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The Syriac Forms of


Testament Proper Names



Fellow of the Academy

[Frovi the Proceedings of the Bntish Academy,

Published for the British Academy

By Henry Frowde, Oxford

Amen Comer,


University Press


Shillings net

VoL F]


following works are quoted by an abbreviated

— G.

Dalman, Grammatik


des Jlidisch-Palastinischen Ara-

maisch (Leipzig, 1894).


— G.


H. Gwilliam, Tetra-evangelium sanctum (Oxford,
[The number after Gwilliam signifies a Syriac MS., not

the page of his book.]
Itinera Sancta.

—Vol. xxxviii of the Vienna Corpus

edited by P.


Neubajier.—A. Neubader,

0^.— P.

Script. Eccl. Lat.,


La Geographic du Talmud

(Paris, 1868).

de Lagaude, Onomastica Sacra (Gottingen, 1887), quoted

by the marginal pagination.

rather I dry and technical. the middle ages : it will is be one of the most picturesque figures of my task this afternoon to introduce you any record.^BURKITT FKLLOW OF THE ACADEMY Read January The 24. it presents of place to begin by The Pilgrim from Palestine.Mn\/ : THE SYRIAC FORMS OF NEW TESTAMENT PROPER NAMES By F. at Rome or Carthage. after all. 170 and 200 the Gospels. and the W'iirzburg I'alinipsest in Jeremiah xiii lias ' Eufruten '. of course. correct. The New Testament is a collection of Greek writings. the earliest that has left His tale is told in a dead language. that there is it is not till any evidence But in the period between it into other tongues. k has ' Heroden '. and least of all in the proper names. and Pauline Epistles were translated into Latin in the West. and into Syriac in the of efforts to translate East. with his staff and his scallop-shell and his tales of the Holy Land. is and perhaps not all his archaeology but he deserves to be heard with the respect due to a pioneer. C. g. The translation of the New Testament into Latin presented no special difficulty. 1912 subject I have chosen for this Paper sounds. and the last quarter of the second century a. The Latin translator had merely to give the Latin letter which custom and authority prescribed as equivalent to the Greek letter. ^ It is Professor V I'-l 7 imo . at Edessa in the Euphrates Valley. so that it claiming that one element of general interest. Acts. e. support Housman's general couclueious. There is. may not be out fear. to the earliest of that band. as those know who have read Professor Housman's amusing article number of the Journal of Philology on Greek Nouns in But the points raised are. He had no need to be wise above that which had been written it is a pretty question whether we ought to write Pharao in the last Latin Poetry ^ : worth while recording the fact that the oldest Christian MS!S. d. of subsidiary interest. a right way and a wrong.

in the sibilants. These difficulties lie in the nature of the languages and confront a translator as soon as he sets about his task. is translator from Greek into Syriac the former common Semitic language. ^ The commemoration The Syriac Vulgate. do not simply transliterate the New Testament Proper Names. speech of the Euphrates Valley. The Patriarchs are shorn of their gutturals 'Abraham^ Yishdk. imperfect. When therefore we find that the older Syriac Versions. How did the Syriac translator come by his information.PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 2 or Farao^ but all that either form of Egypt The Syriac. without private the retranslator from Greek into a Semitic language would not know where to put the gutturals in as a matter of fact. of the vowels do not appear in writing. tells us that the is of the king title spelt 4>(\pAa) in Greek. the in easy New Testament. the Proper Name the Greek in itself is Greek is a poor language for such a purpose. the h in A^paa^i comes between the second and third a. according to our ideas. many cousin of Hebrew. especially and in the Greek. On the other hand. : that Abraham's h while Jacob's is is an English 7i. speaking generally. and without the insertion of vowel signs the transliterations are often ambiguous^. is called given It doesn't look . is a (or very nearly). (as in Hebrew) there are four true guttural sounds which are not represented in Greek at all. the peculiar Semitic Isaac's '^ain. : * information A ? few words may here be said on the Syriac Versions of which account will be taken here. the ^ in lo-aoK comes instead of the first a. is a Like Hebrew. and those that are written are given in a notation that. as so often It into is Syriac. The real difficulty and the real interest arises when. and there is nothing to tell the reader a transliteration or adaption of a Semitic word. we are obviously in the presence of a learned achievement. but give the proper Semitic equivalent. IcAAK. enough to transliterate true Greek Proper Names They look indeed rather clumsy. of a work of Biblical learning which demands elucidation and explanation. and the in IaKco/3 comes between the a and the k. and Ydakob become ABpAAM. and IakcoB. commonly of a certain AovXt] at Nicomedia on by Lietzmann from the ancient Syriac Martyrology as quite so bad in Syriac letters ! * dvl's March 25 '. Teh Moreover. and the Semitic words lose in transliteration many of their most striking characteristics. many which disappear is singularly distinctions are made. the first is in a very different case.

vol. must have been translated from the Greek. where necessary. is quoted as A.. his evidence.) the Gospel generally circulated among Syriac-speaking Christians Rabbula was not the Four separate Gospels. of the Gospels are known. is cited as Many of the Proper Names in the Gospels are mentioned by (p. version of the parts of the . but two MSS. after A is the page in Patrologia Syriaca. 373 a.d. though who made alterations in the direction of conformity The proof of the above statement lies in the very other respects they in to the Greek.). but fortunately the It in His procedure was not unlike that of the English Revisers also left the Proper Names much as they were. of 1881. Aphraates. and the Sinai Palimpsest. A later Syriac and the Peshitta (P). probably by Jews rather than Christians but certain books. New Testament not comprised in the Peshitta (viz. made in the sixth century for Philoxenus of Mabbogh. but Tatian's Diatessaron this work survives in a late Arabic translation. . Bishop also a revision generally recognized that this revision was of Edessa from 411 to 435. New Testament the Peshitta in the is it is now made by Rabbula. large mass of evidence tends to shew that the form in which works of Aphraates (345 a. NEW TESTAMENT NAMES SYRIAC FORMS OF the Peshitta.. notably that of Isaiah. No MS. the most part Aphraates used the Diatessaron altered. are the Sinai Palimpsest (S). ii . Cureton's MS. The so-called ' Apocrypha \ such as the Book The text of of Wisdom. whose works include a Homily on the Gospel Genealogies the Curetonian MS. which represent the texts current before Rabbula. The Canonical Books of the Old Testament were translated originally direct from the Hebrew. In any case. comprises the greater part of the Old and ments. 2 Peter. i (1894)^ vol. and the Apocalypse). Our three chief authorities. therefore. is clear that for ^. but the Syriac text from which this Arabic translation was made had been assimilated wholesale to the Peshitta. some of which are as old as the fifth century. notably and Ephraim (d. ' The number (1907). Jude. seem to have been revised from the Greek Bible. many ways drastic and Proper Names Avere very little Rabbula"'s revision of the text was thorough-going. Besides these MSS. It New 3 Testa- preserved with a surprising absence of variation in is many MSS. (C). 2 and 3 John. the Arabic cannot be depended on for details connected with the spelling before the time of : of Proper Names.d. we have the scanty remains of Syriac literature earlier than the the A fifth century. of the Acts or Pauline Epistles previous to this revision survives.

to regard the Old Testament Peshitta as older than the Syriac New Testament. the origin of which does not here concern us. What needs investigation are the rarer names. |Vn^ literated It is P*i?. the Proper of this part of the subject will be found in Evangelion da-Mepharreshcf vol.PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 4 numerous agi'eements of S. whei'e S and C be remarked that the definite agree- Names naturally confined to those Proper which are transmitted without variant the Greek. but the it Seliijon. and P. was Names. so far as I know. P cation for using in the rest of the It should. as it is sufficient Thus they were taken from the Old Testament. and P in the Gospels is the justifi- difference. the final h in 'Beelzebub' is attested by no Greek MS. g. |Vir ' thirsty was underatood to mean Dry Tor. whoever he may have to give the Old Testament equivalent as far as this could for A discussion be done. names of persons that ^ n*if (region) ' dry land ' : it is. and also A 714. following both 5 and C.. but Rabbula retains it. A glance at S translator of the been. C. and pp. the general faithfulness of P call in question Old Syriac to the nomenclature of the Version. us. of course. The evidence forces us. or ^1(13 n*i Beth Nahrln for Mesopotamia. and the very few cases of actual For instance. as the Old Testament in Syriac Some no doubt of the greater Geographical names derived from it was taken direct from ^. in Joh 28 S C support Bethabara \ while P supports Bethany \ But such it P i ' ' and do not seriously cases are comparatively rare. ' is use. The agreement between S. common knowledge and may very well have been names such as D^B^'llfc^ Urishlevi for Jerusalem. do not think the this respect upon here. and as having been familiar to the translator of the latter. and in such cases and S C are sometimes found on opposite sides. throws no direct light upon the geographical knowledge of New Testament translator. fail P ment of with S C is New Testament. need not repeat I dependence of the Syriac ii. e. in fact. as I it New Testament in the Syriac Old Testament has ever been seriously challenged. . regularly rendered in the Peshitta by r<l*ct3^ therefore. This at once accounts for a large number of peculiar forms. C. in Naturally may happen that there is a variant in a name. difficult though the Greek to see how is 2toji' ' to say that Zion ' trans- is and the Hebrew the Syriac form can have arisen. probable that or some such signification. 201-205. C and P shews that the general practice of the New Testament into Syriac.

