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Although a cylinder is technically not a prism, it shares many of the properties of a prism. Like

prisms, the volume is found by multiplying the area of one end of the cylinder (base) by its

height.

Since the end (base) of a cylinder is a circle, the area of that circle is given by the formula :

where:

is Pi, approximately 3.142

r is the radius of the circular end of the cylinder

h height of the cylinder

Volume of a sphere

Definition: The number of cubic units that will exactly fill a

sphere .

Try this Drag the orange dot to adjust the radius of the

sphere and note how the volume changes.

Where r is the radius of the sphere. In the figure

above, drag the orange dot to change the radius of the sphere and note

how the formula is used to calculate the volume. Since the 4, 3 and pi

are constants, this simplifies to approximately

This formula was discovered over two thousand years ago by the Greek

philosopher Archimedes. He also realized that the volume of a sphere is

exactly two thirds the volume of its circumscribed cylinder, which is

the smallest cylinder that can contain the sphere.

Volume of a pyramid

Definition: The number of cubic units that will exactly fill a

pyramid.

Try this Drag the orange dots to adjust the base size and height

of the pyramid and note how the volume changes.

The volume enclosed by a pyramid is one third of the base area times the

perpendicular height. As a formula:

the base of the pyramid and h is its height. The height must be measured

as the vertical distance from the apex down to the base.

Volume of a cone

Definition: The number of cubic units that will exactly fill a cone .

Try this Drag the orange dots to adjust the radius and height of the cone and note how the volume

changes.

of the cone and h is its height. In the figure above, drag the orange dots to change the radius and height of the cone

and note how the formula is used to calculate the volume .

Relation to a cylinder

If you compare the two formulae, you will see one is exactly a third of the other. This means that the volume of a

cone is exactly one third the volume of the cylinder with the same radius and height.

Such a cylinder is the "circumscribed cylinder" of the cone - the smallest cylinder that can contain the cone. In the

figure above, select "Show cylinder" to see the cone embedded in its circumscribed cylinder.

Recall that a prism has two congruent, parallel faces called the bases of the prism. The volume of any prism can be

found by multiplying the area of one of the bases by its height. In the case of a triangular prism, each base is a

triangle.

As a formula

where a is the area of one triangular end face, and h is the height.

There are various ways to find the area of the triangle, use whichever method work with what you are given. In the

above animation, the three sides are given, so here you would use Heron's Formula. But any method will do - below

is a list of methods:

If you know:

Use this

All 3 sides

Heron's Formula

Side-angle-side method

Area of a triangle - box method (Coordinate Geometry)

Prism Formula

An prism is a polyhedron with 2 polygonal bases parallel to each other. The two polygonal bases are

joined by lateral faces. The number of lateral faces are equal to the number of sides in the base. The

lateral faces in a prism are perpendicular to the polygonal bases. Mostly the lateral faces are

rectangle. In some cases the faces may be parallelogram.

Definition: The number of square units that will exactly cover the surface of a pyramid.

Try this Drag the orange dots to adjust the base size and height of the pyramid and note how the

area changes.

The total surface area of any polyhedron, is sum of the surface areas of each face.

In the case of a right pyramid, the side faces are all the same, so we can simply find the area of one and multiply by

the number of faces. Once we add the area of the base, we have the total surface area.

The base

In the figure above, the base is a square. So to find its area we multiply the side length by itself. The base however

can be any polygon. To find the area of a polygon see Area of a regular polygon.

In the figure above, click on 'reset'. The base side length is 10, so since the base is a square in this example, the base

area is 102 or 100.

The sides

The sides of a pyramid are triangles. There are various ways to find the area of triangles (see Area of triangles.) We

find the area of one face, then multiply by the number of faces.

In the figure above press 'reset'. We see from the front face that the base of the triangle is 10. We are also given the

height* of the triangle - 11. Recall that the area of a triangle is half the base times height, so each face has an area

of 55. (half of 11 times 10). The total for the four faces is 220. (4 times 55).

*This is also called the "slant height" of the pyramid - to distinguish it from the perpendicular height.

Total Area

So the total surface area of the above pyramid is

Area of the base 100

Area of the four faces = 4 times 55 220

TOTAL 320

As a formula

Since the base of a pyramid can be any polygon, and you may be given various different measurements, it's best to

follow the method above to find the area. But in the particular case of a right square pyramid with the base side and

slant height given, the area is given by the formula

is the slant height.

Derivation of the surface area of a cylinder

See also: Surface area of a cylinder

Try this Drag the orange dot to the left to "unroll" the cylinder.

The surface area of a cylinder can be found by breaking it down into three parts:

In the figure above, drag the orange dot to the left as far as it will go. You can see that the

cylinder is made up of two circular disks and a rectangle that is like the label unrolled off a

soup can.

The area of each end disk can be found from the radius r of the circle.

The area of a circle is r2, so the combined area of the two disks is twice that, or2r

(See Area of a circle).

The width is the height h of the cylinder, and the length is the distance around the end

circles. This is the circumference of the circle and is 2r. Thus the rectangle's area is 2

h.

where:

is Pi, approximately 3.142

r is the radius of the cylinder

h height of the cylinder

Calculator

b= area of a base

p= perimeter of a

base

h= height of the

prism

Try this Change the height and dimensions of the triangular prism by dragging

the orange dots . Note how the surface area is calculated.

Bases

Each base is a polygon. In the figure above it is a regular pentagon, but it can be any regular or

irregular polygon. To find the area of the base polygons, see Area of a regular polygon and

Area of an irregular polygon. Since there are two bases, this is doubled and accounts for the

"2b" term in the equation above.

Lateral faces

Each lateral face (side) of a right prism is a rectangle. One side is the height of the prism, the

other the length of that side of the base .

Therefore, the front left face of the prism above is its height times width or

The total area of the faces is therefore

If we factor out the 'h' term from the

expression we get

Note that the expression in

the parentheses is the perimeter (p) of the base, hence we can write the final area

formula as

Regular prisms

If the prism is regular, the bases are regular polygons. and so the perimeter is 'ns' where s is the

side length and n is the number of sides. In this case the surface area formula simplifies to

b= area of a base

n= number of sides of a base

s= length of sides of a base

h= height of the prism

The surface area of a cylinder can be found by breaking it down into three parts:

In the figure above, drag the orange dot to the left as far as it will go. You can see that the

cylinder is made up of two circular disks and a rectangle that is like the label unrolled off a

soup can.

The area of each end disk can be found from the radius r of the circle.

The area of a circle is r2, so the combined area of the two disks is twice

that, or2r2.

(See Area of a circle).

The width is the height h of the cylinder, and the length is the distance

around the end circles. This is the circumference of the circle and is 2r

Thus the rectangle's area is 2r h.

where:

is Pi, approximately 3.142

r is the radius of the cylinder

h height of the cylinder

Calculator

Recall that a cone can be broken down into two parts - the top part with slanted sides, and the

circular disc making the base. We can find the total surface area by adding these together.

more, see Area of a circle.

is the slant height.

See also Derivation of cone area.

The slant height is the distance along the cone surface from the top to the bottom rim. If you

are given the perpendicular height, you can find the slant height using the Pythagorean

Theorem. For more see Slant height of a cone.

This can be simplified by

combining some terms, but we usually keep it this way because sometimes we want the area of

each piece separately.

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