token of defeat. Drowning (a martyr's death) ix. Easterns sleep with covered heads. power) 218. Duwdmah = (Speaker in a) iv. iv. (true at later night) iii. ii. (Persian book) Turkey and (in Dramatic ii. for Zarrah. pain. 251. i. . Ragusa. 260. Sultana) Laylah. Drawbridges i. -son (excused by mother. ii. 1 88. 72. 345. in its (how it should be done) v. show the absence of poison. ii. iv. Eedgah (see Idgah) Eggs ii. Dunydzad = world free (?) i. - 219. 170. III. 156. N. 173- Doors vii. Elephant (derivation of the word) 122. 158. rebuked by father) viii. 59. 107. (gives rights of guestship) iv. Persia) x. 318. (in vi. 295. 113. Door -hinges. 7. viii. 214. 147. Eginhardt (belonged to the clerical (is this an art of ?) vii. Eating and drinking (before thinking of the lover) viii. Doomsday come upon a man) (horrors of. 14. . bed. vii. ii. 20. iii. 234. going in to the bride. 287. 149. Dove and turtle-dove female.) = world. = our esquire) " Drugging not a Badawi sentiment." of any age. penis. Egypt (derivation of the name) Drop (black. 319. Down 34 357- Dukhan = smoke (meaning tobacco for 214. 239. Egyptian ( = ix. Dromedary belief (superstitious iv.) Dust-storm in tropical lands. 71. (see 260. the ix. ii. ix. 279. iii. ii. 160. (before or after dinner) vii. Eftendi (Turkish 17$. 306. 189. Egyptian vulgarism. vii.A If Laylah wa 338 Dondnmd pregnancy of a (rejoicings for the vii. 30. title for testicles. Eatables (their exchange must be equal) death-agony = suffering similar Eating (together makes friends) iii. habits of Central African races. q. 104. 260. 325. air (lovers i. 53. hinge-pins) raised from the lower (of the cheek) Dozd o Kazi ii. Durbar of idols. bouts (attended in bright dresses) Drugs etc. pro* fession) viii. (used as fuel. scene Draught of Dream with (told charming in Coptic convents. Vetala. 9. 315." Early romances of chivalry) viii. 47. Door-keepers Egypt mostly Berbers) wooden (usually shut with a bolt) up (pulled = vii. of a King in anger) " Dukhul = Dulab = water-wheel (Zug) feared by Orientals. Chibouk) Durrah naivete*) x. 55. EAR-DROP = " to 94. ix. Dubarah (Dubara) = Dubrornik. iv.

180. iv. 187. vi. = mine shalt be in I will viii. (likened to the letter Sa"d. (white " " 242. 359. 8. ii. (Thou Romance iv. (man of the == pupil) to be kissed or 142. i. Envying another's wealth wrongs him.53- ix. = i. 47. iv. " Nun) of) x. Nights. 1 31 vi. (and their wives). ii. Eunuch iii. (babes of the) iv. (The Seven Sleepers of) iii. 224. 67. 228. 34. Eyebrows joined a great beauty in Arabia. 320. Elevation vii. iv. Eunuch-in-Chief a most important Jackin-Omce. (the true seducer) iii. into " from head the it) vii-. ii. 288. ix. 60. 132. (one-eyed men) iv. Empire (endureth with infidelity but not with tyranny) v. 129. The Nights. . 61. 99. 102. 138. 209. iii. of. " Phylarchs " 323. i. x. 194. 145. Elephant's roll i. is Eve (Ar. 283. 282. vi. (of me = my = dears) of tears) full (becoming white x. my i. Exaggeration part of humour. . Emma 273 cut oft) ii. different kinds of. body. Hawwa) 105. (thou shalt die) Eli-Fenioun 68. 323. (orbits slit 211. 46. i. a Nazarene) characteristic vi. (of the wild Arabs) = 117. 235. 142. vi. 153Erotic inferences ' iii. 37. The of v. ii. Eye (darkening from vine or passion) " hand v. 350. 286. 43. 90. (plucking or tearing out 343. 186. (hides her lover under her cloak) (his offered 138. the La"m embraceth the 164. " Enfants ix. 163. iv. FABLES proper iii. 217. iv. 1 . " ("sunk" starting (driving the people out of a lady's way) iv. on children. Euthanasia and anaesthetics. ' Eastern guise. in i. 338. (for helper) v. highly prized) 90. gait. drawn from parts of the Eyes amongst the Ancients. ix. vii. (Babylonian = bewitching) viii. blind) ii. 128. vi. 267. 75. well) (the far Elliptical style of the Eastern story-steller. the brow 77- Ernest (Duke of Bavaria. 306. vii. hideous Jinn) iii. 215. employed as porter. without testes only. 139. iv. 231. a Persian practice) vii. specialists up and down the thee as though thou wert the apple of Epistasis without prostasis. 285 . (-rods in lattice windows) ix. (mace-head of) Emirs for pardon one viii. (avoid allusion to their misfortune) v. Enemy 90. 60. i. 4. i. v.339 Appendix. = (the evil) to Ephesus (The Matron of) x. 224. Entertainments (names of) viii. 134. 246. best go-between. Euphemy (announcing Elliptical expression. 220. 166. -- 7. Polyphemus. 222. = Emancipation (the greater sins or holy death) Embracing Alif ) (like iv. blind) face of a Eye of the needle (for wicket) ix. v. in strange (nothing graceful Euphemisms. i. (who have studied the Harim) keep " (bandaged before beheading) Eternal truths of (if eye) (hot 201. i. = and swaying Elephants frightening horses. 145. death) Euphuistic speech. 27. 61. Expiation of oaths. 12. 243. (blue ones) iv. 240. 126. 278. Face-veil = "nose-bag" i. 227. Emerald (white ?) iv. sudden) 173. x. Evil (befalling thee is from thyself) vi. for our 36. iii. (no male has ever filled mine = none hath pleased me) ix. Evacuation (and constipation) ix. iii. (oldest part of The Nights) 114. iv. 283. = vii. 82. (all is 361. terribles 90. ix.

vii. Laylah nity) v.' ix. 321. slit pitcher. my pride degraded to Falcon Hawk. (A1-) bin Khakan (boon companion of Al-Mutawakkil) ix. Fate (written in the sutures of the skull) 237. vii. v. N. v. 222. generous man. = European. i. 54. iv. vii. 331. = a long-sleeved robe. 325. 145. = letter-carrier. gem cut en cabochon. 22. Falastfn. viii. ii. 165 " 97* J break) v. 67. adjective of Mayyalarikfn. Fata = a youth . 137. vii. its (when forbidden) v. . ") v. Fariki. 314. ring. II. Faswan Salh al-Subyan (Pr. viii. Falak (clearing) = breaking forth of from darkness. N. ix." vii. Fat and Thin (dispute between) iv. (in shoulder-muscles. = Fa-imma'alayhawa-immabiha" viii. = Fass= bezel of a 268. Farting for fear. etc. (position of the Faranj (A1-) Farashah. iii. common ( ever increasing in beauty. Fizzler. noun utility. = opening 60. 230. 252. (pronounced to make an agreement binding) Fatimah (Pr. viii. = a single word (vulgarism) viii. (repeated to confirm an agreement) vi. 107. 101. Fatalism and Predestination. vii. Paintings Fakih LaylaTi. Far off one (the. 45. 46. 80. religious of the tale) Fal viii. 36. 75. (see " light Philister. (luck go) against wa Emperor of the for Faghfur (Mosl. 249. 305. 116. Mohammed) vi. ix.) = Dung of children. 296. 217. 184. 157. ii. 118. 92. vi. viii. congeners ix. divine. ix. i. (pi. rider. Father of Bitterness = the Devil.) (daughter of = the Weaner. ii. Fars = = Zawi '1-Furuj slit. Farkh Akrab (vulgarism for Ukayrib) young scorpion. mendicant generally. 26. Fairer to-day than fair of yesterday = ii.g. 138. Fardiz = 49. 90. union-pearl. 49. 254. 51. Farikin for Mayyafarikfn (city in Diyar- bakr) unique vi.. omen. 4. Falling on the back (a fair fall in wrestling) ii. hands in reciting \i\ (recited seven times for greater solem- = Fard Kalmah = . Farrash. i. 156. of a maidenhead) 348. vi. 15. (quoted) vii. Farsakh Fart 109. 321- FarJd parcel. harlot (often mere abuse withFajirah = out special meaning) = 95 i- and his jar of butter = . 99. 40. 335. Faswah = susurrus. 201. i. Familiarity between the great and paupers. knight. Faranik (A1-) of Farash butterfly-moth. Farj agent. (and Freewill) (e. iii. three English miles. of farfsah) = = cfrders Koran. iii.' 149. man " (and Badawl pundonor v. vii. i. viii. 245. v. 291. 39- J onei. because Fas = city of Fez. Fast (and i. = Persia. a = parasang. Farajlyah i. 188. 306. active (Sodomite) v. a and trances romances of chivalry) Fakir = = Faris it. etc. vii. 286. Farais of general contenant for contenu. (the. ix. vii. 193. Farz = obligatory prayer.. title China) vii. of unity tent- 162. 210. 265. Fakru viii. Bdzi). 169. ii. (with laughter) iii. 156.A If 340 Faces (on the Day of Judgment) Fadaiscs of a blue stocking. Fals ahmar = a red cent. x. 114. 340. Falcon (blinding the quarry) i. shall die) iv. the expressly given in fish) return for chafT) v. Farkh Samak = fish-chick (for young in 118. " . (A1-) fakhri (saying of = is poverty Mohammed) v. iv. 32- of girls with black slave-boys. Farsalah Fath 219. Fatihah (the opening chapter of the Koran) iv. = Fa'il iv. it whether or (luck go) with . 136. Family (euphemistically for wife) vi. (mentioned after Sunnat jingling with Arz) ix.

i. = among Fi al-Khawafik Fig 214. 82. 69. Favours foreshadowing downfall. of impotence) 317. 325. viii. hung on trees to denote an honoured = Fingan 366. Fisherman (Arab contrasted with English) 151. (changed 253. the overflowing (with bene- 99 grace. viii. First at the feast and last at the fray. 200. Firman =Wazirial order. and sycamore (unclean allusion = 59. 268. viii. the 200. hand with viii. = Fingers and toes (separated to wash between 329. 152. Finger-tips (making marks in the ground) Firdausi. Persian the Fire-arms mentioned. 61. philosopher. respect. Fealty of the Steep. 302. Finger in mouth (sign of grief) ii. 12. - 72. ix. in) vii. (none might warm himself at their) vi. no blower of = utter desola- is (forbidden as punishment) vi. Fist (putting into fist another's mercy) = putting iii. by allusion the flags. 86. (coldness of. in the to the 259. one's self at . promising acceptance of . for 237. 36. v. vi. of suicides) vii. j v. a v. vii. (the ass-headed) vi. Fearing for the lover first. " of) ix. iii. 181. viii. Fellah prayer) viii. 52. into viii. Fawn Greek " Stephane. Fine feathers make viii. exceeding goodness. viii. (of Hell. 138. true apes. viii. viii. = = Fatin Fatir vii. Fellah chaff. Fiat tttjustitia Fida = ruat Ccelum. 256. = peasant. 6. anus.(Caliphs. ix. Finjan) (for Fingers (names Flaylasufiyah fits) 48. 234. vii. 96. instead of. 160.Hut. (of Paradise. 163. 155. = Homer. seducer. 40.. 99. = Fazl (coffee-) cup. 83. iii. = moonshine (perhaps Comorin Islands) vii. viii." vii. Firdaus= Paradise. tomb. Fee delicately offered. 145. conjuring trick) (there common 271. "chaff") 36. Firasah = physiognomy. Fights easily provoked at funerals or wed- theology. Finjan = egg-shell cup for coffee. 51. 295. v. X.. 220. viii. 127. = philosopheress. 33. 162. viii. Fire (and sickness cannot cohabit) First persistency of purpose (confirmed consolations of religion ") viii. pronoun placed personal i. tion) vi. 326. tempter. 178. 43. Festival (Ar. i. light Fausta and Crispus. husbandman. ransom. (-island) vi. (great = . vii. vii. Female (Amazon) Island. ix. first 8r. 168. 2OI. Fishr = squeeze of the tomb. 261. Feminine mind prone to exaggeration. 'Id) Fig 198. vii. viii. 209. 247. in ix. common = Samak) vi. 62. iv. 15. etc. Fi al-Kamar Fikh iii. vii. vii. Fatimite . iii. 25. corps creve*. 326. 269. Fellah fibs. 226. Fish (begins to stink at the head) ii. 147. dom) v. v. (handled without injury. Fi sabili 'llahi 142. slumbering after sunset. a symptom Female depravity going hand perversity of taste. self-sacrifice. viii. 25. v. = on Allah's path (martyr* iv. 60. 73. (run round the inside of a vessel) them) vii. 26. ding processions.34* Appendix. 37. 6l. ii. = i. (worshippers slandered) iii. Fire-sticks (Zand. quoted. Zandah) v. (not lawful until sanctified (for Faylasuf a graceful youth) by love) = Fayliilah viii. ix. Feet (lack the European development of sebaceous glands) viii. carrion. Creator (chapter of the Koran) Faturat = food for early breakfast. = Hell (home friend does not hesitate to prescribe Fidaan iii. but not shame) v. = Fayyaz (A1-) vii. = Fatis Fillet Fillets 190. = fine birds. their colours green) vi.

