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Modulus, Cylindrical Shells with

Low-Modulus Core

Robert S. Joseph

ABSTRACT

Long, cylindrical shells, of high modulus polymer with low

modulus elastomeric core, rest horizontally on the rigid

bottom of a groove with rigid side walls. At both sides, gaps

ranging from zero to approximately the dimension of the

shell thickness are allowed. Shell and core are assumed to

obey Hookes law. A uniformly distributed axial downward

acting load is applied to the top boundary. The system is

modelled using the ANSYS finite element program, Revision 5.0. The applied vertical load serves as the

independent variable. Dependent variables include the top

shell boundary reactions (loads and total deformation),

reaction at the side of the shell (load), and maximum von

Mises stresses and strains. Results can be reported numerically and graphically. The analytical model is

described briefly and its application is illustrated by three

examples. Purpose of this work is to provide parametric

trend data for estimating mechanical response of

AMPLIFLEX connector elements in reference 1.

1. INTRODUCTION

The behavior of certain elements of the AMPLIFLEX

connector was to be studied by the following model.l Cylindrical shells consisting of polyimide foil, an organic

polymer with relatively high modulus of elasticity, enclose a

core of low modulus silicone rubber. The shells are assumed to be of infinite length, and their cross sections can

be circular, oval or polygonal. They rest in a horizontal

groove with rigid bottom and side walls as shown schematically in Figure 1. Between the sides of the shells and the

the top, uniformly distributed parallel to the long axis of

the shell, a load is applied in a vertical, downward direction. The response to this load, in particular deformations

at the top and reactive loads at the top and the sides of the

shells, are of interest.

To avoid time consuming experimental studies requiring

preparation of parts with different shapes and dimensions,

the problem was to be modelled mathematically. Numerical analysis of mechanical systems has served design

engineers in finding optimal solutions for a long time. Usually, the system under consideration is described by a set of

higher order, nonlinear, partial differential equations and

boundary conditions specific to the system. Exact, closed

solutions of these problems are generally not possible.

Approximations were and still are developed by simplifying, sometimes drastically, the original mathematical

formulations. For a given system the degree of success of

this approach depends largely on the ingenuity of the analyst. If closed, exactor approximate solutions are not

required, the original problem can be rewritten in form of

difference equations. Using digital computers and observing the pertinent, system specific precautions, the rewritten

problem can then be solved with reasonable effort by conventional methods.2,3,4,5 For many of todays applications

even these approaches are unsatisfactory.

Difficulties encountered with these earlier conventional

procedures led to the development of the finite element

method (FEM). An early, fundamental discussion of its

16

R.S. Joseph

and in Reference 1, the material nonlinearities (viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, and hyperelasticity with the MooneyRivlin strain energy function) are available in ANSYS

should it become necessary to include these

approximations.

2. THE SYSTEM

Figure 1 shows the cross section of one of the examples

used in the study. Their symmetry and the assumption of

infinite length of the cylinders simplify the procedure

greatly. Three cases termed B0, Bl, and C where selected.

They represent combinations of different geometries and

boundary conditions:

B0 shell with circular cross section, rigid support at bottom, rigid support at both sides, load applied at top.

the examples analyzed. Infinite length of the cylinder was

assumed. Quantities are measured in conventional U.S.

units. Subscript o indicates outside dimensions of the shell, c

of the core.

h o = height of the shell,

wo = width of the shell,

hc = height of the core,

wc = width of the core,

ro = 0.5 wo = radius of curvature at top and bottom of the

outside,

rc = 0.5 wc = radius of curvature at top and bottom of the

inside,

t = 0.5 (ho h c ) = 0.5 (Wo wc) = shell thickness,

g = physical gap between sidewalls of shell and rigid support,

P = applied external load in lbs/in.

B1 shell with circular cross section, rigid support at bottom, gap between side walls of shell and support at both

sides, load applied at top.

C shell with oval cross section, rigid support at bottom,

rigid support at both sides, load applied at top.

Table 1 gives dimensions of the elements of each of the

examples, Table 2 the material constants for shell and core.

Justification for use of these constants and the linear materials model are given in reference 1. The effect of a finite

gap width between the side walls of the supporting structure and the shell is shown for a shell with circular cross

section.

the cylinder was assumed. Definitions of the parameters are

given in Figure 1.

application to solving a number of non-trivial, specific engineering problems is presented for instance by Girault and

Raviart. 6 The most recent edition of Eshbachs Handbook

of Engineering Fundamentals contains a concise summary

of FEM, supported by selected examples and a brief bibliography. One of the most widely used and accepted FEM

codes in the world today is ANSYS8, introduced nearly 25

years ago by Swanson Analysis Systems, Inc.

Revision 5.0 of the ANSYS program provides extensive

nonlinear capabilities including geometric nonlinearities,

element nonlinearities, and material nonlinearities which

are required to solve contact problems of this type. In the

study described herein, the geometric nonlinearities (large

strain and large deflection effects) and element nonlinearities (contact surface elements with sliding and compression

capabilities are employed. Although not used in this study

core are assumed to obey Hookes law. Applied external

loads were 0.2, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 lb/in.

