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Upanishads. Kena-npanishad
Kena-Upanishad

OM

KENA-UPANISHAD

Transtatedby
Pt

GANGA PRASADJF,

M.A., M.R.A.S.

Retired Chief Justice.

Piice As.

4

only.

KEMA-UPANISHAD

Translated
Pi

/>?/

GANGA PRASADJI, MA, M

R A-S

.

Retired Chief Justice.
President

Sarvadeshik Arya Pratinidhi Sabha
(Inter-national

Aryan Lfa

T)RLHF.

1st Edition.

1000 Copies,

Prise As, 4 only,

Sariadesbll Arya Pratioidlii
t

DelM.

BL

I

ltd

1

,

V368

Lala Sewa

Ram

Cbawla,

At the Imperial Fine Art Press
DFl.HI

Kena-UpanishacL
Upanishad

(1)

sitting

near

God

books teaching
or

"Spiritual

(

3<l

.

+

fi|4

q^

)

literally

The word

"Knowledge

of

is

means

applied

to

s*n-Ri?n

God",

Knowledge", su^ir-fcisif.

(2) K ena- Upanishad

Comes second among

the ten Upanishads, (viz.

Isha, Kena, Katha,
Mundaka,
Mandukya,
Aitareya
Taittiriya, Chhandogya, and Vrihadaranyaka),
which are regarded as the most ancient and

Prashna,

forms part of the Talavakara
Brahman of the Sama Veda, and its proper

authoritative.

name

It

is "Talavakara-Upanishad".

"Kena

Upanishad"

from

its first

It is called

word

as the first or Vajasaneyi

Upanishad

Isha Upanishad

it

word

because

is

Kena,
called

begins with

the

"Isha"

The Upanishad has for its basis a Sukta
in the Atharva Veda (x 2) which is also called
Kena from the first word of the Sukta.
(3)

FIRST SECTION.
has been

taught that
God* being not the object of the senses cannot
be perceived by them nor be apprehended by
In this

the

mind.

section

On

the other

Power that they

who

and the

hand

it

is

by Hit

perform their respective
The section begins with a question

functions.

as to

it

all

controls the functions of the

senses.

MANTRA

1

by whom
wished

:by whom
- wished

speech

falls, p:oes

towards

its

this

object

m speak,

appointed

otter

mind
by
:

mind

whom

- breath,
- first

life

= goes forth
= appointed,
ordained

what
verily

= shining one
= directs

"HJ

(

By whom
towards

ordained

wished

its

2

ordained does the

)

does

for

first

the

object,

mind goes
by whom

breath or Prana go

by whom

ordained they utter this wished
for speech; which devadoea
verily direct the eye,

forth;

and the ear

?

MANTRA

= of the

2.

ear

= ear
= of the mind

:=of the eye

.

eye

:=the mind
which

= being free

r:=of the speech
f[

:

= verily

= departing

= Speech

ai

vn

\= verily
the breath
or

He

(

this

w = world

^<n:=immortal

*refcr= become

life

Brahma

the wise

or

Atma

)

is

ear of the
ear,

mind of the mind, speech of the
speech, verily
He is life of life and eye of the eye. The
wise

(on knowing

from
mukti.

this

Him)

are freed and

world "become

on departing
immortal ( * e attain

)

MANTRA

3

verily

=and,

:=te

>==

=from the unknown

eye

=nor, not

also

^ above

speech

= we have

= goes
j

heard

from the ancients

=BO

that

=we know

explain
or teach

:

we comprehend

different

to us

=this; him

taught

from the known

The eye does not reach

there, nor does the

peech reach, nor the mind. We do not know,
nor comprehend Him, so as to be able to teach
or explain Him. He is different from the

known and also above the unknown. Thus
have we heard from the ancients i. e. itishis
who have taught Him to us.
)

(

MANTRA 4.

-what,

who

rf^^that, him

=by

ncf=ralone

speech
T=is not
expressed

5*U

God

5T

thou

^by whom
f= speech
rrris

expressed
or uttered

Who

3qj*^= worships
speech, but
uttered, Him alone

cannot be expressed by

by whose power speech

is

know thou

as God, not this

worships

or expresses

(

which

).

MANTRA

5.

this

speech

5

)

<

fcf

by mind

= alone

5^j

= thinks
by

whom

^

5^= this

=8ay
*R:=the mind
*{3= thinks

^=this

rT^=that, him

^qr^= worships

Who

does not

Whose power

the

think

mind

thou as God, not this
( or thinks about ).

by the mind, but by

thinks,

MANTRA

,

^by whom

*3= thou

|^

^= which
f^

alone

6.

who

= by eye

,

Him alone know

which this mind worships

him

this

^W^

worship

Who

does not see with eyes,
by whose
the
power
eyes see, That alone known thou as
God, not this which the eye worships (or sees)

MANTRA

,

7.

^

who
ear

5*31=.

God

hears

whom

?r=not

f=is heard, hears
that

=

5^= this
3qie^

= worships

Who

does not hear with ear, by whose
power that ear hears this, Him alone know thou
as God, not this which this ear
worships
(or hears)

MANTRA

8.

IFII

(

7

)

= alone

who
breath

breathes

whom, by

r=by

whose power
:

= breath
is

^

led,

is

= that, him

Who

directed

^
5^ = this

^ = which
^=this
wwfo = worships

does not breathe with breath, by whose
power breath is directed; Him alone know thou
as God, not this which this Prana worship*
(or breathes).

