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Flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of
vegetables from Indonesia
Impact Factor: 3.39 · DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.01.033 · Source: OAI



Nuri Andarwulan

Bradley W Bolling


University of Wisconsin–Madison



Available from: Nuri Andarwulan
Retrieved on: 01 September 2015

2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl.52 mg GAE/100 g fw. or applied as a poultice. 2. Bogor Agricultural University. Antioxidants may inhibit the initiation or propagation of oxidation (Velioglu. TBA.. Louis. these plants are eaten raw or boiled. 2007). MDA. and kaempferol and flavones luteolin and apigenin were quantified by HPLC. Tel. they may be used raw. Folin–Ciocalteau reagent. Flavonoid content in mg/100 g fresh weight (fw) was apparently initially reported for Cosmos caudatus H.8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox). 1998). Flavonoid Phenolic Pluchea indica Less.Sm (1. DPPH.43). Talinum triangulare (Jacq. DPPH (2. Kampus IPB Darmaga. GAE. For food. The flavonols myricetin. Germany). 1.01.1. Hanny Wijaya b a Southeast Asian Food and Agricultural Science and Technology (SEAFAST) Center. 6-hydroxy-2. and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) were purchased from Sigma–Aldrich (St. Mazza. malonyldialdehyde. Andarwulan).2010. fresh weight.f. P. less is known about the flavonoid content and non-nutritive bioactivity of foods from developing nations. Kampus IPB Darmaga. with 1. MO). and cause lipid peroxidation of cellular targets.) Willd.. Bogor Agricultural University. Bogor. C. & Oomah. Indonesia. Dietary antioxidants are necessary to cope with reactive oxidant species that could damage DNA. caudatus H. traditional uses. Characterisation of the antioxidant activity of vegetables may also yield more insight into their functionality.K. * Corresponding author. Bogor.elsevier. (2.M. Address: Southeast Asian Food and Agricultural Science and Technology (SEAFAST) Center. Jl Puspa No. the aims of this research were to identify and quantify flavonoid compounds of 11 leafy green vegetables. fw. TEAC. Indonesia c Antioxidants Research Laboratory.) Bl. had the highest antioxidant activity as measured by ferric cyanide reducing power.Food Chemistry 121 (2010) 1231–1235 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Food Chemistry journal homepage: (B.B. HPLC. TE. with the highest level found in Sauropus androgynus (L) Merr. However.*.) Merr (5. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. Chemicals and reagents Flavonoids. boiled. methanol. KH2PO4. 2. yet little is known about their constituents that may contribute to their medicinal functionality. Therefore. Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. gallic acid equivalents. HCl. dw.B. dry weight.K. S.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2. Gao.93). RNA. doi:10.19). The flavonoid content of the vegetables studied were mainly quercetin and kaempferol and ranged from 0. and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation. (3. Therefore.see front matter Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. E-mail addresses: nuri@seafast. potassium ferric cyanide. Materials and methods Abbreviations: ABTS. (6. Diny Agustini Sandrasari b. 2. Vegetables a b s t r a c t Extracts from 11 vegetables of Indonesian origin were screened for flavonoid content.18). 711 Washington (N.foodchem. Indonesia Department of Food Science and Technology. Pilea melastomoides (Poir.20 -azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) scavenging. All rights reserved. caudatus H. ethanol. quercetin. Bolling). Nothopanax scutellarius (Burm.3 to 143 mg/100 g fw. This information is necessary to validate the safety. pinnata were identified as potentially rich sources of dietary flavonoids and Short communication Flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of vegetables from Indonesia Nuri Andarwulan a. androgynus (L) Merr.B.5.b. Jl Puspa No. 0308-8146/$ . Bradley Bolling c. and to screen for antioxidant activity and total phenols.K. and Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.20 -azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid. had the greatest total phenols among the vegetables analysed. and to standardise preparations of these plants. and antioxidant activity. trichloroacetic acid.39). and C. 1. TCA.B. Some plants of Indonesian origin have been screened for their antiinflammatory and antioxidant activity (Choi & Hwang. indica Less. Vegetable extracts with high antioxidant activity may also be useful for food preservation.bolling@tufts. and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) were obtained from E-Merck (Darmstadt. Furthermore.K. bradley./fax: +62 251 8629903.K. . All rights reserved.7. total phenolics.1016/j. Medicinally. 1. Tufts University. Bogor. (52. Trolox equivalents.033 2.27). USA b a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 14 September 2009 Received in revised form 4 November 2009 Accepted 21 January 2010 Keywords: Antioxidant Cosmos caudatus H. Polyscias pinnata (52. this information may be used to establish flavonoid databases for Indonesia or other Southeast Asian countries. 2-thiobarbituric acid. ABTS. MA. DPPH. high performance liquid chromatography. and P. Boston. caudatus H. modify proteins. 2005).19).B. Pluchea indica Less. A number of west Javanese vegetables are used for both food and traditional medicine. TBHQ. C. Ratna Batari b. Introduction The flavonoid content of some western foods has been reported and archived in the USDA flavonoid database (USDA. including Indonesia. Indonesia. tert-butylhydroquinone. from west Java. Bogor Agricultural University. Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging. Acetonitrile.

