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EXCHANGE

THE

SOLECISMS OF THE APOCALYPSE

BY
T.

COWDEN LAUGHLIN

A DISSERTATION

PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
1902

C. 6.

PRINCETON, N. J.
ROBINSON & CO., UNIVERSITY PRINTERS

.

J. UNIVERSITY PRINTERS . ROBINSON & CO. 8. PRINCETON. N..THE SOLECISMS OF THE APOCALYPSE BY T. COWDEN LAUGHLIN A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 1902 C.

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Brit." Lipsiae. GREEN. HARNACK. 1889. " Ecclesiasticae Historiae EWALD. 1868. "A Historical Introduction to the Testament." Apocalypsin Johannis Exegeticus et Criticus. Cambridge. 1884. Etude sur le Grec du Nouveau Testament. Apocalypse. 1879. "Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Griechisch. 1893. EWALD." Gottingen." Cambridge. 1898-1902. 1885." New York. " Novum Testamentum Graece." Paris. 1887-1894. HASTINGS. 1889." EBRARD. 1852. Vollstandigen Einleitung in die Offenbarung Johannis und in die gesammte apokalyptische Litteratur.. 1894. "A Concordance to the Greek Testament. 1899. Paul's Epistle to the Galatians. "Syntax of the Moods and Tenses in New Testament Greek. 1899-1903. "Grammatik der hebraischen Sprache des A. "The Old Testament in Greek according to the Septuagint." New York. 1835. SWETE." Bonn. T. Ziiruch. Leipzig. Gottingen." Gottingen. MOULTON & GEDEN. New York.) of the Idiom of the Edition.THE SOLECISMS OF THE APOCALYPSE BIBLIOGRAPHY The leading works consulted tion are the following in the preparation of this disserta- : BLASS." York. London. WESTCOTT & HORT. EWALD." Zweite Aufl. "An Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek. London and New LIGHTFOOT. York." 2d Edition. New SALMON. York. " Quotations in the New Testament. " EUSEBIUS. "Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament." Aufl. "A Grammar (The references in this dissertation are to this text. SPITTA." London. XX." York." Halle." Thayer's . Dictionary of the Bible. BOUSSET. 1900. WESTCOTT. " YITEAU. "Die Offenbarung des Johannes." New 1887. "Die Johanneischen Schriften iibersetz und erklart. " Discussions on the MILLIGAN. John. Hebraisms in the Greek Testament. 1861-1862.TON. " Dritte Patrologia Graeca. "St. " Die Otfenbarung Johannis." Chicago." " Essays in Biblical Greek. 1872. Frankfurt a. 1889." 5 Aufl." Cambridge. " EBRARD. TOY.. Andorer." London. 1900." 3 vols. 239329 New Testament. 1896. 1828. HATCH. " Versuch einer LtiCKE. 1845. " Wissenschaftliche Kritik der evangelischen Geschichte. 1893. THAYER. 1874." London and Cambridge. 1900. WINER." Study of the Books of the New 9th Edition. SWETE. "Das Evangelium Johannis. "A Grammar of the Hebrew Language. " GUILLEMARD. "The New Testament in the Original Greek. CHEYNE & BLACK. M. BUP. New Encyclopaedia Biblica." Vol. Lipsiae. 1893-6. "The Gospel According to St. 1896. " Commentarius in MIGNE." TISCHENDORF. Article on " Word " Revelation " in " Encycl." Oxford.

" pp. II. 40. 1106." pp. considered under three heads. Greek. Cp. Propheten war ihm allein in ihrer grossartigen Sehlichtheit geniigte.) p. T." Vol. p. Sprache entstanden sind. das Ungeheure wiederzugeben. "An Introduction to the . 52." Dritte Ann. chen Schriften. t. T. in speaking of the more glaring solecisms of the Apocalypse.) offenbar hebraisirond schreibcn es. a complete demonstration. T.. and under the heading " Quotations from the O.. Swete. die 2 Ewald. . T. that solecisms are found in the writings of those who quoted or made LXX nor in the use of that translation. 4 There are no less than 460 O. Der Autor der Apokalypse vvollte die Sprache und der Stil der a. Frankfurt a. 1868. 3 The fol- Greek lowing pages present the evidence of this Hebrew influence in sufficient volume and with sufficient discussion of detail to make. THE SOLECISMS OF THE APOCALYPSE. . says.) It is is not surprising." O. then. was er geschaut hat. (Toy. "Quotations in the N." (" Wissenschaftliche Kritik der evangelischen Geschichte. They appear as has in passages imitating the style of the Hebrew Prophets (with whose writings the Apocalyptist was so familiar 2) or in sentences * or phrases transferred Testament or from its directly from the Hebrew of the Old translation the LXX. S. 392 and 404.I he Solecisms of the Apocalypse. and does not represent a type of Greek established and in actual currency at the time it was made." LXX translation Bd. in Greek. are due striking peculiarities which. Ill. that " dieselben nicht unvvillkiihrlich. 612 ff. but " its distinctive character is due rather to the translators' exaggerated deference to the Hebrew sacred text and their mechanical reproduction of it. more Hebraic than the N. in large part to the influence of the Hebrew idiom. T." but the Apocalypse contains no quotations proper. it is The solecisms will be 1 Ebrard. T. sondern in halbabsichtlicher Nachahmung des Colorits der a. S. The Greek of the Apocalypse is marked by a series of most long been recognized. T. passages made use of in the Apocalypse." (Thayer on " Language of the New Testament" in Hasting's " Dictionary of the Bible. 3 The " Die Johannei . Westcott and Hort give a list of these in their " N. although a great part of its language is taken from the O. t. M. 253. 4 hoped.

I. aov).The Solecisms of the 5 Apocalypse. for example." S.. in such Dan. in The LXX translation of each of these for example. 7:5. 16 6 : <rov). Thus. the : 13 /cal Hebrew ISov eVt of which ra>v ve(f>e\a)v is 1 These can scarcely be called solecisms in strictest sense. the LXX.~ It 1. Nachahlypse as written by the same author. 7 1 5 o v epxercu peTa rwv (LXX) 7:13 KOI ISov eVl TUV which the Aramaic follows wi'. which is from the Chaldaic. 19:2 m>T"n^ *D*O PUH LXX 134:1 tcvpLov. Gen.. ptc. elTrev "HEr^N D*nK. and always ISov. Rev 14:14 KOI elSov.. of the Old Testament prophecies invariably ISo v. 2 31. h 'ISov el-jrev teal is ^dpav 'ISov ?n&O 'I8ov. for example : Rev. which elirev is LXX Ps. 7 and 13. 'I (2) So v is the HJH n &c. ical ISov "UJJTDJ? TIKIThis follows Dan. by a Nominative without verb. LXX of Dan. original (Toy) and the Heb. wer mochte da das oftmalige I5o6 c. whose author quotes them from the 2 Ebrard. which is also from the Chaldaic. 1 . 7 v to? av0pa)7rov. evXoyelre TOV of the Hebrew word passages as the Hebrew Dan. (a) crov 6 Se ctTroicpiOek ^1^-^ y LXX of 7ratSi(7icri KK\Lvare Trpbs TOV icvpioi. often followed is LXX The 1 uses ISov (1) as a translation of the Hebrew word PUPI (behold. (mil. yet they are peculiar especially to the Apocalypse. Trpbs 'A/3pafJi "Gen. who regards the Gospel of Mark and the Apoca- LXX. speaks of /5ov in the Apocalypse as mung des Prophetenstiles . in such passages as Gen. fur ein " unwillkuhrliches. LXX translation also the r} LXX PlJPl Gen. 18:9 ry a^vr). - \ev/cij) fcal This follows the rov ovpavov a)? eVl rrjv veffreXyv /caBijfievov O/JLOLOV vlov avdpoyjrov. of which is KOI vvv ISov rj yvvrj aov (evavriov -|f^^.. in refuting Hitzig. PECULIAR WORDS. : three words ^) passages in the Apocalypse contain 18 ov direct Many from the ^^1 olicov. zufalliges halten ? (" Evangelium Johannis. (evavTiov PUPl -jPHD^ Se LXX as. ^ l8ov ^*|K (behold). 6. It is the translation (3) of I^N (behold).) ' ' . 166. 12:19 f]^f] lo).