they talk about New Testament Proper Names to It is one of the chief the authority of the Syriac ' (Introd.) .. are given a Syriac dress that is near enough to the — ^ It is the same in Arabic. Simon the Cananaean (Kavavalo'i) is rendered J<Oip. But what we have to recognize is that (<(^^ is not a transliteration on the other hand. Pharisees intelligently spelt. It has been transliterated from Hebrew or Aramaic into Greek letters: the Syriac translator then takes this Greek transliteration.SYRIAC FORMS OF NEW TESTAMENT NAMES 5 do not appear to have been familiar to Syriac-speaking folk. Sadducees (Zaddhkat/e). and so is properly distinguished from the Canaanite woman (Xavarala). When * Westcott and Hort discuss the breathings to be assigned such as AA^atos. or is it when the context did not suggest (as it did in the case of S. but the Syriac for 'stone': the translator. Peter's name) a practically certain solution ? Now it is true that there are a number of excellent transliterations or identifications. Peter's name was Shnon Stone. could have had special appellations. matter of transliteration. or even of Antioch. wliere S. : — (Perishe). the Syriac equivalent to K?.. Is it. &c. and names of places for which v. a real and continuous Palestinian merely an achievement of learning. Caiaphas (Katti^as. meritorious and but not really authoritative? What had the indeed.or Koi(/)a?) is transliterated XS\'^ . latter process historical information about the subject is not may aifbrd us the New Testament. Ave ask. § 408). whichever we like to call them. but really a kind of translation : it but should not be used as a textual 'variant'. by this appellative ^ at all. Tabitha and Talitlia are sadly confused in Latin in the Syriac texts they are properly distinguished and MSS. Osanna (Oshand). recognized that S. Peter is commonly called ^jj*»i (or ^L. to be found in the Syriac versions. and either transliterates it into Syriac letters. interesting Syriac translator to go by. where necessary. when the Old Testament failed him. Phylacteries {Tephille). Once more we may remind ourselves of the nature of the processes gone through before a New Testament Semitic Proper Name appears in Syriac. Cephas (Ki](pa'i\ At first sight it seems irregular that is ^<SS^. and they called him. as an example will make clear. or possibly Syriac Church custom.0as should begin with 5 instead of p. what exactly the 'authority' of objects of this Paper to find out in the Syriac consists. Words referring to Jewish Parties. This simple caution The name is not always remembered. who is Xn^iViD. and tradition. or decides on an appropriate Syriac The equivalent.e can hardly suppose that the natives of Edessa..

: three years among the Bedouins. XoT. C. which at first sight might seem inappropriate. such as K*i'^^^ for 'Arabia'.) for February 1899. iv 25 without S.Ca[s] personal the \ i<y^^ names. The same patronymic was borne by tlie well-known Kabbi Hlya b. but new Greek appellations. i. Messiah'. for ppl X^N i:i for Annas. Paul never meant us to infer that he passed Semitic gutturals . 5^113 Barabbas % i^^^ Thaddaeus and N7'2J^ {Dalman 124) for 2tAa? are recognized as Semitic names and spelt accordingly it may be remarked in passing that the name of Simon Magus is spelt jlD^D {Simon) in Syriac. such as those for Xopa^eiV is certified as Nabatean by an inscription at Madaiii see Expositor (5th Ser. who are given the same name as Simeon (jlS^^tJ^ Shhndn) the Patriarch. is possible. here be mentioned that the controversial works of now being Syrus.PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 6 current Jewish technical term to suggest some knowledge of Jewish Of conditions.? becomes ^IJi^* (pronounced Yeshu and Isho'). Sunday's child). As is well known. though otherwise unattested. ' * . p. and X1*X D^l {Beth Sayyada) for hr^daaihav. Saturday's child) for Barsabbas (i. ^. Tnil for XopaC^tv agrees with the Talmudic spelling . Sattiirday Davenant may occur to some English readers. 'iTjo-oi. e. wherever it occurs. for Sapphira. edited by my friend Mr. .e. as distinguished from Simon Peter and Simon the Tanner. will shew that the Syriac-speaking Marcionites were not similarly influenced by the Old Testament. for 11 nf) for are all well spelt. invented by the Greeks and Romans. N^lS H^l {Beth Phagge) for Br]6^ayi] is at least probable. really striking. Other spellings. which is wisely transliterated by the Peshitta in Gal i 17. and it was no doubt the Syriac form of the name Joshua that determined : ' name the spelling of the It may for Jesus among Syriac-speaking Christians. At the same time fairly straightforward ^ Lk vSalih : viii 3.g. The name of Mr. The name it will and a few of them be noticed that they are the best of them. 121. which is the later Hebrew form of Joshua. e. All these Syriac transliterations are intelligent. in Josh i 1. and that they transliterated 'Irjo-oOiby )0\ Of the place-names in Syriac. The "Apa^e? of Acts ii 11 are properly rendered by X^l'lV but 'Apa/3ta is a mere geographical expression. the Syriac New Testament translates Xptcrro's by Msh'tJia. Abba. Ephraim Mitchell for the Text and Translation Society from a palimpsest in the British Museum. More antique and oriental is Barhabbeshabba (i. one of the martyrs commemorated in the ancient Syriac Kalendar of 411. The Peshitta always represents J^I^J^IH* by yit5^\ e. W. are to be explained from the fact that such Greek words are not representations of Semitic names at all.

1*X^ in the Syriac. a spelling also found in Gwilliam's 36 (Mk). The impression first of the modern scholar. and so he turns 'Idetpos into K^'IXV ^. of rC'Axo. may also record BJ ii 19. sing. is to regard Syriac transliterations that contain Semitic gutturals or Semitic sibilants. bad as turning Abaddon into 'servitude': the value of it for us is to make it unlikely that the Syriac translator of the Gospels was in touch with any real historical tradition about the names that occur in the course of the narrative. are definitely told that the in Greek. or ISC K'. a translator''s i. At the same time it leads us to infer that the translator could have had no contact with any about the Jewish background to this Apocalypse. quite the translator has used the abs.'ui^. This is universally recognized as being blunder and nothing more. The clearest instance of what I mean is to be found in the Philoxenian (and Harclean) rendering of Abaddon in Apoc word means 'destroying"" that the Old Testament word Here we ix 11. ' ^ Jairus ^^'e ' does not stand alone. . accustomed to the methods of the Syro-Hexaplar and Harclean with respect all i. where we read of Maphoyjcdo^ 6 tov 'la^ipov. e. simply follow the most ordinary rules of transliteration.'servitude'. Lk viii 41 ) should therefore have been But the name only occurs in the nominative. this versions. the case is is meant quite different H or i?. so that it is certain pi^X But the Syriac equivalent is 11^^. Jairus proves The name 'Ide tpos occurs in the Greek for the Gospel in Syriac. all words containing assumes that the Syriac word of the Greek . be unfair to lay the existence of Eleazar b. When we look the passage up in the original Hebrew we find that Mordecai was the son of Jair (TK*). mentioned by . Jair ('leipoii). for an Israelite in a late and popular book like Esther might be expected to occur as the name of a personage mentioned in the Gospels ^. as if it were one It is a bad blunder.^icu Lk viii 41 in S. as of those Jewish names beginning with ATV. indeed. and the translator seems to have thought that the final -os was part of the root. Jairus (Mk v 22. real tradition Bible in Esth ii 5. This evidence is really sufficient to name in the Gospel story thought appropriate name Any establish both the original form of the and also its appropriateness there. We now have to consider one or two that I venture to characterize as strikingly bad. is intended. But what Abaddon proves about the Apocalypse. But for a real transliteration when there has been an attempt to find a Syriac equivalent for the Greek word. It would.NEW TESTAMENT NAMES SYRIAC FORMS OF 7 and XovCas.fosephus 2 Written T. e.

' Gennesaret "" or *Gennesar'. such as XfllOD S. with . but 'Tarsus' Ai. The no doubt. no doubt. Luke's MaTraOd was meant for In some of these obscure names the irregular spelling of the . from the Greek letters in his exemplar. s. pDn:i P (Matt. a very poor transliteration ^. ^iaOi:. In Acts ix 35 it is odd to find XJ11D put for Tov ^ap&va (instead of N311K^). where. have Greek.PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 8 much very (Lk stress on certain Names 31 S P). V'H^ for NaCv (Lk vii 11) and S (Matt). e and I*. (Matt xxvi 36. I have left interesting out of consideration hitherto a number of the most and controversial proper names * The oldest transmitted pronuuciation ^ 'Hie Armenian of Ephraim'°° has is in the Syriac New Testa- Gadscman (see Gwilliam. appears to be ledge that the Greek spelling itself was quite irregular JCAa and A=3a^ Lk in iii 82 S for while S has course of Abia'' in Lk i 5 is D^^N in agreement with the Old Latin we are dealing with trans- In such cases as these and at the same time the an authority for the spelling of the rather than identifications.88a. forms of their names. side by side with 117 for 'Ptolemais' becomes "ID^ and 'Joppa' NSV. to Booc and IooBhA. p. CBM 704 b). for reear^fiavei xiv 32) ^ Whatever view may be held about the significant than these are «:ilbDn:i S (Mk). and guessed badly. particularly as preserved in S. and that he guessed. corresponding to the well-known Arabic names Haritha or el-Hdrith. Mk original meaning and spelling of these obscure names. Nain '. instances are Boaz and Obed.j^'ir<' for 'ApeVas The name of the Ethnarch must have been nn^lH. 171. again. is merely transliterated D1D"lD possibly the pride of Roman citizen: ship had name its made Tarsus T'lD on its it had spelt 'Gaza' (XTJ) and 'Azotus' (DItDlTX) forget that in the Persian period coins. literations for the nonce Syriac becomes Greek word from which More * agreement with the Greek and with spelt N^lIlX in the Peshitta. and the latter part of Gethsemane is connected with the Hebrew for oil. it is clear that the Syriac translator had no private information. Mk). in 1 Chr xxiv 10. not Semitic. note). due to a know- Syriac. Aret. and should have a tJ^. : it is derived. iii nni^£5 in the Genealogies. later spelt in Syriac AxircU* (Wright. and it is natural to suppose that the Syriac translator had derived his spelling of the name from Syriac if : living tradition Of it names the (2 Cor xi 32) is would have included a o between the n and the iu the Acts and Epistles. corresponding. not a D ' ' {see Dalman 152). Qoa. no sign of an initial guttural. if it be connected with the place quoted in Nenhauer 188. ought to have an ^ain in it (D*S?i). MSS. ' is "IDJJ in theTalmudic form is *nDiyjl.

