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Hospitality refers to the relationship between a guest and a host, wherein the host receives the

guest with goodwill, including the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers.
Louis, chevalier de Jaucourt describes hospitality in the Encyclopedia as the virtue of a great soul
that cares for the whole universe through the ties of humanity
Hospitality ethics is a discipline that studies this usage of hospitality.

Advantages and disadvantages

According to PositivelyIndy, the advantages of hospitality are amazing opportunities,
appreciation, meritocracy, a lot of perks and the ability to exercise creativity. Disadvantages
of hospitality are the requirement to work long and odd hours, challenges of breaking into the
industry, immense pressure from high expectations, standards and deadlines, and realizing the
myth that there is a possibility of encountering public figures, although this is not the norm. The
advantages and disadvantages of hospitality are measured in the eyes of the beholder. Some
people may look at the long and odd hours as a disadvantage. Others may see them as an
opportunity to escape redundancy in a standard schedule. This characteristic presents a high
turnover rate in the hospitality industry. Employers in the industry hire people at an astounding
rate because many of the employees do not look at hospitality as a long-term career plan. For
example, college students need extra money for the summer, so they work in the hospitality
industry because it is easier to get hired and receive a quick paycheck. Another example is the
people who are between jobs. They need quick money to pay bills but are actively looking for
better jobs that pay more and are in their field of expertise.
Hospitality Management refers to many different areas of Tourism; it is essentially the aspects of
travel and tourism which reflect on hotel management, restaurants and different holiday
destinations. This assignment will focus on the inter-relationships between Hospitality
management and Tourism, as well as looking at the integration between the two fields.

The basic function of hospitality is to establish a relationship or to promote exchange of goods

and services, both material and symbolic, between those who give hospitality (hosts) and those
who receive it (guests) [...] (Lashley and Morrison (eds.), 2000:19).

In order to classify Hospitality outlets in travel and tourism, firstly you would need to
examine the different tourist destinations which hold well known hotel chains, restaurants
and catering services. According to, the online source for hospitality,
In the UK hospitality and catering outlets dropped marginally in 2008 to 262,134
establishments, down from 263,053 the previous year.

Hospitality outlets which have been seem to be successful and expand in certain destinations, are
usually those placed in popular tourist destinations and attractions. Those placed in destinations
such as Paris, Hollywood, Cancun or New Zealand are likely to do well and have large tourist
Many Hospitality companies use leisure venues which include hospitality, that they undertake in
order to progress within the industry and to reach a wider market. The different outlet include, in
leisure venues;

Night clubs.
Theme parks

In travel venues the outlets would include;

Rail stations.

The free standing Hospitality venues are the traditional outlets such as;


Holiday centres.
Cruise ships.
Bars/ Restaurants.

The three Domains in the Hospitality industry formulated by Conrad Lashley and Alison
Morrison consist of, the social domain in this case refers to the interactions of people and the
services provided, as Hospitality is about the interaction and relationships between them and
their consumers this domain would suit this notion more so then the other two.
The second domain is referred to as the Private domain, this is essentially reflecting on the free
standing outlets as it establishes the relationships of hospitality with their consumers through
food based elements, in this case restaurants, bars and food chains.
The third domain is the Commercial domain is seen as the business side of the hospitality
industry. This refers to how the service or business in promoted to their consumers. It is also
credited as not being an acceptable generalisation, such as the two other domains.

The interrelationships between Hospitality and travel and tourism organisations are
specifically that the tourism industry attracts the consumers to different destinations
around the world, by means of promotion and marketing. Whereas, the Hospitality aspect
of this is they provide the leisure and comfort for the consumers, within hotels,
restaurants and transport.

The Tourism aspect is the demand and the Hospitality is the need, it is the relationship element
which links Tourism and Hospitality, as Hospitality allows the consumers to have a satisfaction
and it delves into creating loyalty between the organisation and consumer which otherwise would
not exist.
Many Travel and Tourism organisations have global connections with Hospitality services in
order to offer deals and services to consumers travelling to those destinations. To provide the best
service for their consumers often travel organisations would help promote Hospitality services
within their own company to spread the word about different companies they are associated with.