360.. damned Fruits (fresh iv. accompany) (derivation Euphrates ix. Foster-brother (dearer than kith and kin) etc. (a sign of 190. - = Furaydun.) a 278. or five and five plus four) viii. 51 ix. 216. does not hesitate to pre- 205. Friend (feminine. vi. Flea wa Abu Hosayn. ii. " ii. Salab) vi. = Old Cairo. cite Jinnis. 37. etc. 1$. ii. and jackal (confounded by the Arabic GALACTOPHAGI dialects) x. 300 iv. 275. Food-tray of Sulayman. 179. a i." Fore-arm ix. viii. iv. Flattery (more telling because proceeding from the heart) viii. 363 . 90. by reason of its lean- (use milk always in the soured form) vi. beauty amongst (a Fulan (fulano in Span. vii. i. Flowers of speech. viii. 87. 314. 220. 181. paralytic pronounced to avert the 256. 348. 308. iii. 82. Furkan Fustat Futah Futuh iii. 211. "viii. an Arabian Achilles Funerals (meritorious to = Furat ii. sign of deepest the. 157. i. = Koran.A If 342 Laylah Fitnah = revolt. good breeding) {accompanying after 26. 219 Flatulence produced by bean-eating. Farsalah) Frame (crescent-like ness) viii. Formication i. Arabs). iii. 273. 88. = napkin. Fruit of two kinds. 47. Foot (smallness (prehensile vii. (after Hariri) viii. of blood) iii. 191 Fulk boat. iv. Fountain-bowl (ornamented with mosaic. 137.. Forty days = our "honeymoon. iv. 46. of the departed. . Fuzayl bin 'lyaz (Sufi ascetic) 307. 214. powers of the Eastern) of. 347. Fox 277. 219. Fourteen (expressed by seven and seven. vii. "Forbid not yourselves the good things which Allah hath allowed you. (cunning man) iii. Frail (Ar. (for proficiency) ix. . viii. 162. waistcloth. Antoine (memoir of) x. 21. ii. aphrodisiac perfume. 1 Laytah. Fits of religious enthusiasm. ii. Gall-bladder and liver allusions. 34$ = openings. mischief. .. Fill 224. vi. 184. v. Friday service described. Funeral oration on viii. ix. Flatterers (the worst of foes) ii. ill-natured ones ") iv. 211. ' (Ar. viii. = Full. iii. 147. seduction. ix. iii. = Port. victories) Futur = breakfast. "Fundamentals Fortune makes kneel her camel by some other one = encamps with a favourite. 132. vii. praise iii. belief vii. 132. vi 62. 26. 60. 227. " Fun"= practical jokes of the largest. night. Folk follow (superstitious our (weeping when they meet Friends long parting) Flying for delight. = night 269. name) see of the 17. about them) letters (all Friday dejection) vii. (openings. 141. i. Following one's face = at random. Freewill (and the Koran) iv.) 328. iii. ii. 96 seqj. 306. not Fumigations to 179. Food (partaken 243. and stroke) v. gives rights of protection) in its power) 218. Formality Formula of evil eye. benefits. vii. iv. Thursday Frolics of high-born ladies. ii. vi. Arabian jessamine. Front-teeth wide apart the Egyptians. 70. 29. Floor upon (sitting scribe a fib) (" their King's faith. an Egyptian plague) ix. i. (still to a slave for the sake of reward from Allah) Freeing slaves for the benefit of the souls 76. Freedom (granted . . French iv. Galland. sign Forcible eateth feeble.." v. " viii. " the certain person. 104. vi. 300. Afridun. 251. the business (Usiil) is u remembered "as not forgotten. and dry) Funduk = Fondaco. 80. beautiful girl. 304- 310. i. ii. 314. 201 . Flirtation impossible in the East. 313. 123. victories.

for the faith. 363- . 292. 67. gallant. 266. = land. 27. 95. viii. 269. probably the me to" sir ") vii. 226. ii. . 100. 128. Gardeners touchy on the point of mated ii. you. Ghull = iron Ghuls (whose 112. foray. 158. iii. 323. i. vii. Ghutah = thickly grown lowland. i. . translations x. Giraffe. in Caribs of the Brazil) x. 240. iii. 80. vi. razzia.) ix. low i. x. N. Ghusl = complete ablution. i. (the Perfumed of the Cheykh Nefzaoui) x. of motitation art i coition. Gardens (with rivers flowing underneath. sleeved cloak. 221. . Ghurab al-Bayn = raven of vii.) but Ghurab = galleon (grab) viii. 12. 172. 91. Ghadr ii. 52 . 223.343 Appendix. begins with Adna"n) Ghadir violent 125. Koranic phrase) v. Ghamz= winking. Gates (two to port towns) Ghazi= fighter 281. Gharamah = avanie. vii. Ghazl al-banat their mines. 36i. ix. = (Ghunj) v. petulant. 24 . cannibal. Gate (of war opened) ix. 151. 118 . Ghayb (Al-)= secret purpose. 252. Ghaylulah = slumbering in the morning. (peculiar style of) vii. (girls' spinning) = vermicelli. Giants 330. v. Ghaza = Artemisia tomb Prophet's at Al- Medinah) vii. 133. Ghayur= jealous 304. Ghandur = a collar. vi. older English Algallia. 259. (applies to Time) viii. 36. v. Ghatrafan (Pr. 243. 54 unfit for riding. 9. 220 iii. 85 a place where water sinks. him who is present) ix. 328. i. (counterpart of the Houris) v. Ghula"miyah=girl dressed like a boy to act 241. 147. Gurrah = blaze on a horse's forehead. 214. 62. 217. Allah) 40. vi. beautiful youths of 211. 115. iv. Ghusl al-Sihhah = washing of health. (is q. desire. none may bellies 152. 257. vii. i. 131. fear of Gaw-i-Zamm = the 314. = eagerness. v. Ghoonj Generosity (an Arab's ideal because the reverse of his nature) ii. German cup-bearer. visitors. Geography in its bearings on morality. iii. i. ii. 192 Ghazalah = gazelle ix. N. name) ix. of The Nights. Ghaliyah (A1-) viii.8 3 man. girls. Genealogy (Arab. 356. Ghurbah (A1-) Kurbah = " Travel ii. longing. ii. =" I leave it to 292. Ghimd (Ghamad) = scabbard. is iii. (arriving = proud. tui. t v. Ghulah = ogress. viii. Heaven are open) (of ix. . vii. Paradise. = Ghazwah raid. Travail. viii. Ghul = ogre. ix. "Gift (from Ghawa'si = singing iv. 55. v. 181. exceedingly timid. Gharam (Pr. wrath. (shut during Friday devotions from " Sicilian Vespers ") ix.)= an angry. 233. love- Gharib = foreigner. 64. Ghilman = Wuldan.P.v. i. Girding the Sovereign (found in the hieroglyphs)." Gha"shiyah = fill Ghussah = calamity which chokes. Ghalyun = galleon. 39. Ghdbah = thicket. 138. the 324Gazelles' blood red (dark red dye) x. 225. iii. to the) "Gallery" (speaking Gamin iii. x. (faire le) Garden the (in viii. for etc. Ghazban (N. iv. cheating. . v. 18. v. 22. parting. iii. 80. Ghost (phantom = Tayf) iii. Peru. ii. 211. Bull of the Earth. 36. 323. signing with the eyes. Gems and ii. 217. 40. scabbard . 333. Ghashim=" Johnny Raw. future. = 220." ix. (a desert shrub) ii. Geomantic process. seqq. Ghaut = Saridah. Ghazanfaribn Kamkhil=Lion son of (?) (a slave-girl's 209. ix.

310. 277. Groom (falling in love with) viii. 229. iv. him luck and throw into the 341. 299. 230. appearance in Europe) first . 221. ii. 238. thee ? ix. Hadis = saying of the Apostle. (stuck Good news. x. full hands and eyes. Hair-dyes (all all to grow or be vegetable matter) (Mohammed spirits) ii. Caliph. 201. vii. weighing twenty pounds no exaggeration) vii.= is all right with Grandfather's name given ix. 97. Grim joke (showing vii. 324. '95- (colour of the Fatimite Caliphs) vi. Abyssinia and something more. 288. on) iv.8 9 . 228. 93. Gourd (Ar. Hanzal) ix. 194. Gong (Ar. 319. Hafsah (Caliph Omar's daughter and wife 86. Gold (makes bold) i. " Guebre " introduced by Lord Byron. 187. vi. 165. viii. Ground (really kissed) vii. 63. Grapes (bunch of. 340. ii. 201. etc. (different names of. 250. Hafsites (Dynasty in Mauritania) ii. ! ix. Habash 261. 15. euphemism for lover. Gospel of Infancy. v. 345. 2. v. x. 121. 275. 257. man Give a wa Gypsies (their x. ii. . = Gold -pieces vii. 272. ! Habib. Goody-goody preachments. i. v. (the bulging bier) iv. traditionist Koran by recite the . 257. his a light thing to him) to 268. 205. Hafiz quoted. Mudawwarah) iv. vii. 358. viii. vii. vii. Ground. 311. 10. al-Khara (of dung) =Wady ix. 324. 40. viii. elation of of Mohammed) 165. 120. ii. sea. 217. Habb al 'ubb (a woman's ornament) required Arabic rhetoric) iv. Hadba familiarly. Habibi wa tabibi = my love and leach. 191. Habl = cord . 165. = Habb = grain of the heart. iv. Hail (within sight of the Equator) vii. Vino d'Oro) x. Guest-rite. on the cheeks of singing-girls. = seed of tyranny. Tales" quoted. (when he looked at it. 32- Green garb (distinguishing mark of AlKhizr) ix. Inshallah . 8. vi. " Absalom "?) iv. Going sort) straight to the point preferred filer le parfait amour. Grelots lascifs. Arabs) 224. 34. to God alone " (used elliptically) vi. Godiva (an Arabic lady of the wrong ix. 269. i. 336. vii. Hdfizah) who can = I. 223. i. Hadas = surmise. 90. Gull-fairs. Glossarium eroticum. Habitations (names given to them by the viii. 100. Grave (levelling slave and sovereign) iii. Habba-zd = good this v.A If 344 Girl (of nine plus five = Laylah her prime) in v. 116. Green gown (Anglo-Indice = white ball- dress with blades of grass behind) viii. Grammatical double entendres. Hair-strings (of black silk) (significance of) iii. one rote. iv. 313. v. Hair (should be allowed shaven off) i. 326. 247. Gnostic absurdities. 192. i. Gloria (in = the Italian term for the vene? real finish) viii. iii. Hadf (A1-). Habzalam (Pr.) viii. viii. 127. Goad "Household Grimm's Guadalajara Glooms gathering and for Laylah. Glance compared with a Yamdni sword.floor usually let for shops. cause. 329. by life seemed 240. (of the donkey-boy) iii. (liquid HABAB (Hab) = motes. i. (f. Gossamer (names for) iii. 52. Hafiz 323- " Greatness belongeth Green Habbaniyah = grain -seller's quarter. 66. moons dawning. 308. N. Gloom = black hair of youth. 395i. Greetings before the world. v. Hadid = iron. x. tradition. 207 . 135. 302. iii. Hadis = tradition of the Prophet.

. Hajar-coinage. 158. mode j ix. 212. 293- Hamail Hanffah. vii. 117. (soul of a Hamid see Hanut carries Harjah = (a man of) any place. 169. Halfah-grass (Poa) ii. gentle (fem. 9. 5. Haldm = see Hand iv. Haldwah = sweetmeat. v. iii. 304*. be confounded with Hakk (A1-) = the Truth Hakk = right (Hakki = Halib Hanbal. 19 ix. = one vii. 287. 40. tumbling. HaUwat al-Salamah = = (left. Ahmad bin Hanbal. Hajj (or Haji. bleeder. v. Hanien 325. who (lines quoted from) x. v. 49. ix. v. Halumma = bring! vii. 49. = (stained in stripes like ring-rows of (Allah) v. (hired for private parties) v. Hands (behind mission) Halabi Shalabi is a fellow iii. 172. sweetmeat for the returning of a friend. the back. (hot-bed of Sapphism and Tribadism) iv. used for the the and inmates. ii. 202. sides. ii. etc. Harbah = javelin. 47. (al-Ayk) Hamath = Hightown. 165.345 Appendix. 334Hariri (A1-) = the silk-man (poet) v. vii. hell-stone. vii. Hamah oblique case Harim i. 126. Harf = letter. murdered man in form of a bird sprung from his head) iii. v. = Halwa sweetmeats. in. chamberlain. 215. Hallaling. of thrusting 272. = riage = tavern. = pleasant to thee ! after drinking. 76. how used) iv. not to fine. 335. 64. a favourite dish. wife) iv. iv. Hamam = wood-pigeon. ii. mite) v. 97. 29. vi. 131. = culver of the copse. v. ( = entendre = Harem and iv. praiseworthy. Halummu = drew near (plur. (not to be confounded with the Fati- = iii. 176. booth. lava. (white. Hammal = Honour) ii. (tall = (going to the 288. doctor. iv. Anglo-Indian term for the Moslem rite of killing animals for food. oi niggardness) iv. I j 95. in reciting the Fatihah). 142. (cut off for striking a father) viii. Aleppo. Handfuls (the two) v. Haramf = one who lives on unlawful vii. 164. v. gains. Hdjah = a needful thing somewhat) vii. 202. 147. v. 205. = " hanap " viii. ii. Hanifah. i. Hanzal = gourd. symbol of generosity (his for her) iv. 378. 307. 165. 60 . black . ii. 158. 129. 2OI. Hardly he (equivalent for) vii. 18. 178. physician) v. 3 = barber-surgeon. . the Aleppine x. ii. 207. Governor of Al- Hijdz and Al-Irak. lajib = groom. (uncle of the Prophet) viii..) ix. (their feel guides the iv. Harem. 185. 333. 207. 59. Hajj Pilgrimage. 296. Harisah.) ix. Hard of heart and Halimah the mild. / soft oi" . Hakfm. 86. " Haling by the hair a reminiscence of mar- by capture. 292. 44." viii. i. 284. 279. ii. etc. syllable. ii. Hamadan (town in Persian Mesopotamia) ix. something. v. 220. mine) viii. 47. 191. Harf al-Jarr = a particle governing double = baldricks. Hajjaj (A1-) bin Yusnf. 5- Abu fresh milk. 265. (fem. 19. 204. posture of sub218. vii. not Hajji) iv. 9.. 67. ix. v. 44. Hajjam . 27. = Hajj al-Akbar and Hajj al-Asgar. vii. a chain armour) (how held i. Hammam-bath (a luxury as well as necessity)- camel) convalescence) showing that women's courses are over) Hamzah iii. satisfactory. 63. Hamidah) = al-Hatabi fuel. 349. (ditto. 80. 233- Hajfn Hammam i. (bitten in repentance) v. Ha'kim (A1-) bi-amri 'Hah (Caliph) Halab 286. Handkerchief of dismissal. (cut off in penalty for theft) viii. ruler. basalt. Hanabat cupper. 212. 112. = Hajar Jahannam (for viii.

. . 371. 135. vii. 81. 235. Headsman " Hearer " (deshabille"). (their survival by some protracted drought) Hawwa = Eve. Hazar Afsaneh 283. Hemistichs divided.A If 346 Laylah Hark. = i. London) iii. Hatif= mysterious v. 225 . 171 vii. Ha war = intensity of black and white Hayhat. Kawi= juggler 1 60. ix. 350. Hawiyah (name of a Hawk. for lover. iii. Head-kerchief envier. Heart (black drop in the) iv. 279. vi. Heaven (Ar. Herb (the insane) vi. 346. Harun al-Rashfd by Al-Siyuti) (described (as a poet) ix. Hermaphrodites (Ar. Hasan bin Sahl (Wazir of Al-Maamun) cubit = 1 x. Hasab Laylah. Hatim of Tayy (proverbial for liberality) Hauk! Hauk!=heehaw! (the javelin) quiver. (said to Hell) Hasid=an viii. chapel. Hayat al-Nufus = Life of Souls. iii v. i. iii. Hazir and Badi = townsman and nomad. vii. 234. 14. Harut and Marut (sorcerer angels) iv. Hasilah = cell. i. (cold as well as hot) iv. 145 "He" 24. Hatim (Pr. 196. Heart-ache Azan. Hazar--(the bird iii. i. Harrakat = carracks (also used for cockvii. 166. via. Hassun Haste ye to 76. Hells (names of the seven and their intended inhabitants) viii. iv. delaying execution. voice. 136. 139. 298. . him = his mind. 19. iv. Na'im). Haykal = temple. Hattin (battle 32 234. iv. iii. under Hasil. 36. influence. 165. him) viii. Hatim al-Asamm (the Deaf). 256. 130. acquired iv. Hasib Karim al-Din (Pr. 179. Hashimi= descendant of Hashim (Moham- i. i. Hasa (A1-) = plain of pebbles. 17. (Hazarmaveth) iv. boat) 336. 72. birth. 56. playing tricks with snakes. Haurani towns (weird aspect iii. Hazrat=our mediaeval "presentia 124. 194. Hasan ta yd Hasan =bene 1 the eyes. 339. suggested to i. Heroes and heroines of love-tales are bonnes fourchettes. viii. 219. 137. m. ix. 300. Hazza-hu=he made 251. west of Damascus. 102. vostra. (from one full of wrath = in 184. 42. 207. 91. it 45- 3r6. iii. viii. v. 68. Khunsa) iii. " Haunted "= inhabited by for 221. wa vii 250. a thousand (songs) of) (tales from the) ix. 253. (and Charlemagne) x. 233. onomatopoetic 217. to quantity opposed Nasab = = and inherited degree dignity. salvation. Harrak (ship = Carrack ?). 138. ii. in. part of the for "she" out of delicacy.) = black crow. 224. Haurani towns iii. iii. of). ix. 61. 306. 304. Head Hashshashun = assassins. Heavens (names of the seven) 142. its 155. 192. Henna-flower (its spermatic odour) 94. Hashish (intoxicant prepared of hemp) (orgie in foi 16. Hazramaut Head 91. 93. Benedetto ! med's great-grandfather) vein. (said to have prayed every day a hundred bows) ix. ix. ii. iv. Howda)= camel -litter women). 175. ii. 121. iii. iv. v. himself) v. iii. N. 48. in 179. 328." 254. N. 143. (diminutive of Hasan) viii. Haudaj (Hind.) v. ii. viii. . ii. iv. 143. vii. Hatim=broken wall (at Meccah) vii. " not " reader addressed. 171. Jinns. iii. you shall see. of) vi. 118. detto. (must always be kept covered) in the poke = into the noose. (Sa'ir) iv. Hasan al-Basri (theologian) ii. Hasab wa nasab accounted Hawa al-Uzri = platonic love. 91. v. 19. 1 8 inches. Hell viii. spite of (for stomach-ache = mal au cceur). Harwalah = pas gymnastique. v. viii. i. 275.