avrov 'E(j. 1 Pet./uo9. Rev. Rev. KOI Kepara 10:16 of Dan. 3 /cal ISov Spd/ccov e^ow /ce(f)a\a<$ eTrra which follows direct the Hebrew "H^ of Dan. the the LXX : teal IS oft fonro? TTTTTO? irvppd? Xeiwo'?. 21: 22 (/cal vabv ov/c elSov ev avTrj) 6 jap /et. which is the Heb. Mk.v rb ftvopa. of the Old Testament as. 16:7 (vat) /cvpie. Matt. for 13 . 6: 18. 6 #eo9. rfjs (rjfiepas fjLeydXrjs) : TravTO/cpaTcop vaos avTrjs ea-Tiv. (Me^aXa TravTo/cpdr&p wv (6 /cal 6 OavfJiaara ra epya o-ou). Rev. o #eo9. on eftaaiXevo-ev /cv)0to9. 1 :23 I dot i] irapdtvos tv yaffrpl 2ei KCU the LXX from Isaiah T^erat vl6v. the use of this word.The Solecisms of 6 LXX and the (Cp. 16:14 r]v). 4.) ILavroKpdrup Testament. 11:17 passages 6 It is . 12 15 Kom. 5 and 8 /cal elSov. where it occurs in a quotation from the LXX. which are from the LXX of Zech. /-ie'Xa9 ISov ITTTTO? xXfi>/xfc. 7:8. 1:2. &c. : Seiea. 7 27 . Hebrew av6p(b7rov. 9 : 6. of the LXX of Dan. is not found in John's Gospel and only once elsewhere in the 2 Cor. 2 2 New : : : . 19:6 'AXX^Xou^a. Matt.avovr]\. 15:3 6 #eo9. Cp. Oeov TOV TT avro/cpdrcop. In every one of the passages just specified. Rev. Rev. 11 10 Idod tyu 7 14 (Cp.. Rev. Heb. to which pas- teal 1 sages the Apocalyptist here refers. also. 6 LXX explains found in the following Apocalyptic Rev. 6 iravRev.. 2 The influence of the 2. i. the expression of /ci5/uo9. t : . and especially in the Gospels. Kal Ka\taov<ri. /cal /cpdraip. o 6 LXX 1 In other books of the New Testament. LXX dTroo-rAXw rbv &yye\6v ^uoy. liStcvpios 6 #eo9. This is 21 5 Matt. 6 #eo9. /cvpie. iSoi> other passages in the Apocalypse are imitations of usage. Mai. 1: 8 KOI ISov avr)p e7ri/3e/37)K(jt)<z eTrl ITTTTOV irvppov &c. 3 : 1. (o &>v /cal 6 fy /cal Rev. TlavTOKparcop. Cp. 2 Cor. 12 18 : : : : : . 19 15 r^9 opyrjs TOV Oeov TOV 7ravTO/cp dro/cpdrcop. 21 37 : 7:7 and ISov is roi) <r/n?i^ 6>otWt9 o>? Q-JN ^2 which 0eoO OIDID PUPP follows Ezek. o Travro- 6 Travro/cpdrcop.fj. . e.. 9 33 : . . Heb. 6 TravTo/cpaTcop is direct from the #eo'9. 6 #eo9. o Kvpie. 10 : 7. 12 57). teal IBov ITTTTO? Many (b) the 97 Apocalypse. o T op 09. 6 Travro/cpdrciyp Travr/cpdrayp (o rjv /cal 6 cov /cal 6 ep^o^evo^. 6 18. Rev. KOI of which 3 tSov : Rev. also Kev. 1806 is found in quotations from the LXX. 8:8. 2 Lk. Jno.8 a^ios #7409 ayios icvpios. 6 2.

where quoted) it invariably has the form 'lepoa-oXvpa. 48:35. 2 Chron.. *Ie eSeigev which follows the &c. 1:2. 2 In view of the possible common authorship of the Apocalypse and John's . 106:1.. 150:1 and 6. 2 23 2 et al. : 6 #eo9. 147:1. : : : . &c. 2:23 'H? 8e fjv ev rot? 'le/ooo-oXv/Ltot? Jno. TravTOKpdrwp (ovopa avTw). foSvfffU rrjv 10 KOI : *lepovcra\r) p TO ovo/jia pocro\v /JLO)V the &dav JJLOI ) aov. 'Irjcrovs. i. 3. o nKT^ 13 (1QEO Hin v " Jerusalem " 3.. 10: 1 Ezek. Jno. XTJ/J. . 3: 12 KOI dyia. 21:2 nal TTJV : y 7rd\iv TTjv dyfav Isa. . which. 9:9. TT}? Thus we have: Jno. 13 19 1. 8 20 18. 148:1. 1:19 ol 'lovSaloi cf 2:13 Kal aveflrj ew *Iepo<rd\v fjua 6 Jno. r?}9 TroXeoj? Cp. 4 and 6 we have the word 'AXX^Xoma. . word is always written in . In Rev. A XX 77X0 in a is the Greek translation of the Hebrew fV r 1 For examples ofltpowaXfo in the LXX.. 19:1. other instances in John's Gospel show the declinable 20 : 2 This icaivrfv elSov. 149:1. In the Apocalypse. This word is taken from the LXX of Pss. but in the Gospel (and Acts. I Kawr\s 'Iepovcra\rj JJL IJLOV . its declin- : . KOLI lepov<ra\r) /A . 21 fa. Ezek. use of the John wrote the Apocalypse. Thayer's "Winer.. /cal v/iet? If 'lepoo-oXvpa. passages from which they are quoted follow Rev. in the translation of the Hebrew of the same passage. The Apocalyptic passages in which tbe word appears and the LXX. Gospel. All Xeyere cm ev 'lepoo-oXv/xot? earlv 6 TOTTO?. 146:1. 3:2. Tro'Xt? is rj rov 6eov 52 : 1 /ecu av 17 'lepovcraevSvo-cu Rev. 4.. : : . 28. 68. : . 9.. 13 Kvpios the 7 Apocalypse. 31 21 5 13 20 22 1.The Solecisms of Amos 4 is turn. 2:8. So'fazTc-oi. TTO\W rrjv TTO\LV TTJV dyfav LXX of Isa. 27. 12 2. Zech. Josh. 4 . Amos 4 : But this difference is easily ac(Cp. . 4. e. . it may be noted that in the Gospel the able form 'Iepoff6\vfM. cp.) counted for when we note that the writing of the word in the Apocalypse is the same as that of the LXX (from the Hebrew D/2nT) from which the Apocalyptist so often quotes. p. direct and conscious LXX form is the only possible explanation of the vari- ation of this word. we always find the word written 'le/jovcraX^/i (indeclinable). 'AXXT/Xoina. ay 52:1 av Rev. quoted from Iepov(ra\r) JJL.

