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ISA Transactions 55 (2015) 234240

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

ISA Transactions
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/isatrans

Evaluation strategy of regenerative braking energy


for supercapacitor vehicle
Zhongyue Zou a, Junyi Cao a,n, Binggang Cao a, Wen Chen b
a
b

State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xian Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China
Division of Engineering,Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, United States

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:
Received 14 September 2013
Received in revised form
25 July 2014
Accepted 19 September 2014
Available online 11 October 2014
This paper was recommended for
publication by prof. Y.Chen

In order to improve the efciency of energy conversion and increase the driving range of electric
vehicles, the regenerative energy captured during braking process is stored in the energy storage devices
and then will be re-used. Due to the high power density of supercapacitors, they are employed to
withstand high current in the short time and essentially capture more regenerative energy. The
measuring methods for regenerative energy should be investigated to estimate the energy conversion
efciency and performance of electric vehicles. Based on the analysis of the regenerative braking energy
system of a supercapacitor vehicle, an evaluation system for energy recovery in the braking process is
established using USB portable data-acquisition devices. Experiments under various braking conditions
are carried out. The results verify the higher efciency of energy regeneration system using supercapacitors and the effectiveness of the proposed measurement method. It is also demonstrated that the
maximum regenerative energy conversion efciency can reach to 88%.
& 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:
Regenerative braking energy
Supercapacitors
Energy conversion efciency
Electric vehicle
Measurement methods

1. Introduction
One of the most important features of electric vehicles is that
the kinetic energy of vehicle mass in the braking process can be
converted into other forms of energy and stored in the storage
devices. Those regenerative braking energy can be converted to
the kinetic energy of vehicles by controllers when starting or
accelerating again [1]. The energy regeneration system can be
classied into three categories: ywheel energy-storage system,
hydraulic energy-storage system and electrochemical energystorage system. Electrochemical energy-storage system was
proved to be a promising technical means to realize the energy
regeneration in vehicles. If an electric vehicle runs at a high-speed
mode, the transient current due to braking feedback in the motor
bus will increase up to 200 A or more [2], and this current will
cause enormous damage to traditional batteries such as lead acid
and lithium batteries. In contrast to the traditional batteries, the
supercapacitors have higher power density, and it is more reasonable for the large amount of braking energy to be quickly charged
into supercapacitors by proper transformation from kinetic energy
to electrical energy. Therefore, the supercapacitors can greatly
enhance energy savings and consequently extend the driving
range. On the other hand, supercapacitors could output huge

Corresponding author. Tel.: 86 29 82667938; fax: 86 29 82668601.


E-mail address: caojy@mail.xjtu.edu.cn (J. Cao).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2014.09.011
0019-0578/& 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

current instantaneously, and then reduce the power output of


the batteries. Moreover, the accelerating capability of electric
vehicles and battery life will also be improved accordingly.
As such, installing a supercapacitor as an auxiliary power
source for electric vehicles has become the latest research focus
[313]. Different energy system architectures with supercapacitors
for electric vehicles were proposed by Faggioli et al. in [3], and
their research shows that application of supercapacitors to electric
traction systems can lead to substantial benets in terms of
electric vehicle performances, battery life and energy economy.
Thounthonga et al. [4] demonstrated the application of the fuel
cell and supercapacitors in electric vehicles to form a hybrid power
source. In their research work, a small-scale test bench was set up
to verify the excellent performances of the proposed energy
management, and the experimental results show that during the
motor starts/stops or other signicant steps, the designed hybrid
energy system could provide the balance of energy and also absorb
excess energy from regenerative braking. Ortuzar et al. [5] adopted
an auxiliary energy system based on supercapacitors and evaluated the cost of different power support systems, and the results
showed that when the proposed auxiliary energy-system congurations were included, the cost could be reduced signicantly
compared with the system powered only by fuel cells. Moreover,
the cost reduction was more when the supercapacitors were
employed for this purpose. Guidi et al. [6] investigated the
impact of the addition of a power buffer using supercapacitors to
a pure electric city vehicle equipped with an energy dense

