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Lesson Transcript

Class

IX

Subject

Chemistry

Unit

Nature of Materials

Topic

Capillarity

Curricular Statement
The pupils understand about the concept of capillarity through observations and
experimentations with the help of examples from daily life.

Capillarity
The upward movement of a liquid against the force of gravity inside narrow
spaces and thin tubes is called Capillary rise. This property of the liquid is called
Capillarity. However, liquids like Mercury which have high cohesive force shows
Capillary fall inside such tubes.

Activity: I
A part of cloth dipped in water slowly gets wet fully.

The teacher gives the students a piece of cloth and a bucket full of water. She
asks them to dip one end of the cloth piece into the beaker and leave the other end to
hang over the beaker. She asks them to observe what happens. The entire cloth piece
will get wet after some time. Teacher explains to the students about the action of
capillarity.
Activity: II
Capillary Action Experiment using different (narrow
and wide) straws. The students will test the
capillarity of several different straws, determinig
which kind of straw has the strongest capillary
action.

The teacher gives the students three different straws (narrow, wide and
wider) and a glass filled with coloured water. She asks them to dip one end of the
straws into the beaker but dont let them touch the bottom of the glass. Count for
thirty. She asks them to observe what happens. How the capillarity differs in different
sized straws. Teacher explains to the students about the action of capillarity depends
on the capillary tube.
Activity: III
Experiment to show how plants use capillary action to grow on soil by using a
translucent plant.

Mashithandu or Vettapocha is the household name of the plant Peperomia reflexa. The
teacher familiarizes this plant with the students and dips the stem of the plant to some
coloured water. Teacher tells the student to observe the capillary action through the
translucent body of the plant. Teacher explains how the plants use capillary action to
grow on soil.
The Teacher ends the class with review questions
1) What is Capillarity?
2) Differentiate between Capillary Rise and Capillary Fall?

Class

IX

Subject

Chemistry

Unit

Nature of Materials

Topic

Surface Tension

Curricular Statement
The pupils understand about the concepts of surface tension through
observations and experimentations with the help of examples from daily life.

Surface Tension
Surface tension is the elastic tendency of liquids which makes them
acquire the least surface area possible. This property can be understood at the
particulate level in terms of the strengths of the attractive forces among the
particles that make up the liquid. Strong attractive forces lead to high surface
tension.

Activity: I
Video to show how the liquid drops attain the smallest surface area when it is broken
into small pieces. Students will watch the video and discuss about it.

The teacher shows a video of falling of a small liquid drop. By naked eye, one cannot
identify the shape of the liquid drop but this slow motion video (2500 frame per
second) clearly shows the shape of the liquid drop which is spherical in shape. The
teacher explains the students about the properties of surface tension.
Activity: II
Experiment to show how two liquids separate each other when the liquids have
different surface tensions.
The teacher mix oil with water in a closed container and
shake it well such that the two liquids form a mixture.
Teacher tells the student to observe the container. After
some time the two liquids will separate each other. The
teacher discusses about the surface tension of different
liquids.

Activity: III
Video showing how different insects can walk on the surface of water. Discuss the
properties of surface tension with the students.

Teacher introduce the students to the The common basilisk (Basiliscus basiliscus) is a
lizard found in Central and South American rainforests near rivers and streams which
is commonly known as the jesus christ lizard. Teacher shows the students the video
that how the lizards run through the surface of water and discusses about the
properties of surface tension.
The Teacher ends the class with review questions
1) What is Surface Tension?
2) How liquid drops attain spherical shape?

Class

IX

Subject

Chemistry

Unit

Nature of Materials

Topic

Cohesion and Adhesion

Curricular Statement
The pupils understand about the concepts of adhesion and cohesion through
observations and experimentations with the help of examples from daily life.

Adhesion and Cohesion


Cohesion: Water is attracted to water. Adhesion: Water is attracted to other
substances. Adhesion and cohesion are water properties that affect every water
molecule on earth and also the interaction of water molecules with molecules of other
substances.
Activity: I
Demonstration to show how soap can eliminate water's cohesive property

The teacher takes two containers, one container with strong


soap (dish wash) solution and in the other container with normal water. The teacher
sprinkle small amount of pepper powder to the normal water so that it is evenly
coated. The teacher dunk her finger into the soap solution and take some of the
solution with her. She gently touches the pepper coated water with her finger. The
teacher tells the students to observe the effect of soap water on the pepper coated
normal water. The Teacher explains the students about cohesive properties of water
and how soap breaks the cohesion between molecules.