rather expect the maswe should in both form neuter sentences. also. Ty o-Krjvf} papTvpiov. p. 1. PECULIAR PHRASES." masc. S. Lev.) In this verse. the Hebrew of which ^nKTlN DD n l it is : *"1JJ1Q 9 the LXX pJ?H for this is. "6 vabs TT)? o-K^vrj^ TOV ev TQ> ovpavw. 66 : vldv. apcrev" (i. an appositive (although an appositive need only agree But as Ewald suggests. . Here vl6v is mascu- "male" is either for 6 apcrrjv (masc. Ex. the writer uses the neuter form while in vs. occurs the phrase " -n}? TOV papTvpiov" or more fully. (LXX) 27 21 is ev Trj cr/crjvfj TOV : : : papTvptov .e<rovpav^a (Rev. is a [NOTE. /cal eKd\vtyev fj ve<f)e\r) TTJV cr/crjvrjv TOV papTvptov and Rev. 1 15 and 2 18).) or (Cp. 17 : 49." This is a very striking statement. LXX Num. "vlov. 13 of the same chapter he employed the masc. 53). TO apcrev (neut." Bd. II. 8 13 14 6 19 17)]. 24 3 ev TOV Num. but : m such passages simply the Greek translation of 1JJ1D /!""!& is as Ex. " Quotations in the N. The word neuter. and the neut.) culine in the which it is in case). translation of nV"!J/n"?DEPD i passages as Num. also. Toy. 12 15) and fj. line and apcrev is Cp. Cp.The Solecisms of 8 In Rev. e. instance in connection with the masc. Another interesting word : : compound word coined by the : : : : : . (i. . 12 5. 40 22 : It is also the 40 24 and : .. It author. Schriften. Ex.. (Cp. (Cp. * is x<^Ko\t^avov (Eev. *"DT first of vldv. 254. 10 6. together) em Sonn em mannliches..) Notice. apcrev. Thayer's Greek Lex. T. eSLwgev TTJV Since he did not use the yvvalKa -?rt9 eritcev TOV apcrev a). (LXX) 17:7 and 8 (LXX) ev Ty crfcrjvfj TOV papTvpiov . who here follows the Hebrew of Dan. 1: 50 (LXX) enl Trjv crfcrjvrjv TOV Num. 15:5. : 5 we have jroipaiveiv Tcavra ra eOvrj. 40 34. e. 05 7. 10:11 (LXX) f) ve<f>e\7j ano TT}? cricrjvrjs TOV piov. 1:53 (LXX) KV/C\Q) TT}? CT/CIJVTJ^ TOV fJiapTVpiov. the Apocalypse. In Rev.* II.. Num. 15 5 quotes it. the compound words 7rora/io06/3?7Tos (Kev. /cal eTi/cev Isa. Acts 7 44). the " bloss is P (" Nachahmung von Die Joh.

(Cp. 66 23.aT09 TMV /jiapTvpcov 'lycrov. Trv\a)ve<s T)0t9. but. 1 iva TOV O~To'/l. 15 rrjv \7jvbv TOV olvov TOV Ovpov Rev. noun the avro T<MZ/ Cp. et Tracra <r<i/> rou ev&iriov tfwv ev'Iepova-aX^fj. Rev. 16 19 TO Rev. Wherever this word occurs in the Apocalypse (and it occurs thirty-one S times) it is the LXX translation direct. 16 13 teal elSov etc TOV o-To'^taT09 TOV SpdrcovTos /cal etc TOV TO TTOTr)plOV TOV olvOV TOV CLKQCLTQG TOVTOV. Isa.. irpocrKvvija-ai : : . 37 Repetition of Prepositions before a series of nouns. Strings of genitives hanging on one Rev. which is quoted from Ps. 66:23 i. in the LXX and is the Greek Thus. 25 15 \dycov TOV fttfiXfov rr)? 7rpo(f>7)TeLas TavTys.ov evtoTTiov 4 5 and 4 7ru\(wz/e9 ReV. 3 5 teal 6fAO\oyij<rci) TO ovopa avTOv eva>7Ti. but are all more or less directly quoted from the of Jer.. etc : ev&TTiov T&V ayyeXcov avTOv. is. Cp. (Cp.) prepositions. 6eov TOV : 10 KOI avTos TOV Oeov TOV iravTO- TOV otvov TOV Ovpov TOV etc 0/377)9 dVTOV.) Rev. 15 4. It is further 18 24 : 2 : 6 (LXX) (LXX) 19 : LXX translation airevavTi TT)? cr #771/779 Num in - iov. .) The passages above are not only imitations of the LXX.aT09 common and ''JsS.The Solecisms of the Ex. &c. or on one another are frequent in the Apocalypse. an unusual preposition.. or in imitation of the Hebrew word J27. TOV aifAaTOS TCOV ay lew (Cp. Ovfjiov nnjBT*?ftH rov paprvp rrjv a KTJ vrjv et? of TOV paprvpiov. e. eo*TWT779 teal Rev. Strings of Genitives. 2 Chron. 49 23 60 14. 14 tcpaTepos. TTJV <yvvaitca peOvovarav TOV ai/u. IVUTUQV in Rev. 2. as in Rev.. ) : . 22: 19 iropveCas avTrjs. evcoTTiov TOV apviov. from which it is quoted.. : : TOO 07)pfov KOi K TOV 13 CLTTO ava. for example. also. a-uvra^ TT}? 77 TOV a-tcrjvfj^ fjuapTvp iov. TT)? TT}? 0/37779 irierai ev TO) TTOTTJPLO) TT}? 0/37779 CLVTOV. e v 6 TT i o v in Bev. : LXX Which : Cp. Rev. 38:21 (LXX) fjiapTVpiov.TO\ri<$ TrvX&ves <7To'/iaT09 21 : VOTOV fcal CLTTO 17:6 teal etc 7 : ITT teal I T/aet9. TTOTrjplOV TOV OLVOV TOV 0V/JLOV T1JS otvov TOV Ovfjiov rr)? Tropveias. 9 21... 18 : : ReV. displayed not only a repetition of TOV 6povov Here 10. Rev. 14 8 T 3 ort $) K TOV TOV otvov TOV e/c (Cp. the word 3:9 occurs in the LXX of Isa. 51 17. 86 9). KOI CLTTO floppa elftov yur) Trverj irav SeSpov. : is 7:9 teal two examples. &c. : ftov 7raT/?o9 TOV ^TevSoTTpO^TOV. Isa. : -. 9 Apocalypse. V&TTLOV being the LXX of 'J3S from the phrase rP7T "I3 ' J 3 S mnn^nS "l^-^D K13 of Isa. in the last : T/3et9. 1 The preposition e v & TT i o v is very translation of the Hebrew words TJ73 1 Rev. Rev. teal CLTCO ^va-fJLwv 7ru\wz/e9 T/3t9. avepos errl T^9 77)9 piJTe ITT I T7}9 Qa\ao-Q-T)<s fJLiJTe Rev. 21 6.