the people name been supposed that Origen himself introduced the It has Gergesenes ' (for Gadarenes or Gerasenes) as the name of the Demoniac was healed. when we find X*D)l1i in Mk v 1 S and N"1^y n^i in Joh i 28 S C. The often supposed to be a definite pro- nouncement in favom" of the first over the second Greek reading. but Syriac has ^{S^'P. an indication of the way the Syriac I doubt this translator thought the word was spelt in Palestinian Aramaic. and this most Greek MSS. Consequently.2 NEW TESTAMENT NAMES SYRIAC FORMS OF 9 ment. it is. as the forms found in the Old Syriac MSS. about the spelling of which the 'authority of the Syriac' has frequently been invoked^. or with the forms of Jewish names apart from those in the Old Testament. a couple of names which are very important in this connexion. 172. and also the among whom Bethany beyond Jordan. But he does not always recognize Semitic names in their Greek dress. I begin with the name Caiaphas. A somewhat similar conclusion appears to me to be indicated in the case of Bethabara and the Gergesenes. So far as we have gone. and there is no sign that he is specially familiar with the towns of Judaea or Galilee. because we ought to examine them with reasonable ideas of the kind of rules or information from which the Syriac translator worked. But if he turns Br^Ocraibd into Beth Sayyaddy : ' ' : as he does. KaiacJjac in xviii 2). which he shews by giving the native names of the coast towns. This familiar with the is name spelt is Josephus {Ant. g. note 1. from which the Syriac was translated. I venture to think we have found nothing The pointing to a special or extraordinary knowledge. where John was baptizing. of the following discussion on these words is taken from the present writei-'s article in the American Journal of Biblical Literature xxvii 128-133. ' Bethabara ^ See * The substance e. ' for Ency. called ' Gergesa a Reply '. of course. translator Old Testament in Syriac. but I do not think it gives us any information of the way the word was spelt in the Greek MS. (1) On general grounds there can be little doubt * v It p— . — may be convenient to indicate here some textual facts which are assumed in the following discussion. The Syriac translator thought Bridcraibd (or Brjda-aLhdv) meant Fisherman's Town Avell and good. have been supposed to demonstrate that the Old Syriac Version itself was made later than Origen and under the influence of his exegesis name ' ^. and he has a good knowledge of ordinary geography. it is a plausible inference that the Old Syriac reading is founded upon Origen's conjectures ^. it is fairly obvious that his Kayydpha may stand for Kat(^as as Avell as Katd'/m?. D is in agreement with and the Latins have KAi(t)Ac. Bihl.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 10 seemed at It Mk first name a confirmation of this theory that the V 1 was written in Syriac with a D. however. therefore. represents the Hebrew ^K^i'nin by ^<^D1J^^i. just as it is quite obscure why the Plain of Shinar ("iV^^) should be turned in the The Peshitta into ^i^JD. (4) Syriac Versions appear to have had some Abimelech of Gerar becomes tendency to introduce the name Gadarene Abimelech of i:i^^(Gen xx). tells us is viz. The reason for this is quite obscure. shew that Origen's conjecture.' is rendered 'the land of the X''DJ"lJ'. which read Fepyearivm. which has escaped harmonization. the reading of S in the Syriac form suggests the opposite conclusion. and the word should be pro- ^. 83. Testament Peshitta. fragmente (1885). viz. ' ' . Sinai Palimpsest. to whom is due the credit of having called attention to the great importance of these names for our estior Gerasa : mate of the date of the Old Syriac Version^. v 1. and therefore as a significant appellation (like ' Overstrand') the genuine reading of the Greek is is right. and the Hagarenes of Ps Ixxxiii 6 become rtfl»l. intends us to Mk understand 'Girgashites' in nounced Gargosaye With word is regard to ' Bethabara' in written r<'vi^ h\i:s in not legible in S. Gadarenes in Matt. 37 S C' may be a harmonization with Matt. with the plural points The they are . but in Mk ' the district {x^i^a) of the G. (2) In the Syriac. Matt viii 28 in the margin of the Harclean Version. but whether they are really absent or merely C shews that the word was regarded illegible in S their presence in as plural. and needs no further explanation . the reading of P. It is the reading in Mk vis. or (more likely) an assimilation to the Diatessaron. like S. rather than Gadara he went on to identify the people with the Girgashites of Gen XV 21. Mr."l^^ that Hort's conclusion ' ' ' ' ' ' . in Gen xv 21 and elsewhere. (5) ' Gadarenes in Matt viii 28 S is simply a con*ect rendering of the Greek. ' ' * Journal See also Baethgen's Evangelienof Biblical Literature xxvi 02-83. ii 40 : see also . ' The dropping of the O in f<l«. see Evangelion da-Mepharreshe a MS. strange to say. : : These Gadarenes also meet us in 1 Chr xxvii 28 P. ' Gadarenes in Lk viii 26. is a simple transcript of a Greek MS.iaa^^^^presents no difficulty in the case of For parallels. not only expressed his opinion that the name of the city near which the swine had rushed into the sea was Gergesa. that that all it that the translator identified 'the countr}' of the [Gerasenes]' For. the Old with 'the land of the Girgashites'. P has Gadarenes everywhere C has Gadarenes in Lk (the only place where it is extant) S has ' Gadarenes in Matt and Lk. concludes that S^^DJIX Mk v 1. p. Joh C 28 the case i is similar. not with a in Origen had tJ^. that needs explaining. Raymond Clapp. a reading which was itself the result of A little consideration will. but ' Gerasenes in Mk and Lk. (3) The rendering of the Diatessaron is not known from any early authority naturally Ciasca's Arabic implies ' Gadarenes'.

in the part Mritten at Caesarea. all seen Origen has been on a Pilgrimage through the Holy Land. vi 40). Origen*'s are found. But from Book vi onward. I . in Joan. and is quite ready to change the transmitted text of Scripture accordingly. for has he not seen ' ' ' cast down by the demons ' (Ibid. step that Origen took was to emend the Greek Gospels in accordance with the local identifications. ii ^^ {Brooke 99). for we have it in our friends and contemporaries. ' 2 See Isaiah xl 28. then. Girgashites ' ' it with irepav tov ^lopbdvov. This is what he learnt when he went on his pilgrimage. even apart from our author's express statement. i. What has happened in the interval We could almost ? have guessed.e. Origen airs his knowledge of Palestine. who thought that BrjOajSapa meant o1ko9 Karaa-Kfvijs (i.g. partly Commentary on is much S. in which these identifications a bulky work. In this interpretation the Syriac differs from Origen. from which come the Girgashites (01 Fepyeo-aioi). some- . vi 41). and in accordance with his geographical information he points out that Bethany is not beyond Jordan. an ancient city by what is now called the Lake of Tiberias. by which is a steep place close to the Lake. and he no longer needs information about them for himself ? as same time. to go on and ask whether there these of identifications such as made independently. though there are several is about the Hebrew meanings of pieces of Origen's characteristic lore New Testament names 2. In the former books.NEW TESTAMENT NAMES SYRIAC FORMS OF 11 and not as a transliteration of a Greek word. composed partly at Alexandria. that the Syriac agrees with Origen in thinking of may be spelt in who owned the Herd as the people also in identifying the place A couple Greek BrjOa^apa. Origen does not himself claim to have discovered 'Bethabara' or Gergesa \ What he tells us is that * they say that Bethabara (ja Brjda^apa) is shewn by the gorge of the Jordan. from X"!^. but we have these can hardly have been view. and that neither Gerasa nor Gadara The is situated on the Sea of Galilee. and later at Caesarea. text of the This also Bij^e/Stppa olnos KaraaKtvqi OS is 2OI55. and where John baptized with a spot which any is common justification for the made identifications were further by for the first time Origen. X'^lpH n^^. from which it is shewn that the Swine were the sites. I pointed out in the Paper already referred At the to. Gergesa. so far as they survive. while the Syriac connects We the find.e. the geographical interest absent. xliii 7 E. to create!)^. where they declare Further on he mentions that John baptized (Orig. John. that of Swine.

