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REPORT ON LABORATORY TESTING OF KAOLIN SAMPLE

JULY 2015

NIGERIAN BUILDING AND ROAD RESEARCH INSTITUTE


(FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY)
1

DISCLAIMER
All data and technical information provided in this report are based on the results
of the investigation conducted in the Construction Materials testing laboratory of
the Nigerian Building & Road Research Institute (NBRRI), Abuja. The test results
are based on the investigation carried out on soil samples supplied by the client.
The responsibility of NBRRI is limited to the geotechnical findings contained in
this report. Any use of the findings of the report without consulting NBRRI by any
other agency or persons other than the client is solely at their own risk and
responsibility

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute (NBRRI) was requested by the
Director-General/Chief Executive Officer of the National Space Research
Development Agency, (NASRDA) to conduct a quality assessment on some soil
samples collected. This report is for the preliminary studies carried out on the soils
delivered to the institutes laboratory. The results from the preliminary laboratory
investigation show that the soils are predominantly highly clayey soils. Based on
the USCS classification system, the soils fall into the CH group while according to
the AASHTO classification system, the soils fall into the A-7-6. Details of the
laboratory tests are presented in the report. Further tests will need to be conducted
which will include: Microscope

examination

(mineralogy)

including

diffraction
Processing characteristics/kaolinite paragenesis

Xray

SUPERVISION TEAM
Prof. D.S Matawal

Director General/CEO

Jennifer Yashi

Research Officer II/Team leader

Abubakar Musa Yola

Research Officer II

Godwin Yisa

Research Officer II

Heiman L. Makwin

Research Officer II

Wisdom Tavaku

Technical Officer

PROJECT TEAM

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0

INTRODUCTION

2.0

LABORATORY TESTING

3.0

ANALYSIS OF TEST RESULTS

4.0

CONCLUSIONS

APPENDICES
Appendix A Particle Size Distribution test results and Graphs
Appendix B Atterberg Limit test results and Graphs

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1.Preamble
The Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute (NBRRI) was requested
by the National Space Research Development Agency, (NASRDA) to
conduct a laboratory evaluation on a soil sample collected for a proposed
project. The sample was delivered to the Construction Materials testing
Laboratory, Abuja for testing.

1.2.Objectives and Scope of Study


The primary objective of the investigation was to have a quality assessment
of the soil sample and determine some suitable uses. Based on the request
from the client, the scope for the testing of the soil comprised the following;
Determination of index properties of soils: Atterberg limits, Particle
Size Distribution with a view to classify the soils.
Determination of mineralogical composition of the soil: microscopic
examination

2.0 LABORATORY ASSESSMENT


An idealized laboratory assessment of Kaolinite-bearing rocks is given below. A
brief description of all the tests performed on the soil samples are also presented in
this section. The following tests were conducted on the samples:
Particle size distribution
Atterberg Limits

2.1 Particle Size Distribution:

This test is performed to determine the percentage of different grain sizes


contained within a soil. The mechanical or sieve analysis is performed to determine
the distribution of the coarser, larger-sized particles, and the hydrometer method is
used to determine the distribution of the finer particles. This test is performed in
accordance with BS 1377: Part 2: 1990. Grain size analysis provides the grain size
distribution, and it is required in classifying the soil.
2.2 Atterberg Limit Tests:
The Atterberg limits are based on the moisture content of the soil. This test is
performed to determine the plastic and liquid limits of a fine grained soil. The
liquid limit (LL) is arbitrarily defined as the water content, in percent, at which the
soil changes from a plastic semi-solid to liquid state. The plastic limit is the
moisture content that defines where the soil changes from a semi-solid to a plastic
(flexible) state. The shrinkage limit is the moisture content at which a reduction in
water content will not cause a decrease in volume of the soil mass but an increase
in water will increase the volume. A wide variety of soil engineering properties
have been correlated to the liquid and plastic limits, and these Atterberg limits are
also used to classify a fine-grained soil according to the Unified Soil Classification
System (USCS) or AASHTO system. The cone penetrometer test as well as the
Casagrande apparatus was used even though the former is capable of giving more
reproducible results.
The test was performed in accordance with BS 1377: Part 2: 1990.