264. it is due to the influence of the LXX which 6 : 14 /cal 6 Be rots 8 wo. 8 12 UT^?. r p irov .. /cal fj 77} Scbaei ra yevijfjiara rbv /caprrov 6 ovpavos 5c6o~et rrjv i Travro/cpdrwp : : eTreyvcoicocriv.." Bd. 8 TTOV7)pa>v. 5. 1 4 o-ifjicov avrfjs /cal Trap a r&v eTrejvcoKorcov avrrjv. Toy.) %ov<rai TO ovopa avrov Kal TO ovofjua rov irarpos avrov. ing examples fiao-iXecov ical may be ddp as given: Rev. Not only are prepositions repeated in the Apocalypse. (Cp.The Solecisms of 10 the Apocalypse. Apocalyptic passages just quoted.) S. p. 606). 1 5. avrov. Ezek. ra)v /cal rjpcov..Tro(rrpetyare arro rwv oSwv eTrir'rjSevfjidrcov vfJL&v r&v TravroKpdra)p 'I8ou eyew o-a>fa> KVpios TravTO/cpdrcop rov Kara ra TrLT7]^ev^ara vfjiwv rov \adv 43 : /JLOV : aTrb rwv Kal 7 TaSe \eyei Kvpios airo 7^5 avaro\wv Zech. : J A. \eyei f) /cal icvpios TreuTrrij /cal VTjareia rj efiSdfATj /cal vrjareia 77 Seicdrrj e&ovrai TO) oi/cqy 'lovba..) Zech. II. Spda-ov vrjareia rj Zech. eTT\tjjrj Rev. ecrrai r /calrols ois vrro/Jievovo-iv are^avos xprjaifjiois avrrjs (Cp. TO TO rpirov. rerpas /cal 8:19 vrjo^reia 97 a/^TreXo? avrr)S. 8:12 TOV arroparos.. LXX This repetition of prepositions is in imitation of the usage which shows it constantly. Note.) : 6 /ca0a)<. CLTTO 77}? Sva-pwv. 19:18 Iva ical a- ic as a dp K as $d<yr)Te era pic d pic as ical %i\idp%a)V K al (rap teas. 6:10 Aa/3e ra eK rrjs at%^a\&>o-ta9 Trap a r&v ap%dvr(0v ical Trap a r&v xprjZech. ical TrapareraicTai tear a ra? o8ou? f)p&v rj^fav Troifjo-ai Trovrjp&v Zech. Zech. Rev. Isa. 8 . 12 14 /caipbv : ical Kaipovs Kal 1 ' tf/jiiov Kaipov. 14: 1 /cal. 39 17. T. Quotations in N. This recurrence of special words is " preeminently character" In the istic of Oriental expression (Thayer's Winer. again reproduces the Hebrew original.e Cp. Zech. for example. 16:13 ical ical e/c teal etc (rrduaros elSov IK rov (no paras : Rev. 455. Repetition of Other Words." p. (Cp. Liicke l speaks of this phrase as "Einleitung in die Offenbarung des Johanes. . but other words as well. 6 10. /cal /cat rpirov (Cp. TO TO rpirov TO rpirov TO rpirov ical Rev. Another anomalous phrase is found in Rev. 18. 18:2 ical 9. The follow4. (Op.) Rev. Zech.

"* ("Encycl. e." m.. 2 : 14 occurs the expression 65 eSiSaa-rcev ra> fia\dtc is followed by a Dative of person in which the word " teach " imitation of the Hebrew 7 word also &Sao7co> .ru>v. saying of " die absichtliche Behandlung der ganzen Formel 6 uv KO! 6 yv Kal 6 fyx<Wi/os als unveranderlichen nom.. says. through ignorance. in In Rev. wo das erste 6 sowie das zweite und dritte als integrirender Theil des Namens betrachtet wird. liegt hier gar zu klar am Tage" ("Evangelium Johannis." S. Ebrard regards in Apoc. PECULIAR CONSTRUCTIONS. so viel als zwei Zeitraume. phrase as intentional on the part of the writer. "gr. Thayer's Lexicon on the 1 i. Brit. 1. 46.) p. und anomalisch.a." 2 The phrase 6 wv /cal 6 fy /cal Greek equivalent for the Hebrew name the 1 Guillemard speaks of this as " an anomalous construction clearly traceable to absence of inflexion in Hebrew nouns which made such a violation of grammar less startling to a 2 3 Jew writing Greek. 1 (Q>. Job 21 22. This solecism is : 4 curb 6 striking in the Some authors have tried to soften the expresBut this would not sion by inserting the article roO after airo." this (" Hebraisms in the Greek Testament. Ewald. * ano The proper construction rStv ema. of a with the Genitive occurs in the same verse (i. TJV KOI 6 epxdjjievos. in speaking of the same phrase." -2. quod scriptor praepositiones explain highest degree.. cum nominative jungere is soleat. proving that the author did not use curb with the Nominative : . propr. 116. 1 4). Jahre. Hier 1st /caipoix. : Ewald.") it. HJ? "! IDT 1 ^fc^i"! an(l p. 12 7 genommen. " the omnino anomaly here. 588." on word Revelation. Hebr. 1 the Nominative. aber dies 1st der technische apokalyptische Sprachgebrauch aus Daniel 7:25.. wo die : LXX F* durch Amjow iibersetzt.) The Preposition airo with KOI 6 cov ""ID/- Rev. 165-166) and Harnack. p. "the gross violations of Greek grammar are not to be explained from " ignorance.The Solecisms of " vollig eigenthiimlich the 11 Apocalypse. e." " Com. irvev)j.

it nach Rabbinscher Deutung bezeichnet wird. sich verbinden." 2 Aufl." (Ewald. namely. 51 7). are in the same construction as 6 &v " da es kein Particip des Praeteritums von elvai giebt. accusative is the usual con7r\rj0vvev fj 77} " Worter wie struction after a word of fullness in Hebrew." thus : yefiov /38e\vyfid(Cp. so ist schwer einzusehen. 41 4 KIH-^K Cp." S.The Solecisms of 12 Liicke regards Jehovah. the LXX of which has The avrovs.) In further proof of this." 4 The Genitive and Accusative joined by Kal. cp. Einleitung in die OflEenbarung des Johannes. ." 1 'O Ex. 3 14 KOI 6 #eo9 elirev : Kal Oimo? elirev e/oet? the Apocalypse. A found in 2 Sam. Jer. found in Ex. 68. the avrijs iropveias capital illustration of this usage SdpaTos. 462. 6 namely. S. rjv ical 6 epxpnevos. : a-iSijpov /cal %v\ov 20 has the accusative jOTXi?<rdipr<F0(&r2 r^? irpaire^ 7rov Kal ava/BttTrjv Kal ytyavra. Rev. ra>v a/caOdprcov. " als ein Begriff anzusehen. "Die Joh. wie der Yerfasser das 6 fjv (der war) anders from the after a IT 6. : the Hebrew." S. LXX 3 and does not change the form to the Genitive Naturally the other words or parts of the phrase. the idea of fullness %ovaa T(ov a is Hebrew TTOTrjpiov xpvcrovv ev /cal ra a/cdOapra ra a/cdOapra instead of rrj rfjs ^ipl after the ITT fjiov) LXX word " filled. Thayer's Winer.. : Cp.. 1 : 7 DDK SIKH 8e 1 2 3 4 " Einleitung in die Offenbarung des Johannes. J^Q gewohnlich mit dem Accusative . 23:7 is this passage has followed the TT \rjpes of Ezek. idiom. 53. /cal Again. 462. hatte ausdriicken sollen.. o aTrearaX/cev pe TT/JO? the phrase o a>v being the translation of *^fc$ rPi"lN Thus the Apocalyptist used the expression o o> v directly a9.. Schriften. Isa.. Thus. wodurch des Namens Jehova der ewige Gott tbv is Trpbs M. p.cova'fjv rot? viols 'Icrpafa 6 \eycov &v LXX of from the directly quoted '70) dpi & v. instead of two Genitives. imitates Even the LXX translation of Hebrew entirely. after a Word of Fullness. 39 /cal 17: 46 avrfjs. The same thing is ^^0111. The use of the accusative after 3. " Liicke.