aliquots of supernatant were reserved for the total phenolic content and antioxidant assays. ABTS scavenging activity was determined by the TEAC method according to Yeh and Yen (2003). nausea (Poedjayanto. Scientific name Indonesian name Traditional uses/effects Sauropus androgynus (L) Merr Cosmos caudatus H. After incubation. tonic for post-partum women. 2008) . 2008) Daun ginseng Increases stamina and an immunostimulant (Fenny. cold. / Food Chemistry 121 (2010) 1231–1235 2.9% and 1.K Polyscias pinnata Centella asiatica Katuk Kenikir Kedondong cina Antanan Ocimum americanum L.8. ABTS Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) Fresh vegetables.3% and 0.1 M DPPH solution in methanol and absorbance at 517 nm was measured following incubation for 30 min at 27 °C. Following centrifugation at 1536g (IEC Centra-8 Centrifuge. and ABTS absorbance was measured at 734 nm. 2008) Reduces fever.0%. myricetin and flavones apigenin and luteolin were quantified in vegetable extracts according to the method by Hertog. The reaction was composed of 4 mg dried extract in 4 ml ethanol absolute. diarrhoea.5 or 1 g) were extracted for 1 h at 50 °C in 50% aqueous metha- Table 1 Names and traditional uses of vegetables from west Java. Linoleic acid was oxidised by heating in the presence of ethanolic vegetable extracts.M. & Immaculata. 2.6.1232 N. Dr.8 mM Trolox scavenging 41% of DPPH radicals.) Willd. DPPH scavenging DPPH scavenging activity was measured according to the method by Brand-Williams. and Berset (1995). hair loss (Yuniarti. 2006.5 lM Trolox. APU. katuk leaves and pohpohan leaves were purchased from a local market in Bogor and the others were harvested from uncultivated or cultivated fields near Bogor Agricultural University.5 ml) and ferric chloride (10 mg/ml. respectively. inflammation in ears. bad breath. lactation aid (topical). Andreanus.B. inhibits pathogenic bacteria and moulds on food (Naufalin. eyewash.5–3. using a standard curve of 0. fever (Harada. & Wong. Flavonoid analysis Since flavonoids are ubiquitous in vegetables. Ahmad. Briefly. appendix. Andarwulan et al. 2. The samples were put in an aluminium cup (5 g sample). lactation stimulant.9 ml water in a closed vial and incubated in a 40 °C oven for 6 days. from standard curves of 0–0. 2. respectively. 8 ml of 0. 1996) Pohpohan Kecombrang Krokot (purslane) – Reduces the odour of fish. reduces appetite. cough. & Mehmood.1 ml linoleic acid in 2.5 ml of phosphate buffer (0. 2. Total phenols 2. Hollman. fever. Waltham. Kenikir.) Bl. body odour. Reducing power was determined by the method of Oyaizu (1986). The ability of extracts to prevent linoleic acid oxidation was quantified using a TBA (2-thiobarbituric acid) method as previously described (Aqil. urination (topical). immediately stored at 20 °C overnight. breast inflammation. Ferric reducing power The moisture content of raw vegetables (fresh and freeze-dried/ ground) was determined according to a previously published method (AOAC.4. Inter-assay and intra-assay CV were 1. Moisture analysis 2. Mulyati. on the basis of 0.3. Dried powder was stored at 20 °C in darkness. Reducing power was calculated on the basis of Trolox equivalents.7%. inflammation. Labconco. TBA reactive substances (TBARs) were quantified at 532 nm. Inter-assay and intra-assay CV were 0. The result was expressed as percent inhibition of TBARs formation of the control without addition of antioxidant. pH 6.0%. the flavonols quercetin. the dried vegetables were crushed to a 30 mesh powder. based on standard curves of 0–0.5 lM Trolox. as described by Shetty. Total phenols were quantified based on standard curves of 50–300 mg/l gallic acid.2.f. bone strength (Shui.9 ml ABTS solution. 2008) For swollen breast. canker sores. stomach cramps (Yuniarti. Witkowsky. Indonesia.14–0.5 ml of 95% aqueous ethanol (v/v).9. MO). 