Z. Zou et al. / ISA Transactions 55 (2015) 234240

SodiumNickel Chloride (ZEBRA) battery. Reference [6] also


showed remarkable loss reduction in the battery during normal
city driving was believed to result in a longer battery life. Dixon
et al. [7] introduced the combination of a ZEBRA battery (high
specic energy but low specic power) with UCAPs (low specic
energy but high specic power), and this arrangement could
increase driving range, efciency, acceleration, and regenerative
braking capability in electric vehicles. Paladini et al. [8] arranged
the supercapacitors as secondary energy buffers to capture a
signicant portion of the braking energy and thus to improve
the fuel economy for all cycles. Takahara et al. [9] proposed an
alternative way of applying supercapacitors with serial and parallel conguration mode to a pure electric vehicle equipped with
traditional batteries. The implementation of a hybrid energy
system using supercapacitors was demonstrated by Cao and Emadi
[10], Carter et al. [11], Hochgraf et al. [12], and Blanes et al. [13] to
protect the batteries on an electric vehicle from high-peak
currents and therefore their lifetime will be extended. Based on
the above analysis, it is concluded that the supercapacitors, as part
of hybrid energy sources in electric vehicles, can greatly improve
vehicle performance in terms of efciency, acceleration, driving
range, and regenerative braking.
However, hybrid energy system with supercapacitors is always
complex and its corresponding control strategy is difcult to be
designed in applications. With the development of supercapacitor
technologies, it is possible to use them as vehicle's independent
energy sources, especially for short-distance vehicles such as city
buses, tunnel trucks and terminal trucks in wharf. The main reason
is that those vehicles with supercapacitors could qualify with fastrecharging capability, the frequent startstop and regenerative
braking [1419]. Hori [14] produced a supercapacitor vehicle,
which could complete charging in ve seconds and could reach
to the maximum speed of 50 km h  1.
The literature has shown the feasibility to replace the original
storage devices by supercapacitors in electric vehicles. However,
none of them discussed the assessment of energy regeneration
efciency in details. Moreover, there are no effective methods and
equipment to achieve an accurate measurement of the regenerative braking energy in supercapacitor vehicles. In present research,
the detection algorithm for evaluating the regenerative braking
recovery efciency for a supercapacitor load trucks with a regenerative braking strategy is proposed. Meanwhile, a measurement
system for testing the regenerative braking efciency in various
conditions is also investigated.

235

design of control strategy over regenerative braking is also


required. Electric vehicles powered only by supercapacitors have
become a recent focus of research due to their potentially high
performance. The issue is that there are no experimental evaluations for regenerative energy in supercapacitor vehicles at present.
The accurate evaluation becomes a critical work to push the
supercapacitor vehicle technologies forward. Thus, developing an
easily implemented measurement system is necessary to achieve
the regenerative-braking energy evaluation.
The supercapacitor vehicle to be used in current research is
showed in Fig. 1. The major parameters of the tested vehicle are
listed in Table 1. The electric truck powered by supercapacitors is
developed to freight the heavy goods in the wharf. They have the
fast charging capability and high energy efciency. Various parameters, such as current and voltage of the supercapacitors and
motor, vehicle speed, acceleration, and brake pedal signals are
measured to evaluate the regenerative braking efciency.
This supercapacitor electric vehicle has an energy regenerative
system, consisting of a general braking system, a power transmission system, a motor and its control system, and an accumulator
and energy management system. When the driver steps on the
brake pedal, the brake controller will judge which conventional
braking strategy should be applied according to the motor's
working condition, the charging state of supercapacitors, wheel's
sliding rate and other parameters. When braking system runs in
regenerative braking mode or composite braking mode, the kinetic
energy of the vehicle can be transformed to electric energy by the
motor, and this process is considered as the regenerative braking
energy that will be stored into the supercapacitors. When the
truck starts rapidly or speeds up, the regenerative braking energy
stored earlier will be released to increase the energy efciency and
extend the driving range on a single charge.