As building relationships with Hospitality venues allows them to establish relationships between
themselves and their clients.
For example, in order for organisations to attract more people to their holiday destinations they
would employ a variety of hospitality outlets, whether it is a hotel, restaurant or casino. This is
usually done in expanding tourist destinations where an improvement has been seen in the
amount of tourist each year. This has been the case for certain destinations where casinos and
hotels have been the centre of the tourist attraction, and have created more room for development
in those places as well as increased wealth, such as in Las Vegas, America. The Hospitality
outlets have become the attractions, which has generated more money for the tourism
organisations and expanded their tourist income.

There are two specific levels of integration within the Hospitality sector, which are; The
Horizontal integration and Vertical integration. Horizontal integration is the emergence of
several different aspects or firms into one main management.
However, Vertical integration is the opposite as it refers to a supply chain with more than one
management that produce several different products or services that are combined.
The way this is integrated into the Hospitality business is by different organisations within in the
travel and tourism industry formulating in several different companies being placed under one
management. If you focus on vertical integration this would mean smaller companies such as an
airline company merging with a tour operator, in order to expand the business and within
hospitality create new relationships with different clients.
This could also be done through smaller companies in growing countries combining with larger,
well known organisations to create a name for themselves and to expand within the tourism

Usually organisations would use horizontal integration rather than vertical integration as
they would be taking over one type of product or service and not several under one
control. It would be more likely for problems to occur with vertical integration as

although it would all be less than one organisation there are still different areas of the
company which have their own management, so it is harder to have an over view of the
entire organisation, in terms of cost, promotion and the general outlook.
The level of integration has risen in the hospitality sector as where destinations are becoming
more popular and desired by people, larger organisations are jumping on the band wagon and
using their Brand or company to support it.
One organisation may take over a hotel chain, restaurants and casinos, all under the same
company but still have different management for each. This would be the same as one company
but different Brands under their control.

An example of the integration, specifically looking at horizontal integration would be if

an airline took ownership of a chain of hotels in different destinations, such as Las Vegas
but also had contracts with other airlines and did maintenance for them.

Integration works more effectively when you have two different areas of the tourism industry
integrated, such as an airline company joining with a travel provider. This allows the company to
branch out into different fields and attract new customers to their company. It also is a good way
for them to promote their brand within the other fields brand, as it can reach a broader
consumer, then just their current customer.
The implications of integration in the hospitality sector would be the organisation which has
many different firms under their control, will find it harder to manage all aspects of those firms.
As with vertical integration those firms would be under one organisation but would still be
controlled by different outlets. This would create problems for the whole organisation; especially
if a major problem arises within one specific sector then the whole organisation would have to go
under crises control in order for it not to tarnish the whole reputation of that brand as well as the
whole organisation.
Integration has and can affecta hospitality organisation because if more than one company or
firm merges then the whole organisation is credited as the main organisation which is in control.
So for example, if Easy Jet and Ryan air which are both known for having affordable flights to

destinations across Europe, decided to merge and one company starts to decline it would affect
the other company also, and would ruin their reputation.
Although integration can be efficient and effective and has its positive points, that does not mean
that there would not be any negative effects due to one management being put in place for two
different brands or companies.
For this section the focus will be on looking at a hotel as part of the hospitality sector, the
target market for this would be dependent on the destination of the hotel, as this could
reflect on the costs and how much money people would spend to stay there, the type of
holiday destination it is. Whether it is in the central of a town surrounded by historic
building for people who enjoy site seeing, by the beach, or allocated in the busiest
restaurant and bar area.
If designing a hotel and marketing it, then it is important to take into consideration many
different factors such as price being the main criteria. People are always looking for the best
deals and offers, so having a hotel which is affordable, in a good location that has a good rating.
The target market chosen would be both male and female, middle class people possibly with
families, as many people are tend to travel in groups or with families that have children it would
be important to have a family based facility on the premises and offer activities and resources for
people of any age to enjoy.
Many airlines offer deals for family trips and holidays so offering that same service in a hotel
business would be both beneficial to airlines who want to promote their business in your hotel
and beneficial to the hotel company who would build a report with different clients and airlines
and attract their consumers as well as new clients.
When looking at affordable but clean, good, well-managed hotels then they usually fall under the
classification of 3 Stars, which is the average for many hotels. Especially now that people are on
a tighter budget they are watching where they spend the pennies much more than before. So any
way they can save money is essential, and by providing them with a good service and many
different facilities in the hotel but at a good price then there would be no second guessing.

