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Showing posts with label ditya Hdayam. Show all posts

Daa Mahvidy (14)

Saturday, January 18, 2014

Festivals (1)
Guru-disciple relationship (1)


Guruji Speaks (8)

Homa/havana procedure (2)
Caturavrttitarpanam (1)

Meditation (3)

Mudras (2)

ditya prekya japtv tu para haramavptavn |

trircamya ucirbhtv dhanurdya vryavn || (29)

Prabodhasudhkara (9)

rvaam prekya htm yuddhya samupgamat |

Shiva in conversation with

Shakti (10)

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OM (2)

Publicaions (1)

sarvayatnena mahat vadhe tasya dhto'bhavat || (30)

Shakti (10)
Svara Yoga (1)

atha raviravadannirkya rma muditaman parama prahyama |

niicarapatisakaya viditv suragaamadhyagato vacastvareti || (31)
(The following two verses do not form part of Rmyaa. They are in the form of prayers to sun god)

ditya Hdayam (12)

ri Cakra Navvaraa Pj
ri Cakra nysa (1)
r Cai Navkar Mantra
Japa (1)
r Mahgaapati Mantra
Japa (1)

srya sundaralokanthamamta vedntasra ivam

jnabrahmamaya sureamamala lokaikacittsvayam |
indrdityanardhipa suraguru trailokyacmai
brahmviuivasvarpahdaya vande sad bhskaram || (32)
bhno bhskara mrta caarame divkara |
yrtogyamaivarya riya putrca dehi me || (33)
29) ditya - Sun, the miniscule form of Brahman; prekya worth seeing or regarded; possibly referring
to contemplation; japtv tu meditating silently; para - supreme; hara - pleasure or happiness or bliss
(along with goose bumps) mavptavn attaining; trircamya doing camana (sipping drops of water
straight from the right palm) three times; ucirbhtv (thus) becoming pure; dhanurdya taking his
bow; vryavn the valorous (r Rma).
30) rvaam prekya having noticed Rvaa; htm experiencing bliss within; yuddhya for
waging a war; samupgamat approaching very closely; sarva yatnena all kinds of efforts; mahat
mightiness; vadhe tasya Rvaas death; dhto'bhavat present (in the battle field) with great
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Theory and Practice of

Kundalini Meditation (6)

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r Vidy (4)

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31) atha after that; ravi the sun; avadan spoke (or conveyed through facial expressions without
uttering any words); nirkya rma - on seeing r Rma; mudita delighted, joyful, glad, rejoicing;
man - mind; parama - extremely; prahyama - glad, cheerful; niicarapatisakaya annihilating demons (Rvaa and his warriors); anhividitv suragaa madhyagato in the middle of
various gods; vacastvareti hurry up.
Summary of verses 29, 30 and 31:
Verse 29 talks about how seriously r Rma took sage Agastyas advise and acted on that immediately.
He performed camana (taking water in the right palm and sipping it without establishing contact with the
lips; this is done to purify the inner body; external body is purified through bath) three times (three times
refers to reciting three names of Viu; (acyutya nama | anantya nama | govindy nama ||
). After doing camana, he looked at the sun, His miniscule form. Having seen the sun,
He became highly energised and determined to annihilate Rvaa and other demons. (In the morning sun,
if one exposes his/her back head (medulla oblongata) to the sun, a lot of energy will flow into the body and
keeps the body not only disease free but energises the whole body of the practitioner.) Having thus
energized (realising His true nature), He took his bow and arrows and proceeded to the battle field. This
can also be explained that Rma realized His true nature (Brahman). This is subtly conveyed as looking at
the sun.
Verse 30 says that r Rma became happy on seeing Rvaa. On the grosser side, Rma knew that He
is going to kill Rvaa in the battle field. As far as Rma is concerned, He also knew that He is going to
liberate Rvaa and in fact this would make Rma happier than merely killing him. Rvaa was
engrossed in penance for years and got several boons. There are several citations about Rvaas
penance. Though Rvaa asked several boons to satiate his ego, still he had spent several years in deep
trance, which made him on par with best yogis. He was killed in the battle field only because he had
arrogance and ego. As he had already surrendered to Brahman, his further actions never affected his
karmic account and he is all set to get liberated, by passing the state of jvanmukta. Why Rma should
have experienced Bliss on seeing Rvaa so closely? This explains Rmas love and compassion for
Rvaa. Rma killed Rvaa only in the state of Bliss and not in the state of anger.
It is important to know what r Rma spoke to Vibhaa, Rvaas brother after Rvaas death (Canto
109 of yuddhaka verses 14 to 19). Rvaa has not met his death because he lacked in
energy......He has fallen in combat for the food of the world even though he was endowed with terrible
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Caturvttitarpaam I.
Introduction: Mahgaapati
plays significant...
This series
covers simple homa
procedure that can be done
individually at home. This is
the normal procedure
adopted while...

Cai Navkar Mantra
Japa 1. ydi nysa

between our
breath and realizing Brahman
or Self-realization is well
documented. In fact,
observing our breath leads to
r Subhagodaya Stuti
Some Important Concepts of
r Vidy (No IAST fonts are