2. Supercapacitor vehicles and assessment equipment


2.1. Characteristics of supercapacitor vehicle
Fig. 1. The supercapacitor truck.

Supercapacitor vehicles can be divided into two types: pure


supercapacitor electric vehicles and hybrid supercapacitor vehicles. A hybrid supercapacitor vehicle is composed of supercapacitors and batteries or fuel cells. It is obvious that hybrid electric
vehicles with supercapacitors have a complex energy management
system. A pure electric vehicle with supercapacitors as the only
energy source will have a simpler energy management system,
faster recharging speed and lower cost compared with hybrid
electric vehicles. Therefore, pure supercapacitor electric vehicles
have more advantages in the condition of short distance and
frequent startstop. Energy regeneration technology has been
widely used in electric vehicles or electric motorcycles; however,
the regenerative braking energy is not well utilized because the
power density of batteries like leadacid, Ni-MH and Lithium is
lower than that of supercapacitors so that it is difcult to increase
the overall energy efciency of vehicles. Furthermore, the optimal

Table 1
Specication of the supercapacitor vehicle.
Parameters

Value

Vehicle weight
Maximum speed (no-load)
Electric power rating
Maximum speed of motor
Driving range (no load)
Supercapacitor
Maximum discharge current
Maximum regenerative current
Voltage
Driving range(load)

10,000 kg
40 kmh  1
140 kW
4000 rpm
20 km
UCE15V80000A
600 A
300400 A
350590 V
4 km

236

Z. Zou et al. / ISA Transactions 55 (2015) 234240

2.2. Measurement system for electric vehicles


The electric vehicle is one of the most promising clean
transportations in the twenty-rst century; how to increase its
driving range by overcoming the limitation of traditional energy
storage and inverter technologies is the key. Algorithm optimization of energy regenerative braking is one of the potential means
to improve the vehicle's overall efciency. The assessment on
different energy regenerative-braking algorithms is required in the
process of optimization, which can be realized by on-line monitoring of various vehicle parameters such as current and voltage
of supercapacitors and the motor, speed, acceleration and brake
pedal signals. They are illustrated in Fig. 2. In this work, an
assessment system is proposed and implemented via multichannel signal collection and evaluation.
As shown in Fig. 3, the designed test system contains a signal
acquisition card, a series of voltage and current sensors. For
convenient measurement in the running vehicle, the portable
system is composed of an advanced USB data acquisition card and
a notebook computer. The analysis software, Matlab, is employed to
deal with the huge raw data acquired from the test system. The
voltage and current of supercapacitors and the motor are acquired
in the measurement along with braking signals, accelerator signals
etc. Both traveling state and energy-regeneration efciency can be
calculated using the real-time data.

Hall current sensors with the range of 500 A are selected to


measure the instantaneous current signals of the supercapacitors
and motor. A 16-bit A/D conversion card is used to convert analog
signals to the digital signals. Then, the converted digital signals are
sent to the portable computer. The corresponding test data can be
plotted in real time on the screen. The signals of the accelerator,
brake, and speed can be transformed into the corresponding
voltage signals ranging from 0 V to 5 V using the isolated voltage
sensors. USB data-acquisition card can convert them into digital
signals and store them in the hard drive of the notebook computer.
Because the driving distance of the supercapacitor truck used in
this work is limited to 20 km, the proposed measuring system can
acquire all real-time data in the driving range.

3. Energy regeneration efciency


This experimental vehicle can convert the regenerative braking
energy into electrical energy by charging supercapacitors directly.
In the process of regeneration, there are copper, iron and
mechanical losses in the motor; they are represented by Ed . It is
assumed that the resistance of the vehicle is f , the recyclable
energy could be described as follows:
1
1
E mv2  f s  J e 2  Ed ;
2
2

Fig. 2. Required signals for the performance evaluation of the supercapacitor truck.

Fig. 3. Measuring system setup for the supercapacitor truck.

Z. Zou et al. / ISA Transactions 55 (2015) 234240

where E is available recyclable energy (J), m is the mass of vehicle


(kg), v is the vehicle's speed before braking (ms  1), s is the braking
distance (m), f is vehicle's moving resistance (N), J e is the moment
of inertia of rotating parts in vehicle, and is the angular velocity.
The loss Ed is always neglected in calculation of recyclable energy
because they are very small in the high efciency motor for
electric vehicles when compared with the vehicle's kinetic energy.
Fig. 4 shows the working state of the energy regeneration
system. In case of braking, DC motor works in the state of
generating power, and method of excitation is separately excited.
The balance equation of current in the DC generator can be
described as
U out ce nd d  I dz Ra  U 0 ;