2005) Reduces body odour. Following lyophilisation. douche. Extract (100 mg/ml) was added to a 5 ml of 0. Pilea melastomoides (Poir. Leong. Inter-assay and intra-assay CV were 0. hoarse voice (raw) (Yuniarti (2008)) Improves circulation. Cuvelier.05 M phosphate buffer at pH 7 and 3. respectively. kaempferol. 0.5%. The TEAC assay is based on the capacity to quench ABTS+ radical formation relative to Trolox. 2008) For headache.1 ml of extract representing 0. haemorrhoids. constipation (Poedjayanto. menstruation.5%. poultice for wound healing. 2006).2 M. free of blemishes or obvious defects (Table 1) were obtained from Bogor. Indonesia. respectively. The Folin method was used to determine phenolic content of vegetable extracts. Eko Baroto Waluyo.2% and 3. Inter-assay and intra-assay CV were 1.0 lM tetramethoxypropane. and Ang (1995). and Venema (1992). Potassium ferric cyanide was added to dry extract (0– 500 mg/ml) in 2. Sample preparation 2.5 ml) were added to the mixture in a total volume of 5. constipation.5. sore muscles. Indonesia. 2. Etlingera elatior (Jack) R. then dried in 100 °C oven for 6 h.Sm Portulaca oleracea Mangkokan Reduces fever. Lyophilised vegetables (0.51 mg/ml dry weight of plants was incubated for 45 s with 0.7. TCA (100 mg/ml. 2008) Eaten to reduce bleeding. stimulate lactation. Research Centre for Biology.0 mg) were extracted by shaking with 2.6) and incubated at 50 °C for 20 min. Beluntas Nothopanax scutellarius (Burm. 0. kemangi leaves. The vegetables were identified by the botanist. Inhibition of lipid oxidation Freeze-dried vegetable samples (50. Indonesia. Indonesian Institute of Science.4% and 3. wound. Kansas City. Data was expressed as Trolox equivalents. and then lyophilised for 48 h (FreeZone 6 l Console Freeze Dry System.) Merr Talinum triangulare (Jacq. Samples were cleaned. Yuniarti. & Muzakkir. Kemangi Pluchea indica Less. Curtis. Inter-assay and intra-assay CV were 2. Antioxidant activity was expressed as Trolox equivalents. 4.8% and 7. worms (Poedjayanto. lower abdominal pain. 1984).5 ml and absorbance was read at 700 nm.52% ethanol. west Java. MA) for 5 min. respectively. Levin. Bogor. 2005) For dysentery.

2006).0 ± 0. Statistical analysis Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation of at least triplicate determinations. where Y was the detector response and X was concentration of standards.18 ± 0.5 ± 0.99 for luteolin. so its decreased capacity toward DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging.3bcd 92. Correlations 3.1233 N.19 for apigenin..81 ± 0. androgynus (L) Merr extracts also inhibited lipid peroxide formation (Mai.2cd 0.7f 81.15a 7. & Van Chuyen. Japan) equipped with a UV–Vis Hewlett–Packard Series 1100 detector (Agilent Technologies. and ferric cyanide antioxidant capacities relative to other vegetables (Table 2).93 ± 0. (92. Previous work confirms the antioxidant activity of several extracts in the present study. The extract was allowed to cool and the solution was made up to 100 ml with methanol. Relatively high levels of phenolics were observed in S.025 M KH2PO4 at a flow rate 0.790 ± 0.08c 70.5 and 12. and 20 ll was injected onto an LC-2040 HPLC (Shimadzu. Generous flavonoid intake has been implicated in reduction of risk for chronic diseases such stroke. 2007). (L) Merr had the greatest levels of phenolics with 1.M.6d 1.1. Y = 46.33 to 1.05d 37.7) Polyscias pinnata (85.16b 1.134bc 11.6b 54.03 ± 0.1 ± 0.943 ± 0. androgynus (L) Merr and C.7 to 6. CA) and reverse-phase Develosil ODS-UG-3 column (4. a similar relationship was reported for ferricyanide reducing activity.0) Ocimum americanum L. Y = 67.d.806 ± 0. 