energy......He has fallen in combat for the food of the world even though he was endowed with terrible
prowess and exhibited extraordinary enthusiasm of a very exalted type and always remained undaunted.
Warriors who fall on the battlefield while remaining steadfast in the duty of warriors and winning in battles
need not be mourned for. There is no occasion to grieve for his having been thought under the sway of
death by whom, intelligent he was in all the three worlds........A warrior killed in action does not deserve to
be mourned, say stra-s. There are many such references about Rvaa in Vlmki Rmyaa.
Verse 31 says that sun god encouraged r Rma to spifflicate (means killing, which seems to be a crude
word contextually and I personally do not want to use the word for the simple reason that Rvaa is
liberated at the hands of r Rma) Rvaa immediately. Not only sun god, but all gods and goddesses
also were eagerly awaiting Rvaas last breath. They were under constant fear that Rvaa could hurt
and humiliate them. Rvaa had all the qualities of a supreme king. He longed for power, wealth and
pleasure and never hesitated to do anything to satiate his ego. That is why sun god told r Rma to finish
Rvaa immediately. Subtly the verse says that the time has come for Rvaa to get liberated and the sun
god here refers to Brahman. r Rmas inner conscience told Him that Rvaas is over and that He has
to ensure liberation of Rvaa at the appointed time. This also goes to prove that Brahman always
ensures the perfect balance between good and bad in order to sustain the universe. Unless evil forces are
eliminated, positive forces cannot successfully discharge their duties. Positive forces contextually refers to
gods and goddesses, as each one of them has a prescribed duty, such as Agni who is in charge of fire,
Varua in charge of water, Vyu in charge of air, etc. It is said that Viu incarnates when adharma
prevails over dharma. Ka says in Bhagavad Gt (IV. 7 9) Arjuna! Whenever virtues (dharma) decline
and immorality (adharma) looms, I embody as an avatar. To sustain the pious, to eliminate the sinners
and to protect dharma I incarnate in every yug. Arjuna! My avatar and actions are divine. The one who
understands this principle is not born again and reaches me when he dies.
It is important to note the usage of word avadan in this verse, which means not expressed through words.
When Rma looked at the sun, which we are arguing as a minuscule form of Self-effulgent Brahman,
Brahman expressed His ascent to spifflicate Rvaa. If we read the above verses of Bhagavad Gt read
along with various Upaniad-s, we can easily infer that what is referred in ditya Hdayam is not the planet
sun, but a tiny portion of Self-effulgent Brahman. There is no need for Rma to look at the sun to get his
blessings to destroy Rvaa. Thus ditya Hdayam is a hymn in praise of Self-effulgent Brahman, as
described in various Upaniad-s, probably the only hymn that praises Brahman as Light, though almost all
Upaniad-s make references to this aspect.

used in this article) Sri

Subhagodaya Stuti was ...
Daa Mahvidy
(continued) Part 3 She is
best mentioned in Lalit
1 . Yogic breathing: Before
we proceed to actual
breathing practice, it is
important to understand and
practice diaphragm
breathing, als...
Guru and his disciple meet
after a long time. Disciple has
come to see his Guru to get
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Summary of verses 32 and 33

These two verses are in the form of praise of sun god and ditya Hdayam ends with a prayer. These two
verses are not found in the original text. These two verses explicitly, not subtly, refer to Brahman.
I worship sun god, who is handsome, like nectar to the universe (indicating immortality) , essence of
Upaniad-s (all Upaniad-s reveal Brahman in different ways), endower of auspiciousness, the Supreme
Knowledge (Taittirya Upaniad II.i says,
satya jna ananta brahma , which means that
Truth, Knowledge and Infinity is Brahman), head of all gods and goddesses (contextually does not refer to
Indra*, who is the chief of all gods and goddesses), who sustains the universe, chief of *Indra, dityashuman beings, Guru of gods and goddesses (deva Guru, mentioned in the text as sura-guru, where sura
means gods, sages and saints, cmai (contextually refers to the best or most excellent) of the
universe, who holds trimrti-s in His heart (trimrti refers to Brahm, Viu and iva; the text refers to them
individually), illuminating eternally and infinitely (only Brahman is Self illuminating; Kaha Upaniad (II.ii.15)
explains this further. In the presence of Brahman, the sun does not shine, nor do the moon and stars, nor
does lightning, let alone this fire. When Brahman shines, everything follows. By Its light, all these are
lighted and Chndogya Upaniad (VIII.iii.4) says, param joyti upasampadyate which means attaining the
highest light. The Upaniad says Then, this person, who is the embodiment of happiness, emerging from
the body and attaining the highest light, assumes his real nature. This is the Self.).
O! Sun god! O! Bhnu (Splendorous), O! Mrta (which means that Brahman without any origin and
devoid of any parentage; first of all creations and from whom everything else originates), having powerful
rays that is capable of energising the universe, please give me long and healthy life, wealth, good progeny
(to continue his lineage).

With this, ditya Hdayam is concluded.

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March (8)
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Jayanth Chandramouli
commented on Dasamaha
Vidya Epilogue: Thank
you.... I have already read
the above two series
MANBLUNDER commented
on Dasamaha Vidya
Epilogue: Most of these
topics are covered by these
two articles. However, I will try
to do a series on this
Jayanth Chandramouli
commented on Dasamaha
Vidya Epilogue: Respected
Guruji,Obeisance to youCan
you please write a series on
way of living. With an
MANBLUNDER commented

MA in Eastern Classics
Original texts from China, Japan and India in seminar-style classes

Wednesday, January 8, 2014


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enampatsu kcchru kntreu bhayeu ca |

krtayan purua kacinnvasdati rghava || || (25)
pjayasvainamekgro devadeva jagatpatim |
etattriguita japtv yuddheu vijayiyasi || (26)
asmin kae mahbho rvaa tva vadhiyasi |
evamuktv tato'gastyo jagma ca tathgatam || (27)