double gender in Rev. 377. X e 7 rj/covaa a) v (jxovrj is . T. Rev. eK T&V . On this Green remarks " Masculines are often used in Hebrew when females are spoken of or when the nouns to which they refer are feminine.". Green's "Heb. w. also.473. is suggested ." on Also Liicke. Thus. followed by an adjective or participle in the masculine.. from a neglect to note the gender where no stress is laid ovd/JiaTa ft\aa-<f)TjfJLias. Thayer remarks that this is a variation in gender which can hardly be matched in Greek though not rare in Hebrew. S... the feminine Trjv \rjvov This construction and then the masculine TOV peyav [\rjvdv]. Xeyoi^re? 9 J Svco e\alai <TT(t>T$ instead Rev.. eyevovTo (fxoval (j>covai.. Cp. 461. Dan. teal efta\ev eZ? rrjv \rjvbv TOV dvfjLov TOV deov TOV peyav [the great wine-press] /cal CTrarijOrj \rjvbs e^coOev rj TT}? 7ro^. Disagreement in Gender. followed Rev... the Genitive 13 Apocalypse.) Such neglect of agreement in gender. Eev. 17 3 fcal elSov yvval/ca . 359.. ^iav \6yovra TO) KT(o a /cepdrcov by the masculine TJKOvaa (f)(0V7jv \eyovra instead of X^yovcrav." word &OD. : pSeXvypdrcov after yefjiov being a Greek construction while the accusative TO.. : ovofjiaTa : : lu Greek Eng.Gender. A Double. Lex. a/cdOapra is Hebrew. 14: 19 and 20.. " Einleitung u. then. 1 Feminine nouns are frequently 5. 63:3. The word \rjvds (wine-press) is given a 4. Rev... as above described.... ye/JLOVTa Se/ca. a mixture of Greek and Hebrew s.The Solecisms of Gesenius' the "Hebrew and Eng.ea)9 . p. 11 : 15 KCLI Xeyoi'Te? following ... Rev. Lex. e%ovTa Ace<^>aXa? eTrra /cal /cepaTa 7 7. thus Tom mis na^ Here {O1B is feminine and 22*1*1^ is masculine. 4 1 : /cal 77 fywvr) rj 7Tp(x)T7) r]V . elSov yvvai/ca /caOrj /JLCVWV eTrl Orjpiov KQKKLVOV.. in question) (the passage is constructions. of N. 11:4 al CT T O) T VO)7TIOV TOV KVptOV TJJS 77}? follows the feminine noun e\alai. Rev. . follows the Hebrew structure. /jieydXcu ev 17 : 3 /cal TW ovpavq). is found in Isa. Gram. (Cp... 17 46.. the P. from which this verse ^>*o DDVJNI TIN . .." p. 9:13 and 14 KOI participle \eycov.

) referring to feminine 11:6 IHDDI . 34 17.* is Levit." 2 A Nominative replaced by an Disagreement in Case. 2:17. 11:3 teal Rev.. 11 34 19 24 : 1 : : .. (1) Rev. 1 Kings 22 13 Ps... }n masculine. 4. 6:8. : : . 5 6 /cal apviov .P nirr TWy. and for further lack of agreement in adjectives and participles. ... %i\tas rjfjuepas tfxovr) f) Again Rev. 27 9 3 27. as a number of texts show.. 33 Deut. 3 11.. 357-359. : : : .. 463.. 12. defiance of grammar in those instances was intentional.) p. 6 : 7 2 . 3. /cal : 8 teal \evicds. Here the word (b) nouns. The disagreement in gender is clearly due to occurs also in Rev. The Apocalyptist imiHis construction in the passages just given. where there is a feminine noun followed by a : masculine participle and also a feminine noun followed by a feminine adjective. : . (jxovfj fjLeydXrj. Thus The word DDDy D'JlDn-Djr DIVE^ "W&O 1DH DDD. Accusative. : Neglect of gender is most frequent in pronouns (masc.. DTD on ? tyjn DTiSurrrw rnVnn IRT-O ^n^i. nDm-DKI.." upon 1 ("Heb. grosstentheils durch die Annahme einer constructio ad sensum. &c. 7re/u/3e/3... HDjn (masc. 10 18 Isa. . Hebrew tates this for example. 27 5 1 Sam.. 17. also.. 7:9 ecrroiTe? evcoTriov TOV dpovov /cal evcoTriov 6.. 1HD3 *\vnK .) is reference still being to . 14:7 and 18." 359. Green's Num. with the feminine noun. 22 25 Lev. Here the word nnrD is 27 : 9 femi- Einleitung in die Oflenbarung des Johannes....14 The Solecisms of the Apocalypse. Cp. 6 9 and 10.." pp. 18 &c. Sam 6 : 22 .). : . Rev. nSi: nnTP. wie sie auch den besten fremd Schriftstellern nicht ist. cp. . This is seen in Rev. TOV apviov. Ex. 10 \r}/jievov<... for similar disagreement in gender. \a\ova-av /aer' e'/LtoO (rroXa? 7repi/3eft\7j (Aevovs 7rpo(f)7)Tevaov(7LV (they) \eyovo-av.. Cp.. Gram. Num. 14: . 119 137 and 2 Chron. He it. Jud. Rev. 2. An (2) 1 Kuth Accusative replaced by a Nominative. that the feminine adjective should agree knew. * Cp. . Neglect of gender 1 8 : is very frequent (a) in pronouns referring to females. the Hebrew of Ex. the word mVnn being feminine and DnS masculine.." S.. Cp. Ruth and Orpah. : : : " Heb. : Hebrew influence and Liicke in speaking of such constructions " Diese Anomalien losen sich says.. 21 : . 36 6 Jud. used although the reference is to Kuth and Orpah also DJVBfJ? (masc. 16:1. 1 Sam. The same expression 7:2. e%cov /cepara eTrra .. as Ex. Gram... is 71pJ? Hp^V feminine nirrS Bnp-rVJT nine and 13DD 2 " is and 1HDD UDD s to (referring np^Y) 1K SD .. masculine. This is illustrated again in Exodus 1 21. namely..