" Him& = guarded 138. iii. = = of Sadness. section of the Koran. 183. 139. endive. (lasts a week) v. 72. Horse-stealing honourable. (Christian vii. Hishdm ibn Orwah 208. Host v. 119. x. etc. 124. popular term of abuse." viii. 21 5. High-bosomed damsel a favourite with Arab tale-tellers. 94. Houses of Lamentation in Moslem burial- anti-pathetic city Hirakl (monastery of) 70. Homme achete = de bonne famille. Dieu. 90. Hulwan Hobbling a camel (how done) vii. 62. (scene of one of Mohammed's battles) v. ix. 96. 2. 235. 66. iii. 21 1 . partridge. 116. Hinges (of ancient doors) Hippie syphilis. 75. cloth. in bastinado 325- Horses (not taught to leap) (Arab breeds) v. 128. N. 84. v. 178. Hindi = Indian Moslem opposed to Hindu. i. Hiba (simile for the delights of the world) Honey 168. iv. as safeguard against guet- (leanness Easterns) Hirah " of. 285. x. 41. v. Honayn Baghdad. 148. 250. Humours i. viii. 300. 27. 50. ii. Hubkah = doubling of a woman's waist- v. Hisham bin Abd al-Malik (Caliph) Hisn iii. 36. Humility of the lovelorn Princess artfully contrasted with her previous furiosity vii. viii. 260. (of Hippocrates) v. 188. = inhabited by Jinns) v. Honour amongst thieves. vii. vii. iii. Horseplay frequently ending = iii. Hog. i. ii. Himalayan brothers. side. 33. iii. 138. Honey (of bees as distinguished honey) v. apens) Hour " House Hippopotamus. 261. al-miftdh denier a Huwaynd (A1-) = now drawing now moving away. ii. Hizam = Hizb = 144. 306. Houris. "Him "for "her. Honeymoon" Horoscopes. 193. = cords. flesh. ix. Hosh = mean 78. " 64. viii. 170. Hubb al-Watan = patriotism. Hullah girdle. al-Fakihat 233. Heroine of Eastern romance well. eats ix. 247. ix. (prophet = Heber ?) iv. Hesperides (apples of the. Hospitals hated. 225. Hudhud = hoopoe. 118. ii. 302. Holiness supposed to act as talisman. Horripilation garters. 104. 64. iii. Hindiba ii. iii. Hijdz (Al-)^ Moslem Holy Land. Hijl 159. " His" for " her. iv. iii. first (enters (the = 89. Hetairesis and Sotadism (the heresies of love) x. vi. 160. Hud (traditionist) v. 180. Fortalice of Fruits. near and (expressed by "standing on their heads") viii. ix. Hind the poet Jarfr. Hoof (of the wild ass) iii. Holy of Allah grounds. Humming from cane = 212. 8l. 279. i. viii. Hiss 170. = Horse (names 236. 225. 246. not a favourite practice with Moslems. Hind (A1-) al-Aksa = Outer Hind or India. 218. House of Peace 226. Humbly 251. 80. 311. " to in Mesopotamia) vii. 348. vii. v. i. v. 235. 217. Hudud al-Haram = bounds = of the Holy dress. House-breaking (four modes of) vi.. Asmd and bint 73. House (haunted Housewife (looks to the main chance) v. Hibdl = ropes. demesne. Heroism of a doubtful character. = = 175. 1 viii. i. goose of) ii. vii. ii. probably golden nuggets) viii. 102. i.347 Appendix. (sensual) perception. Holy Writ (punned upon) viii. ii. 272. (of Judgment) v.) = awaking j blowing hard. 209. Hips (their volume admired) courts at Cairo. . 226. iii. Hubub (Pr. viii. 213. iii. ii." Ka'abah) Places. ii.

vii. 304. night. Ibn Abdun al-Andalusi (poet) iii. Ibn Haram = on the parent. i. 9. Ifrit. Ibn festivals 146. Hurdk = tinder. Idgah (place of prayer) ii. 229. Ibn 'Irs = weasel. Iksah 198. viii. Ibrahim bin Adham. = Iddat Ikh 319. Ikalat (A1-) 300. 49. 13 . v. 137. N. = (of al-mutabbakat ix. 204. Ihtilaj-namah 50. 108. needle graver and 'Ibrat Ibrik 'fd to noble. Hurr = gentleman. vii. 202. Ill-treatment (a plea for a lawful to be sold) viii. 33. wounds held of dangerous. Ilah = Ilali al-Arsh iii. vii. = with eyes of lively white Hiir al. ix. God. 139. described) (graphically 297. 254. Hut = great = the flattened 223. and Tisht = basin. Layla k. 90. (Cherubim cherished by Allah) Ibn = Ijtila i. Huruf ix. Ptolemy.Ayn and black. 25Ihtilam = = Book of i. v. 200. 43. as Ifrftah i. cuckold two of Al-Islam) (the = the Great Festival. free. iii. i. iv. 233. (transmitter of poetry and history) ix. iii. = she-Ifrit.) = Son of the Eagle. Ikh ! ! (cry make a camel to to it ISO. used for 144. 157. " cancelling. = Despairer. the bride on displaying of wedding vii. sounds. 103. = ewer. vii. opp. Ibrat 258. 307. etc. from Hell. Ali) i. . 2?S- v. 142. Caliphate) Hunchback looked upon with Hur.A If Laylah wa 348 Hump-back Ibrahim bin al-Mahdl (Pretender to the viii. IsAziYAH v. Mundfik) Hysterical 181. Ill is thy abiding place. iii. = i. 212. 203. aversion. 106. palpitations. Iklim Ibn al-'Ukab viii. = a favourite jingle. 362. = living gold. 207. j Ichneumon (mongoose) 244. x.' 319. Ikhlas (Al-)= Chapter of Unity. 22 . 34. 198. Ibn Sma = Avicenna. Ibrisam fd al-Kabfr 44. Iklil = diadem. vii. 315 . i. a newly married couple indecent) 108 iv. Ibn Muljam (murderer of the Caliph 319. iii. resiliation. hanging j udges. raw Ichthyological marvels. ii. ii. iii. . divided into two races like mankind. 264. 233- viii. washing the hands. (for ?) viii. 183. Iblis (diabolus) 241 i. vi. enforced 292. sect. Ihdak the white en- closes the black of the eye. now obsolete. and fear ' " ii. 147. i. independent. vi. 196. Hydropathic treatment poult. months of a woman's celibacy after divorce. al-Kirnas = son Persian Kurnas = of the chase pimp. = 'Abd Hurry is (in iv. viii. v. 231. 125. 54. Hunger (burns) Hungry judges. fish. 55. viii. Ihtizdz = I'itikdf (Al-)= = shaking with delight. silk. Ikhtiydn al Khutan = Khaitan (?) x. Hamdun i. 69. Hymeneal blood resembles that of pigeon ii. = warning. 34. Arab temperament. son of adultery. 50. iii. iii. i. vii. = the God of the Empyrean. Ibrahim al-Mausili. Iksir (Al-) Ikydn = dry drug (from fypov) v. abuse not necessarily reflecting 28. ii. Hypocrite (Ar. 320. iii. 272. 150. 101. = the seven climates of = 270. kneel down) ii. Ibn Abba's (Companion) v. iii. 9. servile. wet dream as a sign of puberty. i. = pi. her 198. 104.. 114." v. = iv. 352. Ibn Abi Anfa. floss. ii. vi. Iliad and Pentaur's Epic. plait. i. widowhood) iii. Houris. retreat. demand . 256 (Pr. Ikh wan al-Safa" = Brethren of Purity. (cursed and expelled) v. = encompassing. 202. 200. i. n. iv.

243. used always with the (for Al-Ir&k in verse) vii. D.. 3. 100. 1 1 vii. (intended palace-girls. vi. the be that of a dirti- (prolongatio (lawful amongst ancient peoples) Inconsequence Nights) (of the Author ii. Niyat) v. plates. = level country beside river banks. viii. 155. 179. Iram The 61. . . in " his Iskandar conjuring by Allah. 164. Irdk Irdn ") v. Indraja"! = white magic. (= statues) Seventh = 203. v. vii. ix. 250. twig. x. = Sultan's order. of Alexander. 126. sick at heart. 230. me-up = Inverted speech (forms of) ii. Infirmity (and infirm letters) iv. 57. iv. 307. Arab garb). (the many-columned) iv. 163. 175. iv. 76. 57. (of writer of . iv. 29. the first watch of the night. 235. . 196. Ardabb. viii. = Isba"nfr iii. Isaak (Ishak) of Mosul. hearse see Irdabb. viii. 132. Eastern story-teller vii. Ishmael (place of his sacrifice) iv. 172. i. Immah = turband. in.) iv. Ism al-A'azam Allah. Inshallah (Allah willing) = D. Iron padlock (instead of the usual wooden Inscriptions (on trays. 291 . Zu Matagrobolised) = city . Inadvertency of the tale-teller. improvising.. 289. ceruse. = reciting. iv. vi. iv. Ishk 'uzrf (in the sense 121 of platonic love) ix. Impurity (ceremonial different from Imsdk 43- viii. = = viii. 223. 316. 109. iii. Inheritance. 47. 336. vi.. 291. also sprig. al-Maamun) Caliph iv. viii. to-morrow 324- Insolence 305. 'Irk (characteristic of the Eastern ~ 265 i. 25. 262 191. Intellect of man stronger than a Jinnf's. wounded Internally 295. = jerking the date-stone. 300. 126. 251. = Moses' ark. Iradah ness) v. i- fugleman at the (the and Insomnia (curious treatment ii. v. Insula (for peninsula) vi. i. Index finger (Shdhid) ii. bolt) 198.V. 317. Images of living beings forbidden. = the 133. law of. 286. Impudence common still i. Alchemy. = bukrah Inshallah ii. Intention (of prayer. 141. vi- Ctesiphon Isengrim (wolf) viii. al-Karnayn = Alexander v. 167. Inkcase (descendant of the wooden palette with writing reeds) viii. Incuriousness of ii. 67. i. and = Isharah 64. Irishman (repugnant to Moslem taste) vi. (?). . 233. 39. 209. typical. vii. viii. Imam = v. (etc. beckoning. iv. 205. Ilm al-Kdf = K-science for i. prayer-niche) 227. Innovation (Ar. iii. viii. no. Isfidaj Isha 3. 75. . (the 'Innin = impotence. 317. retention v. leader. Island for land. ii. 271 Irreverence (Egyptian) Iskandariyah i. = \ root. iv. 241. viii. 207. 174. Imlik (great-grandson of Shem) Improvising Badawin." x. Bida'ah) v. Indian realm. vii. 256. = signing. 146. i. etc. 229. 307. captive Princess) of licence of) iv. Ishtar-Ashtaroth (her worship not obsolete . Infidel should not be killed unless refusing to become a Moslem or a tributary. 61. 286 104. antistes. 57. . vi. Intercession-doctrine disputed amongst Moslems. Most Great Name of .V. i.349 Appendix. in Syria) x. Insane (treatment of the) iii. iv. 264 among to viii. vi. Irony. 279. 119. 20. = 40 ii. (the v. article) Iron (conjures away friends) ii. of Saga) The the Nights) vi. 113 convarter. Ilm al-Ruha"n{ = Spiritualism. settled by the Koran. In 'ash = raising from the bier (a " pickIncest Inwa" veneris) v. 252 x. 3. 178. Inshad 5.

62. coming Istikhdrah v. v. contrasting master. Jawamard jari Jackal's gall (used aphrodisiacally) x. suspected heresy) x. Jarrah 315. = spies (for secret police) ix. v. Jabal Nur. (his Ja'afar bin Jannat al-Na'im i. a 17. 130. vii. Ithmid (stibium antimone) = Sp. Jawarf iv. forth to greet. = acute. vi. a youth. 306. v. vii. Jawashiyah = guards. ix. Mohammed) 215. Jawan Jadfd 19. Jalalah direction = Jaharkas Jalajil 255. 103. Primate. iii. i. v.. 21. 214. = ix. bier with corpse. Jauzar vii. Jacob's daughters. = = slave-girls rhyming with dam'a flowing tears. = N. 12. viii. = Jawanmard un giovane. intelligent. v. iii. saying" Jallajalalu-hu" = magbe His Majesty. v. 1 74. 49. two cathedrals. vii. Jababirah Heaven. Jabal al-Ramun (Pr. 38. 129. 215. 141. iv. v. Laylah. (blows the Istahi = last = 310. vii. v. royal mesii. vi. ix. . x. Jalldb = slave dealer. Javelines. 148. i. v. iv. 131. 307. (river or rivulet) iv. the Eternal Garden. 1 14. = . 24. upon Jarm = Jasalik (A1-) 228. Jawab-club. juvenis. 217.A If 350 = Ismid Laylah (Ithmid) stibium (eye-powder) iii. conquerors. vi. x. v. viii. Jawarnah (Jurnah) = Zara. N. ix. ii. vi. Jabal = mountain (for mountainous island) = Adam's Peak. x. i. sycamore ocean. ii.. 66. ix.e. of Jasus. vii. 309. vii. = gaberdine. = Istinshah (= ( = the through 198. 123. (Pr. v. the city of Japhet. 44. v. 156. 43. ix. . 330. 83. = Jewel) vii. 93. (coin). chains. Istita'ah = nified 287. for praying ii. 340. 117. Jabarti = Repairer of the Jabir Atharat al-Kiram slips of the generous. strongly Ja'afar (mode of Y in to take the place of the English Bible) with his Musk al-Hadi = tyrants. Janshah = The Garden of Delights. 109. vii. = Jami'an Jamil ibn Ma'amar (poet) Jamm = = 163 . ix. = Jamiz (Jummayz) told you so" (even more East than West) iv. omens. 307. = Moslem Abyssinian. "I small bells for falcons. 93. pi. 98 = (Ar. Jama'at = cathedral mosque. jar. = Gemini. = Janazah Nights. 40. vii. 37. Yafis or Yafat) his sword. v. Jars for cooling water. Jsrafil Istinj wa = Janazir for Zanajfr = Jannat al-Khuld . four persons. Jabarsa. Jauz al-Hindi = cocoa-nut. Jahannam for brave. 14. Gibraltar. 159. 100. = high station. iii. Cheharkas. ii. 219. 84 . 2 . Jazirah = apparitor. i.) Jarir (poet) v. 318. loo. 65. 208. Arabia. of Jahbaz ix. sergeant. 16. Hell. = Istikbell ii. Jahabiz pi. vii. = community. common Italian Translations of = Izdr sheet worn The as veil. Peninsula. Jah 329 263. his death) iv. 177. 261. fundament the washing by after stool. 323. ii. trumpet) have some shame. Jawish = senger. 205. Japhet (Ar. v. vi. King of 82. Barijah) Jauzd which 383. Jar (ridden by witches) (Caliph) v. J (How came it ii. = Jallabiyah water snuffing nostrils. 102 ii. N. 41. 160. 13. 46. 43. 262. 1 10. Gallicians. dignity. etc. iii. 55. Jamal (Gamal) = camel. giants. 266. Jauharah (Pr. 265. ii. fig. vi. 102. 302. ix. Jawasis. = KaoAt/c6s. 40. 50. not Julned. viii. (sea-cliff v. ableness) 80. 69. i. = Bubal us (Ariel) of Jdbir bin Abdallah (disciple = new Life. viii. 333. Jabal al-Tarik = Jabal Mukattam Cairo is built) iv. in 271.) Pers. v. 292. Pers. 15. copper. Jalalikah Jami' freewill) ix. = mount of the Jabal al-Sakld (Thakla) woman bereft of children. Althimod. Jaland.