3.02e 28. and inhibition of lipid peroxidation is notable. the vegetables in the present study may contribute to dietary antioxidant intake.2 M HCl and 0.20 ± 0.5 g/l TBHQ.6 ± 0. CA). extracts inhibited linoleic acid oxidation to the greatest extent and had the greatest DPPH.45 lm filter. androgynus (L) Merr. similar to the present study. with P values 60.2 ± 0.A Vegetable (% moisture) Sauropus androgynus (L) Merr (82.. Tien.9 ml/min.6 ± 0.0) Pilea melastomoides (Poir.. In the same study.9h 96.0d 98.8 ± 1. ferric reduction.2(X)  25.6 ± 0. La Jolla.) Willd.9) Portulaca oleracea (92.812 ± 0.2 ± 1.8 ± 0.3c 96. Kyoto.018d 0. For example.8 and 3. Cosmos caudatus H. asiatica in the DPPH and FRAP assays (Wong.02e 1.07 ± 0. Inc. oleracea had 79 and 132 lmol TE/g dw respectively in the TEAC assay (Yang et al.6 ± 1. 0.7 and 7. androgynus (L) Merr and Polyscias pinnata were among the least potent of the extracts.2f 1. respectively.94 ± 0.4 ± 15. (91.B.f.096b 19.71 and 5. increased consumption of broccoli and spinach. Santa Clara. and eluted with isocratic 25% acetonitrile in 0.01c 172 ± 1a 50.85.72 for apigenin.4 ± 0. had greater DPPH antioxidant activity and total phenols than C. respectively for flavonoid standards. in contrast to our results. Thu.9 to 4.79.49 mg GAE/g fw. indica Less.5 ± 0. 3.7) Pluchea indica Less.6abc 0. Y = 125.60(X)  17. Statistical significance was by one-way ANOVA. 3.B.6) Etlingera elatior (Jack) R. Japan). and Sauropus androgynus Consistent with literature. ABTS and ferric cyanide reducing power antioxidant values with R values of 0. Methanolic extracts of Talinum triangulare (Jacq. 0.2 ± 0. and flavonoid content of vegetables in the present study relative to prior reports.4) Centella asiatica (92. S..9(X)  14. Flavonoids were quantified on the basis of comparison to standards at 370 nm. and C.52 mg GAE/g fresh weight (fw) (Table 2).0c 84. 200 ppm dry weight basis. and some cancers.3 ± 0.4d Data is mean ± SD of three determinations.831 ± 0. nutrient.K.4a 97.4ab 97.21g 0.and intra-assay CV for quantification ranged from 1.Sm (89.5 for myricetin.8 for quercetin. values bearing different letters within columns are significantly different by Tukey’s HSD (P 6 0.6f 1.39ef 23.2bcd 98. & Koh.04 for luteolin.023e 5. ANOVA and Pearson correlation analysis was by GraphPad prism v 5.4bcd 0.7 ± 0.) Willd. C.6 mm i. with 7.1 ± 0.72 ± 0.71 ± 0.142b 112 ± 3a 7.4 ± 0.5.) Bl. 2007).4c 4. Andarwulan et al.1 ± 0.0abcd 0. Approximately 2 ml was filtered through a 0.1e 97.701 ± 0. The limits of detection (in lg/ml on column) were 0.05 considered significant.3. 2.489 ± 0. respectively Table 2 Total phenols and antioxidant activity of extracts from vegetables of Indonesian origin.83g 13.82 mg GAE/g dry weight (dw) respectively.0 ± 0.111b 0.) Merr (85. While all extracts had antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay. 0.567 ± 0.999.80 ± 0. (91.01 (GraphPad Software. and antioxidant activity since they are frequently used as traditional medicine and as foods (Table 1). Choi and Hwang (2005) reported P. asiatica.75 ± 0. Results and discussion Extracts from 11 vegetables from Indonesia were screened for flavonoid content. For regression equations. are associated with reduced risk of ovarian cancer (Gates et al.5 ± 0.52 ± 0. (86.77.5i 97.73 ± 0.03c 1.2 ± 1. soil conditions.334 ± 0.0 ± 0. Standard curve regression equations were Y = 114.05).04 for kaempferol. This is in agreement with a previous report in which Cosmos caudatas had greater antioxidant activity than S. R2 values were P0. Seto. ABTS.9 ± 0.49 ± 0.62(X)  2.463 ± 0.19(X)  8. cardiovascular disease. which was of a similar magnitude to 11.07de 40. (89. and pesticide or herbicide usage may contribute to variations in antioxidant.014f 24. Antioxidant activity of extracts Pluchea indica Less.4j 96. 