2.3 Microscope Examination (Xray Diffraction)


7

This is to confirm the presence of Kaolinite in the host rock. As with all clay
bearing rocks, an effective mineralogical analysis must be carried out by X-ray
diffraction (XRD).
2.4 Processing characteristics
This will be done based on the results of all the physical, chemical and
mineralogical tests carried out.
3.0 ANALYSIS OF TEST RESULTS
3.1 Particle Size distribution
The results from the particle size distribution (PSD) showed that 95.4% of the
sample passes through the sieve size No. 200 indicating that the soil is
predominantly fine grained.
3.2 Atterberg Limit tests
The results from the Atterberg limits tests show that the soil samples tested had
liquid limit of 73 %. Plastic limit was determined to be 22 %. Plasticity index was
calculated to be 51 %. Details of the test results are presented in Appendix B
3.3 Classification of Soils
According to the Unified Soils Classification System (USCS), the soils tested fall
into the CH category.

4.0 CONCLUSIONS
8

The primary objective of the investigation was to have a quality assessment of the
soil sample and determine some suitable uses. A comprehensive conclusion cannot
be drawn from the physical tests carried out. This is because other mineralogical
and chemical tests will still need to be carried out to draw a comprehensible
conclusion. The results from the physical laboratory tests show that the soil is a Fat
Clay that is highly plastic with plastic limit reaching up to 22% and a liquid limit
of 73%. Based on the USCS classification system, the soil falls into the CH
category while according to the AASHTO classification system, the soil falls into
the A-7-6 group.

APPENDICES
Appendix A :

Particle Size Distribution Graphs

NIGERIAN BUILDING AND ROAD RESEARCH


INSTITUTE
(FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY)

Particle Size DistributionSieving


Location

LOKOJA, KOGI

Soil Description

Job
ref.

NASRDA,
ABUJA

Brown Kaolinitic Clay


Depth
(m)

Test Method
1990: 9.5
Total mass of dry sample
g
BS test sieve
size

BS 1377: Part 2:
Date
50.33

Mass retained g

Percentage
retained %

Percentage
passing %

0.0

0.0

100.0

14 mm

0.0

100.0

10 mm

0.0

100.0

6.3 mm

0.0

100.0

%
0.00

75 mm
63 mm
50 mm
37.5 mm
28 mm

20 mm
Passing 20 mm

Passing

6.3 mm
g

4.75mm

0.00

16/4/2015

10

100.0

Remarks

3.35mm

0.16

0.32

99.7

2.8 mm

0.14

0.28

99.4

2.36 mm

0.00

0.00

99.4

2.00 mm

0.12

0.24

99.2

1.18 mm

0.44

0.87

98.3

600 m

0.42

0.83

97.5

425 m

0.20

0.40

97.1

300 m

0.17

0.34

96.7

212 m

0.14

0.28

96.4

150 m

0.11

0.22

96.2

75 m

0.36

0.72

95.5

63 m
Passing
63
m
Total

0.07

0.14

95.4

0.00

0.00

95.4

2.33

4.63

NIGERIAN BUILDING AND ROAD RESEARCH


INSTITUTE
(FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY)

Particle Size Distribution- Hydrometer


Sedimentation
Location
Soil Description

LOKOJA, KOGI

Job ref.