21.) = Kahanah = i. 115. Jibbab= habergeon. viii. i. vii. three things. 213. eyes are kohl'd by nature. iv. iv. 232.) 115. 350. mansion. Jumblat (for Jan-pulad. MS. Judad is (classical Arab name) vi. 238. Kabul men noted for Sodomy. 225. ii. 254. Kahbah iv. ix. 294. (and his brethren. Jesus (bird of) palm-pith and cabbage. Justice (poetical. Kaf. 221. broad-cloth. Joining prayers. j v. 72. whore. Julndr = Pers. squares) lamb or grilled in small vi. to ) iv. 63. version of a Gotha vi. 39.. Kafr = village (in ii. 10. Ka'abah (Pilgrims clinging to pity) viii. (a Syrian) iv. ankle. 92. 254. = having the eyelids lined i. the name) vi. 317. 156 ix. Egypt and Syria) x. Jugular vein (from Jujube-sherbet. eyebrows or eyelashes. iv. Kafur Kafra = Camphor. = Caucasus. of Jadid = new coin. horse-laughter. i.. 238. 257. Ka'b = heel. not done) (compared with Adam) v. . v. viii. heroes. Jeweller (in Eastern tales generally a rascal) iii.35* Appendix. Ka'ah 86." iv. buff. i. 235. Isles = 141. (bag of (crucified in effigy) v. 177. Giaur. 217. with kohl. = a single "Bunn. Kadisfyah (A1-) city in Irak. popularly i. small-pox. = = 174. = belly 28. righting for the Faith. al 'I'd wheel. 85. 174. 121. Eternal and town on the (island Tigris) x. 1 Jews (adepts iv. 51 255.jacket. groom. viii. Gul-i-anar (pomegranate flower) vii. Junayd al-Baghdadi (Sufi Junun = madness. i. = i. Jinn = the French genie. 47. = braves. ascetic) ix. ii. i. 12. vii. either above or below you) - viii. 225. al-Saklat Ka'ak Kabab (mutton effeminates. 299. 292. viii. iii. Kahirah = Kahkahah 120. Kahld Steel. 24. . (Pers. Life o' N. N.)vi. nature-kohl'd." ^. metaph. KA'AB AL-AHBAR 153. (and Potiphar's wife) Joyance curtain) buns (cake ?) vii. 268. iii. III. 125. i. 115. (= messroom. x. Job = ground-floor hall. cloth." etc. v. vii. Kaannahu huwa = as he (was) he. 40.) Judri 127. 290. iii. Kabbat = saucers. 256. two of (of the Scribes. = fine house. vi. Juggling with heaven. = Jazfrsh (Al^ Mesopotamia. Joseph of the Koran very different from him of Genesis. (for Judud) pi. barracks) 167. Jinnis (names of) Jokh Jokh vii. viii. Judariyah (quarter of Cairo) Judgment (hour of) v. Kahil = = whose iii. (never your equal. 262. Kahilat al-Taraf ii. 168. " i. 233. iv. ii. (marrying a Moslemah deserves no = Jihad = Jild in magic). iv. Kafir = Infidel. = al-Khalidat Jazirat Canaries. 270. Jum'ah = assembly (Friday) vi. Kafs (verset of the three-and-twenty) v. Kahraman 70. mi'adat-hu scrotum) 1. displaying the bride before the bridei. 248. 196. 257.) vi. 28. Jew (prefers dying on the floor. 172. Kabbazah = a "holding woman. City of Mars (Cairo) = (fern. 213. 233. Jurab 21 v. 346. the craft of a Kahin or (A1-) (Pr. vii. Omar Jazirat ibn Jummdr = 100. on broad- rich brocade 202. (black) leprosy. 271. 10.ix. 27. 218. for fortune. not in bed) viii. Kawadis = pot of a waterix. Pr. 233. desert place. iv. Judar vi. The Nights) (poetical in Juzam his ii. 260. 337. 127. i. its Kabasa = he shampooM. i. Jufun = = 292. 294. soothsayer. 190. Kadus pi. 19. = Hindu iii. 133. the Rakshasa or Yaksha. - = viii. Jink (A1-) gown. = Kaff Shurayk 13.

N. Kammir Kanjifah=. 216. (A1-). Kalam al-Mubah = the permitted say. Kasr ( = palace. . 328. ix. 216. Sea of A1-. in. 80.A If 352 Kahram^nat = Laylah nursery governess. 217. 127 \ Carmoth Niloticus. Kanat = subterranean water-course. 225. 243. 342. 233. Katf= pinioning. 106. = rhinoceros. Karr'aynan = keep thine eye cool. 272. viii. i. Kahwajiyah = coffee-makers. Kasri (A1-) Governor of the two Iraksi iv. 139. iv. "zither") iii. vii. i. v.pack of cards. 240. ii. 141. 283. r =leg-cut. the names of 91. Kara wan = Charadrius cedicnemus. 156. ix. etc. Kata = sand-grouse. vii. Age. iv. iii. Karbus = saddle-bow. 211. ix. Karizan (Al-) Kala (island) vi. Kamarani (A1-) = the two moons and moon. vi. Karurah = bottle for urine. Kasabat = canes bugles. (as) -anna Kamar=belt. 126. (lake) vi. strike thee dead (facetiously) iv. ix.) = "was that which 280. name in tales). i. Kakili = Sumatran (eagle. ii. Kalam wati = vulgarism. Kapoteshwara and Kapoteshi. Kasab (Al-)= acquisitiveness. Karkar (Career ?). for ii. Kalandar = mendicant monk. etc. 250. Ka'ka'at= jangling noise. vi. Kataba (for tattooing) vii. v. Kara Gyuz. two mimosa-gatherers. 'llah Khayrak = Allah increase thy vi.) = brown (the bread) x. n. 77. 5. 300. used (A1-). = the 3I3Karmut = Silurus v.) = Moon of the 213 ii. 264. Karib 256. 229. one's house) vi. Kaman = Kamd = dinghy. 77. al-durrl = cluster of pearls. N. Kaukab 291. Kasidah = ode. 221. viii . Kaid = leader. vii. i. Katul (Al-) = the slayer. viii. 85. iii. vi. Kamis = shift. vii. 293. quarter of hearty eating) Kalla = prorsus non. i. 233. Kalam = reed -pen. vii. ii. coffee-house. 93 Karkadan. ix. Kathir=smuch. ii. 101. iii. iii. 12 . ix. 21. 72. 14. 85 . 197. i. poetical version of the Vrihat-Katha. because) Kawarib) (pi. 169. the Bible. Katfl = the Irish "kill. Karaj (town in Persian Irak) vii. = upper room) ix. Kasabah = rod (measurement). was. Karun = Korah of 94. Kalla-ma = it is iv. ii. sun 93. x. 257. 250. 353. i. see Khiyal. vii. Karrat azla 'hu = his ribs felt cold (from viii. Kaptan = Capitano. since. Kama-Shastra (Ars Amoris Indica) Alfiyyah = straight for iii. elegy. 247. 231 Kahtan (sons of) 260. lurking-place of the seas. 283. seldom. Kanun = brasier. Kamar al-Zaman (Pr. . 346. Kahwah(Kihwah) = strong old wine. 298. 261. figure. v. vi.. 107. iv. ix. v. 10. iii. Kanmakan (Pr. ii. Katala-k Allah = Allah (Imp." iv. i. large bag. Kat'a=bit of leather. Karim = generous (cream v. 160. etc. Kamin al-Bahrayn = = viii. Kasid = Anglo -Indian Cossid. ix. iii. two Kari = Koran-reader. Kalandars (order of) x. 47. Kasr (A1-) al-Mashid = the high-built castle. Karkh 128." x. i. 22. Kasfdahs (their conventionalism) ix. 262. Kanun (dulcimer. viii. . i. viii. avoir. 167. Katha-Sarit-Sagara. iii. 56. 239. of men) 185. ii. Kallim al-Sultan (formula of summoning) Kamah= fathom. Kalam-dan = reed-box (ink-case) iv. Kanz = enchanted treasure. 156. 320. Kalak = raft. Ibs.wood) x. Baghdad t v. 29. 21. Kamil wa Basit wa Wdfir three popular metres. " no end. Kasa 'ah = wooden bowl. wa ii. vi. i. 35. 113. 224. Kashmir people (have a bad Eastern Kassara weal. vi. vii." Kantar (quintal) =98 '99 20. : ix. 340. porringer. v. Laylah. 168. ( Kasr al-Nuzhat = palace of delights. 131 iv. 265. 57 Kamat Karah = budget. 150. 189. 330. 139. (that. 84. 155- 236. i. iv.

= hocus pocus. 348. to a i. '' vii. 21. the end of medicinecure. i. i. insult) vii. 330. 291. Khammarah = wine-shop. 162. 119. 39 . Kaus al-Banduk = pellet-bow. 277. lieu commun of poets. = =a ii. 177. (of dismissal) i. 217. Kaza. . Kawarib. Bazar. 241. ix. forth (vul- garism for Kharajna) (fem.Kausaj Khak-bak cunning. v. 336. ii. Khayt hamayan = threads of vanity samer) iii. of 317. Kayanian. 75. (professional (de- 33. Khan = caravanserai. Khatt Sharif = royal hand 131. short heard. (shaking and throwing the) vii. Khal'a al-'izar = stripping of jaws or side- Khalid bin al-Walid. in Cairo. hard kind of wood. vii. iii. Kismatand "Providence." iv. 93. 195. ii.Sahah of the Morning. iii. Kazi al Kuzat = Chief Justice. 10.wand. 246.went. i. 135. ii. siesta. iii. Kayy (Al-) = cautery. Kausar. Khafz al -Jinan = lowering Kaum = razzia. i. Khafiyah = concealed . in the 66. race of Persian kings. vi. 295.). i. Khayr = good news by euphemy. 271. i. Khalbus = buffoon. 265. Khadd = cheek. 328. 269. 330. (follows the name) 62. Khaliyah = bee-hive Kaysariyah = superior kind . 75. maksum = fear equally apportioned." vii. 79. Khadiv (not Kedive) ix. 316. iv. Khassat-hu = she gelded him. ix. Khainah castrato. ' ' (for ii. = perfidy. iii. 107. viii. 186 iv. 203. 90. 229. vi..353 Appendix. Khabal = pus flowing from the damned. of a country) Ii. = Star al. Kayyimah = guardian (fern. vii. 196. 58. Khaysamah (traditiomst) v. i. vii. famous . Khanakah = Dervishes' convent. i. wit. 14. Kazdir = Skr. beard. Khara al-Sus = weevil's dung. Khalkinah = copper cauldron. Kazis (the four of the orthodox schools. . (tin) iv. ii. VOL. 98. ix. viii. 223. viii. 138. Key ii. letter. 47. i. tricksy. Khali fah = Vicar of Allah. vii. iii. (holy merde). ix. 248. empty (pun on) . Khadim = servant. Santon. see of Kaid = governor). viii.) viii. such) Kayliilah ii.) viii. i. 266. v. existence. . janissary. ii. Kaysum = yellow camomile. 92 iii. Khalilu 'llah (friend of Allah = Abraham) ii. (cowardice) is 173. 94. 56. 323. 144. 320. 245- Kazi of the army (the great legal \authority vi. Khalidan names of ii. Khatun (Turk. Kayrawan = the Greek Cyrene. 130. Kayim the wing meaning oneself gently) 301. 8l. IO. . 237. X. Karib. bin Safwan. Kawwad = pimp. 212. Kaywdn (Persian for Saturn) ii. 154 212. 132 . iii. = man with a thin. 9. '-hotel. i. Khan al-Masrur. 143 . viii. vi. ix. v. Khauf (A1-) Khaukhah = tunnel. from Khatt 39- Kerchief (of mercy). i. successor of a 178. 309- Khattiyah = writer. / Kaukab ix. ix. iii. iv. i. 266. Khayr wa 'Atiyah = well and in good ease. (gos- . 191. 145. iii. vi. 146. 1 59." etc. 177. 241 ii. 39- Kdzi = judge in religious matters. 232 Khara = dung (lowest . Kawwas = archer. Kawaid (pi. Khatmah = reading or reciting of the whole Koran. 66 vii. tavern. iv. ix. 90 . tribe. 246 . Kayf halak = how de doo? vii. vii. viii. . 311 . Khayal (Al-) = phantom ghost. viii. lady) iv. i. 205. 277. 343. on the keys being handed to a lodger.. i. Kharaju = they (masc. v. Khalanj vii. 51. Khali'a = worn out. politely applied 23$ . 5th century. ii. &c. 347.^pear. viii. 274 Khanjar = hanger. Kastira Khalidat) = the Canaries. Kaun = being. Kazib al-Ban = willow. 184. Kaz (Al-) = shears. 63. ii. "= fee paid Hajar. wrestler.