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etacchrutv mahtej naaoko'bhavat tad |

dhraymsa suprto rghava prayattmavn || (28)
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25) enam this (according to Sanskrit literature, this is seldom used and instead idam or etam is used);
patsu to assail; kcchru miserable and painful; bhayeu ca and also from dismay, danger and
peril; krtayan repetitions; purua - embodied soul (irrespective of the gender); kacinnvasdati no
one will be punished; rghava - a descendant of Raghu dynasty to which Rma belongs.
26) pjayasvai worshiping; enam this; ekgra one pointed attention (absorption); deva deva - chief
of gods; jagatpatim the one who rules the universe; etat triguita - this hymn (ditya Hdayam) to be
repeated three times; japtv muttering (meaning that it should not be recited loudly); yuddheu in the
battle; vijayiyasi assured of victory.
27) asmin kae at this very moment; mahbho long armed (mighty shoulders); rvaa - Rvaa;
tva - You (r Rma); vadhiyasi killing; evam uktv having said so; tato'gastyo (tat Agastya) then
Agastya; jagma ca tathgatam went back in the same way as he had come.
28) etacchrutv (etat rutv) having thus listened to this hymn (ditya Hdayam); mahtej great
splendour; naaoko'bhavat tad then his sadness disappeared; dhraymsa prayed to sun god
with great attention; suprto - extremely delighted and pleased; rghava - r Rma; prayattmavn
being in the state of devotion.
Summary of verses 25, 26, 27 and 28:
Verses 25 and 26 are phala ruti of ditya Hdayam. Agastya reveals to the world the benefits of reciting
ditya Hdayam.
In verse 3, Agastya addressed Rma, O! Rma! Rma! My child! But in verse 25 Agastya addresses
Rma as Rghava, not even by his name, but by referring to his dynasty. By doing so, Agastya also
conveys to the world, how teacher student relationship should be revered and preserved. In the initial
stages, Agastya treated Rma as his student. By carefully listening to Agastya, Rma could realize His
own Self by getting rid of my. As far as Rma is concerned, His Power alone is known as my. This
subtly conveys that only an evolved teacher alone can lead others towards the path of realization. Mantra
sdhana is only an infantile stage. Supreme form of sdhana is becoming a sthitapraja and then a yogi.
This is not the end of Self-realization. The state of being a yogi is only the initial stage of realization. In
order to attain liberation, we have to enter into the fifth stage of consciousness, turytta, which is also
known as Universal realization. Even then, we come back to remain in the body and this state is known as
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jvanmukta. We merge unto Brahman only if all our karmas are exhausted through experience. This is what
we learn from a realized Teacher.
Verse 25 says that when one is in difficulty he or she has to pray to the sun god with ditya Hdayam and
his or her pains, unfounded fears, miseries, dismay, etc will be annihilated. This means that the main part
of ditya Hdayam was over with verse 24. If this is repeated regularly (devotion is implied), he will never
be afflicted with any types of miseries, some of which are referred above. This verse subtly conveys
mahvkya. Chndogya Upaniad (VI.viii.7) beautifully explains the role of a teacher. The teacher said to
his student, That which is the subtest of all is the Self of all this. It is the Truth. You are That (tatvamasi).
The student is not able to understand the meaning of You are That at one go. He raises several doubts to
his teacher. Teacher patiently clears every doubt of his student and the student in all earnestness analyses
the teachings by meditating on the words of his teacher. One fine morning the student realizes and affirms
that he is in fact Brahman. This is explained in Bhadrayaka Upaniad (I.iv.10), which says, aha
brahms (I am Brahman). The student would not have come to this conclusion (realization) had his
teacher not told him that he is Brahman. This is exactly what Agastya told Rma in the previous verses.
Hence, Agastyas sayings were interpreted by comparing the planet sun as the miniscule aspect Selfeffulgent Brahman. When Agastya told Rma about His own nature, Rma realized His Brahman stature
and annihilated Rvaa to uphold dharma to make the universe exist.
Verse 26 explains the path to Self-realization. The gross meaning of the verse is that one should mentally
recite ditya Hdayam three times. The verse says that it should be recited mentally. To emphasise this
point, Agastya uses the word japtv (japa means muttering, which means low and continuous indistinct
sound). Therefore ditya Hdayam is a japa mantra and should not be recited aloud. In order to win over
enemies, ditya Hdayam should be recited mentally or muttered with mild tone three times with single
pointed focus on the sun. If this is muttered as directed by Agastya, victory in the battle is assured. The
verse subtly conveys spiritual advancement. The verse says that if we are able to meditate with intent
concentration on the Supreme Self within, all our internal enemies such as ego, pride, anger, hatred,
attachment, desire, etc will be annihilated. The verse clearly says that we have to meditate on Jagatpatim,
Brahman, not the planet sun. If we meditate with one pointed attention on the Brahman, our internal
enemies are destructed and ultimately we transcend my to realize the Self within.
In verse 27 Agastya says that Rma should kill Rvaa at that very moment and having said that, Agastya
walked away. Subtly, the verse says that once we decide to seek the spiritual path, we have to start
sdhana immediately. Klapurua (time) will not wait for us and if we want to realize the Self within, we
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have to begin the practice right at this moment. Agastya as r Rmas Guru came in search of Him and
not r Rma approached Agastya. This also reminds us the saying that one will get a realized person as
Guru, provided his or her karmic account is good. Agastya approached r Rma, revealed to Him His
essential Self and walked back leaving the rest to r Rma to complete the task. Similarly, a Guru
initiates someone, should stay with him and after making him or her perfect in sdhana, he initiates
another disciple and works with him or her towards the path of realization. This verse also emphasises the
importance of one to one contact between Guru and disciple. If there is no one to one contact, the efforts
of the Teacher as well as his or her students go futile.
Verse 28 says that after having known about ditya Hdayam, r Rma became His original Self. This
means that r Rma realized His Brahman stature, became splendorous, got rid of all the afflictions and
entered His own state of Bliss, which is His perpetual state. The verse uses the word dhraymsa, which
can be interpreted to mean focused worship (something like dhraa, which means intent concentration of
the mind upon the object and here it refers to the sun). This proves that unless mind is fixed on Brahman,
any type of meditation becomes futile. Verse also says that if such intent meditation is practiced, the
practitioner becomes extremely delighted and pleased, which refers to the state of Bliss. Bliss is the
penultimate state to realization. Realization is different from liberation. Liberation is possible only if there
is not karmic account, whereas realization is possible by sdhana.
It is also interesting to note that Agastya only explained the Grandeur of Brahman. He did not give any
mantra to Rma to annihilate Rvaa. It is not the mantra alone that takes us forward towards realization;
it is also the mind that makes realization possible. Mantra only forms the strong foundation, so that we do
not fall from highly exalted spiritual level. If the foundation is not strong for spiritual life, the fall if any could
be disastrous. There is a well known saying manant tryate iti mantra, which means if mind is
protected and preserved without any afflictions, that is known as mantra, which is constantly repeated to
protect the mind from straying. Mantras are more to do with the mind rather than their effects. However,
repetition of mantras causes subtle vibrations in the mind, which aids in purifying the mind.
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Tuesday, December 31, 2013