. accurate constructions were thus neglected.. Prov.. f) Karapaivovcra. povvres where we should expect ra>v rrjpovvrcov TTJ &c. in ap- position with TWV dyicov. Cp. Gram. 7. Rev. 6 0eo'?. o TravroKpaTcop. ayyeXw. "Die Job.. 3:12 TO ovopa TT}? 6eov fiov e/c .dpTV<. Anomalous Use of Apposition. avrat rjicoKovdet.. Rev.. Cp.. 53. T. S. (2) TO) e/cro) Rev.. Especially when clauses intervened.. Cp. a\\a %co Kara aov OTL ac^efc Trjv yvval/ca 'Iefa/5eX. 6 %cov rrjv (raXTriyya. das scheint mir beabsichtigt. o (j. in dem rhetorischen is directly quoted alies) says. icvpie. 13 1 : . " Ebrard says of this." Bd. Ewald.. 17:3 and 20:4. 6 o Rev. eavrrjv Trpo^rfTLV. 16:5).. vSe- e 14 :14 . charakter der Apokalypse zu haben. (3) Nominative in Apposition with Accusative. Schriften." p.. 89 :37.." p. Einleitung in die Offenbarung des Johannes.. 14 :12 wSe ol 97 VTTOJJLOVTJ ro)v dytcov ecrriv.." S. 2 " 3 Toy's Evangelium Johannis.. /cal airo 6 /jLaprvs 6 TTICTO? LXX of Ps. instead of a Genitive.. rj also. Rev. II..The Solecisms of 6 and : fcal bvp^voi 15 Apocalypse. 11:7. II." Bd. is broken many times 1 by the language of the Apocalypse. Rev. The well-known rule that an appositive agrees with its noun in case... 6 TricrTds. ftvcro-ivov \evicov tcadapov. . 14:5). (1) from the : The phrase 'I^croO ^pto-ToO. 2 AufL. 20 :2 /cal efcpdrrjo-ev rov 1 Cp. scheint mir Manier zu sein. also." 2 and Liicke (speaking of this and similar anom" sie scheinen ihren Grund .. This neglect of agreement in case is common enough in Hebrew. Rev. 253. a\\ov 7 a teal elSov 19 14 the ra a-rparev/jLaTa . 459. ' " Quotation in the N. 16:7 Nat.." 3 This occurs again in Rev. 1 5 Nominative in Apposition with Genitive. 9:14 \eyovra Nominative in Apposition with Dative. S. Kcuvrp Iepovo-a\rifjL... 165. in apposition with TT}? y Another instance of this is found in Rev.. (Cp. TT}? /caivfjs 'Iepovcra\ijfjLj rj KcnaftaivovGa TroXew? TOU TOV ovpavov . 357. \eya>v . ayyeXov . ol rijpovvres ra? eWoXa?. 2:20 \eyovo-a Spafeovra. (4) Nominative in Apposition with Vocative. Rev. . Rev.. Green's '-Hebrew (Cp.

Rev.\. eBoOr) fJLOi KakajJio^ 19 6 : /cal tf/covora o>9 /cal (frtovrjv \eryovres K. to N. 15:3 XapLo-rovfjiev COL. 44. X e <y co v. r. /cvpie. Gen. 6 #eo'?. p. The Absolute Use of the Participle \ejcov. p. 5 : \eyovres " " Commentarius in Apocalypsin.. This is eyevrjOrj Gen. /c. This is especially true of the first in to two examples under (1) and the second. eyeipe /cal (jLerprjaov K. (frcovrjv LXX usage. /cvpie. the connection between the preceding substantive and the adjective clause describing it. as in fleo'?. is a loose one. Introd. : 8. this construction may have been used because the Greek article has no form for the Vocative case. " ffpovT&v icvpiov 717309 'Aftpaa/u. \." 1 pera Be ra opd^aTi Xeycov. 40:16 .The Solecisms of 16 the Apocalypse. 11:1 /cal 8. 3 p. Gen. 568. T. the LXX of Zech. Ewald writes. 4 Cp. Heb. Thayer's Winer. Green. 15 avrjyye\r) TO> 'A/3/oaayu. ev /cal aTrrjyjeXrj OdfjLap Cp. " 3 or. o lepovs 6 fieyas. 3 " Gram. d." the examples under (4). o Travro/cpdrcop. the author having in mind the appositive construction of the Hebrew. we find the Nominative in apposition with every single oblique case.T. In each of these examples (except Nominative in apposition with Vocative). o TravTO/cpdrcop. &C. the writer in these . p. again. Xeyovres K. &c. 281. so steht das Nomen in Anredeton ganz ungeandert . 4 Eev. Rev. 536. Salmon.T." S. Gram. under (3). r. further. \. Sprache. Zech." Cp. 3 :8 a/cove 77. " Cujus dictionis causa licet In regard hebraismo casus non distinguente quaerenda sit. where a more extended use is made of it than in occidental languages 2 or.\. corresponding to as the following examples ravra cb? Cp. 240. This is Ewald's view who says " denn da die Hebraer keine Interjection fur den Vokativ haben. crv /cal. we may say that the name Jehovah Of these constructions 1 appears in the Nominative as in apposition to the Vocative /cvpie perhaps because it is a direct translation of a Hebrew proper name. heb. 22:20 38 13 : 1 2 prjfjia /cal show: Gen.. 6 'I^troO? In the above examples. two instances may have had in mind the Aramaic construction which has no case endings.

H. X. very often the emphasized word stands at the 48: 2 a7rrjyj\rj Se KOI TO> 'Ia/c&>/3 7777776X77 TO> 'Irjaov beginning of a sentence without any grammatical connection with any word in that sentence. T. r.". Die Joh. ISoi) TTOLT^O-O) TMV TroSwv crov. : : rous /itxpous <al roi/s /ueydXous iva 5t6<r * 14 . X. Quotations in the N. is found in Rev.pai<. 5. Sentences Joined by /ecu. 20:4. T. Examples of this are numerous. 2 Iva. Also.Rev. Rev. Xeyovres K. " Cp. 2:26 teal 6 VIK&V teal 6 rrjpwv a^pi reXov? ra epya /AOV. TT)? (frcovfjs TOV e/BSo/jLOV TTOIC? iravTas. X. X. TW K.) 23 and 60 ' to the Rev. 2aoi>X T. 47:21 1PK Jer. 25:29 jm 21D HJ?Tn tib y^pn ^D ^inD "]^^ ftij^p' The Apocalypse reproduces this peculiarity of structure Rev. 22 3 i^erv iva This follows the A similar example of the use of TOJ)S 2 is airrovs " so. In Hebrew.The Solecisms of KOI Sie/So^Or) et? (f)cov7) f] the 17 Apocalypse. r. 49 : : 14. but with iva 1 and a /cat following. Lex. my* (Hebrew ^) in the Apodosis.* It is similar The following examples may be given (Cp. Thayer's "Greek Eng.". (Cp. 9:4. X. Scoo-o) avrw K." 10:7 aXX' Kal Thus. p. 3:9 has the same kind of a sentence. Cp. : a<yye\ov orav . Rev." Bd. ovrotj . 11:3 teal Sao-co rot? Svcrlv LV fiov /cal 7rpo<f)r)TV(Tovcriv. Hebrew of "]^^ rj]j. T. 13 * rj^ovaiv KOI TTpoo-fcv- "]*6K Tinner ev rat? tv avTT) : Cp. 13 12 Kal iroiei TTJV ?V Iva irpoa'KVV'fiffovffiv rb 6~qpiov rb vpGrrov. 15:12 KOI az/7777e'X77 rot? Fafat'ot? \6yovres /c. 2:17 1 Sam. S. r. Rev. Rev. Ewald. 10: 17 \eyovres K. 3:12 o VLKWV TTOLIJO-Q) avrov arvXov K. Judges 16:2 KOI 1 Sam. rbv OIKOV <&apaa> \e<yovTes K. Rev. 316 a f. 25:31 miT'DKJ UDQ b^n Gen. X. 257. 10. Toy. \. as in Gen. Schriften. T. Josh. 53. \eyovres 7777776X77 9. Gen. X. p. 6:8 ical 6 : eirdvw (avrov) ovojjLa avrca [6] ddvaros. real German 1 Rev.) Rev. KaTOtKovvras 16 Kal Isa. 3:21 6 VIKMV Saxrco avra> KaQlvai K. r. vijcrovcriv evooTriov isaiah 44:14 which 11. The accustomed order is restored by a demonstrative pronoun placed later in the sentence.