R.S. Joseph

17

Revision 5.0 of ANSYS is used to model and perform the

analysis of the long cylindrical shells discussed herein. A

one-half axial symmetry model of each geometry is developed using 2-D solid plane strain elements and contact

surfaces. Since the model exhibits reflective symmetry

along the length and the loading is symmetric, a one-half

symmetry model is only required for the solution. However,

for graphical presentation in section 4., the model results

are reflected so that the full model can be used to view the

displaced shape and the stress/strain contours. The ANSYS elements used to model the system described in

Figure 3. Finite element mesh for model C. The model exhibits reflective symmetry relative to the vertical, central

plane through its axis.

for model B 0 with circular cross section and model C with

oval cross section are shown in Figures 2 and 3, respectively. The shell is modelled with one layer of 2-D

isoparametric elements (PLANE 42) with extra displacement shapes, which allow the elements to move more

flexibly. Friction between shells and the rigid supports is

assumed to be zero. For the purpose of the exploratory

study in reference 1, the modelling approximations regarding material properties, mesh sizes, friction and plain

strain end conditions are satisfactory.

exhibits reflective symmetry relative to the vertical, central

plane through its axis.

18

R.S. Joseph

of simultaneous equations generated by the FEM. Since

geometric (large strain and large deflection) and element

(gaps) nonlinearities are included in the model, the program uses Newton-Raphson equilibrium iterations to

achieve convergence to a specified tolerance of 0.1%. The

solution results are saved on the results file and then they

can be conveniently reviewed (scanned, sorted, tabulated,

plotted) in the POST1 general postprocessor. A flow chart

illustrating the basic ANSYS concepts used in this analysis

is shown in Figure 4.

Tables 3 to 5 give summaries of the FEM results of particular interest for the three selected models. For a global view

they can also be represented graphically. Such graphs are

of importance if undesirable distribution of local stresses or

strains are to be identified. Figures 5 to 7 show the dis-

models. Figure 8 illustrates the von Mises strain distribution in shell and core for model C. In addition to these

more or less arbitrarily selected graphs, others can be generated from the ANSYS POST1 general postprocessor.

cross section, no gap between shell and side walls of groove.

P is the load applied at the top of the shell. a) Reactions at

top boundary of shell; P/2 = total nodal contact force at top

boundary for 1/2 symmetry model = sum of the terms in the

column; = vertical displacement of top of shell.

cross section, gap of 1 mil between shell and side walls of

groove. P is the load applied at the top of the shell. a) Reactions at top boundary of shell; P/2 = total nodal contact

force at top boundary for 1/2 symmetry model = sum of the

terms in the column; = vertical displacement of top of

shell.

normal load at the side boundary.

normal load at the side boundary.

Mises elastic stress; = von Mises elastic strain.

Mises elastic stress; = von Mises elastic strain.

= von

= von

R.S. Joseph

19

cross section, no gap between shell and side walls of groove.

P is the load applied at the top of the shell. a) Reactions at

top boundary of shell; P/2 = total nodal contact force at top

boundary for 1/2 symmetry model = sum of the terms in the

column; = vertical displacement of top of shell.

normal load at the side boundary.

Mises elastic stress; = von Mises elastic strain.

20

R.S. Joseph

= von

Figure 5. Displacement plot for model B0, a) for applied load P = 0.2 lb/in, b) for applied load P = 6.0 lb/in.

Figure 6. Displacement plot for model B1, a) for applied load P = 0.2 lb/in, b) for applied load P = 6.0 lb/in.

a) for applied load P = 0.2 lb/in,

b) for applied load P = 6.0 lb/in,

c) enlargement of upper portion of Figure 7b.

22

R.S. Joseph

Figure 8. Plots of von Mises strain for model C at applied load P = 6.0lb/in, a) for the shell, b) for the core.

5. REFERENCES

1. E. W. Deeg, Mechanics of AMPLIFLEX Connector

Elements, AMP J. of Technol. 4 (1994), pp 24 to 40.

2. E. G. Keller and R. E. Doherty, Mathematics of Modern

Engineering, Volume I, (Wiley, New York, 1936), 163188.

3. H. T. Davis, Introduction to Nonlinear Differential and

Integral Equations, (Dover, New York, 1962), 467-488.

4. R. W. Hamming, Numerical Methods for Scientists and

Engineers, 2nd edition, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1973).

5. M. E. Goldstein and W. H. Braun, Advanced Methods

for the Solution of Differential Equations, (NASA,

Washington, D. C., 1973), 320-345.

6. V. Girault and P.-A. Raviart, Finite Element Approximation of the Navier-Stokes Equations, (Springer, Berlin,

1979), 58-86.

7. J. N. Reddy in Eshbachs Handbook of Engineering Fundamentals, 4th ed. edited by B. D. Tapley, (Wiley, New

York, 1990), 2.145-2.168,2.191.

Engineering Analysis Corporation (DEAC), a professional

engineering consulting firm based in McMurray, PA.

Mr. Joseph earned his B.S. in Engineering Mechanics from

Pennsylvania State University in 1966 and his M.S. in Civil

Engineering from the University of Pittsburgh in 1971. He

started his professional career at Westinghouse Astronuclear Laboratory where he was employed for seven

years. There he was responsible for static, dynamic, and

stability analysis of various metallic and graphite components of the NERVA nuclear rocket engine.

During the past 21 years Mr. Joseph has worked as a consultant to both, industry and government agencies. He has

been extensively involved in the application of finite element analysis methods to solve a wide variety of complex

engineering problems involving static, dynamic, inelastic,

large deflection, and heat transfer analyses in many diverse

industries. He has published several technical papers dealing with structural dynamics using finite element methods

and has taught short courses on Section VIII, Division 1, of

the ASME code. Mr. Joseph is a Registered Professional

Engineer in Pennsylvania and a member of the American

Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Developed by Swanson Analysis Systems, Inc.,

Houston, PA.

R.S. Joseph

23

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