Kiblah = Kird wan) (Pr. Kimkhab = 278. Khuld = fourth heaven and the Virtuous Wife) (the. (anything opposite) Ka'abah. = (al-) v. viii. vii. the Chosroe. 66. towards it in mortal v. 174. &c. ix. applied to the v. 351. Killed = Hibernice "kilt. letter. vi. (quintal) 169. 275- of the Chorasmioi. hundredweight bellows. ix. 39. flaccid 306 Khurj (Al-) = saddle-bag (las Alforjas) vi. 320. = bat when wroth) 94. vi." vii. 71. iv. swordcase. Khinzir-. iii. 91. KhiUl = toothpick (emblem of attenuation) v. Khiya"! (Chinese shadows) iv. 214. = baboon> iv. ! (turning danger) vi. 354. to 323. 267. iv. (Al-) Khazra" 84 ii. viii. v. (names viii. Kissing (the eyes. 231. viii. Kurdm = . Kha"wf (skin Khawwds ii. (his wealth) v. Khwdrazm = land viii. 259. Khitab = exordium of a Khiza"b (dye used by vii. ii. the Green. Kirdmat = prodigy. 87. 72. of . (like a pigeon feeding its young) iii* v. letters. Kiss (without mustachio Shirfn. viii. Kit (of the traveller in the East) v. = lex talionis. Khumaslyah = five iii. a paternal salute) i. Kind'= 124. 226. 45. of) Kingfisher (Lucian's) vi. Kitab al-Kazd = book of law-cases." of) 221. Kirab 105. = breacl without to Kitty. 283. N. bran. ii. Kitfir (Itfir) == Potiphar. v. of 201 258. 172. i. 196. shoes. Kirat (bean of Abrus precatorius) vii. length . iv. 91. finger-breadth) yellow coral) feet high. 384. iii. (en tout bien et en tout honneur) vi. 199. Khunsa= flexible.ooo each. 1 * i. vii. 22. viii.5 of palace 44 . Khaznah (Khazinah)=i. . !Khishkha"nah = cupboard. Laylah 171. kettle. women) Khizanah (A1-) = treasury. 126. 289. Kinchin lay (Arab form 160. 46. Khirad Shah = King of Intelligence. be taken literally 210. 165. Kitab al-Fihrist (and its author) x. applied to Anushir- = 207. 122* 203. (of = v. viii. 297. . by public opinion) ix. 25- the ground of obedience (Persian metaphorical phrase) vii. salt) v. 66. 66. man schoolmaster. Khwdjah (Howajee) vi. vi. i. 49. kfs wa Killing (of an unfaithful wife 255. v. Kiblatayn = the two Kiblahs (Meccah and Jerusalem) v. Khizr (the Green Prophet) i. Khusrau Parwiz and iv. = porridge. 2-3 grains " not ground 209. Khuffa"sh IO2. (dressing in scarlet King Kintar 73- Khubz = scones. Khusyatdn = testicles. ii. Khuff= walking "Kimcob. ix.) = affairs. iv. = one 239. ii. 193. 170. misfortunes. USKhyas Khyas ! sea-spell. Kimiyd Alchemy (from xy/AOOl = wet drug) iii. 108. 297. used in a 228. ix. Kiyakh (fourth Coptic month) v. 175 . ix. iv. 107.A If 354 Khayza>an = rattan. al-Nukhdl = Guts of " Kiss key " Kiss 55. Kissis = ecclesiast. Khutub = Kir 131. 125. Kidrah=pot. lamp-globe. (velvet ix. (weight (hermaphrodite. al-Jamal = camel shoulder-blade* Kitf vii. 209. Mu'awiyah. = Salix ^Egyptiaca. . 196. = 9. King's barber a man of rank. 191. Khutnah = circumcision. of) vi. 192. Kishk (Kashk) v. . i. viii. iv. v. 224. 82. 91. for) iv.. Khinsir = little (or middle) ringer. vines. (animal) v. KhilaT (Khalaf) Laylah. no. = basket-maker. iii.hog. 5. i. commended 9. veil. 228. vii. onomatopoetic. 237 . Kirsh also catamite) a = wooden Kiram = nobles 47. Kil wa Kdl=it was said and he said (chitchat) Kisds (A1-) Kisra iv. viii. 167.

Ixxxviit. (xxi. ii. xxxvi. (xii. (-eyed : 74 6 (xvi.) (iv. Inner Apartments) iv. . Koran quoted (Ixxiv. iii. 249. Ixxxvi. i. 228. 43. 10. iii. (iv.) (vii. xxxiii. = Kiz^n fukka'a of beer) jars for fukka'a (a v. (v. v. (xciv. 102. vi. i. 298. 156. 298. (i. 223. ii. . Ixxvi. 9) (Ivi. i.355 Appendix. (xii. 79. (xxviii. 38. 307. 191) (xxiii.) .) iv. iii. (ii. xcv.) iv. ii. 112) iv. . Knife.) i. powdered antimony lids - ii. 1 etc. (xiv. iii. 211. 92) (iii. iii. iii. cv. 5. ii. 304. in. (ii. i. 24. 64. 217. Ii.) ii. 146. 198.) 232. 96. (xx. xxii. . . 244. in prayer (exclusively Christian) Kneeling Kohl kind 88. 240. 12 (ii. (iv. 31) cxpv. 50. 18 39. . (ii. . iv. (cv. 224) s 294. iii. (xxvi. iii.) ii. 274.57. 149 vii. (Ixi. (xxxv<i. 21. ii) iii. xxviii. i. v.) 257. . 42. xx.) 241. 203. iii. ii. 140. 117. 178) iv. (xxv. 196. iii. 69) 208. the eye- for proverbially used. 22-27) " 207. xxxv. 37. 78. ii. 39. iii. ii. Kahla) 141 ) iii. i. 34 (ii.) (ix. iii. 323. . iv.) (v. Ya Sin) 85) iv. ii. . 23) (ii. ii. (applying of = takhfl) = (he would steal it is a very expert thief) = Kohl'd with Ghunj = 68. (ii.) (ii. (xxiv. "bravest of arms. iii. 17.) (cviii. 31 . io Koka Pandit (Hind*i Ars Amandi) (iii. 185) (ii. 59) . . (Ixxxix. 312. 91. (v.. 32 (ii.) : - iii. 278. 80. 2O 38) (xii. ii. 19.. xxii. 19) 21. ii. 174. x. xviii. (xiii. (chapter (ii. (iii. Korah (Karun) Koran quoted * 20) ii. . 7) (opening chapter) 307. ii. i) (xxiv. (xvii. 36. 281. languour-kohl'd. (xxiii.) i. . Iv. ii. i. 302. (v. I. . 123. iii. (xxvi. Ixxxvii. cxiii.) 40.) (vii. . 186 (ii. (iii.) 220. i. iii. 97. - (ii.) i.) viii. iv. ii. 316." Knight-errant of the East. 128. 132. in the Kohls (many kinds of) viii. (Ivi. 225. = i. 86. xix. (xcvi. iii. ii. 256) (xi. 69) i. . (cxiii. 276. 8 . 169. 14. 34) 77. 239. ii. Kohl -case = res in re. 39) 251. Ixvii.) iv. 48) iii. 65. 222. (cxii. iii. ii. (IxxvL) 225. . (x. iii. 123. ix. (xvii. f. 205. i. 7) iv. (xxvii. 301.) .) .) 95. (xxxviii. 226. 118) ii. Ivi.) i. 199. (xvi. (-powder keeps the eyes from inflammation) ii. 5) iii.) 93. 119.) i. 13. vii. 89) . Kohl-needle - 25) (xviii. (iii. 57) (vii.) Ixvii. ii (iv. Knuckle-bone. 291.) 88) 20. 175. 242. ix. . xxv. . xviii. 38) 9 iii. (xxxi. 256. 96 xvi. 70) iv. 314. Ix. 26 22. 115. (xxi. . ii. off the eye-ball he . 14) iv. iv. i) . i. iii. (xvi. 6. 38) iv. ii. xcv. i. i.) 17) 128) (xviii. (xlix. 332. 2.) ii. i. (xix. 57. j ii. 293. i) (ii. ii. 319. xcvi. 201. 93. ii. 89. iii. 84.) . (Ix. 170) (x.

Ii. xxii. 30 4. ' ! (xx. (vi. (v. 346. .) iv. Ixxiv . . | '. 277. 28) ix. 164. 69. 214. 33) ix. 36) v. 19) v. (xxxiii. (xxxvi. 166. (xxvi. (v. v. (xxxvi. 60) 216 v. 213. xxxix. I. (vii. 124 . vi.^ 194. xli. 103) vi. v. iv. 54) Ixxviii.) x. ii. 212. 275. 38. 259. 249. v. 294.Alf Laylah wa Lay la h 356 Koran quoted : 103 (iii. 317. . (xxiv. (Ii. Kubkab= bath-clogs. v. 251. 233. (ii. ii. 137 (ix.) . 272. 203. 44) vii. ' 62 xxx vi. 2) v. (xl. 82) v. - 282) v. . 58) ix. . Koran (abrogating and abrogated passages) v. xxvii. n) (xxxviii. I.) v. 234. . (xxxv. . vii . 55. 5 . 16) v. 50) v. 217. (vii. iv. (most excellent chapter 14) y. (iii. I) ix. viii.. 285. ex. i) iv. N (iL 286) vii. 165) v. (xvii. 51) v. . Ixx. (xxvi. 115. 39) vi. (vii. 320. 108. (cxiii. 322. 211. i. 310 . Ixvii. (vi. Ixxiv. 16) iv.) vii. The Cow) (ex. vi. I 88) (cviii. 26) iv. xxxvi. (ii. 270. 285. . 44) v. . - 148) v. . (xxxix. 46) (xli. 88. 324. (xxvii. ii. (xxxvi. 211. 310. 15) vi. 254. 40) ix. 216 (x. 145. bcix (Ixxxi. xiv. 277. 7) v. 355. (Ixxxix. 82) v. 34) v. 316. v. 40) Ixxxiv. . 235. 8.. 36) v. I (iii. . 57) xxvi. 2) v. 231. 63. . 36 . xxii. 185. . 230. 57 . ' (chapt. ii. 61 (ii. xx*. xviii. 184) (cxi. 10) v. 287. (Ivii. (ii. . loi. 105 . of) v. 100. Koss ibn Sa'idah (Bishop of Najrdn) Kubbad = shaddock. 159. 78 (ix. 267. 393. owing viii. Ixxxviii. (xvii. 1 39 Ixxviii. 161. i. (xxvii. (xxxvii. 33. 207. 89 (xxvi. (xx. see (revolutionary spirit of) Kufiyah = coif. . xcvi. 102) vii. 89. 29. 3) vi. xxvii Koran quoted 12) iv. 194. ( ! 102. 191. \. . 5. 290. i v.) ix. 59. 21$. 39) v. . . . 81) (iv. f. 17) vi. 144. v. (first English translation France) x. Kubbah (A1-) = alcove. 92) v. i. 41) v. 38) v. etc. (Ixxxi. vii. 92. 221. no) (xii. (eminent and curious verses of) 239. 3) ix. 269. 238. 250. to 37. . : (Hi. viii. (vii. ! 52) v. 211. 15. 158 (iv. no) v. . Kuds iii. 8) v. 16. 3) viii. 108) v. 191. 140) ix. viii. 155. .) . 28. 223. 21 1. 48) v. . (ix. Kufr= rejecting ii. 169. 83) v. viii. 175. 143. (xiii. 51) vi. 18 . 1 (iv. 1 (iii. 1 8. . . xxii. (xvii. 17) ix. Kufah (A1-) founded by Omar. vii. 93. 95. viii. - 67 (iii. (xii. 60 . (viii. 21) vi. (cxi. 6) v. iv. . 18. i (vii. (vii. (xxi. j. 256. 100 . of 92 (xvi. 286. (xxxiii. 71. 3. ii 9) vii. (xxiv. 92) viii. 182. 66) v. 228. 34) v. 282. viii. 42. (xxxviii. 99) (vi. v. xvii. * (x. . 37. 54 xii. (cxiv. 14 . (iv. i) v. 154. iv. ii. (ii. . 195) v. 55. (ii. 90) (xxxix. vi. 92. 210. 5) v. 836. 119. (A1-). Bayt al-Mukaddas. 51.) vii. 69 (xvi. (xxxvi. (xii. 38) v. 240. '. 19) ix. 28) vi. 132. the True Religion. (xiii. 366. . 138. 78. ix. 216. (xxxviii. 64 51 (ix. Ixx. ( (liii. 66. . xi. xvi. 116) v. (iv. 40 291. 59. 337. (xxxi.

16. certainly. ix. chastise us = excuse 164. viii. 357. 14. ill. i. 93. x. La'alla = haply. v. plaything. 7. vii. by destiny. tion of the Kiis (town in there La tuwahishna=do 17. 145. hence prince. = (bi-zdlik that) iv. ix. x. 39. 299. = the Overtaker. gourd-shaped vessel) 68. halib = fresh milk.) = "it was decreed so it came to pass. 164. Kumasra (Kummasra) = pear. i.or matro-nymic. a puppet. a runner. Lait = one acting like. points. 128. desk or stool for the Koran. 237. iv. ff-hi. Kumkum Books of Lust. make me not desolate. Kurs (has taken the place of Iklfl) i. = Kursi (choir.. 100. 72 . La'al = ruby. ii. vi. vii. i. Kumayt (A1-) = bay horse with black i. vi. v. cravache. 357 sodomite. La" tankati'i sever not thyself from us. roots. LA ADAMNAK = Heaven deprive 42 iv. 348. 178. forsure. 250.a 329. 46. viii. viii. La 317. iii. = little tom-cat. i. 99. Ladies of the family (waiting upon the guests) vi. Kurdus = body of horse. Lihik in sainthood. etc. 88. = pretty well. vii. (no cohabitation during) v. for vi. Kus(s) = vulva. Lactation (term of) v. 175. . i.." x. Labtayt (Pr. Kurban = sacrifice. I. coolness of the eye. name old of Suez-town. 36.= Toledo) iv. thee. 287. Kutayt there ii. 102. Kut al-Kulub. 201. ball in the Polo Kurrat al-Ayn Kussd'a no Majesty. 311. artificially (= sweet milk) 286. La" haula. 98. ix. vii. Kunyat = patro. La tuwkhiznd = donot i. 201. 77 Kulzum vii. 80. = curling cucumber. is rajma ghaybin us. Kunafah Kurbaj no harm is 274. 296. 2OI. eclipse of the moon. 342. vji. ix. 167 vii. pole . = no burning plague. Kutr Misr = tract of Egypt. 49. 62." ii. Kunsul = Consul. 272* ii. is = ing of secrecy. 107 . . (the creative word) iii. vi. 9. Kutd'ah Kutb = no God but is 336. viii. ix. Kun = Be there = " I am Marocco) (in (cucurbite. i. = rayba = without stone-throw- 210. 102. 270. La'an = curse. 251. ix. N. belike. Kursan (A1-) = "Corsaro. a lay 245.the ix. viii. vi. Kuikasa = colocasia Kullah = gugglet. Kursi al-wiladah = birth-stool. Ldb (Old Pers. 158. i.65. throne) Upper Egypt) iv. Kclayb allows no one to approach his ii. 44. called Talbiyah) 227. 299. v. = (Pr. great joy? ilia God La' ab= (sword-) play. soured) 360. symptom of i. Kuhaylat (breed of Arab horses) iii. v. La" iv. ii. 276. Kundur = frankincense. N. viii. = a bit cut off. i.Appendix. 384. Sun) 178. = game. doyen Kuthayyir (poet) ii. (pronounced on sighting Meccah) v. ( sleeve (used as a bag) iv. viii. axle. 253. 201. Kumm = La Bas us not of 268. iv. tribe of Lot. La ham- Koran. 84. Labbayka 226 i. . 341. I. Kunfuz = hedgehog. = etc. 245. Labbis al-Biisah tabkf 'Arusah = clothe the reed and it will become a bride. viii. viii. Kutub al-Bah Kuzfa Fakan 261. Laban ( = milk . viii. 272. 113. Kusiif = 'llah (tahlil) La'abah=. 291. 323. ( . = vermicelli cake. 346. camp-fire. etc. 267. ii. ii. Kur = furnace. figure. = ilaha the = = in 1. i. 203. Kurra = teachers of the correct pronuncia- viii. = Here am ii. (A1-). Kurds (Xenophon's and Strabo's Carduchi) Kurrah no harm Ld kabbata hamiyah forge where children are mered out (?) viii. Kush'arfrah = horripilation. [yet] done) ix.