where ce is back emf constant,nd is the motor speed, d is the main


ux of the motor, Ra is the armature resistance, U 0 is the voltage of
battery, U out and I dz are the armature voltage and current,
respectively. When the supercapacitor truck comes into the state
of braking, the excited current is generally adjusted through the
designed control strategy to connect the vehicle's braking torque T
with rotation speed n. That is also called the braking characteristics of a DC motor, as shown in Fig. 5 [20]. In the process of
regenerative braking, the braking characteristics of the vehicle are
always guaranteed.
For the regenerative-energy system of trucks, the ratio of the
power consumed by supercapacitor and motor resistance to the
generating power output from motor can be expressed as

I 2dz R
;
U out I dz

where R is the equivalent internal resistance of the supercapacitor


pack. According to the capacitor's charging equation
I dz

U out  t
e RC ;
R

Idz

I0

237

the ratio of charging energy losses to generating electrical energy


from vehicle kinetic energy can be given by

r e  RC ;
t

Integrating Eqs. (1), (3), (4) and (5), the consuming energy
distribution of the supercapacitor vehicle during regenerative
braking can be depicted in Fig. 6. The kinetic energy would be
eventually consumed as the following types:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

Driving resistance loss,


DC/DC inverter loss,
DC motor and mechanical transmission loss,
energy recycled in supercapacitors, and
equivalent resistance loss of supercapacitor consumption.

Because the energy loss from the inverter, motor and mechanical transmission is slight, they may be ignored in the experimental analysis. Therefore, the efciency of energy regeneration
can be obtained as


1  r  1=2mv2  f s  1=2J e 2

;
6
1=2mv2
However, it is very difcult to exactly test the vehicle resistance
and equivalent rotary inertia during braking. Therefore, the
regenerative energy by supercapacitors can be directly calculated
using real-time voltage and current signal. Accordingly, the efciency of recycling energy can be described as:
R
R
1  r  U 0 I 0 dt  I 20 R dt

;
7
2
1=2mv
where I 0 is the current of energy source. It is obvious that the
efciency of recycling energy can be obtained using the proposed
online measured system because the value of many parameters in
Eq. (7) will be recorded in the driving range as long as the capacity
of the hard disk in portable computer is enough large.

4. Experimental verication

DC/DC

IdL
nd
U0

U0ut

Before measuring performance of the supercapacitor truck, the


regenerative braking energy, the signals of the accelerator, braking
and speeds should be measured exactly. Based on the measurements, the characteristics of these signals can be veried separately. The performance of the supercapacitor truck under various
experimental conditions, such as acceleration, deceleration and
regenerative braking, are evaluated.

Ed
Fig. 4. Schematic diagram of the energy recovery system.

Fig. 5. Braking characteristics of the vehicle.

Fig. 6. Distribution of vehicle kinetic energy.

238

Z. Zou et al. / ISA Transactions 55 (2015) 234240

10

braking/V

Accelaration/V

2
0

10

20

30

40

10

20

T/s

40

30

40

Fig. 9. Braking signal.

50

40

speed/(kmh-1)

Rotational speed/V

Fig. 7. Accelerator signal.

4
2

30
20
10

0
-2

30

T/s

0
3

3.5

4.5

5.5

10

20

T/s

T/s

Fig. 10. Vehicle speed.

Fig. 8. Rotational speed.

