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IPv6

What to know about IPv6 in 10 minutes ?


Definition & Explanations
IPvx means Internet Protocol version x. For
example IPv4 means Internet Protocol version 4.
This is the protocol currently used.
IPv1, IPv2 and IPv3 were test protocols with
different technologies, while IPv4 was the first
Internet Protocol widely deployed integrating two
technologies: Internet Protocol (IP) and
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).
IPv5 is a different protocol from IPv4 but has never been successful.

IPv6 is the new generation of Internet Protocol which will replace IPv4.
What is a protocol and what is IP?
A protocol is a serie of rules to follow to achieve an action. For example, the protocol to send a letter is:

What is a
protocol?

Write the message

Put it in an envelope

Write the addressee

Write senders address

It is the same thing on the internet: when you send message (any type of data), your computer respects the
Internet Protocol and sends a pack of data which can be represented this way:

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199.25.36.215

204.66.3.136

xxxxxxxxxxxx

What is a protocol?

Senders IP address

Addressees IP address

Additional information

message

An IP address is a unique address assigned to each computer connected to the Internet. It is composed of 4
numbers (between 0 and 255) separated by dots. For example, 199.25.36.215.
So IP objective is to send and receive pack of data. Now, how to assign data to the proper application? Are
there limitations? How to be sure of the good progress of operations? TCP answers all those questions.
What is TCP?
Transmission Control Protocol is above IP and its characteristics are:
Define the destination of data (to a web browser, a mail client, a game)
Check if the addressee is ready to receive data
Cut data to send because data pack are limited to 1,500 octets
Take care of transport (number packs before sending, check if all packs are arrived, assemble
packs)
For example, in order to send the message What is TCP? from computer A to computer B:
Computer A
Computer B
IP address: 199.25.36.215
IP address: 204.66.3.136

Each arrow corresponds to a pack. All those interactions between the two computers represent Transmission
Control Protocol.
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Why are we considering today a IPv4 to IPv6 migration?


The reason is really simple: there is a lack of IPv4 addresses because of increasing number of users, devices,
connections, worldwide.
More precisely: an IPv4 address is coded on 32 bits so theoretically, 2^32 IPv4 addresses can be used at the
same time, ie 4.294.967.296 addresses. At the creation of IPv4, nobody could imagine that 4 billion people
would be connected at the same time.
Globalization has allowed the huge development of Internet in a lot of countries (India, China) and
consequently more and more people are connected today. The emergence of new connected devices
(netbooks, smartphones, tablets) has also dramatically increased the demand for IP addresses.
Overview of IPv4 addresses available in 2011

It is just a matter of time before reaching a shortage of IPv4 addresses.

So to avoid this shortage, IPv6 was created. This new protocol is coded in 128 bits so 3,4x1038 addresses
available. Juts to make a comparison, if the total of IPv4 addresses would be represented by a golf ball, the
compared number of IPv6 addresses would be equivalent to the sun. It will be almost impossible to attribute
all these addresses. For example, if 1 trillion IPv6 addresses were allocated per second, it would take 10
quintillion years to run out (more than 700 million times the age of the universe).

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Advantages of IPv6 vs IPv4


Extended Address Length
IPv4

IPv6

32 bits: x.x.x.x
192.32.145.1

128 bits: x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x


5f06:b500:89c2:a100:0000:0800:200a:3ff7

With this new form of address, more IP addresses will be available avoiding any problem of shortage.
Simplified Format of Messages
IPv4 Header
Version

Type of
Service

IHL
Identification

Time to Live

IPv6 Header
Total Length
Flags

Protocol

Version

Fragment
Offset

Traffic
Class

Flow Label
Next
Header

Payload Length

Hop Limit

Header Checksum
Source Address

Source Address
Destination Address
Options

Padding

Destination Address

Field name kept from IPv4 to IPv6


Field not kept in IPv6
Name and position changed in IPv6
New field in IPv6

On the contrary of IPv4, IPv6 has a variable part in its header. So some information can be integrated in
this part instead of being automatically in the IPv4 header. It also offers the possibility to select the most
important information.
Advantages of this simplification:
Shorter messages = significant saving of bandwidth
Flexibility = possibility to chose the useful extensions
Simplification of data treatment
Better Management of Quality of Service
IPv6 integrates natively QoS management. This becomes increasingly important in a hungry-dataconsuming world.
Improvement of communications security
More and more transactions, games, communications are made over the Internet with more and more
sensitive data (name, address, credit card number). So, the need for security increases drastically.
IPv6 integrates a new technology called IPSec (IP Security) which offers an advanced cryptography system
allowing:
Authentication and authorization
Data privacy
Data integrity
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Difficulties of the deployment of IPv6