For this hotel the exterior would have to coincide with its surroundings, which means everything
which is seen on the outside of the hotel including the hotel itself has to reflect the location and
destination itself.
If this hotel and company would succeed as a franchise and having a chain of hotels located in
many different destinations then it would be best to keep the exterior look of the hotel traditional
and classy.

In this case, the building would be like a set of apartments with possibly 5 stories high,
but unlike many hotels it would have up to 3 or 4 separate buildings surrounding each
other. To separate it from other hotels and nearby hotels, then allowing it to have separate
buildings which are not as high as many other buildings would give it a family feel and
the feel of being in a luxury small village. As it would be surrounding a swimming pool,
with the reception as soon as you arrive into the mini village, closed by large gates.

A playground would be allocated nearby for children to enjoy, surrounded by bars and a food
area outside for people to have their breakfast, lunch and dinner. There would also be small paths
with flowers and grass on the sides leading you to different areas of the village resort.
Now moving to the interior look of the hotels, as they are different compartments and buildings,
each room would have one level, with a balcony. Giving it a very tropical feel with a variety of
flowers surrounding the buildings, which would have a red shade in order to stand out from
nearby hotels. The top of the building would have small roofs to give the feel of a home away
from home feel, almost like a hut style look.
Holiday resorts are becoming more popular in recent years so to create a similar type of look
would be effective and different compared to the competition.

There are a variety of organisational structures to be identified before looking at the

specific one that works best with this particular hospitality outlet.

They include; Pre-bureaucratic structures, Bureaucratic,Post-bureaucratic, Functional structures,

Divisional structures and the Matrix structure. The Pre-bureaucratic structure i best used for
smaller organisations, in order to solve smaller problems. It is useful as it can help control the
companys growth and development.
Bureaucratic structures unlike pre-bureaucratic structures are suited more for larger organisations
rather them smaller companies.
Post-bureaucratic structures are similar to Bureaucratic structures, although they have their own
significance. Post-bureaucratic structures tend to adopt decision making policies which involve
conflict strategies.
Functional structures divide different tasks into specific categories, these involve; marketing,
information technology, research and customer service to name a few.
Divisional structures are broken down into three specific areas; product, market and geographic.
The organisational is often organised into different divisions, based on the three areas.
The Matrix structure usually involves different aspects of organisational aspects which are linked
together, which forms the interaction of different people within the company, for example, a
product manager would report to a manager in a different field of the company.
The operational requirements of this hotels organisational structure would be to focus on the
Divisional structures and the Matrix structures as they relate to the other organisational structures
as well as delve into their own specific fields. For a hospitality outlet it is important to represent
areas such as product, market and geographic, into the companys main criteria, which is what
the Divisional structures offer.
It is important to focus on the consumers demands and needs, when looking at the organisational
structure and Human resource management then peoples individual as well as group
characteristics are just as important.
According to the book, Human resource management in the hospitality industry: An
introductory guide, written by Michael J. Boella and Steven Goss- Turner, to achieve and
improve the performance of an organisation especially in the hospitality industry they need to
specify two elements.

Identifying both individuals and groups weaknesses and strengths so that weaknesses can be
corrected and strengths developed and built upon.
Secondly, Identifying each individuals hopes and aspirations so that, where these do not
conflict with the organisations objectives, they can be satisfied.
A major factor in the organisational development would be commitment as it is important for a
company, in any field to be committed to what it values, offers and promotes, in order to give full
satisfaction for their consumers.
Overall, integration can be a positive improvement for a company especially in tourism and
hospitality but it can also have negative effects. Hospitality and Tourism work well with each
other as the tourism aspect promotes the holidays and the destination; it is the business side of
the field. Whereas, the hospitality aspect of this is the relationship between the consumer and
business, and generally builds the brands loyalty with the consumer.