Brown Clayey Soil


Depth
(m)
11

NASRDA
KAOLIN

Test Method
1990: 9.5
Total mass of dry sample
g

BS 1377: Part 2:
Date
50.33

CALIBRATION AND SAMPLE


DATA
13/3803
Hydrometer no
58
Test temperature C

25

Meniscus correction Cm

0.3

Reading in dispersant
solution Ro'
Calibration equationslope
Calibration equation-y
intercept
Dry mass of soil g
Specific Gravity
(Assumed)
Viscosity of water

Date/Time

16/4/2015

PRETREATMENT
Pretreated with
Initial dry mass of sample
Dry mass after
pretreatment
Pretreatment
loss

0.9996
-3.741
192.4
50.33
2.5

0.90005
Hydrome
ter
reading
R h'

True
readin
g Rh

Effecti
ve
depth
HR

Modified
reading
Rd

0.5

29.80

30.1

79.8

29.60

29.9

29.50

Particle
diamete
r

Percentage
finer

28.8

0.054

95.372

80.5

28.6

0.038

94.710

29.8

80.9

28.5

0.027

94.378

29.30

29.6

81.7

28.3

0.019

93.716

29.20

29.5

82.0

28.2

0.014

93.385

15

28.60

28.9

84.3

27.6

0.010

91.398

30

28.20

28.5

85.8

27.2

0.007

90.074

60

27.30

27.6

89.1

26.3

0.007

87.093

120

26.50

26.8

92.1

25.5

0.005

84.444

240

25.80

26.1

94.8

24.8

0.004

82.126

480

21.60

21.9

110.5

20.6

0.003

68.218

1440

20.70

21.0

113.8

19.7

0.003

65.237

Elapsed
time t
(min)
0

Figure 1: Particle Size Distribution Graph

12

NIGERIAN BUILDING AND


ROAD RESEARCH INSTITUTE
(FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY)

Atterberg Limits - Cassagrande


Test
Location
Soil Description

LOKOJA, KOGI

Job ref.

Brown Kaolinitic Clay

NASRDA
, ABUJA

Sample No
Depth (m)

Test Method
BS 1377: Part 2: 1990: 4.3

1
16-Apr15

Date

PLASTIC LIMIT
Test Number

Container No

LL

Mass of wet soil + container

Mass of dry soil + container

Mass of container

HC
28.4
5
26.8
7
19.7
5

Mass of moisture

1.58

1.22

7.12
22.1
9

5.86

Mass of dry soil


Moisture content

g
%

Average Moisture Content

26.78
25.56
19.7

20.82

21.51

LIQUID LIMIT
Number of blows
Container No

34

26

16

10

Z1

F1

WWW

31.67

33.71

36.13

25.56

26.17

28.68

20.06

20.1

22.9

Mass of wet soil + container

Mass of dry soil + container

Mass of container

N1
36.4
7
29.5
1
23.1
5

Mass of moisture

6.96

6.11

7.54

7.45

6.36

5.5

6.07

5.78

Mass of dry soil

13

Moisture content

22.1
9

111.09

124.22

126.90

Figure 2: Liquid Limit Graph (Cassagrande Method)

NIGERIAN BUILDING AND


ROAD RESEARCH INSTITUTE
(FEDERAL MINISTRY OF SCIENCE
AND TECHNOLOGY)

Atterberg Limits - Cone Test


Location
Soil Description

LOKOJA, KOGI

Job ref.

Brown Kaolinitic Clay

NASRDA,
ABUJA

Sample No
Depth (m)

Test Method
BS 1377: Part 2: 1990: 4.3

Date

16-Apr-15

LIQUID LIMIT
Test No

14

Initial dial gauge reading

mm

Final dial gauge reading

mm

13.8
13.0
5

16.4

18.9

21.2

16.3

19.1

20.8

24.9
25.2
5

F
30.78

Z
29.5
2
25.0
2
20.0
6

Penetration

mm

Container No
Mass of wet soil + container

Mass of dry soil + container

A
29.6
5
27.1
1

Mass of container

23.2

28.9
25.1
7
19.8
6

23.01

C1
30.5
3
27.0
1
22.8
5

Mass of moisture

2.54

3.73

3.4

3.52

4.5

3.91
64.9
6

5.31
70.2
4

4.37

4.16
84.6
2

4.96
90.7
3

Mass of dry soil


Moisture content

g
%

Figure 3: Liquid Limit Graph (Cone Penetrometer)

15

27.38

77.80