In style. and he discriminated between sounds which Origen confused. but I from both the Old Syriac and Origen following local identifications. Palestinian Aramaic is. D. it is idiomatically Semitic. more than a generation before Origen's commentary was afforded. and the transcription of sounds in any language is a delicate matter. the agreement with Origen is confined to allegorizing. written. 200. and Origen was not really his ear for Semitic sounds seems to have a profound linguist. as it stands in the Sinai Palimpsest. The view I am here advancing is that the agreement of the Old Syriac with Origen about the place-names Bethabara and Girgashites or Gergesenes comes not from the Old Syriac following Origen. and improbable a theory to be artificial In the first place. while the middle column gives Origen's etymologies together with a conjectural restoration of the Semitic words intended by him. I venture to think I have proved this conclusion not to be excluded I have now to try and shew that it is not too by the evidence. urge that any theory which makes the Old Syriac Version dependent upon Origen is in itself Apart from the evidence afforded. in manner. of course. The independence : . when it comes to the etymology of and far Semitic names there is a great difference. where for KarrjvTria-aixev eh nroAe/xat8a the Syriac has we came to Acre \ And if our translator was persuaded that the x^P" ^wy Tepaarfvwv was the land of the Girgashites he writes his it so. not to tell represented the Aramaic names. removed both from Origen's textual accuracy and his fanciful Further. and is implied in Acts xxi 7. sibilants. The Syriac translator on the other hand was thoroughly skilled in Aramaic. in tone. by these few place-names. it seems to me fair to believed. or seemed to be improbable. Evangelist wrote 'Upoa-oXvixa or us with what letters the Greeks He does not care whether the 'Upova-aXrifi : the place meant No is what countrymen called Urishlem. equivalent of the names. various reading ' do not think he would scruple to write it so. been no better than that of most European tourists. is about A. but the two dialects have the same gutturals and the same and to a Semite they are not easily interchanged. his native language. of Origen and the Syriac is best represented by a Table the right-hand column gives the transmitted Syriac text. the latest date assigned to the Old Syriac Version. different from the Syriac of Edessa.PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 12 thing more than the translator of the Syriac Version can be proved His general aim was to find the proper Aramaic to have done. geographical identifications.

Origen''s explanations Either he misheard certain Aramaic names.e. and himself gave them his fantastic But meanings. The general to some excite inference draw I of place-names in identification among interest mainly a Greek-speaking body. themselves not scientifically trained in the At any rate. Acnon 13 DvtJ^ ^ (?) are themselves in sad need of elucidation. a known is in spelt in the Syriac Aramaic the Place ' a far more likely derivation than oikos 'Place of Cheeks'). as already remarked.' Jordan Kard^aaL's avrutv (vi t^^S {Brooke.NEW TESTAMENT NAMES SYRIAC FORMS OF Bethabara Origen. Fr. so Onomastka) Semitic sounds.vart/<os. and this aiayovoyv us it (i. It was identification of though the exact site and Origen tells us it was a place. I Aramaic pronunciation or grammar. B-qd(t)ayi'i is means most upon a mere error of the ear for Bethphage there can be may be difficult to locate.e. little dispute. 1 cannot see why he should be all for the Syriac trusted for place-identifi- cations and deserted for derivations. for it is definitely Aramaic. or he only heard them from Greek-speaking persons.) rhv H^^ pi*lV 42) (i. venture to claim that the theory which makes the Syriac Versions depend upon Origen breaks down under investigation. which looks . is the that by time Origen''s the had already begun Gospels Palestinian Christians. oIkos KaTaaKevijs (vi 40) Nlli? D^i Bethania oIkos viraKoris (vi 40) Bethpliage N^^i? Jl^^ (nayovojv (x 30) oIko!. spelling of likely his fantastic explanation (repeated rests ultimately About the tells t6t:o's te. yet Bethphage it is different from that adopted by the Syriac Version. Origen''s derivation for is especially interesting. St/riac. which is what Origen But Origen does not propose to change the means. and with it the theory that these Versions in any surviving form are later than niceties of Origen breaks down The name also. of Unripe Figs'. if Origen were an authority at translator. p« Salim no pj. suffix) [1i ]^V (S) j^i? (C) JV avTos 6 ava^aivoiv (Ibid. of Bethpliage. 76) 6<^0aA)ix6s ^ao-dvoi. rd^^ ^xs the same as in the Talmud. r<^^ iuia in the in Greek.

from her Bible. . I887J. Dalman 143 suggests that the name of . PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 14 as if he was really indebted to Jewish lore for his information. a small and unimportant hamlet was destroyed three is that it about it Beth Hini. after all. not explain to us the initial consonant of ania be X or n or n or 5?.. but on the spot she and El-'Azarlyeh that the it is finds the place called called to this day. I Lazarium. If the writer of the Second Gospel was really a Jerusalemite he must have known the true pronunciation of the name. ^. as it ought to ' In short. having no real root in the soil. which Jewish authorities. following vowel really have been if *i^n But the Gospel was a and not ' H^l was ' is ' i ' Greek writing does : it may equally well good evidence that the or ai '. and therefore there is more doubt about the right pronunciation of the word. no doubt. knows of Bethania Lazarus. The Syriac has X*jy n^i. as the Bethphage in the Talmud are connected with the virtual notices of inclusion of the place in the The identification of Holy City Bethany is for certain purposes less certain. the evidence suggests intended. When in the fourth century the victorious Christians built a great church over the reputed grave of name Bethany. that the Syriac translator and the earliest Christian identificators (represented by the Onomustka) had no real traditional evidence to go upon . Christian archaeologists had nothing to go on but the first letters of BhS-ania. On the other hand. See the discussion iu Neubauer 147 ft'. Bethany if it really was was. another spelling of ^^n H^l '• do not think we are in a position to solve the question. withered The Lady Etheria. in the fifth century. 182^4. they should have thought that an represented yi rather than ^n. at the same time it is pronunciation they suggest ^ ^ ' is equally insufficient to prove that the wrong ^. For ""ilK nn see Tosifta. It is hardly surprising that. then what we know likely all local most years before Jerusalem was taken by Titus ^ and I : knowledge of the place disappeared. they may be right in not connecting the New Testament Br]davia with the Talmudic Beth-Hini. no place of this name is mentioned by is mention of a place called ^^n H^i Bethany \ The question is complicated which may be near the site of by the gloss ^^^avla' oikoj So'^tj? {OS ITS-^. for B6^a = ^3NT IT'a was originally nj3n n'3 D^JIN see Isaiah xl 20. the away. and this spelling also appears to underlie Origen's oTko? vTTaKorjs. with the analogy of Anathoth to help them. And. therefore. venture to think. while there ' seems to indicate that a Christian tradition once existed that equated Bethany with [Dj'ilK H^l. Shebiith § 7 Baba Mezia 88 a.

It but our Syriac Tivvr]ijap. the answer is not so easy. is is not really an exception wanted to begin iv 13. a fertile district in Galilee that sometimes gives to the Sea of Tiberias. For that very reason it is probably genuine there. texts No variation. therefore. A nearer parallel may possibly be found in Nazareth \ this hypothesis Mark''s ' Gennesaret ' was changed to ' ' "* ' ' ' The name Nazareth problem. . possibly by Origen. that we realize with difficulty that it is confined to the non-western text of the Synoptic Gospels. including the Old Latin. that present the spelling which seems to be influenced either by local knowledge It looks as if the longer form had or knowledge of Josephus. . authorities give us "iDl^i in the Talmud. (xi 67) have Tevvrjcrdp. has -eth or -et Our Jewish at the end of the word have *lDii without true Old Latin MS. 54. so that the is spelt sometimes Na^ape'^. : it lias ver. Cana of Galilee Gennesareth name 15 is and Bethesda. while Josephus and 1 The vindicated as correct for an Aramaic Syriac spelling.SYRIAC FORMS OF The NEW TESTAMENT NAMES spelling of four other place-names in the Syriac Gospels raise These are Gennesareth. while in Matt * Mkvi53« The et »* e< ^ . archetype must have read Gennezur . Jos xiii 27. a word to us. Corresponding to the Biblical n"l33. The odd thing about the matter is that it is the Western authorities. altogether disappeared for a time from the text of the Gospels and ' ' then been reintroduced. not a real parallel. would It satisfy the general literary conditions Mark that Gennesar^^ belonged originally to belonging to the Evangelist who owes alone if we supposed — a peculiar form On least to literary tradition. corruption would then cause the rarer form Gennesaret to drop out of Mark. at all points directly to the longer form being more characteristic of Dalmanutha"* (Mk viii 10) is Mark than of the other Evangelists. for that word never found any acceptance in the other Gospels. and vTqaapiO.g. is connected with more than one insoluble In the Greek Gospels the name sometimes Na^apeV. is Maccabees But when we ask what document. e. Gennesar by Harmonistic the more literary Evangelists Luke and Matthew. Num xxxiv 11. Lk iv 6 we find Na^apd in gennezalretcumexis|sentdenaiiii. while at a later date it was re-introduced into the Greek But I cannot say that the textual evidence text of all three Gospels. its Yn- variously spelt revvqaapir^ is ^. the genuine spelling in the is Gennesaret is so familiar Greek Gospels. Nazarethy considerations of general interest. vocalized Genesar in the Peshitta. "iDOi the in Targums^.