SECOND SECTION, fefa
Having emphasised in the first Section
that God is not an object of the senses or the
mind,

this

section

stresses

further

the

mysterious nature of Brahma which cannot
be fully comprehended by man. Some scholars
seek to read in it what is called agnosticism.

This would be a serious mistake.

The

first 3

Mantras speak of the enigmatical character of
Brahma, or the incomplete knowledge of man
about Him. The 4th Mantra, however, says
clearly how the knowledge derived from 5T%^T^T
or constant meditation leads to immortality.
The 5th. or the last Mantra goes so far as to
assert that if a

of

Brahma

calamity"

man

fails to

then it
f^Rfe: This

in this life
*r^ft

acquire knowledge
is
is

verily

"a

great

certainly not

by modern agnosticism
according to which God, (if he exists) is quite
unknowable, and it is a vain pursuit to seek
His knowledge.

what

is

understood

What

intended to be emphasised in the

3 Mantras in beautiful and poetic language
that man s knowledge about Brahma can not

first
is

IB

(

be complete or perfect, (except of course in
the state of mukti or the highest yoga).
This
should be self evident. For man s soul and
intellect are finite

infinite

of

and

and absolute.

limited,

From

while

God

is

the very nature
of Him must be

our knowledge
and
be who pretends to know Him
imperfect,
fully,
verily knows Him not", as the 2nd
and 3rd Mantras say.
things
"he

MANTRA

Of His

If

"

1.

Thou thinkest
I know well
Thus

thou

What
Of his

Little

Among deva

Indeed

Therefore

Now
Worth thinking

Certainly

about

Thou
Knowest
Another

means

"little

Indeed
reading

is

which

also

Of God
5^qq^

?tpf thee

Nature

^73 I think

^ What

ftrf^m Known

If thou thinkest

"I

know God

well",

then

thou certainly knowest but little of God s
nature. What thou knowest of God, and what
is known obout Him among Devas, ( Learned
people ), I think that
thinking about.

it

MANTRA

is

indeed

2.

^
Among

,

worth

IRII

us (Says)

Think, believe
I

know

well

Thus

KnoW8

Not, nor
I do not

know

Thus

^

Not
Does not
^
knows

^ And

Who

(He)
I do not believe that I know Him well, nor
He
I know Him.
that I do not know Him.
among us who says he knows Him ( fully )
knows Him not; he who says he does not know

Him

fully,

knows Him.

(

11

)

MANTRA

by

whom

He is

e:

3.

He

not

Unrealised,

understood

unknown

By him
He

is

He

is

Of those who

understood

know

understood

ivnown
Of those who
do not know

o

By whom
AT

,

3 JNot

v_ r
^? Ivnows
,

He is understood by those who think they
do not understand Him; he does not know who
says he understands Him. He is unknown to
those who profess to know Him, and is known
to those who do not profess to know Him.

MANTRA

4.

TTT

Constant
meditation

Known
^Knowledge
Immortality
1

Verily

Obtains

By

self or self

exertion

Obtains
Strength

By Knowledge
Obtains

Immortality

(

God

Knowledge of
meditation

God

of

)

derived by constant

leads

to
immortality. By self
obtains strength, by knowledge
he obtains immortality.

man

exertion
(

12

)

(Bodha) means ordinary knowledge,
knowledge derived from the senses and the
Note:

sjfa

when the mind

intellect,

^ff^g?5f srf%

working out-side

and dealing with the

world

the

is

matter. 5T%^Tqr

of

outer world,
Prntibodha

means higher knowledge, knowledge derived
from the intuition and Introspection, when
the mind is working inside ^^5^5%, and
dealing with the inner world, the world of spirit
i.

f

.

Atma and Paramatma.

The

latter

or

higher knowledge yfaHsr is
acquired by Yoga the most authoritative work
on which is Patanjalis Yoga-Sutra. There are

two

principal

grades of meditations taught in

yoga viz:
(1) tfs^TKrsrr CTJhr

also called Sabija

wufr Samprajnyat-Samadhi

Samadhi, because the seeds

of past knowledge are retained therein.
(2)

^tfsriTI<T

Samadhi

3TT

fasffa STOifa

Asamprajn^at

called Nirbija Samadhi because
the seeds of past knowledge are destroyed there
in.

also

There are several kinds of the former, the

13

(

)

being faft^K Nirvichar Samadhi.
effects are thus described in Yoga Sutras:

On

efficiency in Nirvichar one
purification and cheerfulness of the

attaining

obtains
inner

Its

self.

Therein

he

gets

unerring

intellect

or

intuitive sight.

The knowledge gained from
quite different from
testimon or inference.

gight

is

this

intuitive

that gained by

by the unerring
neutralise or remove all

The impressions gained

sight will
other imressions or Sanskaras.
intuitive

When even

the impressions of this intuitive
are restrained, all other impressions having

sight
also been restrained the

or seedless Samadhi.
47 to 51
( Yoga I,

Yogi attains to Nirbija
)

The reader

how

will

now have some

idea

as

to

Knowledge derived from yogic
meditations leads to Nirbija Samadhi, and
thence to immortality. The subject is, how
ever, large and too technical to be adequately
5rfcTnsr

or

described in a brief note like

MANTRA

Here, in this
-

life

If

this.

5.