131. 275. 166. 122. Kariin. 223. 36. 306. 226. known by the Arabs) 79. 191. "3- Lasm (Lathm) = iv. 46. 223. Leg-cut (severs horse's leg) i. il. Li-ajal 52. 104. (model specimen) (toren tears a iv. 182. 14. 196. 104. 35. 152. nights. 131. 191. 183. Letter (reading not always understanding) ii. 96. 124. Languages (study of. 163. 2. (Al-) = Levantines. . for fear of . l8l. 113. (thickens voice) 77. l82. 33. 285. 12. 34. Laughter rare and sign of a troubled mind. 219. 180. 201. 141. poem) Laylat al-Wafa = the night of completion of the Nile-flood. (A1-) (of Allah's decrees) v. at the wrist) iv. 332 315. 357 185. 61. for thy sake. 124.. the in anything stammering. 259. 213. 273. Largesse (better than the mace) viii. 209. 10. 33t 37. 95. 205. 314. 124. 191. 140 viii. 80. 243 iii. 259. 102. 147. 30. ii. Lauh = tablet used as slate. 244. for thee. 1 68. 56. (much appreciated by the Arabs) x. Libraries (large ones 259. vii. 297. 337 ix. 196. 160. 51. 38. 354. assisted by Leaving one standing (pour se vi. see Ldjuward. 190. 80. of. 119. 32. 229. 264. black = 294.282. 123. 181. (simulating truth) ix. sake low Egyptian. future. 195. ii. 246. 33'. iii. 32. 115. 27. 304. 33 . 318. = Layali Layla (female Pr. 131. 201. 46. (os = poem Lane quoted in L. 69. 1 2. 145. 269. i. 212. 143. 340 ii. 96. 82. 245. 68. 179 298. 57. 358 I. 280. vii. 100. : iii. 291. . 162. vii. 66. in. meant for an 320. (French) = vii. 304. 80. hue (for dish) 17. 200. 206. 12. 182. 311. N. first iv. 346. v. Legs (making mute the anklets) vii. 18. 248. 171. rhyming i. 107. 309. = Laylat al-Kabilah Laylat al-Kadr iii. 282. 135. colour. 167. v. 118. 144. 253Lentils and (cheapest poorest food in x. 73. and dawn. 155. 146. 322. 95. 211. 136. 139. azure. 322. 77. 247. 112. iii. i. 231. 70. hyoides) v. ii. 77. n. 205. 83. 231. 53. viii. 11. Lie (only degrading if ii. 254. fel- = the forked 1-shaped. contemptible low. 170.3'- Egypt) Leprosy (white v. 304. 269. 21. Lesbianism. Libdah (skull-cap of felt) sign of a Liberality iii. 33. 303. 306. 156. Layl (night) frequently = the interval between sunset and sunset. in one's face not faire valoir) 252. 292. 19.ajlaj = rolling Lake vi. 20. 214. 202. 147. 279. . Lamiyat = Laun Lawandiyah. Lauh al-Mahfuz = the Preserved Tablet Lice bred by perspiration. 259. i. 222. 314. 57. 89. 66. 287. juzam) = bahak or baras. yesternight. i. 187. ix. 144. (shall be bared on a certain day) ix. 128. Language of signs. 87. 212. iii. 36. Lakit = foetus. 307 x. 41. mouth. for their) iv. 96. kissing the lower face. 298 vi. 180 187. ix. 144. 275. 216. 221. 204. 116. 260. 44. Latter night = hours between the last sleep i. 50. x. 273. V. 49. 164. 4S> 64. 97. 62. 268. . 93. 112. iii. 163. 270. vi. should be ear and tongue) x. 120. 271. 34i iv. 50. 250. 55. 189. 224. 233. 2. 291. 33. 94. 196.44. 290. 322 Lazuward. 176. 314. 215. 271. 220. Lamf Laulka=but 217. 190. 8. 328. = ams Laylat viii. 291. 215. Laughing affront. 228. foundling. kingdom) iii. 5. 148. to-night. vi. (men proverbial (after poverty) viii. . 217. (shows J 135. 189. Letters and letter-writing. 328. told telling the truth) ix. 24. 219. Lazuward = lapis lazuli. 222. 84. 131. 121. 209. 317.257. 180. (love 172. 112. vii. 322. 74. 117. mendicant. 96. . i. 136. ix. religious 62. Lasting calamity = furious knight. 186. 210. ix. 175- 24. . 177.AIJ Laylah wa Laylah.) wa Majnun = Night of Power. fate. 42. 145. 222. Laza (Hell for Jews) ii. 63. 93. 346. 114. for the vii. 286. 199. 214. 209.

50. people of different conditions) viii. 275. ii. Moslems) viii. v. 80. 6. 115. 31. viii. vii. (cheap in hot countries) iv. 93. i. 232. iii. (strange chances of) v. sanctioned calamity. 58. 67. Lying v. 183. ix. 14. Lijam shadid = sharp bit. robber. ii. 27. also a vocabulary. Love-liesse (never lacked between folk. 330. wild cow. iii. Lot will share will of the audience) viii. v. 279. 45 . which passing) v. to torment the lover still 75. 240. name) x. 134. i. Logah = Arabic language. Lokman (three of the Loosening the hair (hell) as iii. 332. of thy youth) oath of women. 71. Like mother. Lumd = dark hue Luss 228. 218. 269. 251. (becoming Moslems secure the good of) viii. 232. (the ear conceiveth fibre ix. Lullilooing (Tahlil Zagriitah. 238. (of the East for 58. 93. Lieu d'aisance (in Eastern crafts) ix. copious to thee. 115. Living (the. Liver iii. Lff = Love iv.359 Appendix. 199. dictionary. 261 vii. Lots = games of chance. 34. iv. viii. 118. 151. women Lord i. ii. vi. chin. ix. Lute (personification Lutf name of) viii. Lote-tree (beyond = ii. see vol. 238. 259. Lost on Allah's way = martyr. iii. of the inner Lupin-flour used as soap. referring to) iv. = fat sheep (calves like tails (cruelty of) x. tain) viii. 328. (platonic. (as becomes prophetical) (pure. 212. iii. iii. a stock-topic in poetry). (servile ii. 36. vii. before the eye) it 9. thief. 40. 92. Liwan = Al-Aywan. Life (by the. . becoming an ordinary married couple) v. Lukmah = mouthful. more) x. Lovers in Laza i. lamb abroad. 70. Sultan of the beasts jealous of a man's power) 104) iii. ii. 283. Litholatry of the old Arabs. Lizzat al-Nisa (erotic poem) iii. Listening not held dishonourable. vii. Logogriphs. Liwa = Arab Tempe. well as in Na'im iii. Light -worshippers (are liars) iv. spleen held to be congealed blood) v* 220. (buried together) v. Kil) ii. ix. 230. iv. Loving folk Locks (Mohammed's) ii. = Lady (model ones. vi. Lisan al-Hamal = lamb's tongue (plan- = iii. 273. v. 223. like daughter. 324. Luti (of the people of Lot is no delicacy) = Sodomite) v. (martyrs of) iv. Lisam (mouth-band for men. (made public disgraces) v. 71 . 279.veil = Tasmak for women. 106. Loathing of prohibition. at home. ix. (excess of) iv. 60. Light (of salvation shining from the face of Prophets) ix. = 281. 230. 347. (martyrs of) Lion (beguiled by flattery) v. Li 'llahi darru-ka = the Lord has been iv. of palm-fronds. she. (clairvoyance) iv. Luliiah = union pearl . . and West) something more than bene2. an immodesty by a only in great 314. 240. vii. (ten stages of) 49. 367. 299. 205. i. Luk-Gate (proverb 251. 264. 71. (man and woman with regard 20. 393. i. seat of passion. 224.e. 291. Life-breath in the nostrils = heart in the mouth. who dieth not) vi. i. 118. volence. x. 136. = I have been lucky and (this is ours with you) Lot. 252. Love-children (exceedingly rare amongst (for heart) Liyyah upon (called (heaven) (and to) 299. 1. 21 (ousting affection) 42. elegance. there = truth) x. Lukman (^Esop of the Arabs) ii. (deaths from) v. Lukmdn (three of the name) iii. (until one's self believes the lie to be 161. see Luti. iv. lips. 26. (parting of.

81. smitten with Iddah) the woman (of a divorced during Majajah =*saliva. Dabbus) = evil ix. vulgarism) vii. ix. Malik Malakay bayti jakes. i. a pleasure in) iv. 103. viii. 185 . 140. Mamluk (white slave trained to arms) i. 340. 136. the Prophet. 142 . "Maurus") vi. 123. Moor. blood-dromedary. 204 . iii. 8l. ii. bin Dindr (theologian) 261. 223. MacNaghten's Edition. Mahrfyah iii. Ma'ani-ha (her meanings = her Majlis woman) = Ma'aruf Mace (Ar. M-rahah = slabs of the 51. beautiful. I. Mahaya = " x. 20. Maf ul = patient. ii. showing modern Maha = sitting (to a ecstatic) v. favour. Ma'janah (a place for making bricks) al-Rashfd. Malihah (al-) = salt-girl . = 67. 221. 109. al-Malahah marriage dowry. of and Mail-coat = what ill business = kaharani ahadun has overcome) me. 147. 72. x. (Sufi term for date. vii. man's) quarters. 10 = drawn. Madness (there Mafarik (A1-) . ii. Madfa = cannon. 17. iii. 334. modern form of Jus talionisj Mahmudah = v. Magharibah (pi. ix. 199. "fee. 182. I3 2 - Mahdi (A1-) Caliph. the world of spirits (Sufi (as much prized as riches) 316. 136. settlement. Maghdad (for Baghdad. iii. vi. 271 . 32. Malik Kawf-= very handsome (Cairene 83. 247. 259. Lymph (alluding to doctrine) ix. (taken as title) iii. " (and women) Making men term) viii. is none vexeth (or i. passive (Catamite) v. Makhaddah = pillow. i. 21. Ma'un this?) ix. wild cattle. 146. x. Mahall woman) Maka'ad = sitting-room. x. 81. 28. simile glittering stream. 57. i. viii. (brilliancy) vii. = (Mehari) 277. Mai = Badawi money. iv. Mahall al-Zauk = seat of taste. = 291. 220. see Khilaf. v. 47. 204. 2. Ma = beauty. ix. as Makkah and Bakkah) Maghrib viii. Malakut (Al) v. iv. vii. 35. son and successor of Harun Maamun a for i. of Maghribi = Western man. Mahmil (mahmal) = vii. Malik (door-keeper of Hell) iii. = great Rajah. al-Khuzd'i (intendant of the palace) 95. ii. thy misfortune is t Ma' in. 285. 78. 137. fable probably based on the currents. iv. i. Kazi's' Court. 51. Maintenance ix." vi.A If Lynch-Iaw (the Layla k wa Laylah. = 145. 77. iv. 372. 70. vii. = is = City of 114. i. water ix. Ma'an bin Zaidah. M al-Hayat vi. = vii. 96. 156. i. vii. 229. Malocchio or Gettatura (evil) ix. 50. 19. vii. 156. Madinat al-Nabf (Al-Medfnah) ix. Seraph or Sovran. (a inner Majnun Majzub kindness. flocks. 32. 131. (al-Aksa) = land the of thb setting sun. 92. 280. partings of the hair. = Malak Malak i. Making water. sensorium. 267. ii. (trained for hunting) Lynx praiseworthy confection of . Maid and Magpie. 249. = viii. Male children ix. Malik (used as " king " in our story-books) i. . (as one wherein wheat is heaped up = unmarried) vii. 234. (Al ). iv. iv. 126. 51. (traditionist) v. (a ground. 150. Magazine level or 253- 222. aqua vitse. 293. Magnet Mountains. 8. (A1-) al-Nasir = the conquering King. ii. habergeon. MA AL-KHALAF. aloes. Maharaj i. Magic Horse (history of the fable) v. Ddhiyatak " what (for Ma ii. 236 . M4 viii. vi. = madman. Magic studied by Jews. Malikhulfya (A1-) = melancholy. attracted Makkamah = 24. eye. the "Neptunist" = Mahr ii. litter. dangerous weapon) vii. Ma'abfd (singer and composer) v.

ix. Masculine for feminine. = oratio soluta et Manzil (Makam) = ii. on (his destiny written his skull) iii. 156. 290. . 321. 210. iii. article. Married men profit nothing. bin Ammar. 121. Marddn-i-Ghayb (Himalayan brothers) iv. kerchief. i. viii. Bimaristan (pre-eminence above women. wrong is from the tongue) Manashif races) Marriage (not valid without receipt of 51. vii. 129. Mann = from two to six pounds. woman tinder) iii. 79.) vi. vii. (Pr. passing place of the iii. iii. vi. Mashallah 60. (created after God's likeness. Manaf (idol) v. never mind = a Religious) (his ix. 211 242. Marocco (tenanted by three Moslem 44. Meccah) 79. viii. Mandil ii. 256. = iv (of love) (superior to Jinn) ix. viii. (one worthier in Allah's sight than a thousand Jinn) viii. slaves. ix. 306. 140. Coral-branch (slave name) iii. 205. 129. (a lady's) lodgings. 52. sickness) = = place of 288.) 100. x. Marmar = marble. q. Man's creation. (A1-) Calipli. . Marwazi = of Marw (Margiana) 80. ii. 196. 2. analogues in all the viii 145- Martyrdom. never once (emphasises poverty) = Mankind Mangonels. 179. 203. 291. vi. iii. * S3- " " . Mamarr = al-Tujjar traders. 55. al- 125. (shown 361 115. Mansur Mansur Marhiimah) (f. 207. = Maniyat i. 180. 5. = the English Cock's 'ill with a difference. (one of the institutions of the Apostles) Marseille (probably alluded to) 301. 213. 340. stories) beast- disadvantage in to Mares (impregnated by the wind) Marhub = 155. vii. = bin grave. a Jewish-Christian than a 373- Markub = shoe. consummated demands Ghusl) (if (pi. 1 6. (one's evidence = two women's) v. Morgain) = (one's portion two women's v. 92. 228. Mansur wa Munazzam ix. Maryam (a Christian name). 40. (is fire.7. = Martyrs elements) myrtle. viii. iii. 222. 59. ii. Manar al-Sana 95. 339. 286. Marwah (ground-wave 91. quarters. 24. (Pr. (created of congealed blood) v. (handsomer than woman) iv. Mashhad = head and foot stone of a grave. 142. ii. Mar- iii. 295 Moslem doc- trine) ix. ii. vii. in (Rim) of beauty. Manumission of Maragha (still Medinah) 310. . 153. 137. viii. Marriage-sheet inspected. viii. ii. Marjanah = Coral-branch. set- 276. etc. 238. Manjanikat (A1-) iii. 9. muniyat . 309. N. iii. Ma shaa 'llah (as Allah willeth)= well done. 41. (Morgante. vii. 222. Urganda. = Ma'rifah 155- Marba' late Marid = contumacious. ii. rather 211.Appendix. 92. (of the drowned) ix. 335.v. alive) iii. Maryam al-Husn = place of ligata. he rubbed his = summer face. 229. Marwan triumphant. lamented. Man (extract of despicable water) iii. Mamrak = sky-window. 155. viii. = Place of Light. al-Hakam (Governor of vii. death = desire. Marhum ii. the White doe iii. Manazil (stations of the Moon) v. X. ii. = (I am a man of them my name) ix. ii. Marsin (creates its iv. (by capture) viii. viii. ad vantages above woman) v. 226. viii. terrible. 39- 123. 169. Marz-ban = Warden of the Marches. 332.} viii. viii. 315. Mariduna = rebels (against Allah) Marjan 15. of Minshafah. (his - = Maristan (from Pers. 50. 204. i. 155. al-Nimri (poet) iv. v. N. tlement) (of the people of Allah vi. i. 272. 104.