natyea vai bhta tadeva sjati prabhu |

pyatyea tapatyea vartyea gabhastibhi || (22)
ea supteu jgarti bhteu parinihita |
ea evgnihotra ca phala caivgnihotrim || (23)
vedca kratavacaiva krtn phlameva ca |
yni ktyni lokeu sarva ea raviprabhu || (24)
22) natyea vai This (Brahmans minuscule form, the sun ) causes destruction; bhta - entire living
beings (universe); tadeva sjati (again) re-creates those beings; prabhu - Brahman (contextually, the
sun); pyatyea He drinks water (subtly conveys the evaporation of water); tapatyea He causes heat;
vartyea He causes rain; gabhastibhi - rays of sun;
23) ea He; supteu during sleep; jgarti during active state; bhteu - entire living beings
(universe); parinihita - within (referring to the Soul within); ea He; evgnihotra the sacrificial fire;
ca phala - fruits accruing out of such oblations (discussed in the next word); caiva agnihotrim - those
who perform daily fire oblations (they are known as nitya agnihotrin (as opposed to kmya or optional
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24) vedca also Vedas; kratavacaiva other types of fire oblations (generally called homa, as
prescribed in Vedas in karma kha); krtn - such sacrificial rites (in the form of such sacrificial rites);
phlameva ca fruits (benefits accruing) of such actions; yni ktyni being the cause of all other actions;
lokeu - all the fourteen worlds (referring to fourteen types of worlds); sarva for everyone; ea ravi
prabhu - sun is the Lord.
Summary of verses 22, 23 and 24:
Verse 22 categorically says that what is referred in ditya Hdayam is the Self and not merely the sun, a
planet. The verse speaks about five primary acts of Brahman creation, sustenance, destruction,
annihilation and re-creation (or si, sthiti, sahra, tirodhna and anugraha referred in Lalit
Sahasranma 264 to 274). Though the verse explicitly mentions only about destruction and re-creation, by
making a reference to water and heat, sustenance is subtly conveyed. In fact, the subtle conveyance of this
verse is being carried forward from the previous verse (21), where creation was discussed. The verse
says that all the acts of Brahman are done through knowledge, which is conveyed here as the rays of the
sun. Rig Veda (V.45) praises the sun thus. ....The rays of the approaching dawn are spread around the
divine source of light, scattering the clustered gloom, has risen and opened the doors of knowledge of
men. The sun of enlightenment spreads his light as splendour personified......May the sun (referring to
individual soul, the Self within, covered by my), the Lord {this verse of ditya Hdayam addresses the
sun as Lord (prabhu} of seven steeds (seven horses of the suns chariot or seven colours of the sun
VIBGYOR or the seven upper worlds mentioned as seven vyhti-s or worlds Gayatri mantra - bhr,
bhuvar,svar, mahar, janar, tapar and satya loka-s)........ The sun has ascended above the shining oceans
......I offer to you for the sake of rain, an all bestowing worship.......May we , by this worship pass safe
beyond affliction and sin. Going by several such Vedic hymns, it can be construed that what Agastya
refers to is Praka form of Brahman (Self-illumination, from which everything else shines).
Verse 23 explains about the Self, which (Brahman typically speaking is beyond gender; hence all the
Upaniad-s address Brahman as That) prevails in all the three stages of normal consciousness such as
awake, dream and deep sleep. Brahman as the Self within prevails within the body (body is the temple
and the Self within is the sanctum sanctorum). This verse speaks both about the Self within and the
universal Self. Self-realization does not stop with realizing the Self within. After realization, one has to look
at the entire creation through the eyes of Brahman (Puruaskta says that Brahman has infinite number
of eyes). Without Universal realization, Self-realization is not complete, though the latter precedes the
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The above verse also dwells on fire (Agni) that is invoked during fire rituals, where oblations are offered
into the fire. If the intention of Agastya were to reveal about the planet sun, there is no need for him to
discuss about Agni here. Agni is the carrier of all the oblations to the respective gods, who preside over
different aspects of creation and other four acts of Brahman. . Oblations are offered to fire, which is known
as agnihotra. As explained earlier, there are two types of agnihotra rituals. Every day, grains are offered
into the domestic fire and this is known as nitya agnihotra. The other one is kmya or optional agnihotra,
which is used while performing certain homa rituals, which are not of daily nature. {Further reading:
Darapramsa is one of the rauta rituals. There are three main categories. The first is called ii or
haviryaj in which the oblations are of rice or barley. The second is animal sacrifice and the third is
soma ritual. In the first category there are five types of rituals and they are areagnydheya, punardheya,
agnihotra, darapramsa and cturmsya. Darapramsa is full and new moon ceremonies
incorporate recitations from two Veda-s, Rig and Yajur and require the services of four priests. The full
and new moon sacrifice (darapramsa) is the paradigm of all the ii-s.}Ritual oblations are different
from Spiritual oblations. Spiritual oblations are made into the fire of Kualin, which remains in our body
right from birth to death. Impressions of indriya-s are offered as oblations into the fire of Kualin. For
every fire ritual, there is prhut, which signifies the end of all oblations. In internal oblations, prhut is
the mind and ego and they are offered to the fire of Kualin. This type of internal homa is known as nitya
Verse 24 also dwells on oblations. Apart from referring to various fire rituals as prescribed in karma
kha of Vedas, the verse subtly conveys that Brahman remains as a witness to all our actions. There
are two types of yaja-s one is for universal prosperity and happiness and another is self centric and is
performed for personal upliftment. This verse says that Brahman stands as a witness to both these types
of rituals. This also goes to prove that Brahman is described here and not sun as a planet. Sun is drawn
as an example. Upaniads often refer to misconceiving a rope for a snake. What is the cause of this
misconception? Obviously, it is our mind. Similarly, in ditya Hdayam, though Brahman is the focal point
of this sacred verse, we misconstrue it for the planet sun. The verse also says that He is the cause of
everything; in other words, He is the cause of creation. Obviously, sun cannot be the cause of creation. If
the sun is the cause of creation, Kaha Upaniad would not have said In the presence of Brahman, the
sun does not shine, nor do the moon and stars, nor does lightning, let alone this fire. When Brahman
shines, everything follows. By Its light, all these are lighted. Chndogya Upaniad (VIII.iii.4) also says,
Then, this person, who is the embodiment of happiness, emerging from the body and attaining the
highest Light, assumes his real nature. This is the Self. Bhadraayaka Upaniad (III.ix.10) also says,
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Light is the mind and again in (IV.iv.6) it says upon that immortal Light of all lights the gods meditate as
longevity. This means that gods meditate on this Supreme Light for their immortality.
Thus, to sum up these three verses, it is said that Brahman, who is in the form of blinding Light is the
cause of this universe and is Omnipresent. He remains as a witness to all our actions. All other luminaries,
including the sun draw their illuminating capacity only from the Praka of Brahman, which alone is Selfilluminating and is also the cause of this universe. Having created the universe, Brahman stands alone
only as a witness to all the actions and He neither directly nor indirectly causes any action in anyone. The
universal existence is due to Law of Karma, which is called as Law of the Lord.
at 2:18 PM