*rfrft

Great

fisR%:

Know

Calamity
In all things

^5 ^g

Then
True, good
Is

f^f^ ^T Having realised
qfaj: The wise
Rc^T

Not

Departing

^PflTrrr

From

this

^r?I World

If

Here

^^^]: Immortal

Know
*Rf% Become
If a man Knows Him in this life, then
and good; if he does not know Him here,
it

is

a

realised

great

Him

(as

calamity.

The

pervading)

all things,

immortal on departing from

well

then

wise having

this world.

become

Third Section,
This section teaches

the

in

form

of

a

beautiful allegory that all physical forces and
also all mental faculties, which are called devas>

derive their powers from
will incidentally

opinion of

Brahma

or God.

show how unreasonable

is

It

the

some European scholars that the

Vedic religion teaches worship of a plurality
of devas or

"Gods".

MANTRA

God

^r^ Thought

%

Vei
wj:

H

1.

WRI* Our

For the devas *
Obtained victory

^

f

firw. Victory

Qwn
.

rp,

Verily

of

God

<W

Victory, triumph

Devas
Felt proud

They

<

Our

Own
This

ra
"fc

1

"

Greatness

(

God

16)

obtained victory for devas* or
good forces (against evil forces). The devas felt
verily

this

proud

in

"this

victory

victory
is

of God.

They

our own, this

thought

our own.

is

greatness".

MANTRA

2

IRII
?T<T

He

<frf

^ Verily
Their (thought or

sr

IT

Not

ssrsfR^ They

knew

%q What

pride)

^

Knew

ft

Him

This

To them
Then

Adorable one

Appeared

God

verily knew about their
appeared to them. They did not
this adorable

"God".

literally

means

It

in

know who

is

Vedic literature does not necessarily
used in a very wide sense and

-Hhining"

a detailed dissertation
"Fountainhead

and

one (Yaksha) was.

*The word deva

mean

pride

of

from the root div to shine.

For

on this subject see the writer

Religion"

Chapter

V

Sections 6 and 6.

s

(

17

)

MANTRA

f%

They
f To Agni

all

i

Knower

that

is

Who

^
^

(fire)

Said
?:

3

This

Adorable one

5% He

of

born

Let

?T*Jr

Him

said
it

be so

?frf

Find out
said to

They
out,

who

"let

it

Agni

"O,

this adorable

be

knower

all

one

is."

!

find

him

Agni answered

so."

MANTRA

4

He
^RiT

Spoke

f% Thus
^m^ He answered

Him

Who
Art thou

(He answered)
Fire

or

Am

Approached

:m*WT: All knower
*T

^

Or
1

-^for

Am

(

He approached
"Who

I

am

are

?

thou"

Jataveda (All

18

)

(Yaksha) who said to him,

Agni

replied,

"I

am

Agni or

knower)".

MANTRA

*r

In that

In thee

5.

Ail

^^f

^

What

I can

burn

What

Power
Thus

55 This

Verily

5%

iftl^ri

On

the earth

5f This

(Yaksha
styled

on

is

?"

this

"What

said)

(Agni answered)

power
"I

is

in

can burn

earth".

MANTRA

6.

5RT

To him
t

A straw
Put

?rg

To burn

^ He
^RT: From

that

thee so
all

that

19

(

)

v? At once

This

Burn
Thus
That

fa^r^"

Approached
with

ftlTfg

^
This
^ Adorable one
ir<Trr

Not

Was

able

^frf

ched

and said

it

with

able to burn

"burn

:

all

it.

straw before

put a

(The yaksha)
(Agni),

able

To Know
What

all

<Tr^That

^TCTT^>

Am

^?\3>

Might
TT

Ceased, desisted

* Not
ir/Trf Thus

He

and

(said to devas).

who

this adorable

this".

They

"I

one

was unable

O, vayu
This

7.

What

TI^ This
!

Find out

to find out

is."

ft

said

Agni approa

might, but was not
at once desisted from it,

its

MANTRA

Then
To vayu

him

^ Adorable one

^%

Is

^\

Yes.

(

Then they
out,

who

20

)

said to Vayu,

this adorable

one

"O,

MANTRA

Am

Approached

To him
Frerl

He spoke

Who

^ Thus
wpftff Said

^TRT^OT Mover in space
(an appellation of

Art thou

Thus

^T

Vayu, Air
Or
:

T

find this

8.

He

:

Vayu

is."

Vayu
Or

^t

I

^rfi^r

Am

5%

I

He (Vayu) approached (yaksha who
"Who

art

indeed, I

am

"I

MANTRA

In that
In thee

said):

am Vayu,
Vayu answered,
Matarishva (mover in space)

thou"

^4

9

All

^TT^sr Blow

away

21

(

)

What

carry

Power
Thus

f

This

Certainly

o^rf

On

this earth

Thus

rr This

(The Yaksha
in thee so

away

What

said):

styled?"

"What

power

is

(Vayu answered)

blow or carry away

all

"I

that exists on

there

can
this

earth".

MANTRA

P

10

To him

A

Put

To

l^T

straw
:

He
From

This

Not

Thus
That

This

Am

Approached
With all might
That
j
Not

Was

that

Desisted

Carry away

?T?j[

carry

able

able

Who
This

Adorable

5%

is

away

(

22

)

(The Yaksha) put a straw to him (and said)
"blow
He approached it with
this away."
all his strength, but was not able to carry it

away, He desisted from
"I

am

it,

unable to find out

(and said to devas):
this adorable one

who

is".