2006).5) A B Total phenols (mg GAE/ g fw) DPPH (lmol TE/ g fw) ABTS (lmol TE/ g fw) Ferric reducing (lmol TE/g fw) Inhibition of lipid peroxidation (%)B 1.52 and 1.K. .9) Talinum triangulare (Jacq. and Y = 16.K.7e 38.1 TE/g fw. Yearly and geographical climate differences.11a 0. Portulaca oleracea had the least antioxidant activity in the ABTS and ferric cyanide reducing assays. androgynus (L) Merr and Centella asiatica had 8.05c 3. Inc.129b 0.9) Nothopanax scutellarius (Burm. and 0.2.2g 1. Inter.88g 1. total phenols values were highly correlated with DPPH.119b 0.2b 15.B. and P.19a 1.100cd 7.8 for kaempferol.02 for quercetin. caudatus H. asiatica and S. / Food Chemistry 121 (2010) 1231–1235 nol containing 1.5 ± 0. 0.5 mg GAE/g dw reported by Gupta and Prakash (2009). total phenols.3 ± 0. Total phenols Total phenols ranged from 0. 0. Therefore.2g 97.9) Cosmos caudatus H. rich in kaempferol.8 ± 1.40 ± 0.03 for myricetin. Leong.  75 mm) (Nomura Chemical. S.5h 47.10.

2 ± 3.004 <0.46–0.18e 0. Cuvelier.016b <0.01). mainly as quercetin and kaempferol.02 <0.07f 3.252 ± 0. 1996). Quercetin and kaempferol comprised 60% or more of the flavonoids in the vegetables analysed.02 0.002 A fw: Fresh weight basis. caudatus H.75 ± 0.. Pilea melastomoides (Poir. 2007).17f 2.00 (103)b <0. indica Less. S.005).B..9b 12. Spina and others (2008) reported that wild and cultivated purslane had 0. and P. indica (Less.) Bl. scutellarius (Burm. .00002 <0.5 (103)a <0. data is mean ± standard deviation of at least four measurements.f.05a <0. Launer.27d 5.2 ± 4.00002 <0.02 <0.7c 7. although we observed nearly 10-fold greater content in the same species. These results highlight the contribution of phenolics to in vitro antioxidant activity of vegetables and the need to analyse a multiplicity of antioxidant assays to rank antioxidant activity. DC: AOAC International.4. or the aforementioned preharvest factors such as climate.74 ± 0. Polyscias pinnata Centella asiatica Ocimum americanum L. as they had 50% more than the USDA value for kale. Flavonoid fractions from Chromolaena odorata were antipyretic in rats (Owoyele et al.15e 3. stroke. E. Indonesia varied from 0. Generous intakes of flavonoid are correlated to health benefits such as lower risk of chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease.38c 2. Nothopanax scutellarius (Burm.00002 <0.044 <0. Aqil. androgynus (L) Merr and P. Similarly. Feskens. / Food Chemistry 121 (2010) 1231–1235 Table 3 The flavonoid content of extracts from vegetables of Indonesian origin as determined by HPLC analysis.0–832 mg/100 g dw) (Table 3).1234 N.89 ± 0. was 81% quercetin.Sm Portulaca oleracea 4.21g 1. ABTS. 30. Viera. 2007).0–4.26d 3. Brand-Williams. Official method 930. and apigenin were less abundant. The levels of flavonoids reported here are in range of previous analysis.) less have antipyretic uses in Indonesian traditional medicine. values bearing different letters within columns are significantly different by Tukey’s HSD (P 6 0.K. C.5 mg/100 g dw flavonoids.) Bl. Pilea melastomoides (Poir.M. When consumed regularly. B Sum of individual flavonoids determined by HPLC analysis.01 143 ± 6a 52. and some cancers (Cutler et al. C.003 2.) Merr Talinum triangulare (Jacq.04 mg/100 g).52 ± 0. Keli.00003 13. M.03 <0.08 ± 0.18 ± 0.. E. androgynus had 78. Vegetable Quercetin Kaempferol Myricetin Luteolin Apigenin sum of flavonoidsB <0.00003 <0.06g 0. had flavonoid content ranging from 1.16d 0. elatior (Jack) R. flavonoid was 90% kaempferol.02i 138 ± 5.003 0. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Southeast Asian Food and Agricultural Science and Technology (SEAFAST) Center. caudatus H. indica Less.M. 177–183.. Lebensmittel Wissenschaft und Technologie. pinnata could significantly contribute to dietary flavonoid intake when consumed. Turkish Journal of Biology. triangulare (Jacq.3 ± 4.36d 6. 2008).K. N. Flavonoid content The flavonoid content of 11 vegetables from west Java. Moisture content was same as Table 2.) Willd. and ferric reducing power antioxidant measures were highly correlated (R > 0.02 <0. The flavonoid contents of west Javanese vegetables are in the range with western green leafy vegetables. 