Thayer's nis. 8. This " Heb.ov TOV 6eov. eQvr\ e<$> Amos found in is ov? the Hebrew liriKetcK^Tai 9:12 i)E^np3 "1?K exactly here. "gr. p. namely. 7:2 ol? eSodrj aurot? : Trjv 1 * Green. Gram.. Josh.. Ex. Eccl.". 1 TTie auro? Redundantly Used Demonstrative The Hebrew Sentences.. which always stands at the beginning of its clause..". Examples of this redundant use of CLVTOS in relative sen4 3 Rev.". 4 Cp. LXX Rev.. /jLe\\rj is the 12. Green. Deut. 10:17. 17. hebr. 2 This Hebraism very often occurs in the LXX. : irpocricvvel TO Bripiov . Cp. KOI TO ovofjid /JLOV evr* a^rou?. ir6t^ Hebrew may be This use in *) VI N or suffix to Ijm "Ifc^K seen in the following examples : ^ny htiw nn^ -nmm n^ isa. when quoting from 184. 647-648. 2: 10." S. This use of K a I in the apodosis in such Hebrew passages as Gen. X.The Solecisms of 18 9 and 10 oivov K. 368. Cp. 4:7. 41 g A ^npinn n^^... *) DV3 ^ DTI ?** JTP ^D DD\TJ? 78:34 iniETm D^H"D^ Judges 4:8 DD^K Ps. T. Lex. ss. /cal erekeadr] TO fAv<TTijpt. 14 T. " Offenbarung JohanEng. tences are found in the following Apocalyptic passages 3:8 i)v ovSels StWrat K\elaaL avTTJv... Cp. p. this is shown by appending an appropriate pronominal 1 the governing word". 367. 7:9 ov api& /juijaai. noun or preposition. passage is p. relative in Relative pronoun. 106. Ewald. 32. : the . "Hebrew Gram... quoted in Acts 15 directly writer of Acts employed Hebraisms 3 " Grk. 86 (5) Bousset. \. KOI az/ro? TrteVat e/c TOU Rev.. p. when this relative " is governed by a verb. 14:9. 3:5. Apocalypse. teal elaekeva-opai Trpo? aroz> exactly similar to . Consequently. Rev. has only the one simple form-*") ?$>$which admits of no inflection to represent case. ei TL<$ Rev. 3 :20 edv rt? aicovcrrj TT}? (fxovijs /JLOV . 3:5. 19:17. 19. avTOV yrjv K. o-a\7r{eiv. thus proving that the LXX. as for example. ^nnnn Dpjr sni splendid illustration Dn* 1 ^ irdvTa : The LXX follows TO.. for example.". Deut .

Rev. 194.) 14.^. 2:9 SIOTI ISov eyo) ein^epco TTJV %elpd 14. 8e /JLTJ.". TO. airn)9 aTTOKTevo) ev OavaTO). LXX /JLOV passages are ITT aurou9. p. 12:6 KOI r) <yvvrj efayev ek rrjv eprjjjLOV. T. 2:22 ISov j3d\\a) avrrjv et9 K\IVJ]V . 39. /8t/3\to>..o<$ TT}<? da\dao-T]^. 17:13 Examples of this breach of grammar in Zech. oirov e%et e/cel TOTTOV airo TOV Oeov. Cp.. 2:5 " Commentarius in Apocalypsin. we should expect the future of both verbs. Rev. ut ISov e/>%erat KOI prorsus hebraeum HX*)! crot. 17:9. Lex." p. . 184. 4:26 and the LXX is v/jLeis u/iet9 1 5 "lEM LXX th ^ 7ropevea-6e e/cei K\tjpovo- elo-TropevecrOe DH^ e/cel "1^^. \. Rev. 13:12 ov eOepajrevdrj rj 77X77777 TOV Oavdrov avTOv. 3:9. in 4:5 Deut. 17:9. Kal : " Thayer. e/cel is added to this verb pleonastically. Rev. tempus abit. Bousset. \. The Present Tense Passes into the Future. Rev. LXX HptST^ HOB? which is e 1 9 Deut. T. Pleonastic etc el.. 1 e/c /col el K. OTTOV e/cel K. 1:7 ISov ep^eTai ftera Twv v&t>\&v. Rev. Offenbarung Johannis. Kal o^freTai avrov u oratio continuata in futurum Ewald remarks 7ra9 6<f)0a\ijuk. 2:16 avT&v Kal el Kal /civrja-G) Se i*. 4:14 of which has aintv. Rev. Deut." S. The present and future tenses are found coordinately in the same clause or : sentence where. 13:8 ov ov yeypaTrrai TO OVO/JLCL avTOv ev TOJ Rev. 20:8 &v 6 apid/ibs avT&v &>9 r) afjL/j. TOV TOTTOV TTO\ ep TJCTCO Rev.. according to the usage of the language. Cp. the K\rjpovoiJLelv pTiTPK 0^3 DHN 1^^ nn^nb HD et? ^z/ e hftV D^DJ? PinCH^ 69 fjv D^3 DHK v/tefc ^z> Sia/Saivere rbv 'lopSdvrjv efcel K\rjp- Examples of this Hebraism in the Apocalypse are Rev. (Cp. "Greek Eng. Rev. e&vvaro. 2 H/H JUH-" TTJV \v)(yiav crov ep^o^ai o-ot ra^u." 1 Examples of this in Hebrew may be found 13. Teicva 1 Rev. "Where a preceding adverb (or relative pronoun) has "already attracted the verb. 12 :14 ew TOV TOTTOV at>T?)9. translation of pelv avrjv.The Solecisms of the 19 Apocalypse.

