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LITERATURE REVIEW

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Based on the Department of Agriculture in cooperation with ARC-Institute for Tropical and
Subtropical Crops in South Africa in 2001, the soil should have a good structure and water –
holding capacity. Drainage must be good to prevent root rot. The pH value of the soil must be
between the ranges of 5.5 to 6.0. Based on an article with the title The Ultimate Guide to
Growing Black Pepper, written by Julie C on April 17, 2013 in the United State, the pepper plant
need rich, moist, well-drained soil. Well-drained soil is a soil which allows water to percolate
through it reasonably quickly and not pool. Based on a research by a team of researcher
(Devasahayam S, John Zacharaiah T, Jayashree E, Kandiannan K, Prasath D, Santhosh J
Eapen, Sasikumar B, Srinivasan V and Suseela Bhai R) from Indian Council of Agricultural
Research in 2014; the ideal pH value to crop pepper plant is between the ranges of 5.5 to 6.5.
Based on a website (agrihortico.com), accessed on August 15, 2015, from an experiment
conducted in India. It was reported that virgin soils are ideal for black pepper cultivation. Soil
should be well-drained and rich in organic matter (humus). Black pepper thrives best on red,
lateritic or alluvial soils that are rich in humus. The pH of 4.5–6.0 is ideal. From another website
called Growthis.com published in Aug 22, 2014, it is also shown that pepper plant needs rich
soil that drains easily. Garden soil should be amended with lots of compost. Plant in raised beds
for better drainage. Soil pH is optimal at 5.5-7.0. Based on another website (Botanicalonline.com), accessed on 21 August 2015, the soil must be an acid soil or slightly acid with pH
values between 5.5 and 6.5, the soil must also be well drained, alluvial, loose and permeable.
Black pepper does not tolerate calcareous, sandy or heavy soils, or even those with a low
permeability. Based on the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Govt of India (Spices Board
India), researchers found that pepper grows well on soils ranging from heavy clay to light sandy
clays that are rich in humus with friable nature, well drained, but with ample water holding
capacity. Soil with near neutral PH, high organic matter and high base saturation with Ca and
Mg enhance the productivity. Soil for pepper cultivation require 0.26% N, 0.25% P 2O5, 0.41%
K2O, 0.18% MgO and 0.5% CaO. Water logged soils and diseased soils are not suitable for
pepper cultivation. Well drained loamy soils rich in humus nourish the crop well and the best
crop could be obtained in virgin forest soil. Based on another website called AgriFarming.com
which was published in May 27, 2015, pepper can be cultivated on wide variety of soils like red
loam, clay loam and sandy loam soils. However, Virgin soils rich in humus (organic matter)
content and well drained are ideal for pepper cultivation. For better yield, soil should have pH
value of 5.0 to 6.5. Based on a textbook called Agriculture and Fishery Technology in 2005,

Based on the Government of Meghalaya. India. Jesse D. well-drained. It is not advisable to plant pepper on very sticky and poorly drained soil. dark-colored loamy soils rich in organic matter. it was reported that pepper can grow in clay loams. .author by Dr. red loams and sandy loams. Dagoon. it thrives best on well drained virgin soil rich in organic matter content and other plant nutrients. Department of Agriculture. pepper is a sturdy plant which grows in almost all types of soil but thrives best in loose. However.