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Thursday, December 19, 2013


brahmancyuteya srydityavarcase |
bhsvate sarvabhakya raudrya vapue nama || (19)
tamoghnya himaghnya atrughnyamittmane |
ktaghnaghnya devya jyoti ptaye nama || (20)
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taptacmkarbhya vahnaye vivakarmae |

namastamo'bhinighnya rucaye lokaskie || (21)
19) brahmancyuteya (brahm + na + acyutya) abiding in Brahm, iva and Viu; srya
ditya varcase the splendour of the sun and 12 ditya-s (the illuminating power of fire or the sun);
bhsvate light of the sun; sarvabhakya annihilation or devouring; raudrya originating from Rudra
or like Rudra in terms of violence, impetuousness and anger; vapue wonderful to look at; nama salutations to you.
20) tamoghnya- destruction of darkness; himaghnya destruction of snow (possibility referring to
melting of snow); atrughnya destroying enemies; amittmane boundlessness; ktaghnaghnya destroying past services or benefits (ktaghna) or destruction (aghnat) of enemies; devya God,
conveying Brahman; jyoti ptaye- Lord of Light; nama - salutation to you.
21) tapta cmkarbhya appearing like a molten gold mountain; vahnaye fire god; vivakarmae
divine architect; nama - salutation to you; tamo abhinighnya destroyer of gloom and darkness; rucaye
beautifully lustrous; lokaskie witness to the universe.
Summary of verses 19, 20 and 21:
These verses further goes to prove that what is referred by Sage Agastya is not planet sun, but Brahman.
Verse 19 refers to three gods who are in-charge of three primary acts of Brahman creation, sustenance
and dissolution. These three acts are presided over by Brahm, Viu and iva respectively. This verse
adores Brahman as a single entity comprising of all these three gods. Every act of the universe is
controlled by a particular energy and each of these energies is presided over by a god or goddess. There
are major and minor energy sources. Major energy sources are said to be creation, sustenance and
destruction and these energy sources are considered as three primary acts of Brahman. Annihilation and
recreation is beyond human comprehension and annihilation is discussed separately in this verse.
Brahman is saluted in this verse for these three primary qualities. The question that logically arises at this
point is whether Brahman here refers to Sagua Brahman or Nirgua Brahman. The reference made here
is only to Sagua Brahman, who is with attributes. After having worshiped Brahm, Viu and iva, the
verse proceeds to salute the planet sun, which nourishes the universe though light and heat energy.
Twelve ditya-s referred in this verse refer to twelve solar months making one year. There are twelve
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zodiacal signs in astrology. Sun takes twelve calendar months to travel through all these zodiacal signs
making one calendar year and each month is presided over by a god and these gods are referred as
twelve ditya-s. Sometimes, the twelve ditya-s are called as twelve sons of Aditi, daughter of Daka and
wife of Kayapa. Interestingly, the verse differentiates between destruction and annihilation, by making a
reference to fierce Rudra. Rudra contextually can be explained in different ways. Rudra also means
certain gods, who control different aspects of creation and sustenance such as Avins, Agni, Indra, Mitra,
Varua, etc and each of them preside over different energy centres. Rudra also means driving away
negative and evil energies. {When r Rudram and Camakam (also known as vasordhra meaning follow
of felicities), are played daily at homes, negative energies if any, will go away}. Finally, the verse says that
Grandeur of the miniscule form of Brahman (planet sun) is wonderful to look at. According to Trika
Philosophy, iva is described as Praka (visible, shining, bright, manifest). Self illuminating nature of
Brahman is also discussed in all the Upaniad-s.
In verse 20, Sage Agastya reminds r Rma about the benefits of worshipping Him as Brahman.
Through ditya Hdayam, Agastya conveys the benefits of contemplating Brahman, in His miniscule form,
the sun. He says that Brahman is be contemplated in the form of Light. Why? When we meditate intently,
we will be able to see light in our jcakra. When this light appears in meditation, it will remove our
spiritual ignorance, also known as my. When my is removed, one begins the final lap of his/her
spiritual journey. This final journey goes through Bliss and ends at liberation. Here dawn of spiritual
wisdom or knowledge is compared to Lord of Light and spiritual ignorance is compared to snow. When
sun shines bright, snow melts away. My discussed here is considered as an enemy to Self-realization.
The underlying concept of this verse is that unless the darkness of my is removed, Self-illuminating
Brahman cannot be realized. Brahman is saluted for His compassion in removing my for those who
seek Him, within. As far as r Rma is concerned, all the enemies in the battle field who stood before
Him were His Power known as my. A person like Rvaa, who was an embodiment of all evil deeds,
was liberated in the hands of r Rma. Ka says in Bhagavad Gt that my is His own yogic power.
Verse 21 says that the nature of Brahmans Light is in the form gold. Unable to draw an appropriate
comparison to the radiance of Brahman, the verse attempts to explain the radiance of Brahman to that of
a golden mountain melting. Agastya is a Self-realized Sage and when a person of his stature was not able
to explain His Grandeur, there is no need to talk about those who are bound by avidy (spiritual
ignorance), which are compared to gloom and darkness. Further, the verse also makes a reference to fire
god and by saying so, the verse totally obliterates the difference between the sun and fire. It is said that
the sun at the time of setting, hands over the life sustaining force to fire (Agni) till the dawn next day. There
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is also a reference to Vivakarma, the divine architect, which refers to the intricacies of creation in a
subtle way. As per epics, Vivakarma is the one who builds palaces of gods like Indra. The verse ends by
saying that Brahman merely remains as a witness to the happenings in the world.
at 9:54 AM