276). to be pronounced like ts. ^aCapi]v6i H^XJ.PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 16 the best authorities. therefore. Nazaret for Q. The first that in hardly any We other instance does Greek C stand for Semitic ^ ^ tomed to the representation of If by z in English. then. that in later times a Semitic-sj)eaking sect of Christians this name. . the friend of Erasmus. a legitimate inference that the statement of our is Lord's settlement at this town was taken by Matthew and by Luke from Q. Mark and Nazara for Syriac texts. ' i. Unfortunately we do not know how these persons wrote their name in their own Aramaic vernacular. and the Moslems call a Christian Nasraru (pi. It should not be forgotten that our Greek Gospels are some two generations earlier than any surviving monument of Semitic Christianity. the second consonant of the Semitic equivalent ought to be zain (T) not mde (^f).nd in Latin. while they are historically parallel to one another. both in Greek a. According to the Acts. Christians Nazaraei or Nazareni is coimected by that Father with Lam iv 7 and the Nazirites. but ' Sion in the New Testament and in the Prayer Book. if the name of the town were ni2fi.e. and it was first used by the German Reuchlin. See Appendix III for details. Before Reuchlin's time the universal transliteration of IC was simple -y. Or putting it the other way. Nevertheless. which is ' Zion in the Old Testament. that the name of the town Avas given in Q. the accepted site of 'Nazareth' is called y=LJl to-day. both Greek and Latin. because are accus- it is done in But this z is really the Authorized Version of the Old Testament. Neither of these verses taken from Mark. and gravest is the z in ' Nazarene '. are ren- dered by S^l^i. with the D^'l^W. The fact is. then the name of the town should have been written ISlaaapeT or Nao-o/oa. vocalized Ndsrath and NaCwpatos. to imitate the sound which his Jewish teachers used. have The in the Peshitta. The Talmudic passage quoted above (Gemara of R. or if the Jews were right in calling Christians DHVi^ (Taan. Christians Avere once called and we know was called by members of the sect of the Nazoraeans {to)v NaC^paLoov). without exception. adjectives. The difference between the ancient and the Renaissance system is best illustrated to English people by the name of the city of David. It is. Nasara). have. Now whether we accept the ' ' form Na(a/jeT or Na^apa. the non-Markan source. and that (or Nazareth) The it w^as We there spelt NaCapd. Johanan) is later than Tertullian's reference to Jews calling the Old Syriac Version. there are difficulties in this identification. In accordance with this identification. * made in Germany"': it is the German j.

may be it said. indeed. * The Josh xix misgivings. though we hear of the Synagogue. . 3360) mentioned that the identification of the Gospel '^a^apir or ^aCapa HIVJ with a place spelt stands on the same footing as the equation of Bethany with Bethabara. Of these individualize Nazareth at all "" ' Kapharnaum places. The first is Mk vi 1-6. and of the villages round about. i*ejection made 'Nazareth' of quite place in Galilee. is the actual centre of the Galilean preaching. there is nothing whatever in the New Testament to of 'half the villages of Palestine. or in the town Nazareth is IT is Talmud' {Ency. the 'woes' on Chorazin. With some ^ Nazareth '. An attempt has been made to regard Nazara or Nazareth as a name for Galilee. the in the Old Bibl. Luke. But nothing is recorded in the Gospels about work or preaching in Chorazin. ii Lk iv 29). There are. and Nazareth as a town (Matt told us is that seems to be destitute of any ancient it certainly contradicts the Gospels. where nevertheless it does not occur. how importance of Dr. which that is is true you leave out of consideration the narrative of the address at the opening of the Ministry in the Synagogue at 'Nazara'. or Gerasenes with Girgashites. which relates the unsuccessful ministry of Jesus in His own country {ds ti]v TraTpCba avrov). which speak of it it 23. i. If beyond the mere letters of its name. it must be noticed. and apparently composed by him out of Mk vi 1-5 together with some very probably genuine sayings of our Lord which he took from another source. was situated on a hill The one thing (Lk iv 29).e. Beth Lehem Serieh (n*nir Dnb n'n) See Xeuhauer 190 f. at any rate there Here comes ment that 'no such town is that spelt ? in the The fact is. Bethsaidan and Kapharnaum. on . Cheyne's state- as Nazareth Testament.^ NEW TESTAMENT NAMES SYRIAC FORMS OF But. name may have that the suggest iu Meyil/a i 1. It is a piece of early Christian archaeology. is of ' I venture Dalmanutha to ' and 'Boanerges'. Bethsaidan (said in the Fourth Gospel to be the town of Andrew and Peter) is the place of refuge just outside the domains of Herod Antipas. No further name is mentioned. while the Jesus by His fellow-townsmen would have No appropriate in this passage. would be so appropriate. and wonderful deeds are actually recorded that took place in its immediate neighbourhood. but evidence. a narrative peculiar to S. rather than of primitive tradition. in Josephus. two passages where the name of Nazareth might have been expected. like that nearest thing 15. The other is Lk x 13-15 = Matt xi 20-24.

and I would not make that the ordinary view of Nazareth seems to And unsatisfactory. iv 46. Joh. and it. is really connected with it seems "I^T^ and course Jesus was not a legal Nazirite. wholly unproved and the most unproved and least satisfactory part whereby the z Cana of me Joh This ii 1.. I mean that we ought to consider this. it . sing. It should noticed that be most of the consonants of XopAzeiN i-eappear in reverse order in NAZApeG. Moreover the saying ' Let the dead bury their dead ' actually expresses an integral part of the Nazirite's enforced freedom from certain social Is it not possible that 'Nazoraean' was a nickname. is better ' I ' . Joh iv 46). of the Peshitta spell it kIJlj^ the vocalization participle active. as with the plural points. and yet eats and drinks like other folk (Matt xi 19. It Nazarene \ or ' the term. to me most probable that the word the vow of the Of Nazirites. which fem. It is a desperate conjecture. PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMV 18 arisen from a literary error. (Mk) and NaCwpaios (Matt. After considering the matter from various points of view. for He drank wine. name of the town from which attested than the derived. was Chorazin. 2. whatever John the Baptist may have been. The true origin of nicknames is easily lost. Acts Lk having both). Kaya.^ might conceivably mean 'this odd sort of Nazarite' one who calls for I'epentance. But no variation treated by the Evangelist 1 it in the Syriac it becomes fr^iVn this in the constant tradition of the Syriac Vulgate is vocalized Kdtne^. moreover. xxi in the Greek. Lk vii 34). '^ were mentioned four times in the Fourth GospeP. It but the it commonly is not to think that Jesus was called 'the difficult is the Nazoraean what ' : is doubtful the meaning of is not easy to understand the form Na^copaios in any difficulty is greater we have to make if an adjective it denoting an inhabitant of Nazara or Nazareth. for the daughter of Jairus came to life again. — It Galilee. is Galilee that part of is made There is not it which is attested by the Syriac to represent a Semitic X. would have if it were the emphatic plural of a and accordingly some MSS. the iraTpis of Jesus. (ets tt]v is. the possibility that the city of Joseph and Mary. and is has been variously identified. do not suppose the adjective Nazarene to have been originally This adjective. in the two forms NaCapTjzdy derived from Chorazin. That He did not scruple to touch an apparently dead body proves nothing. of the ordinary view Versions. and it may have been supposed that the name referred to some place in obligations. is case. 11 is .

333. or the source from which he derived his geographical theories. not far from where our topo- in graphical authorities place the Sheep-gate mentioned by Nehemiah. But name ^. scripsi. But KoAv/i/3?/^pa mentioned was this Pool that was seen and in certain other this Pool is in ways it the quarter of Jerusalem called Bezetha by Josephus. directly concerned with the actual important thing the odd our investigation in name of Cana ' Such an in Syriac suggests a geographical identification. most interesting studies of the questions regarding it Dr. have brought to light the Pool which in the early days of Christian archaeology was identified with the Trpo/iartK^ Joh V 2 and in in the Onomast'ica. both The latest and certainly one of the of Bethesda topographical and textual. Anne the north-east corner of Jerusalem. a doubt concerning the As the for site. except in so far as they relate to the subject immediately before us. The of Galilee ^ as wTitten in Greek and as represented tion could hardly have been home site. Unfortunately. touch upon all the points raised. which Syriac Biblical there is name. has to find. and possibly the place meant is H^^HtOpj the Biblical Kattath {Neubmier 189). this hardly explains the We vocalization. Angus Lectures for 1908. The tradition. are not. however. ' Testa- not attempt to shall I that bv is New the is Bethesda ' ' authority question is ' of the twofold and a doubt concerning the site.: SYRIAC FORMS OF NEW TESTAMENT NAMES 19 This change ofKava into Kdfne cannot be explained on palaeographical or linguistic grounds and Acre. and the Syriac Kdfnc is almost equally hard Katana near Damascus is too far away. Rendel Harris in his book called Side-Lights on ment Research. and as several very ancient ^ Itinera Sancta IGl meorum ^ : in ipso accubitu. the data very well. bridegroom at \ * The marriage-throne of the bride and Cana \ three miles from Diocaesarea. on which in the ear 570 or thereabouts Antoninus of Placentia scratched his family disappeared. that the variation between is made by a identifica- Christian scholar staying at infer that the translator himself. 36-51 and 70-76 ^. by the Bordeaux Pilgrim satisfies It in a. pp. and we must in Edessa. ubi ego indiguus iioniina parentum . d. Round the name many controversies have raged. and : the words are really as distinct as Ptolemais think we must infer that the Syriac word represents I a deliberate geographical identification. must have been a Palestine Pilgrim. excavations near the church of S. neither this identification nor the ordinary one can be made out with certainty.