MANTRA

Then
To Indra

They

11.

Adoable
%

% Is
Be it
Thus

said

O. mighty one

Find out

Who
This

Then they

so

*nai^ Approached
^TCJTlrl

From him

fW?[% disappeared
said to Indra,

Mighty one!
find this out who this adorable one
Be it
He approached Yaksha who
so, (said Indra)
from
there.
disappeared
"O.

is."

MANTRA

12.

(

:

23

He

)

SiT^fff

In that

<rr

Very
Space

f%

Went
f

in gold

To her

s^rr^T

A Woman

Decked

Said

What

t^rf This

^ Adorable one

near

Well adorned

5%

Is

Uma; splendid

i

In that very space be came near a fair
woman, Uma well adored and decked in gold.

He

asked her,

Note:

-?m

"who is

Uma

i^cft

this adorable

Haimavati here

cally stands for s^lF^ir ^spiritual

There
viz,

"

Wt

sp-ir

which
little

is

is

a

world

1

allegori.

knowledge

.

known maxim of Vedanta
^g|Ttr% i e this human body

well

rP4f

aptly

one/

described as a microcosm or
is

an exact prototype of the

macrocosm or the bigger world. All physical
forces have their counterparts among the mental
powers. Both are called devas in Vedic phraseo-

lgy.

Of the three devas mentioned above Ayni
(the fire, heat or light) corresponds to the eye;
Vayu (the air) corresponds to the ear, and

Indru

(the

Electricity)

corresponds

to

the

(24
mind.

Mantras 4

&

5 in

)

4th Section of this

very Upanishad say that the mind *R3^ is the
counterpart in the mental world of electricity
the physical world.
of devas, as electricity

Indra

fsRTf^ in

king
of

physical forces,
or ruler of all senses.

ller

(

is

and mind

all

is

the

the

is

prince
the contro

It is the mental or ^p^[f!fT35 interpretation
as distinguished from the physical or ^r^TfVf)

which shows more appropriately the signi
ficance of ^r
or (the spiritul knowledge)
appearing to Indra or the mind and helping
him in his great quest after Brahma. Of the
three devas mentioned above, Agni and Vayu
approached Yaksha but in vain. This means
one

)

l"JT^<r

and the ear are quite incapable of
perceiving God. Indra or mind was also unsucces
sful, but as the reader will see from the next
section Uma Haimavati enabled him to know
that the eye

God.

Swami Shankaracharya

in his

commen

Uma

Haimavati as Vidyasaying: f^jr -?qr ^HJTTT sng*^ &ft ^ttT i.e. Vidya
appeared in the form of a woman or Uma
tary has interpreted

He

has also given the

alternative interpreta

25

(

tion TOT

the

*& fi&tt
of

daughter

who

is

the

mythology.
Sridhara

Shastri

of

or

Parvati

in

Puranio

writer

Pandit

the

second

characterising

Puranik myth

"

has expressed the opinion that

interpolation in

Shankara

s

"Uma

the

Shiva

known

e.

i.

t*rerft

Himavat

well

interpretation as a
^rq^l"

5%<n

consort

A

)

qklfijT^

it is

commentary.

an
Pt.

Sripad Damodar Satvaleker in his commentry
on this Upanishad discredits Pt. Sridhar Shas-

and
suggestion, and has given an interesting
rational explanation of Parvati who is descri
tri s

bed in the Puranas as daughter of
Parvat, and

consort of the

god,

"Himalaya"

Shiva,

by

force so
identifying the same with Kundalini
note on
well known in later yogic literature.
this subject is given in the appendix, followed

A

by a note on Raja yoga.
Aurobindo in his commentary on this
Upanishad which appeared in the Arya says
Sri

:

fHere the three gods, Indra, Vayu, Agni, rep
resent the cosmic Divine on each of the three
Indra on the mental, Vayu on the vital,
planes,

and Agni on the material.
About Uma he sa)/s:

Supreme Nature from whom

the whole cosmic action takes

its

birth;

she

is

the pure summit and highest power of the one
who here shines out in many forms. From

Supreme Nature which is also the Supreme
Consciousness, the gods must learn their truth."
this

.

Fourth Section.
This section sums up the final teaching
of the Upanishadthe gist being contained ta

Mantra

8.

MANTRA

1

ihr

She
1

*Tgfar

greatness

Thus

S% Thus

Verily

^RT:

Said
:

T

You have

God, Brahma

i^r^i^^T?;

He Knew

^H God

this

^% Thus

In Victory

Uma

) said,
(
the
in
victory of
verily

"He

is

verily

God;

God you have your
Thence Indra knew that it was

God.

MANTRA

IRII

thenoe

Verily
IT^ alone

Certainly

greatness

this,

g:

Of God

She

From

2

(

28

Therefore
*l
TT^

% They

Also

% Verily

Those

q^ Him

%^j:

Devas

^rfarRT

^

)

As

^f^^f Nearest

Surpassed
were

q*qg

it

:

Approached,
touched

*P^ Others

^ They

^T^ Devas

|j^ Him

That

5f?W: First

^

Agni

fsr^H^K

Vayu

^U God

:

:

Knew

% Thus

Indra

Therefore these devas

Indra are as

i

e Agni,

Vayu, &

were superior to other devas.
For they approched him nearest, and
verily
first
knew
it
God.
was
they
Note
to other

:

it

The eye and the ear

senses, as they

are superior
convey to us more

knowledge of the physical world which manifeete the glory of God.