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Friday, December 13, 2013


nama prvya giraye pacimydraye nama |

jyotirgan pataye dindhipataye nama || (16)
jayya jaya bhadrya haryavya namo nama |
namo nama sahasro dityya namo nama || (17)
nama ugrya vrya sragya namo nama |
namapadmaprabodhya mrtya namo nama || (18)
16) nama - salutations to you; prvya Eastern cardinal (aya means fortune and the dawn is subtly
conveyed here as fortune all auspicious things happen only during suns presence in the sky); pacima Western cardinal; draye mountains or mass of clouds; nama - salutations to you; jyotirgan
pataye chief of all heavenly bodies put together (sun is referred here as the chief of all luminaries);
dindhi pataye chief of calendar days (time taken by Earth to make a complete rotation on its axis 24
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hour period); nama - salutations to you.

17) jayya the one who gives victory; jaya bhadrya the one who gives fortunes, blessings and joy
arising out of victory; haryavya horses of Indra (this is generally known as bay horses, which are
shining brown in colour; it is also said that sun god has a chariot pulled by seven horses, each horse
representing VIBGYOR; according to Rig Veda, Indra is said to be the controller of all horses; many texts
explain this as green coloured horses); namo nama - salutations to you again and again (this is the state
where the worshiper is not able to disconnect his thoughts from the object of worship, the state of a yogi);
namo nama - salutations to you again and again (beginning of the next line of the same verse; last line
ended with this); sahasro infinite rays (referring to omnipresence); dityya son of Aditi (Aditi is
not just a name and it subtle meaning (Rig Veda.IX.114.3) is explained in the summary section; namo
nama - salutations to you again and again (namo nama is repeated three times in this verse).
18) nama salutations to you; ugrya the one who is ferocious; vrya the one who is courageous;
sragya unconquerable king (sraga has many meanings and is different from raga, which is the
name of Vius bow) namo nama - salutations to you again and again; nama - salutations to you;
padma lotus flower prabodhya blossoming; mrtya sun god (mrta is one of 64 Bhairavas); namo nama - salutations to you again and again.
Summary of verses 16, 17 and 18:
Glory of Nirgua Brahman is continued in these three verses. Sun as a planet rises in the east and sets in
the west. It can often be observed during dawn and dusk that mass of clouds form a mountain shape and
make the sun appear as if it is setting behind those illusionary mountains. The period between the dawn
and dusk of the sun is full of light and auspiciousness. When the sun rises from the east, creative activities
begin. This way, sun nurtures the world and brings happiness and prosperity. Why should sun should rise
and set every day? Apart from astronomical aspect, the other aspect is the mind. Mind is the most
precious and the subtest of all the organs of human body. In fact, the subtle aspect of the brain is mind.
Mind is made as the subtlest because, only in the mind, realisation of the Self takes place. At the time of
creation, human body is provided with two subtle ni-s, ia and pigala representing the moon and the
sun. Pigala ni is active during the presence of the sun in the sky and becomes subdued in the night.
Ia ni becomes active between dusk and dawn and these two ni-s work on the mind by making it
active and passive alternatively. During the passive state, mind is rested to become active the next day.
Thus Brahman acts through klapurua and klapurua acts through sun and moon. Every planet
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represents a miniscule of Brahman. Purua Skta (II.6) explains this. It says, ahortre prve ( )
which means day and night are His feet; ahortra means day and night continuously. In the next verse it is
said, nakatrni rpa ( ) which means He is in the form of various constellations (group of stars).
This verse worships sun as the infinitesimal part of Brahman by saying dindhi pataye, where dina
means a calendar day and Brahman is explained here as the Chief of day and night.
The next verse (17) hails Brahman for the victory and joy arising out of victory and fortunes. Brahman in
His full Glory is beyond comprehension. Therefore, now the question arises as to how Brahman can be
hailed in the first place, as He is beyond comprehension. Only in order to pay our obeisance to Him and
thank Him, His miniscule forms such as sun, moon, stars, etc are worshiped. In fact, 24 hour period is
divided into two parts, based on the shine of sun and moon. When sun shines during day, iva is
worshiped and when the moon shines during night, akti is worshiped and when both sun and moon are
in the same axis, which is known as new moon day, it is said to be the day of liberation. This verse makes
a reference to the horses of sun representing seven basic colours VIBGYOR. Rig Veda (IX.114.3) says
that there are seven parameters of the world corresponding to the seven divine sons of the mother
Eternity, which is referred in the Vedic verse as ditya; the verse says, dev dity ye sapta tebhi
These seven is explained as six of space and one of time. Rig Veda (X.73.8 & 9) explains
sun in a different way. Eight are the sons of Mother Infinity, who are born from her body; out of these she
approaches the divine powers along with the seven. The eighth one is Mrta, the sun. With seven
sons, the Mother Infinity goes to meet the earlier age, but she bears the sun in that direction for the life and
death of mortal beings. Subtle interpretations of Vedas are extremely difficult and it requires a lot of
expertise and scholarliness. However, we can understand from the last part of the Vedic text above, that
the sun is the cause of life and death of all mortals. How this can be interpreted to mean the miniscule
form of Brahman? This interpretation is based on the fact that the Vedic verse says that the sun overseas
both life and death and does not refer to Brahm, the god in charge of creation and Yama who is in
charge of death. This goes to prove that sun is not just a planet, but a tiny form of Brahmans Grandeur
and Agastya is referring only to Brahman and not sun, a planet. The victory that is referred in this verse is
conquering our senses and consequent destruction of my, leading to liberation. The joy mentioned in
this verse is the inexplicable joy known as Bliss, prelude to liberation.
Verse 18 speaks about further attributes of Nirgua Brahman. It says that Brahman is ferocious and
courageous. These two qualities can be explained through two Upaniad-s. Kaha Upaniad (II.iii.2) says,
mahadbhaya vajramudyata which is used to mean that Brahman is like a thunderbolt about
to strike. The next verse of the above Upaniad (II.iii.3) says, Fearing Brahman, fire gives heat, the sun
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shines, Indra and other gods perform their allotted duties. Bhadrayaka Upaniad (III.viii.9) says,
Under His mighty rule sun and moon, and heaven and earth, maintain their positions. Time period, flow of
rivers, mighty mountains exist under His mighty rule. There is a force, which we call as cosmic force is His
Power, with which He rules. Nobody else can excise this mighty rule, simply because, they do not have
that might. Fearing for Him, sun, moon, pacabhta-s carry out their duties. Kaha Upaniad(II.iii.3) says,
From fear of It (Brahman), fire gives heat; out of terror, the sun shines; afraid of It, Indra, Vyu, Yama (god
of death) rush to perform their respective duties. (Though He is mighty, why His might should be
understood? He is a terror for all those who fail to protect all of us properly. Why He wants to protect us? It
is purely out of compassion for us. Because Brahman is referred here, the word Sraga is used. This
word is to be read in the context of the two attributes ferociousness and courageousness. Because He is
ferocious and courageous, He cannot be conquered by anyone, as He is omnipotent and hence He is
called Almighty. Finally, it is said that He looks like a blossoming lotus flower. After having said about His
omnipotence, why He is compared to a lotus flower? This expresses His compassion and tenderness.
Brahman has all the qualities and tenderness, compassion, inclemency and bravery. Hence Brahman is
repeatedly adored and worshiped. Since His original Grandeur cannot be seen or experienced, His
miniscule form is worshiped and this is what Agastya says to r Rma.
at 12:33 AM