220. v. 201. of mitrak) Matmurah = underground Matr = large amtar) (pi. Allah permit = Procession-day. Maslamah bin Abd al. to such. Dalilah) 39. Matarik q. iv. Miknasah = broom. Mikbas (pot of lighted charcoal) iv. salt. Milk-drinking races prefer the soured milk to the sweet. ix. Maydan = parade-ground. Miao or Mau = cat. (soured) v. 46. 225. 294. (Al-) see ii. grotesques with other nations) ix. Men 258. Sun-fete. ancient broom. phant. Mikhaddah = cheek-pillow. Masha'ili hangman. 101. iv. Menses 147. 67. for public crier. ii. follower of the Messiah. 326. Masihi 259 i. v. 223. ?) i. v. . 15. 158. = = Mihrgan 166. Mann. . life (pi. and Milk (white ix. Bakr. iii. Milh = = spoon.A If Laylah wa 362 = cresset-bearer. Metrical portion of the Nights (threefold 287. iii. ix. Maskharah = buffoon. vi. 340. famous) Maukab during. 208. in the soured 201. 141. Mim-like mouth. Mikashshah iv.v. short poem. iv. Maulid = nativity. 222. Masukah = stick used for driving cattle. 201. 289. i. Mihrab and Minaret (symbols of Venus and! Mi'lakah the Ele- Maysir = game of arrows. Mayyafarikin. I. viii. Meat vii. 62. vii. Mihraj Mausul viii." of miza"b) = iv. noun now forgotten) 160. Mauz=Musa (Banana) iv. 8. bearing on Million (no Arabic word for. Metamorphosis (terms of) vii. 120. Maysum's song. 246. so 34- poison) Mataf= place of Tawaf. Maydan al-Fil = race-course of Maymunah Messiah (made a Michaelmas. vi. 195. viii. = targes. = Mercy thee to v. iv. a statue. 80. Massacre Laylak. gargoyles. Mawwal (for Mawaliyah) thy (quality of the noble Arab) Mer-folk(refinedwith the Greeks. as. expressed by a thousand thousand) vi. Maurid = desert well and road " 54- ix. 94 Mayazib 151. Halib) vi. be prolonged. Mikmarah = cover for a brasier. state-craft. 270. (Ar. 88. Miknas = town Mequinez. there a famine of?) = are (is few? iv. guisher. i. vii. 249. 165. Massage. Mims (verset of the sixteen) v 217. vii. 26. no. vii. 'llah ix. rarely coloured in vi. . i. 6l. Merchants and shopkeepers carrying swords. degraded into v. ii. Maskhut = transformed (mostly in something hideous). i. 33- Assyria and Babylonia. = the conjoined (for relative (Al-) pronoun or particle) ix. 223. 98. 146. 360. 67. vi. 147. vii. nomades always used vi. 167. (the Melancholy (chronic under the brightest skies) iv. i. vessel of leather or Matting (of Sind. wood. iv. cell. Maharaj. Maut = death. I 3 6. Matta'aka ix. . = liar by the Miscreants) capital of Diydr modern days. Maysum (Badawi wife of Caliph Mu'awiyah) iii. 169. q. 295. enjoy. Mastabah^ bench of masonry. 239.Malik. vi. opposed to black as mud) 140. Metempsychosis and sharpers' tricks. 82. Mausil (Mosul) alluding to the junction of May (his vii. Merchant (worth a thousand) x. form) 97.v. Maund. Priapus Military (proverbial 57- ii. men Menstruous discharge (made use of as a 172. Meniver = menu vair (Mus lemmus) 321. 84. i. 125. 273. 225. story sequel to that of 172. viii. Laban. 310. i. 272. 143 . Medicine (rules and verses domestic) v. i. i- (pi. i. extin* (by vii. ix. Police sneered at. distribution of) x. i. of Eastern grand moyen ix. and leprosy) (coition Mercury Aly 295.

237. 263. for iv. 232. 228. 72. ii. iii. (abhors the shaveling) ii. (masc. (shall ii. i. i. and (Best of Mankind). Monkery (abhorred by Mohammed) ii. 2*7. 333. (simile for female beauty) v. (Ar. 205. 86. ' and (before = True Faith) ix. 71-72 grams in gold. (Congratulator 260. (mentioned in the Koran) it) 335- Mininah iv. 287. 125. 15. Mikra'ah v. (Coptic names of) v. ii. (taking in hand the star = girl handing round the cup) ix.. to Spiritualism) v. v. ix. 281 i. of ii. Misra (twelfth Coptic month) v. 192. i. 4. palm-rod. 69. signet.. (one by vinegar. ii. Mukaukis) glad ii. Months 40. . v. of inspector kerchief) . 80. 257. 248. 366. Mohtasib 346. v. etc. 45. 8. in) reckoning second Sabbath. (bearer i. 210. Monsters (abounding in Persian literature) last) (Periclytus and Paracletus) ii. Master Abdullah of Nowhere. day 266. 54. after the Hijrah) x. (his uncles) iv v. 172. used 126 ix. vii. 142. etc. Moslem the Moles compared with pearls. known Miracles (performed by Saints' tombs) i. (sent with the guidance and biscuit. Mishammah = an month of al-Rabi'i 130. Fostat and Cairo) vii. 196. Mizar = beer. (for Egypt) vii. iii 319. Ka'abah of fern.) be cloven (its stations) v. (places of confinement for viii. iv. 22. Bika'a) v. vii. another by wine = each goes " Mine " viii. measures. Minaret (simile (on lovers) Mind (on his being seen in sleep) iv. tidings) Arabic names explained) Moon Commiserator) iii. ii. 137. ii. 336 Bassorah. = Manashif) drying towel. with the folk = not dunned 311. 399- bad (of peace) v. 92. (none in Al-Islam) viii. " black stone ") iv. Moon-faced (not absurd) Moons (for cup-bearers) iv. 232. (Allah's right hand) vii. 71. (cleanses the madmen) from (large 79. viii. 232. 99. iv. 145* round the waist) viii. 194. vi. 261. ii. . Modesty (behind a Mohammed ii. 262. 329. i. 35. 171. (famed and (black as Bilal) iv. 65. (blighting effect of its rays) masculine in Semitic. Miracle (minor. 248. Mohammed bin Sulayman (Governor of Bassorah) 144. curtain) v. (various idioms for expressing = Minshafah viii. 271.363 Appendix. Mis "-conformation (prized by women) vii. 162. 233. Monasteries (best wine made Misr. 192. its own way) iv.) iv. 226. Monoculars (unlucky to meet) i. rally believed in) vii. Money and (carried in the corner of a hand- i. Mitrahinna (Minat-ro-hinnu) mouth of canal. Mizr. for 371. 72. 27. 261. Mohammed al-Amin (Caliph) v. (best of the first (Mustafa) = viii. Mole on cheek at 130. 177. mischief) 194 . (traditional saying of) iv. (growing apace in the East) '" gene- iii. (pi. II. = Monday 156. Mirbad (A1-) market-place ix. (" born with Kohl'd eyes") Sun idols) iv. (places the for a fair young girl) iii. 221. the stoning 203. 288. 370. = Moharram year. old gunny-bag. (disclaimed by Mohammed but Mirage = Sarab. Mohr = first viii. 93. 318. Masr = Capital (applied to Memphis. sums weighed) (carried (let lie for) ix. Mina (and of the Devil) v. Misrayn (A1-) = Basrah and Kufah. 241. = Mirza 'Abdullah-i-Hichmakani Miskal = dinar. 217. 139. vii. Mohammed (on dyeing the hair. (his letter to the - at port and weights 293. in twain) v. 28 .

132. 232. . 331.A If Laylah Moore (Thomas. i. contrasting with abasement) viii. 42. vi. (vi. 41. Mosques 241. 338. 294. 206. MS. excused by passion) of. (commonplaces of condolence) (sales. 51. formula vi. and the next world. = 92. master (address to a vi. Christian a journey new tries to bear with him suit of clothes for the festivals and Friday service) ix. Moustachio (salt to a kiss) v. (want Morbi wa iy. i. = Mohammed's companions flight. 150. and Al-Khizr. divided into deer the vii. " ex the dictum. shown ii. noble instance of) x. in . 254. (husbands three classes) scandals amongst Jew ix. mosque of the Mother (waiting upon the adult sons Moses (derivation of the name) ii. ii. mere) ii. 92. blessed = = Mufti (Doctcr of Law) Muhajiriin ix. 44. Moses-like (his "mildness") iii. = muslin. as 69. i. at Cairo) iv. 84. (in Arab tales = Mother's milk Mounds = viii. x. cities. vii. ii. 174. 161. 51. district-governor. stuff Mortal (one better in Allah's sight than a thousand Jinn) viii. . clodhopper) 63- 69.) ix. the Muakhat = entering in a formal ment for partnership. 160. (a gong ?) (A1-) affection. = mubarakah) (f. 32. and Jethro. (Sultan and calligrapher) Muayyad Muazzin (who Mubarak calls to prayer) Mudarris (a 58. 165. 13. anticipated) iii. Moslems for lodgings Mourning (perfumes not used during) (kihd feeling . 63. ii. Mountain from (coming the = to a namesake) (corpses should be burnt under cer- 324. between high and low) (peasants kind-hearted) [. 73. tain circumstances) vi. vii. to the ring of 84. (bound to discharge the debts of his dead parents) ix. 286. a being iii. 263. 306. 311. (describes his own death and burial) vi. them) of) vi.64 venerei. " Morosa voluptas. among them of thirst or Christian) Muhabbat ix. Mu'awiyah (Caliph) ii. al-ghariziyah = natural no. 305. 27. 259. professor. = pimp. 330. Morality (geographical and chronological) iii. 88. ii. Morning draught. (dignity iii (normal term of forty days) ix. Mudawwarah cants) ix. rubbish heaps outlying Eastern i. = agree- teacher. T- vii. ii. ii. 324- 13. (not poor (the. (doctrine ignores nihilonihil fit") ix. (deal kindly with religiqus mendi- ashamed of sensual appetite) (bound to abate neighbours) ix. marry and bury him- self) viii. 116. ii. (resignation. 312. (sit (external) a serving travellers. Mu'allim 44. 71. viii. Mouth compared Egypt) (a free-born's sale is felony) vi. 26. copy of The Nights (price of one in Mubarakah 154. iii. x. (familiarity ii." vii. (can circumcise. Sulayman. v. (the pegs of the earth) iv. favourite slave-name) Muhafiz 98. i. Mu'attik al-Rikab = Liberator of Necks. = Mrigatrishna Mu'arras 22. $. 311. Moslem (model Conservative) vi. number preordained) (their viii. Laylak. = ma nature. 20. 240. Mosque al-Ahzab Mosul (exempted from idolatrous worship) 269. 5. (on troops. vi. 8. 237- 29. = 32. ii. iii. unknown ground (consecrated to 161. (mirage) vi. the = turn upon Mountains anchorite) iii. 44. 135. 205. the blessed (fem. 229. 93. 263. 205. viii.

= i. Mu wallad = a ii. v. Mu'tazz (A1-) bi 'llah (Caliph) ix. N. iv. (Anglo-Indice Muccudum) Mukarrabun ii. Murjiyy toes. viii. 'llah 81 iii. ix. Mutalammis Murtaza = and life approved tenets) the Elect. 42. Mukaddam the defiled Cioss. leader in the Tawaf. ix. viiu 24. 179. of the previous. 242. save one's 77 Muunis (Pr. dye to a face. 143. viii. 280. Mu'tazid (A1-) bi 'llah (Caliph) ix. hypocrite. 66. 330. chatting at night. . iv. Muzayyin (Figaro of the East) 77." Muhakkah i. 79. (sect = Muunah = provisions. 54. tusk. vi. 205. 232. 39. 291 . 243. 354. 103.365 Appendix. 128. Mystification iv. 47. ix. 204. 104. 33. v. i. of Spain) vi. sweepers. 232. " iv. Musa bin Nusayr (conqueror . 259. Nab (pi. ii. 302. Myrtle-bush =young beard. vii. 287 vii. x. deserving. v. " shaking 342. q. vii. =" Court-hand. Music (forbidden by Mohammed) Musk 148. 207. 232. Q2/ Muharramat (the three forbidden 340 iii. Anyab) = canine tooth. (scent of heaven) ii. x. 273. band. disguised. v. reserved. iii. i. Mukri = Mulabbas = dragees. 237 (sherbet flavoured with) v. Musakhkham 129. Mus'ab bin al-Zubayr. land. Musta'in (A1-) bi 'Hah (Caliph) Mutawwif 95. v. Muhallil. Muhammarah = fricandoed. tribadism.52 for Musdhakah = Musahikah = 132. 205. v. i. = fighter in Holy War. Munkati' = cut off. Muslim bin al-Walid (poet) v. the poet 'llah (A1-) i. viii. Ahmad and Mahmud. tribade. 31. I pi. Mujawirun = lower servants. Mujahid (A1-) Mujtaba = Musalla Musamarah = Aider of the Faith. = those near Allah. Munkar andNakir v. Munazirah = like (fern. v. vii. ix. 40. letter. iii. Koranist. Mustahall (Mustahill) = one who marries a thrice divorced woman and divorces her to make her lawful for her first hus- ix. and (A1-)." vi. Mu'ujizah = miracle of a prophet. NA'AL = sandal. Mustahakk 77. 309. v. Musquito caught between the Musran Mutanakkir x. i. etc. 341." Munafik ii. Munadamah = = 217. in Allah. 164. (A1-) = the Illumined of Al-Medinah) vii. proud. MusaTahah = joining palms hand. . iv. v. 243. vi. explained by extraordinary likeness.) ix. in . 48.. iv. v. place of prayer. 44. Mujahidun. 86. = woman who Munakkishah (A1-) guts. 40. (the questioning angels) 163 23. 237. . Muhammad. Muharabah = doing battle. Mushayyad = lofty. 286. ii. ix. vii. 229. vii. Mutawakkil (A1-) Caliph. vii. vii. (title Munazarah = dispute. ix. Murahanah = game at forfeits.v. 216. 300. Mulakat = going to meet an approaching Mulberry-fig (for anus) Mummery = " iii. 190. his fatal = = one seeking help 317. Muwaffak = well-notched. 52. . the Accepted. v. iv. slave born in a Moslem Muwashshah Muzani (A1-) (stanza) iv. 74. = overseer. plur. Musa = Moses. Mustafa (the chosen) Mu'tasim (A1-) bi over the cup. 153 . Mukhammas = cinquains. horse-shoe. 207. = i. Mahommerie = vii. 195. Munkasir (broken) = languid. "conversation table-talk. vii. v. oratory. vii. . v. 84. 261. 319. ix. = Companion) v. Munawwarah applies the 270. Mujauhar = damascened. i. iii. of). iii. vii. high-builded. 178. 208. 130. 246. Mustansir bi guest. 339- shoe. vi. . see Mustahall. Mu'in al-Din = (A1-) 220. 203. 291. things) St. ix. 119. Mutawalli = Prefect of Police. 304. vi. (Caliph) . Murder (to be punished by the family) (to = Mohammed.