Voltage/V

550
500
450
400

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

10

15

20
T/s

25

30

35

40

Current/A

400
200
0
-200

100
Power/kw

The plotted curves for the accelerator, braking and speed


sensor signals are showed in Figs. 79, respectively. Fig. 7 indicates
that the accelerator signal is a DC voltage and its magnitude varies
from 0 V to 9.8 V; the stronger the accelerator signal is, the faster
the acceleration of the vehicle will be. When you press on the
accelerator pedal fully down, the voltage of output signal is 9.8 V.
The braking signal in Fig. 9 is also a DC voltage and its magnitude
ranges from 0 V to 5.7 V. When the brake pedal is pressed down
fully, the value of output signal is 5.7 V. The speed signal shown in
Fig. 8 is a consecutive square wave with its maximum amplitude
being about 7.5 V. If the truck is driven one kilometer, the 15,127
square waves can be obtained by the speed sensors. The speed of
the supercapacitor truck can be calculated by the period of the
square wave. The larger square-wave frequency corresponds to the
faster vehicle speed and vice versa; then, the speed of the truck is
computed as shown in Fig. 10.
The frequency of the output voltage and current of the main
inverter ranges from 0.5 HZ to 100 Hz, based on which the
sampling frequency of the A/D data acquisition card is set up to
2 kHz according to sampling theorem. The output voltage and
current of the main inverter can be acquired by the proposed
testing system. At the same time, the real-time power curve can be
calculated. As can be seen from Fig. 11, the input current of main
inverter in the vehicle is increased gradually at the beginning. The
peak current is 221 A, and the corresponding peak power of the
main power inverter increases to 90 kW. When the supercapacitor
truck enters the braking state, the current of the inverter becomes
negative. At this time, the power inverter begins to convert the
kinetic energy of the vehicle into electric energy. This converting
process is regulated and the energy is charged into the supercapacitors. The peak charging current is 180 A and the maximum
charging power is 72 kW.
When the truck starts, the input power to the main driving
motor gradually increases to the peak power 68 kW (shown in

-100

Fig. 11. Voltage, current and power curves for main inverter.

Fig. 12). After that peak, the motor's input power begins to
decrease slowly. When the supercapacitor truck comes into the
braking deceleration state, the input power of the main drive
motor becomes negative. It is also indicated that the main driving
motor is operated in the power generation state.
According to the calculation method of regenerative braking
efciency proposed in Section 3, the total kinetic energy can be
calculated when the vehicle begins to brake. During the braking
process, the main driving motor is operated in generative braking,
and the electric energy converted from the kinetic energy is stored
in the supercapacitors nally. While the power curve of the
inverter is integrated under deceleration, the recovery energy
stored in the supercapacitors can be computed using Eq. (7).

10

Table 3
Experimental results with 70 t load.

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

10

Label Total
consumption
energy for
acceleration
(kWh)

Kinetic
energy
before
braking
(kWh)

Recycling
energy
(kWh)

Recycling
energy/Total
consumption
energy (%)

Regenerative
efciency (%)

1
2
3
4
5

0.481716
0.453326
0.517553
0.494705
0.430943

0.070747
0.058402
0.100279
0.062435
0.046391

7.302
5.474
8.780
5.480
5.684

14.686
12.883
19.376
12.621
10.765

5
0

100

0.968881
1.066876
1.142086
1.139385
0.816167

50

600
Voltage/V

-100

500
400
300

10

15

20

25
T/s

30

35

40

45

50

0.557732
0.480585
0.498263
0.472100
0.339447
0.534913

0.190889
0.172277
0.178717
0.177073
0.176404
0.187287

Recycling
energy
(kWh)

0.036845
0.057274
0.155156
0.155249
0.138006
0.160190

Recycling
energy/Total
consumption
energy (%)

6.606
11.917
31.139
32.884
40.656
29.946

Regenerative
efciency (%)

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

200
0
-200

19.302
33.245
86.816
87.675
78.233
85.531

Because the energy loss in inverters and transmission is very


small, it is ignored in the subsequent analysis.
In order to evaluate the efciency of regenerative braking
energy, the working scenario of the truck is: the truck is accelerated from zero to the maximum speed, then driven at a constant
speed and slowed down to stop. The braking time can be changed
by the driver's command under experimental condition. The input
signals with the duration time of 50 s and sampling frequency of
2 kHz are shown in Fig. 12; the related variables are calculated as
follows:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

Power/kW

Kinetic
energy
before
braking
(kWh)

200

-500

Table 2
Experimental results without load.
Label Total
consumption
energy for
acceleration
(kWh)

500

Fig. 12. Main drive motor input power curve (accelerator signal, brake signal,
motor input power, speed signal).

1
2
3
4
5
6

239

Current/I

speed/(kmh-1)

power/kW

braking/V

accelerator/V

Z. Zou et al. / ISA Transactions 55 (2015) 234240

The total energy consumption for acceleration: 0.469634 kWh,


recycling energy: 0.138672 kWh,
kinetic energy before braking: 0.176404 kWh,
recycling energy/total energy consumption: 33.283953%, and
recycling energy/vehicle kinetic energy: 88.610559%.