The mind

is

senses, because

it

by the aid of

superior even to these two
alone is able to know God

spiritual

regular contemplation.
in the next Mantra.

knowledge gained
This has been

by

stated

(

29

)

MANTRA

3

Nearest

*n^ Therefore
Also
.

Touched,
approached

Indra

^ He

Superior

As

it

were

ft Verily

Others

<Wl

^^^

Him
:

First

^ He

f^T^^f?:

ft Verily

** God

qrni

5%

Him
Indra

Therefore

So
is

superior

He

MANTRA

4

\Vi\\

of

him

This
:

to

he
approched him nearest,
knew him to be God.

other devas.
verily first

also

Knew

Teaching

Thus

ft^

Closed the

ere

(

30

Which

^f Wonderful

This
.

)

^ft This

Lightning
Flashed

^fafctf In the
physical world

Wonderful

?TT

This

when

the physical world
the lightning flashes forth and the eyes
is

his teaching in

are closed, which exite wonder.

MANTRA

5

Now
when

(His teaching) in the mental world
this mind goes forth as it were, it re

collects,

Note:

and constantly

reflects.

The functions of the mind

in cog
of
the
senses which as it
nising perceptions

were go forth towards their objects, in reflecting
on them or recollecting them, and in other acts
of

memory, and

in

the acts of volition, are

manifestations of divine power on the mental
plane or ^n^rTcJT; as the innumerable wonderful

phenomena
his

in the

physical

world dcmonstate

glory on the physical plane or

(

31

)

Aurobindo thus comments on mantras
4 and 5 in his own inimitable manner. He
that the Divine reflects Himself openly in
Sri

says
the Devas or gods. His light takes possession
Something of His
of the inind and the senses.
nature
image falls upon the world

Supreme
and charges
adds.

"All

it

into

this is

Divine Nature.

He

then

not done by a sudden miracle.

revelations, sudden
comes by flashes,
touches and glimpses; there is as if a leap of
of revelation flaming out from
the
It

lighting

these heavens for a

moment and

then returning
the lifting of the

As if
into its secret service,
vision and its falling again
eyelid of an inner
because the eye cannot look long and steadily

on the utter light. The repetition of these
touches and visitings from the Beyond fixes
the gods in their upward gaze and expec
tation;

constant

repetition

fixes

them

in

a

constant passivity; not moving out any longer
mind life
to grasp at the forms of the Universe;
and senses will more and more be fixed in the

memory

in the understanding, in the joy of the

touch and vision

of that

transcendent glory

which they have now restored to make their
To that only they will now resgole object.

(

32

)

pond and not to the touches of outward things.
................ The mind will know
nothing but the
life will move to, embrace, enjoy
but
the Brahman; the eye will see, the
nothing
ear hear, the other senses sense nothing but

Brahman; the

the

Brahman."

MANTRA

6

^rro

He

q He
q:

Verily

Who

He

q^T^ This

Happiness

qcf

Name

Thus

%^ Knows

That

^ Verily

Happiness

ir^f

Him

^?%

Thus
should be

All

^Tlft Beings

worshipped

*T=no:ff^T

He is verily known
He who thus knows him

as,"

Vanam"

verily

all

Love, desire
or Happiness
beings love

him.

Aurobindo beautifully comments on this
mantra as follows:
is the Vedic
"Vana
word for delight or
Tadvanam
and
means therefore the
delightful,
Sri

(

33

)

transcendent delight, the all -blissful Ananda
of which the Taittiriya Upanishad speaks as
the highest Brahman from which all existences
are born, by which all existences live, and
increase,

and into which

this transcendent

existences arrive in

all

and

their passing out of death

delight

birth.

that the

It

is

as

Brahman

must be worshipped and sought. It is this
beautitude therefore which is meant by the
immortality of the Upanishads. %
He (the knower of Brahman) becomes a centre
of the divine

delight

it

shedding

on

all

the

world, and attracting all to it as to a fountain
of joy and love, and self fulfilment in the
universe."

MANTRA

Divine

7

Tlft^ Divine

knowledge
O, Sir
Say,

knowledge
Divine

sn^ft

tell

Thus
Has been
Thee

Certainly

^T<=?

-3qfa<*?

told

^T?w

%

Knowledge

We

Thus

have told

(

34

)

(The pupil says to the teacher)

us

O

sir,

tell

knowledge. (The teacher replies)
Divine knowledge has been told thee, certainly
divine

we have

told thee divine knowledge.

MANTRA

Wft

8

srfrTgT

^T*

<Miffrl

ft

IFH
For
:

^:

it

Austerity
Control of senses
action

Vedas (Rig,

Yajur, Sanaa and
Atharva Vedas)
*T^rfa All bodies
Truth

^

Thus
Basis,

^n^TrRiJ

Abode

foundation
Austerity, control of senses, and good actions
are the foundation of Upanishad or divine

knowledge; the Vedas are
is its abode.

its

MANTRA 9

bodies and truth

(

Who

*:

)

w\

I Verily
\

36

Blissful

^t% World, state

This

5^

Thus

Rfiffasfa Stays, resides

Knows

yfdfaafa (Repeated

Greatest

being the last word)

Having
destroyed
Sin

Endless

He who

acquires this divine knowledge,

he certainly having destroyed sin, resides and
stays in the greatest endless blissful state,.
(i.e.

moksha).