describing the the by a deep moat not possible that Be^edd or Bri(a6d stands for But does not ' BJ - There was a great ii 19.ivqv kqI tijv KaLvoTroXtv koI to Aok&v dyopdv). i. therefore. ' ' " . And when we come to the actual words of Josephus we find that he does not quite say that the Greek for Ber:etha is Kawij ttoAi?. is Bezetha Josephus in in the Gospel Bi](a9d instead of Bethesda. He says. whether ' ' '. is Now BeC^dd. p. 115) connects the name with Brj^iO Brj^^ai^.e. where Bacchides flung . 'a fourth crest Antonia and ctit off from it bits cut off". 5J V 4. 'The Place of Unripe Figs'. that B)](a6d (or something like it) There is some doubt about the spelling of a more accurate expression. 'New' in or 'Town'. . But it is not so used before ordinary adjectives. 2 {Nicse v 151): viight translate BJ n In ' it so. 2 KJiyD (= pit or '.PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 20 name authorities spell the it is almost an the true reading.'* Is 'the ? Niese v 151). but perhaps another phrase would be better. ' BJv 4.aTi it ^. you e. The most puzzling part of the evidence is that Josephus seems to tell us that Bezetha means Kainopolis or New Town really quite impossible. 4 his victims. Jewish KaAeirat Be^edd. i. fj-epos. C between two vowels must stand for Semitic ^am. Beth Ha{d)tha has been suggested. on the whole. = Niese v 149): this suggest 'the bit cut off" a derivation NnVD. but this does not mean New Town It does not even mean New House or The New House if it means anything it means 'The House of the New Man'.e. Begeth. and there is no z we try Hebrew or Aramaic. Kakovixeiov {ti']v ' B^^tdd to vf-OKTicnov av X^yoLT Kaivi] ttoAis. npoaayop^vofj. to a place also spelt T^TapTov Trji is hills Xvcfiov OS TTipioiKTjOfjvai cnroTepivvpLivos 'AvTOivias which from the above-quoted passage Josephus says.. The best attested spelling is This ^. for our irresistible inference : conclusion will be that Josephus and the Evangelist intend to give the same name. and Bethzecha. 4 he seems to distinguish Kainopolis re B. . Beth^ literally House '. as in Beth Phagge. is used in the construct state before nouns to mean 'The Place of. Neither in Aramaic nor in English is New House synonymous with New Town. But it seems to me. or possibly War 6pvyp. (BaOe'i. i. situated opposite ' ' of Jerusalem {Ibid. KeCp^evos p-lv dvTLKpv be called Bezetha. tank ((ppeap) iu ' Bezeth'. Professor Mace (KXrjdr] b' eTrtx^^ptcos 'EXkdbt yXcoaar] b ix^OepixiiVivofxevov Dalman {Gram. between 'Bezetha' and his 19. and he supposes the name to mean 'Place of Olives' (5<n*T iV^). best to take a hint from a previous (1 sentence vii 19).

on the other hand. where the spelling {Beth Jiezda) makes it '. or regard Bezeth as the old name of an now become part of the town. it really ancient authority that supports this reading. have 'Bethsaida'.. of course. parallel to the question of ' Nazareth In both cases we have a current tradition now in vogue '. . Evangelist then. Betzata. is with one significant exception not supported in any of the authorities by which modern critical editors are generally influenced. A and C). pretty certain that For Bethesda ' ' has been derived from a Syriac source. whatever of these House of Mercy was not far off. Such a division of the evidence is not only unfavourable to Bethesda makes it very likely that the Old Syriac Version. Betzetha\ or the Vulgate {Bethsaida). in ^{ (Bi. which is the one Syriac). we do not in any case come to Bethesda. case We is also the source are dealing with probabilities. and all the Syriac versions. translator. BtjSCo^a. also. which will cover the facts of the case and be consistent with the phenomena of other various readings and unlikely forms of Proper Names. It is also in the Armenian. &c. It is not in B (B??^(Tat8a). and the correction that was chosen was derived from the Syriac tradition. or whoever else is the real Antiochian-Byzantine text ^. is that Brj^a^a was that this and the form Avritten became extensively corrupted to also widely assimilated to ' My by the B?j^ga0a. in certain ways. The whole question is. in the genuine Old Latin (Bezatha. hypothesis. which have Br^^aOd in Greek and Bethsaida in Latin. except the text of the Harclean. This. thought that ' ' so wrote Beth Hesda. against 'Bethesda' are the ancient Versions (except the and the most ancient and trusted Greek MSS. the most familiar form of the name to us. with the text of the Harclean and the Ethiopic. the Gothicizing revised Latin texts y and 5'. The Syriac forms may have been Bethsaida '. The Egyptian versions. . Belzatha.^^a^a). . or suppose that the name means 'Place of Olives'. local tradition. a tradition which * The is unsatisfactory in the light text called AT by von Sodeii. It is not in the Onomastica. foster-father of the had 'Bethsaida' in the text that lay before him : this was a manifest geographical blunder and needed correction. spelt like the 'city of Andrew and Peter The supporters of Brj^eo-ga are the vast majority of Greek MSS. about the names. of it.NEW TESTAMENT NAMES SYRIAC FORMS OF 21 But whether we take this. may very likely have before his eyes. outlying village. in D (BeA^e^a). (including. it and the authority of are the Byzantine tradition ' the Syriac'. and by the nature of the we cannot hope to do more than frame a hypothesis. and The Martyr Lucian.

the Elamites was no doubt taken by S. a barbarous people mentioned by Pliny (vi De Fato The name of with the Kurds and by the Dialogue (V* 3) in connexion with the regions north of Pontus. the name of a certain Star or Constellation.' I assume tliat VJ? is the abs. But iv 6) calls difficult be an ill-cut r^laTut^*. Luke from the Old Testament. exactly the by translates the 'Parthians' 2. not to move my bones and the sarcophagus. ' I ' except that some ancient in Syriac the case him *tt7in. Stella. Bar-Jesus. 26 is transliterated ^''T\J2 in P. Acts in xiii 6. It will be convenient to notice here certain Syriac forms of Proper Names that for various reasons need some elucidation.PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 22 In the case of Nazareth of the earliest evidence. and MSS. names have any more authority than Joarash for Jairus. have MaOQiav this name is instead of MaTdiav. where it appears on the pre: (i. The Elamites of Acts ii 9 are rendered X^J/N {Alanaye) This is not an irregular transliteration of in P. ^ ZDMG word xxxvi 1G4. whoever else enters (4) here. of a site. so spirit De Sacy''s Arabic^. or Katne for Cana the only difference is that the former pair found favour at the end of the fourth century among the Greeks and the latter ' ' . The bath Barshuma. Aphraates 150 {Demonstr. state of NnVV (Job ix 9). read I take tliis r^^Tur^by It is may it evident that opportuuity of suggesting that the Sachau. 'lu . name of the Magus the spelt in important same . is variously that the original reading is some- what doubtful. 3. in line 3. but means the 26) in connexion 'EXajmetrat. Alans. daughter of Bardo not suppose we can reconstruct the Greek word which suggested Barshuma to the Syriac translator. but a Mesopotamian translator would know that they were extinct as the Druids. Western texts. first four lines will then run : (1) ' I. In P ND"lt5^ *li {Barshuma) is given as an equivalent. (3) I beg of thee.e. The meaning of Barshuma is not known what is known is that it was an old family name in Edessa. 1. any more than we could recover 'EAa/^etTai from the Alans in Acts ii 9. in cases by the case of Bethesda it is it is the selection the form of a name. is ' substituted for ' Matthias' w^herever occurs in the Syriac Version of Eusebius's History. In both far the oldest witness to the unsatisfactory current tradition I do not believe these Syriac is the ancient Syriac Version. Christian grave of XDIC^"!^ n^!! VS? shuma')^. i. Matthias in Acts i 23. pair did not. there is no variation in the name in Greek or Latin. different. (2) have made for myself this tomb. e. So far as I know. and so he chose a more modern name from the same sort of region an as In equivalent.

but 1). pn^EJ^nn ^m:^ nS^. is of the Syriac translator. Neti-Hebr. rather than a transliteration of the Greek. e. mentioned Neh in 6 vi ^. Why the Old Syriac of Acts should have represented Matthias by this name cannot now be ascertained. however. with Gwilliani's Mas. but the parts of the Jewish organization that came to an end with the Destruction of Jerusalem were as unfamiliar to him as to ' ' ' ' the rest of the Gentile world. An Samuel. their imagine the translator was only acquainted with the provincial I Phylacteries and Beth-dins he Judaism of Upper Mesopotamia. ' Place of the judges '). v. s. dJL) common Palmyrene name a very is (Cook. but that the Old Syriac Version of the Acts must have had */b7in also. ' it upon the general equipment sociological should be noticed that the technical Jewish term |^*TinjD (Sanhedrm) is never used to render avvihpiov. 'all is correctly given the assembly of (X^l T\^^. This in Josephus (Ant.). 6 \ and 1^7^ Finally. in which ease we have an interesting parallel to 'Gashmu the Arabian'. for ' vol.. even when In Matt x 17 S P the technical it might have been not inappropriate. e. only rendered -nav ro a-vvihpiov is Heads'. (see Malchus 4. not Beth (i.e. 73. Diet. and name occurs as ©oAo/xatoy of course. of the Syriac Version aimed at giving the vernacular equivalent of the New Testament Proper Names. the second part of the is. where. not quite certain that an it is rendered is \7^ (MdleJc) in P. but )j?J2 occurs in S at the end of a line. Jewish term for the foc«Z but even Beth-din) ^. Examples ^ In Matt ' No whence ' The dayydni viii doubt : Acre for Ptolemais. knew. (1) The to I shall translator sum up the main results of these attempt to do so in a series scattered of propositions. in P. it more is name appears as the likely that 1^7^ is to be treated as a Semitic one the true reading. . 3. 7 ' a misprint is a woman's name). )^/J2 (i. vol. Aramaic Glossary. It is now time observations. 3 tholomeus occurs in « for Bartholomew. IDti'3 corresponds to *-i-3- : it would be interesting to know King derived the spelling tocem'. name ^O^D does occur obscure 23 name Judges and in nothing more than Ptolemy in a Semitic disguise *tt7'in is Levy. xx Bartholomew'. in Jewish Court Acts xxii 30 i. as bearing 5. Syriac should be vocalized Beth dim'.NEW TESTAMENT NAMES SYRIAC FORMS OF this no mere palaeographical is error. so that D may not be lost in the margin : in that case S would present a mere commonplace transliteration of But MaAxos. Alans for Elamites. p. Malekti) in (? in Joh 10 xviii The word S.