Activity: II
Demonstration of cohesive forces in water and how these forces can be disrupted.

The teacher takes a shallow container with water. She cuts


out a boat from an index card as shown in the figure. The teacher places the boat onto
the water so that it is floating in the middle of the tray. She drops a liquid soap in the
center of the V shape at the rear of the boat. The teacher tells the students to observe
and record what happens to the boat. The Teacher explains the students about
cohesive properties of water and how soap breaks the cohesion between molecules.

Activity: III
Video showing 36 Drops of Water on a coin.

The teacher shows a video which clearly depicts the adhesive


and cohesive properties of water. In this video, it shows 36 drops of water adhere on a
coin. The Teacher discuss to students about the cohesive and adhesive properties of
water.
The Teacher ends the class with review questions
1) What is Adhesion?
2) What is Cohesion?

Class

IX

Subject

Chemistry

Unit

Acids and Bases

Topic

Acid Base Indicators

Curricular Statement
The pupils understand about acid base indicators through
observations and experimentations with the help of examples from daily life.

Acid - Base indicators


Acid - Base indicators (also known as pH indicators) are substances which
change colour with pH. They are usually weak acids or bases, which when
dissolved in water dissociate slightly and form ions.

Activity: I
Finding the solution whether it is acid or base using china rose stained paper.

The teacher takes china roses with her and she stains it on
drawing sheet. She uses the given solution (Vinegar) and makes a spot on the stained
paper. She tells the students to observe the colour change and report. Then the teacher
uses another solution (washing soda) and makes a spot on the paper. Again the
students observe the colour change and report. The teacher discuss with students about
acids and bases and how china rose acted as an indicator.
Activity: II
Shows the video how beetroot acts as Ph indicator

The teacher shows how beetroot acts as Ph indicator when it


is used with different liquids such as vinegar, milk, baking soda and bleach. The
students will observe the colour change with each liquids and report. The teacher
discuss with the students about pH value of different liquids.
Activity: III
Makes a greeting Card using turmeric and soap solution

The teacher applies turmeric paste on a sheet of plane white paper and dries it. The
teacher draws a beautiful flower with soap solution with the help of a cotton bud. The
students observe and get a beautiful greeting card.
The Teacher ends the class with review questions
1) What is an acid-base indicator?
2) Discuss about pH scale?

Class

IX

Subject

Chemistry

Unit

Acids and Bases

Topic

Neutralization

Curricular Statement
The pupils understand about Neutralization reaction through
observations and experimentations with the help of examples from daily life.

Neutralization
When solution of acid is mixed with the solution of base,
both of them neutralize each other and a third substance; called salt; is formed. Such
phenomenon is called neutralization or neutralization reaction.

Activity: I
Demonstration of neutralisation reaction using turmeric, lemon and soap water

The teacher takes three glass bowls, one with turmeric


solution, other with soap solution and another with lemon juice. She drops two drops
of turmeric solution into the soap water and the soap water changes the color to dark
red. She tells the students to observe the color change. Again the teacher drops lime
juice drop by drop to the above solution till the color disappears to yellow. The
students observe the reactions. The teacher discusses about the neutralization reaction.
Activity: II
Tells about the neutralization reaction in everyday life- How ant sting is neutralized
using moist baking soda.

The teacher tells the students about ant bites. She describes
how ant bites can be healed using neutralization reaction. When an ant bites, it injects
the acidic liquid into the skin. The effect of the sting can be neutralised by rubbing
moist baking soda (sodium hydrogen carbonate) or calamine solution, which contains
zinc carbonate. The teacher explains the importance of neutralization reaction in
everyday life.
Activity: III
Animation on Neutralization reactions

The teacher shows an animation in which the neutralization reaction is shown in


details even to the molecular level.
The Teacher ends the class with review questions
1) What is Neutralization?
2) What is the end product formed after every neutralization reaction?