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ANALYSIS

Besides the topics that we have already talked about, specifically the
resolution of forces, kinematics, projectile motion, and newtons second law of
motion, there is also friction. Any object that movies in any direction experiences
an opposing force from air or from another body in contact. That force tends to
either slow down or completely stop the motion of that object. That force which
opposes the motion of the object is called as friction. Friction can manifest in either
as a static or kinetic friction. Static friction or frictional resistance is greater to the
point where the body is about to start its motion. Once the body is in motion, a
lesser amount of resistance, this resistance is called the kinetic friction. Usually
when there are friction between two objects, the surface generates sounds, lights,
and heat energy. It can also be referred as the retarding force of even drag force in
the form of air resistance.
Frictional Force is found to be directly proportional to the normal force
which is represented by N which can be mathematically represented as:
f N

f =kN

The coefficient of friction or takes the place of k which is the constant of


proportionality which will result to:
f =N

If the body slides down the incline due to its own weight, the angle between
the horizontal and the incline is called the angle of repose.
If it is along the y-axis it can be represented as: F y =0 , N=W cos

If it is along the x-axis it can be represented as: F x =0 , f =W sin

It will then result to:


=

f Wsin
=
, =tan
N Wcos

Thus, the coefficient of friction is equal to the tangent of the angle of repose.
For our experiment 105 entitled Friction. We will need 1.5m string, a meter
stick, a pan, a wooden block, a platform balance, an inclined plane with pulley, and
one set of weights.

We are also asked to clean the surface of the wooden block and plane by
wiping them with a piece of scratch paper or tissue to remove dust and other
particles. We also made sure not to touch the surface we will use in this experiment
so that we can avoid contamination.

The first part of the experiment is the determination of the coefficient of


friction. What we did was to first position the wooden plane horizontally. The next
thing is we recorded the weight of the block and the pan which was written on it.
The next thing we did was to tie one end of the string to the blocks hook and the
other end to the pan passing over the pulley of the plane. We then made necessary
adjustments on the string so that the block will have a room for displacement along
the track. We then planed the narrow side of the block on top of the track. We then
slowly added weights on the plan until we can observe a uniform sliding motion or
constant motion of the block along the track. We then recorded that. We then
repeated this for four more time to get 5 trials. We then calculated the for each
trial and determine its average value after wards. The following is a photograph of
the set-up, the table, and the graph:

Determination if the Coefficient Friction


TRIAL

(Wblock + Weightadded)

(Wpan + Weightadded)

Coefficient Friction

Wb

Wp

130.8 g

30 g

0.23

170.8 g

35 g

0.20

130.8 g

30 g

0.23

250.8 g

55 g

0.22

290.8 g

60 g

0.21

Coefficient

Friction,

0.22

Average
Determination of the Coefficient of Friction
350
300

290.8
250.8

250
200

Weightpan + Weightadded

150

170.8
130.8

100
50
0
25

30

35

40

45

50

Weightblock + Weightadded

With a slope of: 0.196969697

55

60

65

The second part of our experiment is the determination of the angle of


repose. What we did first was to remove the string that is tied to the block then
place the block, facing its wider side, to the center of the planes surface. We then
gradually increased the inclination of the plane until such time that we can observe
the same type of motion the block had, in the first part of the procedure. We then
measured the corresponding vertical height and horizontal distance then recorded
them. We then repeated this until we got to 5 trials. We then computed the
coefficient of friction by getting the tangent of then angle. The result and a
photograph of our set up is as follows:

Determination of the Angle Repose


Vertical Height
Horizontal Distance
TRIAL
h
b
tan
1
28 cm
109 cm
0.257
2
34 cm
123 cm
0.276
3
26 cm
96 cm
0.271
4
30 cm
112 cm
0.268
5
32 cm
122.5 cm
0.261

14.41
15.45o
15.15o
15o
14.64o

Based on the gathered data in the experiment, increasing the vertical height
and the horizontal distance will make the coefficient friction a little constant just
like in the first part of the experiment.

For the third part of our experiment which is the determination of maximum
force that causes uniform motion, we first set up the track at an angle of 20o. The
next think we did was to add weights on the pan until there is constant upward
acceleration of the block. We then recorded the weights then using Newtons first
law of motion, determined the theoretical value of the Wp that will cause the block
to slide up at a constant speed,

By summing up forces along x and y- axes, and equating the forces to zero,
the theoretical value of Wp is:
F x =0
W p=f +W b sin; f =N

F x =0
N=W b cos

Therefore,
W p= W h cos +W b sin

We then calculated the Wp using the formula above. It will serve as our AV
or calculated value. We then used the average coefficient from part 1and observed
the value. The picture of the set-up and the table for our graph are as our follows:

Table 3. Determination of the Angle Repose

TRIAL
1
2
3

13 o
15o
17o

Wp (calculated)
57.46 g
71.08 g
85.87 g

Wp
(experimental)
60 g
70 g
85 g

Percent
Difference
4.42%
1.52%
1.01%

4
5

19o
21o

101 g
118.84 g

100 g
115 g

1%
3.23%

CONCLUSION
To determine the coefficient of friction which is represented by between
the contact surfaces as one body moves with uniform motion. We did the first part
of the experiment. The result of our experiment was 0.23, 0.20, 0.23, and 0.21.
What we did was to set the track horizontally. We then tied the string to the hook of
the block and the other end to the pulley. We then added weights to the pan which
is at 30, 35, 55, and 60 grams. We gave a little push to the block in order to remove
static friction. After that we divided the weight of the pan and the added weights to
the weight of the block and its added weight. And the results are what is writing

above. We also found that if we used the small or the bigger part of the block, there
will still be constant motion. We also found that the weight of the pan and its added
weight is directly proportional to the weight of the block and its added weight. By
getting the average the results of our experiment, we then conclude that the
coefficient of friction between the contact surfaces as one body is equal to 0.22.
To establish the relationship between the angle of repose and coefficient of
friction. All the forces that are involved are being translated with relation to the
surfaces inclination. We know that there is a normal force that pushes down the
object. And if we set the angle of repose as , it will result to two components the
x-axis and the y-axis which will contribute to the object sliding. For the y-axis it is
the Wcos for the x-axis it is the Wsin. The Wsin is parallel to the surface and
Wcos is perpendicular to the surface. Since the system will be in equilibrium,
Wsin is also equal to the frictional force and the Wcos is also equal to the
normal force. If we determine the coefficient of friction, it will result to
F Wsin
=
=tan . We can see now that we can relate coefficient to the tangent of
N Wcos
.

Determination of the Coefficient of Friction


350
300

290.8
250.8

250
200

Weightpan + Weightadded

170.8

150

130.8

100
50
0
25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

Weightblock + Weightadded

Graph:
Slope: 0.196969697
Interpretation: The Weight of the pan and its added weight is directly proportional
to the weight of the block and its added weight.