(7) In other cases the Syriac identification for the modern and incorrect and theory. Examples (5) : Bethabara and BetJiphage. Example Kafne : for Cana. as the translator its When oldest form. shews. Yesim for Jesus. Examples (8) Now upon Origen with all : Ndsrath for Nazareth. fostered by the rise of Christian pilgrimage. minutely examined. The connexion is to be explained by the rise of local Palestinian Christian traditions. the forms of the Names in the Syriac New Testament are assimilated to those in the Syriac Old Testament (Peshitta). a critic rather than a witness. but quite certainly it did not include . Examples Sehyon for Sion. identifications never influenced non-Syriac Christian This demonstrates the existence of a certain independence tradition. New Testament that a direct dependence of the Syriac is excluded we are free to date the work in conformity the other indications.PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 24 (2) Wherever possible. which is earlier and normative for the Syriac New Testament. century a. The only bridge life across this is the Greek text of the New Testament itself. This lessens its becomes.century Christian Church from Palestinian before the Destruction of Jerusalem. the Syriac Version. the Old Testament failed. other monuments of Christianity. but the continuity with the Fathers of old time to which the Catholic Church of the second century justly attached so much weight was connected with ideas great chasm I and not with tangible antiquities. It is i.d. Naturally do not wish to deny the continuity of Catholicism with the first preaching of the Christian Gospel. the great chasm that separates the second. to have very different notions of the It is ' possible for theologians deposit "* which Timothy was charged so carefully to guard. even in like all Holy value for textual criticism. the oldest evidence is some in cases may have been the parent of that theory. : A connexion between (4) noted. Example Yoarash for Jairus. in the last quarter of the monument thus the earliest surviving second of the reviving interest which Christians were beginning to take in the Places. e. BethJiesda for Bezatha. Examples (6) : ' Some Syriac Gergesenes ' and again Bethabara. but the Syriac translator and Origen by way of agreement it is in identification to be is combined with disagreement in etymology. to a certain extent. in the Syriac identifications. the Syriac When (3) : is sometimes demonstrably wrong.

". F. exactly followed the . . Agabus. any Semitic H and T\ The Greek letter. rules . ' W. three names Alphaeus.. and H and Pi by the rough breathing. APPENDICES I. 'E/3patos^ in "Aya/3os (from Ezr ii 45 f. and the Semitic consonants of the Syriac Version bear witness to no geographical or linguistic tradition that goes behind this. while the 'rough'. For such things we are driven back to the words of the Greek Testament. a paragraph explaining and defending the smooth and rough breathings adopted by them in their edition of the Greek text of the ' They Testament.' The fame of Horfs Introduction is assured. it facts. Agabus. BURKITT. say : Hebrew or Aramaic we Hebrew or Aramaic spelling. why y should have a Greek 'smooth' are to be indiscriminately represented by breathings do not exactly correspond to but they do exactly correspond to the.— : NEW TESTAMENT NAMES SYRIAC FORMS OF 25 any theory as to the site of Nazareth. In AAc^aros we follow the Vulgate Syriac (the Old Syriac is lost in the four places where the name occurs). .-H. expressing and y by the smooth breathing. We have also in the text accepted the authority of the Syriac for "kya^a (from ^^V): but Hagab existence of a 'E/3ep. ^iH) Neh vii is supported by the 48. C. and one or two downright blunders. contains highly doubtful opinions stated as if they were axioms. 'E^pdiari have every claim to be indeed. are best treated together in the form of a Note to Westcott and Hort's well-known Introduction § 408. The Alphaeus. In like manner 'E^paU. the complete displacement oi Ebraeus receive<l and Ebrew by Hebraeus and Hebrew is comparatively modern. have K New In proper names transliterated from the . which agrees with what ' the best modern authorities consider to be the Aramaic original. Hebrew. but some evil genius It must have possessed him when he compiled this paragraph. and Hebrew. .. As however it quite accurately represents the actual practice followed in all editions of seems worth while to point out the I never could understand breathing.

in b. 21 a it appears as K37*J<. <v?<\ -y\ f<^ is he simply a trans- us nothing as to the breathing If is infer that the Syriac translator derivation. iii and in the spelling of the is Origen in Joan. since the Greek termination and tells ll)in. or and Hort came to think that why the statement has been so often repeated. in other words. take the case of Hebrew Here mediaeval Latin and and unfortunately there is no instance either in the Old or New Testament where E/3patos stands immediately after a mutable consonant. Dalman (p. to KaO' 'EfSpatovs EvayyeXiov. ArABoc corresponds to . us nothing at tell all. surely. Ave breathing. as Semitic. 27. ' we may continue to write 'AA0atos. I do not know how Westcott this name began in Syriac with y. 142) cites ^*S7*n from j. ' E^paiovs never occurs: certainly Ka$' *E/3patous MSS. Halpai now and Halphaeus is less clear. Mart. but the Syriac evidence tells us nothing except that our proposed derivation was not obvious in ancient times. i). 58 d. have reinforced This really does imply that the word is recognized initial guttural. 25. D*l we must transliterated into Syriac. the ' authority of the Syriac may in this case stand. * ' However. Kidd. in HE Eusebius This. as recognizably Semitic no opinion as to literation of AfABoc. by Blass in Syriac in his written is a»a=i^r<' (D1UX) both in Acts xi 28 and in xxi 10. edition of the Acts. But Westcott and Hort appear to have forgotten all about the Gospel according to the Hebrews'. name g. The name Halpai does not certainly occur in Jewish sources. decisive evidence in favour of the rough breathing^. is 'AA(|)6toj It may further be remarked that becomes in Syriac Qoa. and Moreover. is Agabus has been equally unlucky. So far as I know. iv 22. Since the name ends in did not regard the gives us name ought to may prefix a rough i. ii 12. Taan. ^ Under the influence of \V'estcott and Hort the smooth breathing lias been used for 'E^paios in the Cambridge LXX and the Oxford Concordance to tlie LXX ! . The word seems to mean conti'oversialist (j"^). . as there is no sign of a various reading 'AA(^etos in the New Testament. we on quite other grounds we think just as ApexAc corresponds to Hdritha. but also because (^s7T\). The decision between Alphaeus the Syriac versions. but this is not the name of a Rabbi.PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY ^6 observed about aspirating or not aspirating the preceding consonant.xa\r^ (Eus. its prefix to the word. quantum valeat. e. name dropped. Kar English spellings first. Here by the Sinai Palimpsest. not only because of the the Greek termination the Greek Palest. and these rules are our only To safe guide. the fact being that the e.

1908. B. ever written. 251-270). of his ingenious theory breaks : ' Further. that in the prevalence of the spelling . down on investigation. Kpar Ndhuvi This is not only the reading of or Kpliar Nahum^ not Kapr N.M. the Urmi editions and those founded upon them I have ascertained that ^<\3Ju& iSA is the reading of the Nestorian jVIasora'.' It is. But on general grounds it was not likely that the solution of this curious problem would come from beyond the Euphrates. and also Syriac has ^<X«xli2k. as they use part. one of the most careful and accurate MSS. ' "" after all agree with Nestle. and Nestle conjectures that the two forms arose from different pronunciations of well known that the East Syrians pronounced S hard Semites) if : then *1M was really a monosyllabic form. and Theodoret is Dr. to fifth anted. Nestle certainly a witness century Antiochian fashions. then Kairepvaovix might have arisen from the East Syrian form. the place called nj'l^yn the Urmi Bible Kla-Saa^- "11)3 in \S>A. Hort calls the Antiochian text.NEW TESTAMENT NAMES SYRIAC FORMS OF II.. Caphauxaum. and if It is hard for the East Syrians pronounced the word Kapr. while like all These names are the subject of a study by Professor E. i. known that the Tcxtus Receptus of the New Testament all critical editions spell the word Kaipap- has KaTrepraov/i.e. Nestle Theodor Zahn (Leipzig. 12138. by the great by practically all attested is by {<BD. i. Add. It well is 27 Capernaum. e. It is a natural inference that the proe in KaTTepvaovjx is definitely rejected nunciation district of the Greek-speaking may have something of the Antiochian population to do with the matter. Josh xviii 24 is called in therefore. i. Nestle is quite right in saying that the ancient Syriac Versions cannot be claimed as witnesses to decide between A indifferently for both. The main facts are that KoTrepis attested by what Dr. not for that which is Aramaic. while Kacpapis attested by all others. But the other tt and 0. Kacfiapvaovjji. which Nestle's work is packed full of curious and recondite informa- tion.^. e. (i. in a Festschrift for mass of Greek MSS. The East Svrian pronunciation of the name is yiOM^i %^. The the Versions. Nestle points out that Kairepvaovix vaovfjL. we may for fourth what is V. this. equally essential. This brings the matter back where it was. quotes Theodore t for Kairepa-ava. e. pp. evident that the by the East Syrian tradition. which is exactly Using then Syrian in the sense used by Hort. but for what is characteristic of the Greek-speaking district of which Antioch was the capital.