(

ai

:

[l

fcjj

:

,

;

;

;

36

)

Note
,

As has been already stated the gist or
substance of the teaching of the Upanishad is
given in Mantra 8. It consits of 3 parts
viz
(1)

and

Austerity,
actions are

<rq

^

?q control
the

sr^r

(

of the
feet

)

senses,

of

the

Upanishad, the foundation of spiritual wisdomthe first requisites for an aspirant to divine

knowledge
(2)

The Vedas

(3)

Truth

is

are its mainbody.
its head or abode.

We shall explain them in due order.
(1)

austerity means plain living, and
of endurance i.e. habit of bearing heat

Tapaor

power
and cold, hunger and

thirst

and other

privations with fortitude. It

is

evils or

one of the chief

which distinguish the Aryan ideal
of life from the western life of ease and
luxury.
It is a powerful aid to yoga,
being one of the
characteristics

five

niyamas or rules of

TOiq^tarc sr%trRyff

life viz:

ft*nri:

cleanliness, contentment,

and anrrender to God are

?fa s?^fa

<fq:

(Yoga Sutra I 32),
austerity

"niyamas".

self-study,

37

(

Its effects or benefits

^f^r fa%

)

are

thus described in

(Yoga Sutra
strengthening and
"Austerity
proper development of the body and the senses
by destruction of impurities".
Yoga:

(i)

^gfe^RHTTq^:

leads to

I 43)

Gita thus describes 3 kinds of Austerity viz.
Austerity of body, (ii) Austerity of speech,

(iii)

Austerity of mind:

Respect shown to the learned, to the twice
born, to the teachers, and to the wise, purity
straightforwardness, continence or chastity,

and non-violence are

called the Austerity of the

body.

Speech causing

no

annoyance,

truthful,

the practice of the
pleasant and beneficial,
study of scriptures are called the Auterity of
speech.

(

Mental

38

)

cheerfulness,

equilibrium, silence,
nature
this is called the
of
self-control, purity
Austerity of mind. (Gita XVII, 14-16).

Like

all

other acts,

ansterity

is

of three

^rfr^ pure, ?;F5rff passionate and
rTUW of darkness. They are thus described in
varieties, viz.

the Gita :-

threefold austerity, performed by man
with the utmost faith, without desire for fruit,
harmonised, is said to be pure or Satvika.

The

The austerity which

is

performed with the

object of gaining respect, honour and worship,
for ostentation is said to be of passion or rajas
and is unstable & fleeting.

The

austerity under a deluded understan
self torture, or with the object of

ding, with

1

39

(

destroying another, that
or Tamasa

)

is

declared of darkness
(Gita XVII, 17-19)

^T Control or subduing of senses is essential
to virtuous life. Gita has laid great emphasis on
it. Sri Krishna thus describes the qualifications
of a "man of stable, and harmonised mind" or
iT

who

in

Gita

is

the

same

as a yogi:

(Vide gita II, 53)

ft fen i

When

II

from the
objects of senses, as a tortoise draws in on all
sides its limbs, then is his understanding well
he withdraws his senses

poised.

The objects of senses, but not the relish for
them turn away from a person abstaining from
food, but velish also turns away from him
after the

Supreme

is

seen.

(

O Son
!

senses

of

40

Kunti

(

of even a wise

)

Arjim
man,

)

!

though he

striving (for control), impetuously
his mind.

Having controlled them

all,

The excited
carry

be

away

he should

sit,

harmonised, considering me as his goal; for
whose senses are mastered, of him the under
standing

is

well poised.

The man who muses on the
senses,

contracts

attachment
born

arises

objects for

an attachment them, from
desire, from desire anger is

.

From anger

proceeds delusion, from delusion
confused memory, from confused memory the
destruction of reason, and from
reason, he perishes.

destruction

of

(

41

)

But the

disciplined self, moving among
sense objects with senses free from attachment
and repulsion mastered by the self attains

peace.

To whichsoever of the roaming senses the
mind yields, that takes away his understanding,
just as the gale carries

away a

ship

upon the

waters.

whose
Therefore O, mighty armed (Arjun)
senses are fully restrained from the objects of
!

senses, of

him the understanding

is

well poised.

(Gita II, 58-64, 67-68)
o

Works are deprecated by the Neovedantiris who consider them useless or even
3f& or

harmful; for according to their view UR or
knowledge is all that is necessary for attaining
g% emancipation, while works -lead to fruits

and consequently to

This

however,
not the teaching of the Vedas and Upanishads.
Isha Upanishad which stands first among the
rebirth.

is

42

(

)

upanishads, (as it is also a part of the Vedas
being the 40th chapter of the Yajur Veda),
thusspeaks emphatically on the subject:

S

Only performing works should a

man

desire to live for 100 years in this world.

Thus

it is (right) for

work

will

thee,

not otherwise than

not bind that

man".

(Isha 2)

That Knowledge and Work
essential for attaining salvation
cated in the same Upanishad

this,

are
is

equally
thus incul

They who perform only works enter
Into still greater dark
into gloomy darkness.
ness do go they

One

who pursue only knowledge.

obtained by know
Thus have we
ledge, another thing by works.
thing, they say,

is

(

43

heard from the wise

)

who have

explained

it

to us.