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Tuesday, December 10, 2013


vyomanthastamobhedi gyajussmapraga |
ghanavirap mitro vindhyavth plavagama || (13)

tap maal mtyu pigala sarvatpana |

kavirvivo mahtej rakta sarva bhavodbhava || (14)
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kavirvivo mahtej rakta sarva bhavodbhava || (14)

nakatra graha tr madhipo vivabhvana |

tejasmapi tejasvi dvdaatman namostu te || (15)
(13) vyomantha chief of principle elements, such as air, water and ether; also called chief of Cosmos;
technically Prajpati, lord of beings, explained earlier); tamo (tamas) darkness; bhedi removing
(removing darkness refers to dawn); g yajus sma praga - the one who has mastered Rig, Yajur and
Sma (Vedas); ghanavi - heavy rain; ap mitra - friend of water; vindhyavth vindya mountain
range (a projection that connects East and West; there are Puric references too); plavagama - one
who travels (plav means jumping and leaping);
14) tap radiating heat; maal (maala) circular or round, referring to the disc of the sun; mtyu death or referring to god of death Yama; pigala - gold-coloured; sarvatpana - burning (or illuminating)
everything; kavi - one who composes poems (lyrist); subtly this can be explained as an enlightened
personality; viva - universal; mahteja - extremely brilliant; rakta - crimson coloured; sarva
everything; bhavodbhava - original creation or the Creator of all creations (bhava means coming into
15) nakatra constellations; graha - planets; tra stars (group of stars make a constellation and
there are many constellations); adhipa - ruler or king or chief; vivabhvana - the mind to create (or will,
generally known as Divine Will to create); tejasmapi lord of luminaries (sun); tejasvi - brilliant, splendid,
bright (referring to the sun); dvdaatman twelve dityas (twelve forms or aspects of sun); namostute
salutation to you.
Summary of verses 13, 14 and 15:
Further discussion about Brahman in the form of sun is being continued. Verse 13 describes Him as
Prajpati (vyomantha), the chief of all beings and often compared to lord of creation, Brahm. The world
Prajpati is carefully chosen here to mean the Vimara aspect of Brahman or initiation of worldly process
through the svabhva of Brahman, which is known as inherent disposition to create. When Brahman
decides to create (this terminology is the combination of Trika and Advaita), He (Upaniad-s do not
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attribute any gender to Him. Brahman is referred in Upaniad-s as IT or THAT) manifests. What is the
difference between Brahman and a manifested being? Brahman is the Ultimate Reality, beyond which
there is nothing. In other words, He is both complete (pra) and nothingness (nya)*. How Brahman
manifests Himself? He manifests in the form of the Self. Brahman is often compared to a tiny seed of a
huge banyan tree. From a diminutive seed, a huge tree grows. Similar is the case with Brahman. The only
difference is that in the case of banyan tree we know the cause; but in the case of worldly process, though
we acknowledge (this acknowledgement comes through reading Upaniad-s, Brahma Stra and
Bhagavad Gt) that Brahman is the cause, yet we are not aware of Him (due to lack of sdhana). In order
to make us understand that Grandeur of Brahman, sun is compared to the Self-effulgent Brahman. In the
initial stages of spiritual life, mind by default gets associated with a particular form of god. Spiritual
evolution happens over a period of time, which is presided over by klapurua (different from Yama, god
handling death). Darkness in the verse refers to darkness of my, which is the crux of dualism. When
Brahman is realized in His Grandeur, which is the eternal Light, darkness of my is removed and leading
to the direct experience of That Light.
The same verse further says that He is the one who has mastered all the four Vedas. Here, it is not just
about Vedas, but complete mastery over all of them. Further, Vedas here do not ascribe only to the four
Vedas, but also the essence of Vedas viz. Upaniad-s. Vedas originated from the breath of Brahman.
Ancient sages established their awareness in the higher cosmic realms and decoded subtle sound from
the cosmos. These sounds originate in the higher planes of cosmos due to the interaction of five basic
elements causing frictions, also known as cosmic vibrations or abda tanmtra from which sound
originates in the form of par (parvc in the form of kualin in human body). Rig Veda (I.164.45) also
discusses this modification and it says,
catvri vk parimit padni tni vidurbrhma ye mania |
guh trii nihit negayanti turiya vco manuy vadanti | |