1999. Pluchea indica Less.04. 6. The authors are grateful for the work of Desty Gitapratiwi for assistance in manuscript preparation. while myricetin. T. including P.737 ± 0. T.10f 5.41 ± 0.06h 0.) Willd.) Merr. Miean and Mohamed (2001) reported S.B. The same work also detected luteolin at 1.18 ± 0.003 <0.03h 1. and iceberg lettuce respectively (USDA.56 ± 0.20f 1. P = 0.. pinnata had 1. This affect could also be associated with metal or other pro-oxidant constituents in the extracts. NIH. 3. ABTS.38b 8.9 ± 0.. although we did not (LOD of 0. commercial products or organizations imply endorsement by the US government.02 <0. Andarwulan et al. This difference may be attributed to differences in extraction and hydrolysis times and temperatures (1 h at 50 °C compared to 2 h at 90 °C).27 ± 0.0001) with each other.) Bl. and all but three of the vegetables in the present study have higher flavonoid content than the 1– 3 mg flavonoid/100 g fw reported for western lettuce varieties (USDA...18 to 6. androgynus (L) Merr..) Merr. and P.08–36 mg for a 25 g (1 cup) serving.. pinnata.8a 0.9000.02 <0. Washington.f.3 mg/100 g dw in purslane.09e 0.005 <0.3 to 143 mg/100 g fw (4.3b 20. & Kromhout.027h <0.266 ± 0. Z. the analysis of potential flavonoid intake and antioxidant activity from these vegetables warrants further investigation to the mechanism(s) of action of the Indonesian traditional medicinal uses of these vegetables.12 ± 0. References AOAC (1984).K. Dr. Grayer.B.00004 <0. DPPH. Etlingera elatior (Jack) R. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of twelve traditionally used Indian medicinal plants.21 ± 0.Sm. Ahmad.42 ± 0. I.00002 2.903 ± 0. cultivars had 10– 749 mg flavonoids/100 g dw.30 ± 0. spinach. (P < 0. Flavonoid content was not correlated with antioxidant activity in the DPPH. Official method of analysis of AOAC international. supplying approximately 0. geography. a high-flavonoid western vegetable (USDA.f. The present study is apparently the first report of quantitative flavonoid profiles for seven vegetables.22 ± 0. Geleijnse. or agronomic practices.4c 1.283 ± 0. 25–30.1b 52.7 ± 1. & Berset. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Flavonoid content was negatively correlated with inhibition of lipid oxidation (R = 0.5 ± 1. flavonoid-containing vegetables such as S. & Mehmood.39 mg/100 g fw. with lesser amounts of quercetin.. Hofman.004 <0. C.002 <0.02i A Concentration (mg/100 g fw ) Sauropus androgynus (L) Merr Cosmos caudatus H. with different rank orders of antioxidant capacities.1a 28. Flavonoid from P.78. Nothopanax scutellarius (Burm.048g 23. P.M.54 mg quercetin/100 g dw. caudatus H. or USDA nor does mention of trade names. & Witteman. (1995).69 ± 0. C.006 <0. Therefore. melastomoides (Poir.3 ± 0.) Willd.03 <0. F.006 <0. luteolin. and reducing power assays.Sm.. (2006). triangulare (Jacq.03 <0. and Paton (2003) reported Ocimum americanum L.39 ± 0.8 ± 0. these vegetables may contribute a significant amount of flavonoid to the Indonesian diet.00004 <0.30 ± 0.B. The contents of this publication is solely the responsibility of the authors do not necessarily reflect the official views or policies of the NIGMS. and P.50 ± 0. W.47 ± 0. 2007).22d 51.00004 <0.K.018h 1. 2008. with lesser amounts of myricetin and kaempferol. P < 0. Bolling was supported by award K12GM074869 from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences and by the US-INDO society.5-fold or more flavonoids than the remaining vegetables. Pols.05). indica Less.006 <0. and 3 mg/100 g fw for parsley. Hertog. and P. 28. Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.93 ± 0. The values in the present study are in range of the USDA flavonoid values for western green leafy vegetables such as 312.

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