in Origen's Hexapla. a8a)i.l. The grandson Genealogies. it (1 Arzaph. iv 18). tlie 'ASwrt^eSe'/c 1). 4. by simple Besides a. as in Judges Greek with C either 2. as the Syriac has ended really rtl^-ipC. In all pIX Here ''yi^. LXX reads pT2 *i*lX. Certainly this word can to prove that the Cin NaCap4d corresponds to !!f. Regn xiv 4). English form and Josephus has ' is never spelt Old or the New Testament. This is the name of the land where 45).m> for ?VX.:- and '^ very doubtful whether the co^^Q? . Taking them there appear to be ten. is spelt find 'Eo-pw/x. and in In the Josephus occurs in the Lucianic text of ' of Judah (p^lXH) OT we Aaaapdiv. 'Egxoj^ a text which here rests . in B i. after all an exclusively Biblical and n3*)V. however. in jSa^ed the ejid The rock Bozez 'Lucian\ (|*X11) is spelt B^zec Presumably the Greek read VT^ for pi:i. with the change of the traditional consonants. is If ist '. No without apparent exceptions. in the xiii went. The words Greeks habitually represented Semitic which like ^i. 'Eaptav.. to .PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 28 MSS.) = the Greek Bible (Aq. the has Hebrew corrected to agree with the least possible in in their the order of the English alphabet. the NT 'Acrrpdiv. highly contentious word do very 3. Bozez and besides that. little has been explained as Not only in -areth at all. and against all probability agree with Deut xxix 28. according to the Latin text of 4 Ezra. we have in Adonizedelc (Josh x 1. e.e. see 'eine der der Theorie von Westcott-Hort. Theod. 16) that in hardly any instance Greek C stands for Semitic X. Ruth iv 18.. it is worth while to examine the names in the Greek Bible (besides * Nazareth') in which ( is apparently so used. It appears to denote some region beyond the sources of the Euphrates. of the Gospels we may Kanepvaovfx in Greek Textus receptu3 die Frucht einer syrischen Rezension Greek Z for Hebrew III. it : is is niHX the equation of V*^^5.t/3eCe'<. This reading seems to have been ft'. >f. Arzai-eth (4 Ezra Ten Tribes most familiar i 5 Symm. It should be noticed that ' Melchizedek aooivi^iC^Kos. and in view of the Jewish name. Besides these. we have rule. dass der starksten Bestiitigungen is and for jll^^f 'E^ihwv importance of the statement made above 'lap^irTa for (p. i. Hezron (Ruth 'E(r/3w/x in 'Ao-pwjui.Ai^rc* of the eaiih.

Eusebius {OS 231) says. v 228).— NEW TESTAMENT NAMES SYRIAC FORMS OF 29 Lk iii 33 E. . King of Midian (Judges viii 5 Bible as SfAjmaz-a. an in word. A 7. ' referring to . inferior Uncial of the 1st century a. but Ma^'^ap also occurs. while in i Genesis we find 'HI and in Chronicles But the Lucianic text has This again unfamiliar is ' Duke 6. ' eort 2iywp. But besides 27p/ajp we find in Gen xiii 10. there was a special reason spelt with Z. the same name as the land of Uz. 5. i. . a transliteration which points to a vocalization Further. name Hebrew has ' for Chronicles. In eight of : (Gen xiv 2. We know from Gen why xix that . No doubt the reason was that Zoar was a known place. . I Chr 17). But Zeba and appears in the Greek laXfiavd or 8. but the text ZApiON kql Zapixovvr. these . It is clear that there must have been a definite reason for spelling the name of this town with Z. 30 his Deut xxxiv 3 Isai xv 5) the Greek Bible has 2^ycop. ?/ vvv Z(t)opa K-oAovfcerrj Further.v too fanciful to suppose that in this instance it is doubtful as B has and the Latin Zaracelem and Zachariam. The case is different with respect to the remaining one 10. It is A i 38) corresponds to the conceivable that there may have been THXV ? of 2 Clir xxxvi 4. Chr xxvi 14 B. use of y for y is characteristic of the earlier Greek transliterations.oyopa and in Jerem xxxi (xlviii) 34 Zo'yop. I^^f Josh xv 54). in the Semitic original a mention of Zedekiah (n*p*lV). Hnz (Gen xxii 21. "ils. Zalmunna. in Hebrew "IJ?^.. where the coj^z seems to occur in 1 T*i}V. the brother of Buz. BaAa. These nine instances appear to me to be of no importance at all. town should be f. is spelt in Hebrew T*"iy. 8 xix 22. 23. Edom (Gen xxxvi 42. This is something y. Zoar. the city near the Dead Sea. Is called by Josephus Ze^j)^ Josephus modified the name for the sake of alliteration Zaraces (Ezra 9. and OvC more than a mediaeval variant surely nothing barbarous Josephus has Ov^os. spelt Zoapa or Zcoapa by Ptolemy (v 16). more than a transcriber's mistake. ' Zalmunna' (y])D7V^ H^T) are {Antiq. and occurs in 'E(pa>/i 8th century. "-Q^ for Genesis icoiac. Here A has 1 Chr i 53) The Hebrew spelt is is "1^^. Psalm Ixxxiii 11). the different from the Massoretic (? cf. ft*. The land of Uz in the Greek Bible is the x(apa ava-ln's.e.d. . Koi CIS €TL vvv oLKelTat. this T] Gen xiv 2. Jerem xxxi (xlviii) 4. It is mentioned eleven times in all. in an There can be little doubt that these spellings have nothing whatever to do with the writers of the upon two minuscules. where Lot took refuge. Ma(ap Mib::ar of in the Greek. where Job lived.

. so that regularly in the Syriac versions as X^plHT. The not really form Greek Z does not correspond evidence rather suggests that in historical times town was known by an Aramaic name ("IS?!).PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 30 name was supposed the and Josephus says of mean Zojo)/) en to it Now though 'EjSpalot 70 okCyov. yet one or two roots containing these letters — ^l^T do interchange. the form found in is the ' ' Jerusalem Jerusalem (i. rather than by the old Hebraeo-Canaanite one ("iV^) by which it is called in the Old Testament. similarly the root pIT is used in Syriac (not in Pales- Aramaic) instead of pHX. an Thus the names of Zoar — IVX — Zooapa do isolated exception to the rule that to Semitic X. and "l^^f in Hebrew. slender foundation for supporting This peculiar case is a very the theory that in 'Na^apiO or Nafapa the second consonant corresponds to a mde and not to a zain. the ^abhovKoioL appear But this is an exclusively Syriac form and does not occur even in the Christian Palestinian dialect. e. and also in the Talmud. g. and that this stage is reflected by the Greek Bible. "I^^X Jewish Aramaic is one of the words for it is "H^S?! and in Syriac therefore Josephus says that Ziootp )neans to oXiyov. in is one. in which possibly 2?jyco/3 corresponds this to ^\^)i while Zoyopa represents 1^1. e. it Aramaic rather than Biblical Hebrew that he has in mind. ' Littleham /cat and T ' or ' Littleborough \ vvv Ae'yerat" xaAoSo-t yap ovnos If do not indiscriminately or regularly interchange. It is possible that the more modern Aramaic name had once a footing in the Old Testament itself. and very likely he knew of the town of Zuiopa as ^VT. while little ' ' When "niyi. Somewhat tinian ' ** Targum Gen to Palestinian) xiv and xix.

Girgashites Arabs 6 Gethsemane 8 Aretas 8 Gushani. see Bethabara4. see Elamites Alphaeus Annas 6 5. see Tholomaeus Melchizedek 28 Cephas 6 Mesopotamia 4 Chorazin 6. 24 Bethsaida 6. see Bethesda Obed Joppa 8 Jordan 13 Joshua 6 Bezeth 20 Boanerges 17 Boaz 8 Bozez 28 Lydda 8 Malchus 23 Mattatha 8 Caiaphas 6.13. Hebrew. 14 Bethesda 19f. Geraseues 10 n. 26 Alans. Hezron 28 Hosanna 5 Barabbas 6 Bar-Jesus. Gashmu 23 9f. 17 Jacob 2 Jairus. 23 Aenon 13 Gadarenes 10 n Gaza 8 Gennesaret 8. Barshuma 6 Matthias. 9. 27 f. 9f. Heber 25 Azotus 8 f. Dule 2 Agabus 25.. Messiah 6 Mibzar 29 Chuza 6 . Barshuma 22 Huz29 Barsabbas 6 Bartbolomew 23 Isaac 2 Beelzebub 4 'In. 24 . 9 Caual8f. n. Arabia 6 Gergeseues. 13.. 13. INDEX Abaddon 7 AbiaS Abrabam 2 Dalraauutha 15. 17 Acre. 15 Gerar 10 n. 12 Jesus. 24 Bethlehem Serieh 17 n. 25. see Ptolemais Adonizedek 28 Elamites 22. 22. 17f. 24 Jerusalem 4. Cananaeau Capernaum 17. Jesu 6 Jobel. 26 n. Jair 7. Bethphage 6.22 Canaanite. Arzareth 28 Hagarenes 10 n. see Bezatha... 24 Bethany 4.

INDEX 32 Xaiii 8 Sapphira Naziira 10 Sarepta 28 Xazarene. 23 Ptolemais 8. 24 Saron. see Zoar Shinar 10 Sidou 28 Obed Silas 6 8 Simon. 10 Parthiaus 22 Peter 5 n. Nazoraean 16. 23 Sadducees Salim 13 5. Simeou 6 Sion 4. Zoara 2i>. 18 (5 Segor. 21.. 18 Nazareth 15 f. 12. Tabitha 5 Pharaoh 2 Talitha 5 Pharisees 5 Tarsus 8 Phylacteries 5. Sharon 8 Nazirites 16.^S0 . Sanhedrin 23 30 Tliaddaeus Tliolomaeus 23 Zalrauuua 20 Zaraces 29 Zoar.

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