He who

acquires knowledge and also at

the

same time performs works, he overcomes death
attains
by works, and
by
immortality
knowledge. (Isha 9-11).

The Vedic teaching

is

that works are to

without a desire

performed

for

fruits;

be

thus

Isha

Upanishad says: ^^Uft^i tfsfajr. Enjoy
by renunciation". Gita has in several places
emphasised the point that where works are

life

thus performed, without a desire for fruit,
they do not bind the soul; e.g. see Gita Chapter
III

and V.

Chapter

V V

and Chapter IV

7-9,

V.

18-23

7-11.

The second part of Mantra 8 is: %^ ra^fnrfa
i.e.
The Vedas are the whole or main body of
the Upanishads. The Vedas which are 4 in
(2)

number,
are

the

viz,

Yajur,
repositary of
Rig,

Sanaa and Atharva

knowledge; the
Upanishads spring from them. The Vedic know
ledge consists of three parts viz. |TR knowledge

^

devotion.
works, and
the
of the
essense
constitute

proper or cognition,

The Upanishads

all

*rfif>

devotional portion of the Vedas, just as Gita
is said to be the essense of the Upanishads.

(

The

(3)

44

)

third part of the Mantra is:
is the head or abode of the

Truth
Upariishads".

Sri

Aurobindo remarks:

"This

truth

verity ...... but

not merely an intellectual
man s ultimate human state

is

of true being, true
consciousness, right know
ledge, right works, right joy of existence,
all
indeed, that is contrary to the falsehood of

egoism and

ignorance."

Mundaka Upanishad

"

says:

alone conquers, not falsehood.
By
the truth is spread the divine
path called ^SRTR"
"Truth

(Mundaka

W

III, 1, 6).

snrf

Manu

has said:

*% 33^

"There
^^nrl qratf
is no virtue
higher than truth, and no sin higher than
q^cq"

falsehoood."

In

many

or truth

places,
is

the Upanishads

Brahma.

say that

45

(

;,

APPENDIX"
)

>/1

(1)

)

;

Note on

)

i)H

)i)

Uma

4

>J|

111

^i

(C
.

>

j

Haimavati and Kundalini

Force.

Before describing Pt. Satvalekar s interpre
tation of Uma Haimavati or Parvati as the

Kundalini Force it is nessary to explain
what Kundalini means.

briefly

According to later Yoga the development
or manifestation of psychic powers depends
on the awakening of Kundalini which other

dormant at the base of the spinal
cord at a point called Muladhar. As its name
wise

lies

implies

it

is

serpent-like,

lies

coiled

up

until

awakened by Pranayama and other yogic
exercises or
by other means of spiritual
advancement. When awakened it rises through
the nerve called Sushumna gg^j *lt (so well
it is

known

yoga literature) in the spinal cord,
ascending by stages from one Chakra to another
till it reaches the top or the crown which is
in

called Sahsrara
brain).

This

is

^*KTC

(in

the upper part of the

accompanied by

spiritual

illu

mination of the highest order according to this

system of yoga.

(

46

)

There are said to be six chakras or nerve
centres in the spinal cord besides the
sahasrara.
They are as follows:

_

(1)

(2)

a of

Jjprwr Muladhar, Root or basic
at base of spine.

last

or

chakra

^f^r Swadhisthan,

Spleen or Splenic;
over tne spleen or
according to some
over the genital organ.

Manipum, Naval or umbilical.
At the naval over the solar
plexus.

(3) *r%3?;

(4)

Anahat, Heart or Cardiac.

?5RTf<r

Near

the heart.

Vishuddha,

Throat or laryngeal.

At the front of throat.
(6)

^r

Ajna,

Brow

or frontal;

between

eyebrows.
(7)

*KK

Sahasrara, Crown or coronal. On
the top of head or in
brain.
large

There

is

copious literature on this

subject.

The most important and well-known book
in
English is "Serpentine Power" by Sir John
Woodruff, late judge of the High
Court,
Calcutta. The Rt. Revd.
Leadbeater, late vicepresident of the Thesophical Society has also

47

(

written

an

interesting

)

on

monograph

the

Leadbeater who

subject, called the "Chakras".
was reputed to be a great occultist states that
the
in
situated
the Chakras are
really

body, and he
them
claimed that he could see
by his powers
of clairvoyance. In his book he speaks of a
German Mystic, Johan George Gichtal who saw
the Chakras in meditation and described them
Etheric double

in his

book

or

called

lished in 1696.

the subtle

Theosopha Practica

pub

In a later edition of the book

of the Chakras
printed in 1710 he gave pictures
showing the situation just as described by

Leadbeater in his book. Leadbeater, however,
admits that there are nerve plexuses in the
cord corresponding to the Chakras in the
spinal

Etheric double or the subtle body.
"Kundalini

yoga"

by Swami Shiva Nand

much

Saraswati of Rishikesh also contains
He
ful information on the subject.
the Chakras
opinion that
Sharira (Astral body).

are

in

is

the

use

also

of

Linga

Pt. Satvalekar argues that the spinal cord
be called Parvat q^T or q^r^ because it

may
is

contained in the back bone which

is

comp-

48

(

rised of vertebra or

Sanskrit, and

fr$,

Himavat ft;?^
of

abode of

g^

It

the

be

also

Himalaya which

snow",

it

means

made

is

white nerve substance and
covered by the cerebrum or
like

called,

another

(lit "possessing snow")

because

n

names of a

are

etc.