To verify the evaluation strategy for regenerative efciency, six


experiments on the truck without loads are rstly carried out,
where the emergency braking state is tested twice and slow
braking is tested for four times. The nal results are listed in
Table 2.
As Table 2 shows, the energy regenerative efciency is low in
the rst two experiments. The main reason is that, in an emergency braking situation, both the air braking and regenerative
braking of the main motor are effective and the former plays the

T/s
Fig. 13. Voltage, current, and power curves of the supercapacitors during the
driving range per charge.

major role in this case. Most of the kinetic energy is lost due to
friction, making the regenerative energy is very little. The last four
tests are in the state of slow braking. The regenerative braking is
dominated and the air braking does not work or just plays a
supplemental role. At this circumstance, the energy recovery
efciency is high. In addition, because the evaluated truck uses
the supercapacitors as storage devices, it has the ability to absorb
high current and to make the recovered energy absorbed rapidly
compared with other types of batteries. It is proved that the
efciency of braking energy recovery in the electric vehicles
powered by supercapacitors is greatly enhanced than the efciency by ordinary batteries.
According to the specication of the supercapacitor truck, 70 t
of weight will be carried to move4 km. In case of load, the
experiment results shown in Table 3 are obtained using the
proposed evaluation system. It can be seen from Table 3 that the
total consumption energy for achieving a maximum speed of
25 kmh  1 with a 70 t load is up to 1.14 kWh. While without load,
the maximum consumption energy for the maximum speed
40 kmh  1 is only about 0.578 kWh, which is illustrated in
Table 2. The heavy load increases the total consumption energy
and can not improve the regenerative efciency. The maximum
recycling energy is only 0.1 kWh in case of 70 t load. Moreover, the
average ratio of the recycling energy to the kinetic energy before
braking is 14.07%. This result may likely attribute to low braking
speed and loss of mechanical friction.
Fig. 13 demonstrates the voltage, current, and power of the
supercapacitors during the driving range on a single charge. After
fully charged, the voltage of the supercapacitors reaches to the

240

Z. Zou et al. / ISA Transactions 55 (2015) 234240

maximum value of 546.6 V. When the truck stops, the voltage of


supercapacitors is 356 V. As shown in Fig. 13, there exist frequent
starts and stops in the whole process; the positive pulse is
acceleration while the negative pulse represents the regenerative
braking. In this experiment, the total traveling time of the supercapacitor truck is 29.3 min and the total energy consumption is
10.498 kWh. At the same time, the recycled energy is 2.524 kWh
in the whole range. Therefore, the rate of recycled energy to total
consuming energy is 24.0427%. This has clearly veried that the
supercapacitors can greatly improve the truck's fuel economy in all
working conditions.
5. Conclusion
It has been demonstrated that the proposed energyregeneration detection system can effectively measure the efciency of regenerative braking. The supercapacitor truck shows
excellent energy regenerative characteristics in that the braking
energy can be absorbed efciently and reliably, and the maximum
efciency can be up to 88%. Therefore, the electric vehicle powered
by supercapacitors can obtain higher energy-regeneration efciency and also output larger power in a short time.
In addition, the regenerative-braking energy efciency varies
along with the driver's behavior. Especially, the force imposed on
the brake pedal is one of the important factors that affect the
regenerative efciency. In case of the emergency braking, the
braking force comes mainly from front wheels; if we can establish
front and rear regenerative braking mode, then energy-recovery
effects will be better. In short, the energy-recovery efciency in
electric vehicles can be guaranteed by the supercapacitor technology. It is believed that the supercapacitor technologies will
improve the performances of electric vehicles, and bring electric
vehicles into a new stage.
This proposed measurement system can also be easily implemented in the evaluation and maintenance of hybrid electric
vehicles. The assignation of the braking force on the four wheels
is very vital to the vehicle's safety in the braking process. Therefore, in the further research, the function of evaluating braking
forces should be considered in the proposed system.
Acknowledgment
This project is being jointly supported by the National Natural
Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 51075317) and Program for
New Century Excellent Talents in University (Grant no. NCET-120453).

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