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Week No.1 Mechanics of Material B-Tech Civil By Engr. SHAMS UL ISLAM Lecturer, Civil Engineering Department CECOS University Peshawar CECOS UNIVERSITY PESHAWAR Table of Contents Table of Contents ...........................................................................................................ii INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................... 3 1.1 Mechanics of Material .......................................................................................... 3 1.2 External Load ....................................................................................................... 3 1.2.1 Surface Forces ............................................................................................... 3 1.2.2 Body forces .................................................................................................... 3 1.3 Support reactions .................................................................................................. 3 1.4 Elasticity ............................................................................................................... 5 1.5 Stress .................................................................................................................... 5 1.6 Type of stresses .................................................................................................... 5 1.7 Tensile stress ........................................................................................................ 5 1.8 Compressive stress ............................................................................................... 6 1.9 Elastic limit .......................................................................................................... 6 1.10 Hook’s Law ........................................................................................................ 6 1.11 Modulus of Elasticity ......................................................................................... 7 1.12 Strain .................................................................................................................. 7 1.13 Tensile strain ...................................................................................................... 8 1.14 Compressive strain ............................................................................................. 8 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------By: Engr. Shams Ul Islam Lecturer Civil Engineering Department CECOS University Peshawar ii INTRODUCTION 1.1 Mechanics of Material Mechanics of material is that branch of mechanics that studies the internal effects of stress and strain in a solid body that is subjected to an external loading. Stress is related to the strength of material from which the body is made, while strain is a measure of the deformation of the body. 1.2 External Load A body is subjected to only two types of external loads; namely surface force or body force. 1.2.1 Surface Forces The forces caused by the direct contact of one body with the surface of another body are called surface forces. 1.2.2 Body forces A body force is developed when one body exerts a force on another body without direct physical contact between the bodies. Examples include the effect caused by the earth’s gravitation or its electromagnetic field. 1.3 Support reactions The surface forces that develop at the supports or points of contact between bodies are called reactions. Or civil structures are connected to the ground at certain points called supports. When the external loading is applied to the structure, the supports develop forces which oppose the tendency of the structure to move. These forces are called reactions. The nature and number of reactions depends on the type of support. Figure1 (a, b, c) shows the most common types of idealized structural supports for any planar structure. A roller support allows motion in the longitudinal direction but not in the transverse direction. A hinge prevents motion in both the longitudinal and transverse directions but allows rotation about the pin connection. Lastly, the clamped (fixed) 3 support restrains rotation as well as translation with 2 reaction forces and one moment. Figure 0.a Figure 0.b Figure 0.c --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------By: Engr. Shams Ul Islam Lecturer Civil Engineering Department CECOS University Peshawar 4 1.4 Elasticity The property of certain materials of returning back to its original position, after removing the external force, as known as elasticity. A body is said to be perfectly elastic, if it return back completely to its original shape and size, after the removal of external forces. If the body does not return back completely to its original shape and size, after the removal of external force, it is said to be partially elastic. 1.5 Stress Every material is elastic in nature. That is why, whenever, some external force act on a body, it undergoes some deformation. As the body undergoes deformation, its molecules set up some resistance to deformation. This resistance per unit area to deformation is known as stress. Mathematically stress may be defined as the force per unit area. Where In SI system, the unit of stress is Pascal (pa) which is equal to 1 N/m2. 1.6 Type of stresses Some important types of stresses are: 1.7 Tensile stress When a section id subjected to two equal and opposite pulls and the body tends to increase its length, the stress induced is called tensile strength. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------By: Engr. Shams Ul Islam Lecturer Civil Engineering Department CECOS University Peshawar 5 Compressive stress Tensile stress Figure 0.d 1.8 Compressive stress When a section is subjected to two equal and opposite pushes and the body tends to shorten its length, the strength induces is called compressive stress. 1.9 Elastic limit Whenever some external system of force act on a body, it undergoes some deformation. If the external forces, causing deformation, are removed, the body spring back to its original position. It has been found that for a given section there is a limiting value of force up-to and with in which, the deformation entirely disapears on the removal of force. The value of intensity of stress corresponding to this limiting force is called elastic limit of the material. 1.10 Hook’s Law It states, “When a material is loaded, within its elastic limit, the stress is proportional to strain”. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------By: Engr. Shams Ul Islam Lecturer Civil Engineering Department CECOS University Peshawar 6 1.11 Modulus of Elasticity As we know that “When a material is loaded, within its elastic limit, the stress is proportional to strain”. Mathematically stress, 1.12 Strain Whenever a single force (or a system of force) acts on a body, it undergoes some deformation. This deformation per unit length is known is strain. OR The change in length per unit length is called strain. Mathematically, strain is : --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------By: Engr. Shams Ul Islam Lecturer Civil Engineering Department CECOS University Peshawar 7 1.13 Tensile strain The stress corresponding to tensile stress is called tensile strain. 1.14 Compressive strain The strain corresponding to compressive stress is called compressive strain. By: Engr. Shams Ul Islam Lecturer, Civil Engineering Department, CECOS University Peshawar Note: These lectures are only for teaching purpose and materials are collected from various sources i.e. books and world wide web. ******************************************************************** --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------By: Engr. Shams Ul Islam Lecturer Civil Engineering Department CECOS University Peshawar 8