T^TS

called

is

The spine may

mountain.

name

^.

)

of snow-

at

is

"the

the top

which
large
be
ay
compared to Kailash the snowy abode
of Skiva. Kundalini which is located
in the
brain

ii

spine

is,

Parvati

therefore,

Par vat, or

ie.

Uma

When

spiritual progress in- the yogi.

Sahusrara or the crown there
spiritual illumination

of

daughter

Haimavati ^qr t^rft
of
Himavat. As the Kundalini
daughter
from one Chakra to another there is

i.

e.

rises

increasing
it reaches

the highest

is

which

may symbolicallv
marriage of Shiva with
Parvati , symbolising the union of the
yogi
with Kundalini force.
be described as the

It can thus be understood

mind having been

how Indra

or the

first baffled in its

attempt to
at last helped in
realising Him
by the awakening of Kundalini force, or speak

find out God,

ing

is

allergorically

by meeting

Parvati

This according to Pt. Satvalakar

or
is

(

49

)

the correct interpretation of

12ofS.

t;*?3T?ft

in

Mantra

3.

To this it may be further added that in
Puranic mythology Shiva is pictured as a yogi
with a serpent intertvined round his neck and
with the hood of the serpent covering the top
of his head. This may be taken as symbolising

an advanced yogi

whose Kundalirii having
awakened has risen above the
Vishuddha Chakra which is on the neck and
has reached the Sahasrara or the crown. The
been

well

God Shiva
eye in

his

is

having a third
believed to be

also represented as

forehead which

is

opened at the time of destruction of this world.
It may be taken to symbolise the eye of spiri

wisdom

opened by attainment of
yoga which leads to Mulcti or deliverance from

tual

^n^r

^^

this world.

(2)

A

Note on Raja Yoga

The Hatha yoga

referred

to

in

the note

own methods of

above prescribes its
rousing the Kundalini, and thereby developing
and perfecting psychic powers, and even attain
given

ing;

Mukti.

(

50

)

The Raja yoga as taught in Patan jali s Yoga
Sutras prescribes an eightfold path consisting of
the following eight stages
(1)

?w Yamas

or five rules of conduct re

lating to social duties, viz.
1.

^rfi;*?T

2.

^T

Non-violance

Truthfulness

3.

gr^T Non stealing

4.

snp^

5.

^qftrrf Non-covetousness

(2)

Chastity or continence

fiwq Niyamas or 5

(Yoga II 30)

rules

of conduct

relating to personal duties;
1.

^^

2.

^^m

3.

Purity of body and mind

Contentment

1

^q

:

Austerity,

i.e.

physical

and mental

discipline
4.

^i^R

Self study

5.

f^K

[ft!TOR

the will

Complete
of God.

surrender

to

(Yoga II 32)

These rules of conduct are the first requisi
an aspirant to yoga. This shows yoga
not a system of mere physical and mental

tes for
is

Its chief aim is the perfection of
or the full development of the whole man.

exercises.

man

(

as
spiritual as well

51

)

the mental

and physical,

which alone can lead to Salvation.

Asanas or right postures which
enable an aspirant su*^ to keep firmly seated,
(3)

*w*

as long as

may

be

desirable,

in

meditation

without being disturbed by physical or mental
u*H or
In Patanjalis Yoga Sutras
fatigue.
as that
Right Pasture has been defined simply
comfortable
which is stable and
posture

The books on
(Yoga II 46).
Hatha yo ja teach about 84 kinds of Asanas or
Postures which are mostly meant as physical

fwgsWr*^
exercises.

(4) 5n3TTim*T

Pranayama means

exercise or

very efficacious for
the control of mind. For sro breath and ***?
mind are intimately related to each other. It
how our
is a matter of common experience
our mind is pertur
breathing is affected when
fear etc. PatanjaWs Yoga Sutras
bed
control of breath.

It

is

by anger,

teach four kinds of Pranayama8(Yogp II 50-51),
and practised
They have to be properly learnt
under guidence of a teacher.

Pratyahara means introspection or
their external objects.
taking away senses from
(5) sreu^rc

(

It gives

52

the aspirant

)

HJV3T3>

complete control

over the senses. (Yoga II 54-55).

The above

five stages constitute the exter

nal portion of yoga or ^rff^q; while the last three
described hereafter form the internal portion
or *F-nn. (Yoga III 7).
(6) qrKJTTf

or

attention

point,

(Yoga

(7) sq-R

the

Dharana means fixing the mind
on some particular object or

mind

is

III, 1).

Dhyana means concentration, when

rid of all other
thoughts except the

object thought
(8) ^*nfsr

of.

(Yoga II

2).

Samadhi means meditation.

It is

of two kinds,

and

^fsr^n^r Samprajnat or ^)*f Sabija
^rsbTfnrT Asamprajnat or fff^f *r
Nirbija.

They have been

briefly described in the note

ratibodha in

Mantra 8 of

on

Sec. 2, (Page....)

BL
1120
K45U6
1900

Upani shads .
Kena-upanisha
Kena-Upani shad

PLEASE

CARDS OR

DO NOT REMOVE

SLIPS

UNIVERSITY

FROM

THIS

OF TORONTO

POCKET

LIBRARY