Compatibility with IPv4:
IPv4 and IPv6 are not interoperable!
Networks/hosts are not upgraded to IPv6 simultaneously IPv4 and IPv6 endpoints will be
required to communicate
Requires mechanisms to support communication between IPv4 and IPv6 endpoints

IPv4 hosts

IPv4+IPv6 hosts

IPv4+IPv6

IPv4 network

network

IPv6 hosts/network

IPv6 hosts/network

Compatibility with legacy equipments:


Some equipments are not compatible with IPv6 for a lot of reasons:
The device is too old or the manufacturer has stopped the production so no update is possible
It can be very expensive to migrate an old device to IPv6
IPv6 requires specific resources to work and if its not compatible, performances can be damaged
Impact on new equipments:
IPv6 devices can be more expensive
Development of IPv6 applications, software can eventually more expensive
IPv4 to IPv6 transition:
The transition from IPv4 to IPv6 will take some time and may follow 3 steps:

Step 1: IPv6 for Early adopters


Without the help of service providers, customers independently connect to IPv6 networks for
researches, experimental purposes, tests
Step 2: IPv6 for Unicast Services
Residential gateways will be able to support dual stack. Without jeopardizing IPv4 services, access to
IPv6 services will be given but some still be in IPv4 such as IPTV. Moreover, a full QoS and policy
control will be done on the two protocols.

Step 3: IPv6 for Unicast and Multicast Services


Set-Top Boxes will support dual stack and channels will migrate one by one to IPv6. IPv4 will be
reduced to the use of multicast services, local LAN traffic and Internet applications.

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Overview of IPv6 in 2011

IPv6 Already Underway


One cant really talk about launch date because IPv6 is already here even if very limited. Early adopters of
the IPv6 standard include the US Department of Defense, which mandated IPv6 -capable IT equipment in
2008. They were joined by network operators in the Asia Pacific region and around the world. These
operators are driving the standards and leading the adoption of the IPv6 protocol to better enable high-speed
connectivity.
Many PC/Laptop operating systems already support IPv6, which means consumers wont even notice when
their service provider gives them an IPv6 address instead of an IPv4 address to navigate.

Planning for the Future


Network operators do still have IPv4 addresses remaining in their existing address blocks to support current
users and devices, and they have ways to help conserve IPv4 addresses. The IETF has also developed ways
to slow the rapid exhaustion of IPv4 addresses.
Service providers and enterprises worldwide, however, are looking to the future. And they know its not far
off. Theyve begun to focus on interim and long term architectures using the next generation IP version 6
addresses, all while keeping end-users worldwide from experiencing any changes in their Internet browsing
experience.

So in summary, IPv6 is:


The substitute of IPv4 because the public IPv4 address space is now fully assigned
The solution to manage the growing number of users and connected devices
An unavoidable migration from Telco and Enterprises perspective

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Alcatel-Lucent and IPv6

Alcatel-Lucent Supports IPv6

Alcatel-Lucent has been involved with IPv6 for many years, from standard development to implementation,
demonstration and interoperability, and trials and deployments around the world.
In fact, our 7750 Service Router (7750 SR) has supported IPv6 since early 2007. The SR is the foundation of
the multi-service converged edge in the Alcatel-Lucent High Leverage Network (HLN).
With our 7750 SR, we show a continued commitment to the forthcoming IPv6 evolution and an
understanding that IPv4 and IPv6 will coexist for the foreseeable future. The 7750 SR supports a number of
interim and long-term addressing technologies for the Internet.
Long-term, service providers will use the 7750 SR to support dual-stack routing, which means that the 7750
SR would run complete IPv4 routing and addressing for IPv4 traffic on the Internet, and complete IPv6
routing and addressing for IPv6 traffic.
For the interim, the 7750 SR supports IP address mapping and IP packet encapsulation, allowing content and

service providers to extend their use of existing IPv4 addresses while they start to introduce IPv6.
Moreover, Alcatel-Lucent is a member of IPv6 Forum.
For more information, follow the link:
http://www.alcatel-lucent.com/features/world_ipv6_day/index.html
https://engage.alcatel-lucent.com/groups/ipv6
https://engage.alcatel-lucent.com/message/184456#184456

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COPYRIGHT 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.


ALCATEL-LUCENT INTERNAL PROPRIETARY USE PURSUANT TO COMPANY INSTRUCTION