| |

Four are the definite grades of speech; those learned who wise know them; three deposited in secret,
indicate no meaning; men speak the fourth grade of speech. Four grades of speech are , Bh
Bhuva Suva and these are known as Par, payant, madhyam and vaikhar. Par is the innermost at
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the origin; payant pertains to heart, madhyam to intellect and vaikhar the phonetically expressed
through organs of speech.
The verse also refers to water in the form heavy rain and the sun as a good friend of water. This also
refers to the five basic elements of creation which causes the stage of pacamahbhtamaya (consisting
of five basic elements). All the five elements contain substantial traces of other elements. For example,
water contains traces of air, fire, space and earth (the fifth one is water). While referring to friend of water,
it not only refers to the process of water vaporising due to the heat of the sun, forming clouds to cause
rain, but also refers to the process of creation itself by subtly conveying the presence of pacamahbhtas.
The verse also refers to the movement of the sun from the East to the West. This reference subtly conveys
the time factor, the duration of individual existence from birth to death, the role of klapurua. East
represents our birth and West represents our death. The intervening period is full of Light, which removes
the darkness of my enabling us to realize the Self-effulgent Brahman. In other words, this verse
categorically says that we should attain liberation in this birth itself. My making reference to leaping, it is
conveyed that the time moves at a faster pace and klapurua will never wait for us catch up with him.
Time will continue to move and in our own interest, we have to catch up with him to get liberated at the
earliest, in this birth itself (the state of jvanmukta). Sage Agastya beautifully reminds the Grandeur of
Brahman to Lord r Rma; technically it is not an explanation, but only a reminder to r Rma about His
stature as Brahman.
Verse 14 dwells on physical description of the sun, such as its heat, its shape, its colour at the time of
dawn, day and dusk, its attribute of showing up all the objects throughout the universe and not just the
planet earth (this is known as Vimara aspect of Brahman). By making reference to poets, impartation of
knowledge is conveyed. Knowledge contextually refers to spiritual knowledge (different from material
knowledge), which is important to remove the veil of my. In other words, by its rays, sun can cause ones
kualin energy to ascend. Sun makes this possible by activating pigala ni and balancing it with ia
ni. When these two ni-s are perfectly balanced and sealed, kualin enters through suumna to
reach sahasrra, where iva and akti unite and Self-realization takes place. The usage of the word
bhavodbhava clearly establishes that Agastya is talking about Brahman and not the planet sun.
Bhavodbhava means as a single word refers to iva and sarva bhavodbhava means Brahman or
Paramaiva, where both iva and akti coexist. Brahman and His power are not separate in this stage
and this is the stage of Paramaiva. Even if any doubt exists in our mind that Agastya is talking about the
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planet sun, it is now proved beyond doubt that he refers only Brahman.
Verse 15 talks about omnipresence of Brahman. As the Chief of creation (Praka), He willed to create
and as a result of this Divine Will, He manifests in the form of sun and presides over constellations,
planets, pacamahbhta-s, etc and thus entire creation came into existence. Ka says in Bhagavad
Gt (Ka speaks as Brahman and not as a god head) that He is the mind among the organs of
perception. Mind is considered as supreme as the mind is nothing but the power of the Brahman.
Knowing that mind is His Power is realisation. Mind is the cause for both bondage and liberation and is
the seat of faculty reasoning. Hence Ka says that He is the mind among the organs of perception. Both
mind and consciousness are the two important factors in Self-realisation. Consciousness alone has the
capacity to manifest and His creation can be known only through the presence of consciousness.
According to Dr. David R. Hawkins from the Un-manifest to the Manifest, the energy of consciousness
itself interacted with matter, and as an expression of Divinity, by that interaction life arose. For academic
interest the twelve ditya-s are Dht, Mitra, Aryam, Indra, Varua, Aa, Bhaga, Vivasvn, P,
Savit, Tva and Viu. They are also known as Dvdaditya-s and they represent twelve solar months
and klapurua acts through them from ones birth to death.
At the end of 15th verse of ditya Hdayam, after having discussed about the various attributes of Sagua
Brahman, we begin to salute Him and this salutation continues in the next few verses. Why this salutation?
Salutations are needed to connect with someone who is superior to us (in spiritual parlance) and who is
closer to Brahman and acts on behalf of Brahman (these are the stages of sthitapraja, yog and
jvanmukta). As discussed earlier, Brahman does not act on His own. He acts through His Kinetic energy
and different energies are presided over by different symbolic representations giving rise various forms of
gods and goddesses. When we inquire unto ourselves about Brahman, shapes and forms (depicted as
different gods and goddesses) and the sounds (mantras) associated with them would get dissolved either
into pra (full) or nya (void)*. Typically both are same; Brahman is both fullness and nothingness.
at 7:13 PM

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