16: 20 /cat oprj /cat recrcre pa^wa ra fa>a Kal orav Scocrovcriv K. . directly from the LXX. 426.. . LXX Karatfrevgovrai eO Zech. OijcrovraL. the fact that this anomaly often occurs in passages quoted This is true of the following: Rev. 11 2 (Hebrew)). : . 5. usage. 4 8 verbs.v evcoTrtov ra SiKaitb pard crov e^>avepa>Oj](T av a direct quo* from the LXX of Ps. Rev. 5:14 Kal ra recraepa a ovre Rev. e6v7j 8ta TOU TT o /cat TT p 6 r f] r i aov. 18:3 rrerrrw Kav (or LXX 51:7 (28:7) of Jer. :20 9 (B\erreLV S vva vrai K. \. 3: 2. 1X0709. 21:24 Sta TOVTO eora\ev6rj(Tav. 18 14 19 14 20 3. rrdvra ra e0vr). Rev. : . here. LXX U II/>09 passages quoted by Justin Martyr in Vol. 11 :18 is /cat irep from the ra eQvrj erriocrav eOvrj arrj LXX Kal e ra) (fxorl crov. Isa. 434. 2:10 SovXevovcnv avrols. 10 7 : e/ceivfj. 408. 4:9 Rev. 2 : 27 . 13 14 14 13 16 14 : : .v Kal evamov crov. Rev. 480. 86: 9 T dvra ra eOvrj (ocra err operas') Kal (TOV. At 'lovSatov Edition. /cat Nahum TroXXa e-TTt ra re/cva avra>v rov Kvpiov ev ry rj^epa 6 -x/r o v r a i Kal ev (f) pav- vrj 39:7 /cat yvtocrovrat. also. 60 :3 VTJ & p 7 ia ra ouor iv cr rj Xaft- rfj The a v. 12 21 12. lypse. rrerrtoKav) rrpoo-KWijcrovcriv Rev. (Cp. &c. dpi icvpios. : ra <yepovcriv 6<j>Oa\fJLO)v. Ezek.\. I. Zech. with singular verbs. 20:12 /cat /#t/3Xt'a 77^0 i^Or] crav evpeOrjo-av. as may be seen in Zech. 2 :11 /cat plural verb is also ovx : . Rev. tation r}%ovcrt. 17:15. \.20 The Solecisms of ecrovrai ovcuXa rot9 % o /x a i eyob e p the Apocalypse. plural is often found. fa>a e\e<yov 'Aft^y. /cat ire 66:23. 16:14. ISov StoVt /cal KaracrKr]va)cr(i) ev pecra) crov." (Otto's Tpv<j)a>va But what is of special interest pp. This (/>&)T09 auT7}9. 4:5 a e I cr i v ra errrd rrvevpara rov deov. 21:4. 18:23 e7r\avr)@r) a av rcavra ra edvrj. 17:12. pevcr ovrai 8:3. neuter plural nouns are very frequently followed by plural 1 Rev.r. aTro rov oivov avrr\^ y8acrtXet9 Rev. 4. 1 The neuter Kev. however. Dan. (quoted neuter pleural with The &c. 11:13 /cat aTre/crdvOrjo-av bvopara /c. 7. In the Apoca- 15. r. Rev. r. Neuter Plural Subject with Plural Verb. Rev. as in Rev. from 7:10 Cp. Rev.) This is cr of Isa. . : : : . is 15:4 ort rrdvra ra e 9 v 77 e^ovcnv /cat rrpocricvvr)crova-i. ra eOvrj 3:10 /cat ra v^ma avrrjs eSa on. Rev.) Cp. 444.

. e. of Ezek. i. which. Rev. This completes our examination of the Solecisms of the Apoca1 lypse. 46 (45): 6 is erapaxOijcrav eQvr). ri eQpvagav e0vij. . either in their Hebrew form or in that of their translation into Greek the Septuagint 1 exerted upon the Author. patritetai. as we have shown. are clearly due to the influence which the prophetic writings of the Old Testament. elwov jravrl bpvew Trereivy from the of Ps. (LXX) '2:1.The Solecisms of LXX the 21 Apocalypse. e/cXivav Ps. 39:1721. See Corollaries on next page.. LXX fcal Trpbs irdma ra dypid rov <t>dyecr0e Trieade sages show conclusively the TreSiov d^drjre KOI efJLTrXrjo'Oija'eo-Oe influence of the ep%(r6e Such pas- LXX upon the writer. This is 19 :21 real Trdvra opvea e^opTaOrjaav ex r&v aapicwv avrcov. Cp. e. i.

We present the following corollaries which grow out of the discussions preceding 1. Paul's Epistle to the Galatians. The difference between the language of John's Gospel NOTE. compositions. due mainly 1 About J "The Gospel According 3 4 the year 68 A. ) Lib. D for the composition of the Apocalypse. has and the Apocalypse. 241-242.-e entitled Cp. "A Historical Introduction to the Study of the Books of the New Testament. "El yhp e5et is. Ou5d yap r^Xet TTJS Ao/urtciJ'oD dpx^ s -" date (about 96 A. irpbs T< "'E\tyx ov Kc" &va-Tp6irr}s TTJS \f/evduvv/j. where he says." Edition 1889.ov 7Pi6<rews. to the solecisms of the latter." (the "Contra Haereses "). 'yewas." p. The Solecisms of the Apocalypse do not invalidate the for in the described. John. V. p. COBOLLARIES. D. 5 treati. " Late Date " usually spoken of as the . 2. the impression is strong and that the author of the Apocalypse made use of the Hebrew idiom in a conscious effort to reproduce the manner and LXX spirit of the ancient correct Prophets . 4. Viewing the evidence as a whole. Since the solecisms of the Apocalypse are to be accounted : no argument in favor for the composition of the Apocalypse as 4 maintained by Westcott. Kd\v\fsit> ea>/>cuc6Tos. they form manner just " of the " Early Date * testimony of Irenaeus 5 6 of the Apocalypse. need not infer that an interval of from twenty to thirty years intervened between the two 7 3. 30. 6 The Irenaean 5i' eKelvov &v tpptdr) TOV KCU rrjv irpb TroXXoG xpt> vov f^padrj. hold that John's Gospel and the as to the composition Those writers who Apocalypse were written by the same author. 2 Lightfoot 3 and Salmon.The Solecisms of 22 the Apocalypse. Ixxxvi of the Introduction. is d\Xa <rxe86v tirl ATTO- r^s rjfur^pas 3. " St." Sixth Edition. was not through ignorance of it Greek usage. 363. to St. his more familiar dva<f>av56v T title of which vvv /ccu/xp KijpvTTetrdai roivo/Jia avrov. 7 Referred to in corollary 1. pp.

" pp. Bousset. Scholten. for a different reason.* * " Cp. 33-51. maintain that the Apostle wrote the 3 Apocalypse but not the Gospel. alypse . Dionysius century writings.. Liicke. D. in Die Offenbarung Johannis. Schwegler. such as Still Keim.The Solecisms of the 23 Apocalypse. Ewald and Diisterdieck. Davidson and Hilgenfeld. 2 3 " Eccl. VII." SS. Hist. The Authorship of the Apocalypse is discussed at length by Bousset in " Die Offenbarung Johannis. Eusebius. l of the two led to very different opinions as to the Authorship 2 of Thus besides the third A. Baur. for example.". hold that the Apostle John wrote the Gospel. or reasons. Schleiermacher. such as Kostliu. 25. Harnack. . regard the Apostle John as the author of neither the Gospel nor the Apocalypse. Zeller. Lipsius. Weizsacker and Bousset.." SS. Lib. the following writers. 148-179. De Wette. Credner. Bleek. Neander (David Mendel). hut not the Apocother writers. Volkmar. other writers. 33-51 and by Milligan in his "Discussions on the 1 Apocalypse. Pfleiderer.

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