i. (name of a slave-girl) viii. 31- iv. i. of Allah introduced into an indecent tale essentially (of (used as bell) viii. Nsik = Naskh = a devotee. = the Ammarah=" al-Natikah = " Precious one. viii. Nahas Hinduism) v. frequently do not appear till near the end of a tale) vii. viii. (fem. Ikh ii. 77. i. 274. 128. 337. Naga-kings iv. 335. 12. soul. Nakl-i-safar (move preliminary to a jour- al-Ghazabiy ah = animal function. i. 22. 145. iv. Names (of God) Egyptian. Nahs = nasty. (in Syria) = Nakat v. Star o' x. Nafisah (Pr. copying hand. are both 163. 330. viii. ix. 204. syndic.v. iv. 294. 58. Nabi = prophet. Nahf-ka = let it suffice thee. (with = negro eyes yellowish white) ii. Naming a girl by name offensive. Najm al-Sabah 85." intellectual vii. 107. ceremonially impure. Nicephorus. 266. 328. ix. Nafs-i = my soul for Nafs Imam 46. viii. Naddabah = mourning woman. 43.Narcissus viii. 24. i. for Nuhas. benefits. hired mourner. Nafahat = breathings. 269. names of other ele- 16. Aurat) 107. i. 29. 107.A If 366 Nabbut = quarter-staff. Nahnu malihm = we are on term of salt. viii. Narjis 178. common Mos- q. i. 234.) (Pr. al-Shahwaniyah= vegetative property. Name 31. Nakfur 222. formula) v. vi. ix. Naivete (of the Horatian kind)'ix. ii. the . Napoleonic pose (attitude assumed by a slave) ix. Naml (ant) simile for a young beard. 232. Na'im = delight (name for Heaven) iii. Nafakah = sum necessary of the pilgrimage. i. 262. son of a Najib lemah by a Sayyid. Naka = sand-hill. ix. 47. 329- 310. Nakus = wooden gong viii. a caravan-leader. Nadim = cup-companion. 151. iii. Najm al-Munkazzi = shooting Nabighah al-Zubyani (pre-Islamitic poet) Nadd Laylah. N. (a Nafs = soul. Namusiyah = mosquito curtains. 40. Najran 311. Nakedness (Ar. ! faith. iii. 178. 259. ix. 118. etc. 95. i. like. life. 215. 46. Nabhan i. ! = Zulayt down by the 139. vi. 327. ii. ii. wa Nakisatu 'aklin = din and failing in wit 298. 369. i. 184. Naked = without 178.. ii. 320. Nashshar (A1-) ^ the sawer. 226. Nafas= breath. to spot (paraphrased) Nfi' (traditionist) v. Nahr = river. Najis (sons of) vi. viii. 301. (approved by Allah) 344- Nahr = slaughtering a camel by stabbing.v. . Najasah = nastiness (anything unclean) vi. ix. 30. vii. Na'iman vi. 214. i. viii. v. Na'i i. skipper rapscallion. Morn. 163. . 31-- = viii. 27. upper clothing. ix. expenses vii. = Najiyah = Salvadora. ii. vii.) x.) veil or Nakh = make cry Ikh Nafisah (great -grand-daughter of the Hasan) to handsel. etc. Nakib. Nakkar = Pecker (a fabulous fish). 19. i. 174.) v. 175. Nafilah = supererogatory Koran recitation. for the viii. Naihah = keener. x. Laylah 186. compound perfume) i. (= magical 178. a camel kneel Nakhuzah 31.) ii. 5. Narcissus and Hippolytus (assumed as typesof morosa voluptas. 75. ii. vi. Naming of a child. ney) 84. = whose parents of Apostolic blood) v. . = may it benefit thee ! after bathing. 286. = N. q. 165. 311. viii. Najib (al-tarafayn (fire) ii. 327 (vulg. star. the flesh/' the Flesh. al-maut = messenger of death. chief. 215. wa = Narcissus. 302. = (al-taraf Nar ments) 143. 259. 176. 328.

254. 34. Crescent of O Asa*m) Nun vii. '95- for Nothing custom. i. 121. 163 250. 41. not day and night. last ") 318. nothing d'honneur. jii. . v. i. vii. iii. i." before the journey. 77- by way of table-cloth. = mutilated. = summer. = Nawatfyah iv. Nawdyah = sever- crew (navigata. 268. 290. 157. ix.367 Appendix. Nostrils (his life-breath was in his. 230. Nuha"s (vulg. i. day) (for 258. 372. ix. 97. boys with white girls) iv. demon) 315. vi. 213. iv. Nau of leather 318 Nation (its power consists i. Nostrums for divining the sex of the unborn New moon of the Festival = i. 255. " our iii. viii. 87. 6. date-stone ance. (-cap) = . 52. viii. terms) repente worst of 236. child. 249. Nil (A1-) v. a half. 62. 193- Egypt. 180. (frequently on the Neighbours vi. Nuptial sheet (inspection of) iii. the Arabs) - " = Nat'a al-dam the (consists of three of fighting men) setting one star of simultaneous with another's rising. 219. smallest sum for stealing which reed-pipe. 255. etc. respectability. Adam) v." skin (their cold. sexual point copper. = new Nauruz and health. Nisab (A1-). Nusf a blessing. fuit turpissimus (not believed in by Easterns) ix. = Nilah 84. Naysabur (town in Khorasan) ix. vii. 63. Nimrod of the desert. 327 . i. light. Nat'a = leather used 222. 214 . (simile for the 17 Niirayn yes in answer to a negative. viii. the bitter parting) (its last blood. v. half-dirham. N. 304 . i. viii. Niyah (A1-) = ceremonial intention prayer. (its promise spread with butter that melteth with day-rise) v.)= Light of Salvation. numbers in its iii. Noachian dispensation (revived Al. fat. iv. Nimshah (Namshah?) = dagger ii. Nearness of seat a mark of honour. hand the 233. 249. 243. much (largeness of. 257. 310. 183. for. i. Nasir (Pr. 177. 167. Negro (Legend of his origin) iv. 289." vi. brass. dye-stuff. appreciated) viii. ii. = ("this i. 91.Islam as revealed to (familiarity of Ni'amat is Nitak. 207. with = cup-companion) viii. 144. 230 . 1 78. iv. Navel. i. 250. 330. lights (town in Turkestan) 88. ii. Nasrani = follower of Him of Nazareth. 88. = ix. Nahds) Nun-like brow. = Anwd) (pi. ix. vii. 250. 33- Nawa = ii. vi. ii. Negroes preferred by debauched women. News (what is behind thee of. iii.. 333. ix. . Nzir = overseer. ii. " New Arabian Nights. = a 40 . Nineteen the age of an oldish old maid in 17- Nay = Nemo vii. 258. Neighbour before the house. Numbering the streets. ii. iv. eye-brow) v. 290. = (Pr. 244. of state. nauta) viii. a woman's waistcloth. 83. watches) indigo. viii. N. as to beauty 249. Nimr = leopard.) = triumphing. = his heart was in his mouth) vii. 20. iii. kind of (Pers. Nimchahrah (year's) day. 37 . etc. companion ii. merriment scandalous Noisy to Moslem 1 ' 49. Nizami (Persian poet) iii. 50.face v. . 84. Nile-water sweet and 266. Nukl = quatre mendiants. 212. 291. = i. of x. a classical Nur al-Huda 222. " Negrofied races like walking tun-butts. Nimsd = Germans. v. i. Ndzih = travelled far and wide. assumes dust-colour in 127. the breakfast. i.) ii. two iii. 139. Nasfm == Nadlm for Zephyr (emendation Night (and day. New-moon of Ramazan watched 95. flood season corresponding to i. ii. Ni'am 175.

Ocean (Jamm) Palace v. (a 338. iv. Paradise (of the Sea" of the Old woman Olema" Palsy (creeps over him) v. i. naught = iii. delight of the age. Parent (ticklish on the Pundonor) ix. 21. Panel-dodge 165. Orange Othello (even he does not (of divorce) viii. whiteness of his skin) v. testification of Allah's iii. 216. my I. not kill Emilia) ix. 74. whose drink) friend is iii. monstrous size) vi. (of darkness) v. (kept to the letter) iv. Nu'uman's flower Nuzhat al-Zamdn = = anemone. Oldest matter in The Nights the beaststories. Oman = more money. (in ruins for want of repair) x. Maskat bin al-Khattab (Caliph) 162. Hijl) iii. (polite equivalents for) v. 70. 22. (Fal) v. viii. 327. Opening doors without a key trick of n petty thief. Nu'uma*n (A1-) bin Munzir (tyrant of Hirah) OATH * Omar-i. v. Oriental orgie different from European. vii. 24.Islam. i. 298. 181. Parrot-story a world-wide folk-lore. Obayd ibn Tahir (Under-Prefect Camphor circumcision) x. for ii. 251. 150. iii. Palgrave and Al. 64. ii. 311.) v. vagina) worms (ascribed to Nymphomania Omen ii. by expiation) (retrieved viii. 19 = Omana ii. 29. Ohod (of (a 300. Othmdn of Bagh- familiarity. (a serious thing amongst Moslems) i. 310. made obligatory v. N. 136. (pi. pleasanter. (with Moscha) capital vii. 287. Paper East. 3. 104. 159. v. Offering offer. Onanism (discouraged by 81. = To her (I 224. 130.) vii. Ophidia O ix. Palmerin of England. the knavish 182. (antiphrase = Snowball) iii. . Obayd Allah (Pr. 309. the Jinn) vii. ignored in v. insult. i. Man vi. 161. 302. common. Old age (graphically described) "Old maids" Caliph at Baghdad) Palaces (avoided by the pious) vi. iii. x. of The Nights. 233. 215. iv. 93. Eastern Arabia. in the One-eyed men considered rascals. dad) (astronomer -poet) 230. Parisian MSS. 40. 72. and better 315. 103. Particles of swearing. 272. (Ka"tib 291. 286. with closing the 4. viii. (inconsiderately taken) ii. 325. Pander-dodge 9. Opener (of the door of daily bread) vi. 147. 88. 44. Unity. Parapets (on terrace-roofs sual) Parody on the (Time-serving) x. Partridge (Ar. viii. growth of India) viii. Offerings (pious Oftentimes the ear loveth before the eye. Moslem not wholly sen- ix. abstinence from women. (battle of) ii. etc.Alf Lay/ah wa 368 = Nusk piety. Object first seen in the morning determines the fortunes of the day. Omar i. 189. 288.Khayyam 177 . 327. Paris Jockey-club scene anticipated. " style (not to be taken 308. i. ii. 164 . Obscene abuse meant as is 93- 263. al-Kuran) v. ii. 322. viii. PAIN (resembling the drawing of a tooth) X. Partner in very deed. am thrall viii. 164. " Off-with-his-head literally) ix. Palm-stick (a salutary rod) ii. 323. by Moses) Parasite (Ar. " Old the (of 189. 138. Tufayli) v. iv. 179. 182. C2. . of 'Alim) = the learned in the law. 114. 243- Laylah. 158. to get Ma>id or evil (his fatally = the vii. x. i. v. 163. etc. 61. 83. Oubliettes (in old Eastern houses) Out of the sight of iii. 136. = ex votes. 194. i. (Caliph) 163. 215. 183. ix.

Persian (" I am a. . 54. X. Philosophic (used in a bad sense) 303. 49. 112. 282. ib. 57- ii.) ib. iii. v. 126) 86) i. = (son of a) 261 ii. (iii. 193. bath) 304. Physiognomy (Ar. succedanea) f 82. ii. 7S 326. viii. 159. Mes- 220. 183. 326.) ib. Pen and Preserved Tablet. 270. 127. Pehlevi version of the Panchatantra. viii. 137) ib. 23. 167. 265. ii. Pilgrimage quoted 1 i) ib. Payne quoted: ii. (as to anus and cunnus) (Ark al-Halawat) its 68. 66. ix. 70. People of His affection = those vi. 269. 44. v. of) 178. deserve love. 179. 123. 168. 80. 120. Kiyafah) 50. (iii. ib. 97. Pigeon (language. 104) ib. 294. i. iv. 202) 1 120. 196) ib. 51. (-plantations shaded 257. . (poets 109. . 165. 52. 291 221. 62 (ii. 214. 92. 204. 63- 140. Passengers in i. 125. 278. 134. 198) 51. Patience (cutting the cords iii. 71) (ii. 271. 104. Hammam Pay-chest (of a a emphasis. 275. 107. 318. 158. Pens (gilded = reeds washed with gold) His ii. 142. vi. 327) ib. by bananas) on the simiads) Physis and Antiphysis. ib. per ann. 123. 185. Peshadians (race of Persian Kings) i. 320. 224. (iii. 327 ix. 59. 65. 26. (i. 268. 12. 89. 309) M. 112. (i. . Physical prognostication familiar to (i. viii. 224. 250. Pharao (signs to) iv. (iii. 140. 64. 174. 251. 74. 289. (iii. 249. 215. (correspondence of (and Philippi" (iii. 50. in France) x. Pederasts (list of famous) x. Pearl supposed to lose I per cent. Perfumes (not used during mourning) Partridges (story of the two) vi. 117. adds negative mostly addressing youths) v. 86. Pears (various kinds of) viii. 226. 31. Peccadillo in good olden days (murder) iv 275" (the. 8. viii. 250. 148. 162. 230. (ii. ib. (iii. i. 72. '* 177. 209. 16. xi. 131. 337 J vii. Persians always suspected. Picnics (on the Rauzah island) v. 79. 346 277. iii. 130. 183. 200) (iii.369 Appendix. 192. Shakhs) iv. 222. 279. 275) 1 1 Ib. 262. ib. a long time. Penis Phaedra and Hippolytus. Person (Ar. Pearl-fisheries. 152. Pieces de circonstance (fresh Peche philosophique Petrified folk. 60. viii. 170. vii. 83. 208. 249. 126. but not lying now") Pausing as long as Allah pleased = musing vi. 231. si^c) iv. iv. doggrel) vi. containing Periphrase 140. 275. Peaches (Sultani and Andam) v. 172. chapt. . 216. ix. 72. ( burnt father mostly mere viii. 8) ib. who vii. 290. 171. 57. 38. 32. 161. " and " Alexanders" in_Siaon (Persian insult) vi. vi. iv. 52. 298. Pidar-sokhtah mustachio) v. 18. 130. etc. (resting on the sand-bank) ix. command. 314. 60. 252. 223. 219. 217. 84. Pathos (touch of) iii. 164. (blood of the young) ib. . (i. iii. (natural) take difficulties iii. of its lustre. (i. 26. merists. . 240. Pepper (and the discovery of the Cape VOL. x. 129. 58. ix. etc. 86. 77- ib. 350) ib. 197. 138. 227. route) vi. x. ib. 55. (shaded by = hair under teeth from water) vii. 264. 5 ii. 169. (ii. Physiologists (practise (i. Persians (delighting in practical jokes) ix. 46. AA 28.) iii. 252. 22. 150. Firasah. 178. 97 . Pearls 156. 167. 21. Pencilling the eyes with Kohl. 19. 157. 293. v. 212. Pashas' agents for bribery in Constantinople. . x. 74.

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