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31/08/2013

Lecture 2
Zaki Rashidi

Overview

Philosophical
Concepts in
Research

Research
Paradigm

Traditionally philosophical questions have


been grouped into three areas:
Epistemology
Ontology
Axiology

Research
Process

Epistemology (theory of knowledge):

The inquiry into what knowledge is, what can


be known, and what lies beyond our
understanding;
The investigation into the origin, structure,
methods, and validity of justification and
knowledge;
The study of the interrelation of reason,
truth, and experience.

Lottery paradox
Five minutes world hypotheses
In research the debate is how knowledge is
created and verified

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Metaphysics or Ontology (theory of reality):

The inquiry into what is real as opposed to


what is appearance, either conceived as that
which the methods of science presuppose, or
that with which methods of science are
concerned;
The inquiry into the first principles of nature;
the study of the most fundamental
generalizations as to what exists.

A criterion of individuation for


distinguishing things.
Suppose we are asked to sort potatoes into
two basketsone for the large ones and one
for small ones. How will you decide about the
large or small?

Axiology (theory of value):

The inquiry into the nature, criteria, and


metaphysical status of value.
Axiology, in turn, is divided into two main parts:
ethics and aesthetics.

Which rectangle is the most esthetically


pleasing to you? Why?

1. How are values related to interest, desire, will,


experience, and means-to-end?
2. How do different kinds of value interrelate?
3. Can the distinction between intrinsic and instrumental
values be maintained?
4. Are values ultimately rationally or objectively based?
5. What is the difference between a matter of fact and a
matter of value?
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1. The term 'paradigm' may be defined as "a


loose collection of logically related
assumptions, concepts, or propositions that
orient thinking and research
2. The philosophical intent or motivation for
undertaking a study
3. A paradigm includes three elements (1) a belief
about the nature of knowledge (2) a
methodology and (3) criteria for validity.
4. A paradigm is interpretive framework in terms
of 'knowledge claims; epistemology, ontology,
axiology, and research methodology

Fechner's experiment has been repeated with


variations in methodology many times and
occasionally his results have been supported.
In general, the rectangle with the ratio of
21:34 was preferred, with the rectangles
adjacent to this one in the picture being rated
highly also.
The ratio of 21:34 is the so called "golden
rectangle" because it's based on the golden
ratio or "divine proportion." It's rectangle D

above

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http://www.iier.org.au/iier16/mackenzie.html
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Postivism / Post Positivism

Positivist and Post-positivist paradigm

Interpretivist /constructivist paradigm

Transformative paradigm

Pragmatic paradigm

Positivism is referred to as 'scientific method' or 'science


research', is "based on the rationalistic, empiricist
philosophy
Interpretivism / constructivism
Interpretivist/constructivist approaches to research have the
intention of understanding "the world of human experience,
suggesting that "reality is socially constructed
Pragmatism
Pragmatism is not committed to any one system of
philosophy or reality. Pragmatist researchers focus on the
'what' and 'how' of the research problem. The pragmatic
paradigm places "the research problem" as central and
applies all approaches to understanding the problem
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Positivist/
Postpositivist
Dimension of Contrast

Constructivist

Positivist

Epistemology (the
relationship to the
knower and known,
the nature of
knowledge)

Knower and known are


interactive, and
inseparable

Knower and known are


independent, a dualism

Ontology (the nature


of reality, being, truth)

Reality is multiple,
constructed, and holistic

Reality is single,
tangible, and fragmentable

Axiology (the role of


values in inquiry)

Inquiry is value bound

Inquiry is value free

The possibility of
causal linkages

All entities are in a state


of mutual relationship
and simultaneously
shaping each other

There are real causes,


temporally precedent to
or simultaneous with
their effects

The possibility of
generalization

Only time- and contextbound working


hypotheses

Time- and contextfree generalziation

Paradigm
Positivist/
Postpositivist

Methods (primarily)
Quantitative. "Although qualitative
methods can be used within this
paradigm, quantitative methods tend to
be predominant . . .

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Naturalistic

Phenomenologi
cal

Hermeneutic

Interpretivist
Ethnographic
Multiple

participant

meanings

Social and

historical

construction
Theory

generation

Symbolic

interaction

Transformative
Critical theory
Neo-marxist
Feminist
Critical Race Theory
Freirean
Participatory
Emancipatory
Advocacy
Grand
Narrative
Empowerment issue
oriented
Change-oriented
Interventionist
Queer theory
Race specific
Political

Pragmatic
Conseque
nces of
actions
Problemcentered
Pluralistic
Realworld
Practice
oriented
Mixed
models

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Data collection tools (examples)


Experiments
Quasi-experiments
Tests
Scales

Interpretivist/ Qualitative methods predominate


Constructivist although quantitative methods may
also be utilised.

Interviews
Observations
Document reviews
Visual data analysis

Transformative Qualitative methods with quantitative


and mixed methods. Contextual and
historical factors described, especially
as they relate to oppression (Mertens,
2005, p. 9)

Diverse range of tools particular need to avoid


discrimination. Eg: sexism,
racism, and homophobia.

Pragmatic

May include tools from both


positivist and interpretivist
paradigms. Eg Interviews,
observations and testing and
experiments.

Qualitative and/or quantitative


methods may be employed. Methods
are matched to the specific questions
and purpose of the research.

Experimental
Quasiexperimental
Correlational
Reductionism
Theory
verification
Causal
comparative
Determination
Normative

Interpretivist/
Constructivist

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Lawrence Neuman, Chapter 4


Alan Bryman, Chapter 1
Research articles and readings (see yahoo
group)

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