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Skeletal System

BURSITIS
Bursitis is a painful condition that affects the bursae, small fluid-filled sacs that cushion the bones,
tendons and muscles near your joints. Bursitis occurs when the bursae becomes inflamed. Bursitis
is commonly found in the shoulders, elbows and hips. It often occurs near joints that perform
frequent repetitive motion. Treatment typically involves resting the affected joint and protecting it
from further trauma. In most cases, bursitis pain goes away within a few weeks with proper
treatment, but recurrent flare-ups of bursitis are common.

CANCER OF THE BONES


The cause for most bone cancers have yet to be determined. Doctors know that bone
cancer begins from an error in a cell's DNA. The error tells the cell to grow and divide in an
uncontrolled way. These cells go on living, rather than dying at a set time and these mutated cells
then forming a mass or tumor that invade nearby structures. Bone cancers are broken down into
separate types based on the type of cell where the cancer began. The most common types of bone
cancer include:
Osteosarcoma begins in the bone cells, the osteocytes. Osteosarcoma occurs most often in
children and young adults, in the bones of the leg or arm.
Chondrosarcoma begins in the cartilage cells, the chondrocytes. It usually occurs in the pelvis,
legs or arms in middle-aged and older adults.
For Ewing's sarcoma the actual area in the bone of its emergence has not been identified, but the
tumors most commonly arise in the pelvis, legs or arms of children and young adults.

DISLOCATION
Dislocation is an injury in the area where two or more bones meet, the joint. Dislocation
occurs when the ends of the bones are forced to stray from their normal positions. This painful
injury temporarily deforms and disables the joint. It is most common in the shoulders and fingers,
and the usual treatment is to pull the bones in separate direction for there to be space to return to
the original position.
OSTEOMALACIA

This is the softening of your bones caused by a vitamin D deficiency. Soft bones are more likely to
bow and fracture than are harder, healthy bones. Osteomalacia results from a defect in the bonebuilding process, while osteoporosis develops due to a weakening of previously constructed bone.
Muscle weakness and achy bone pain are the major symptoms of osteomalacia.

OSTEOPOROSIS

Bone is living tissue that is constantly being broken down and replaced. Osteoporosis occurs when
the creation of new bone doesn't keep up with the removal of old bone. Causes bones to become
very weak and brittle, that a fall or even mild stresses like bending over or coughing can cause a
fracture. Osteoporosis-related fractures commonly occurs in the hip, wrist or spine.

OSTEOMYCELITIS

Osteomyelitis is a result of a bone infection. Infections can reach a bone by traveling through the
bloodstream or spreading from nearby tissue. Osteomyelitis can also begin in the bone itself if an
injury exposes the bone to germs.
People who have diabetes may develop osteomyelitis in their feet if they have foot ulcers.
SPRAIN
A sprain is a stretching or tearing of ligaments. A ligament is a tough bands of fibrous tissue
that connect two bones together in your joints. The most common location for a sprain is in your
ankle.

STRAIN
A strain is a stretching or tearing of muscle or tendon. A tendon is a fibrous cord of tissue
that connects muscles to bones. Strains often occur in the lower back and in the hamstring muscle
in the back of your thigh.
SCOLIOSIS

Scoliosis is a lateral curvature of the straight vertical line of the spine. When viewed from
the side, the spine should show a mild roundness in the upper back and shows a degree of inward
curvature in the lower back. When a person with scoliosis is viewed from the front or back, the
spine appears to be curved.

SPINA BIFIDA
Spina bifida is part of a group of birth defects called neural tube defects. Normally, the
neural tube forms early in the pregnancy and closes by the 28th day after conception. The neural
tube is the embryonic structure that eventually develops into the baby's brain and spinal cord and
the tissues that enclose them. In babies a portion of the neural tube fails to develop properly,
causing defects in the spinal cord. Spina bifida occurs in various forms of severity, treatment is
done surgically.

References:
Mayo Clinic - Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). Retrieved September 3, 2015, from
http://www.mayoclinic.org/
WebMD - Better information. Better health. (n.d.). Retrieved September 3, 2015.