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OOPS Tutorials Object Oriented Programming Introduction Object Oriented Programming Concepts What is Object Oriented Programming? The History of Object Oriented Programming Object Oriented Programming Object Oriented Programming Overview The Importance of Inheritance Within OOP The Inheritance Concept In OOPs A Object Oriented Programming Lesson For Beginners The Use of Access Specifiers In Object Oriented Programming Class-based Object Oriented Programming The OOP Paradigm Object Oriented Programming As a Paradigm Object Oriented Programming Lessons Understanding Classes Within Object Oriented Programming Understanding The Message Concept In OOPs Object Oriented Programming Issues OOPS Concepts Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a computer science term used to characterize a programming language that began development in the 1960’s. The term ‘object-oriented programming’ was originally coined by Xerox PARC to designate a computer application that describes the methodology of using objects as the foundation for computation. By the 1980’s, OOP rose to prominence as the programming language of choice, exemplified by the success of C++. Currently, OOPs such as Java, J2EE, C++, C#, Visual Basic.NET, Python and JavaScript are popular OOP programming languages that any career-oriented Software Engineer or developer should be familiar with. ……………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………

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Object Oriented Programming Introduction Object Oriented Programming, also known as OOP, is a computer science term which is used to describe a computer application that is composed of multiple objects which are connected to each other. Traditionally, most computer programming languages were simply a group of functions or instructions. With OOP, every object can handle data, get messages, and transfer messages to other objects. The objects will all act as independent units in their own right, and they will be responsible for carrying out a certain process. ……………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………. It is this modularity that makes OOP an effective programming method. It will also help the application solve the problems that it was designed for. The next concept that you will want to become familiar with is an "object." An object can be defined as a specific instance of a class. As an example, while the class Cats will provide all the attributes that are found in all cats, the "object" named Betsy is a specific cat. While it shares the same attributes which are found in all cats, it has fur with a unique color. In object oriented programming, a programmer would say that the object Betsy is a run-time instance of the class Cats. ……………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………. Object Oriented Programming Concepts Three of the most basic concepts for object oriented programming are Classes, Objects, and Methods. However, there are a few more concepts that you will want to become familiar with. These

are Inheritance, Abstraction, Polymorphism, Event, and Encapsulation. In this article, I will be using the class Cats as an example. Inheritance will allow a sub-group to make a connection with the associates of its parent class. For example, lets say the class Cats decides to create a method called purr() and a property named Colorfur. As the name implies, a property is a specific attribute which is connected to an object. ……………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………. Object Oriented Programming Concepts Three of the most basic concepts for object oriented programming are Classes, Objects, and Methods. However, there are a few more concepts that you will want to become familiar with. These are Inheritance, Abstraction, Polymorphism, Event, and Encapsulation. In this article, I will be using the class Cats as an example. Inheritance will allow a sub-group to make a connection with the associates of its parent class. For example, lets say the class Cats decides to create a method called purr() and a property named Colorfur. As the name implies, a property is a specific attribute which is connected to an object. ……………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………. What is Object Oriented Programming? There are a number of common characteristics which are found in object oriented programming languages. Some of these are the grouping of data and functions, a separation of the interface with the implementation, and the sharing of code. At the most basic

level, object oriented programming is a different method of solving problems. Languages which are designed with the OOP paradigm allow programmers to think in new ways. They will also support inheritance, and instead of using function calls, they will use messages. The goal of a computer program is to alter data. What the program does to the data is more important than how it does it. When data types are generated, the programmer will want to define what procedures the program can use to alter the variables of the data type. This is called data integrity. In addition to this, the OOP approach is flexible and allows future changes to the structure of the data. An example of this would be when you need to fix bugs or make enhancements. To understand object oriented programming, you will first want to become familiar with the terminology that is used. In OOP, the data types are referred to as being classes. The variable which is attached to a class is called an instance of the class. The procedures which may be carried out by a class are called methods instead of functions. ……………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………. Object Oriented Programming Traditionally, programming languages have been divided into two categories, and these are data and procedures which are carried out on data. By itself, data is static. It will not be static when procedures are carried out which can alter it. The functions and processes that work on data are only useful because they can change data. The division of data and procedures which are carried out on it are based on the way in which computers behave. Because of this, it is difficult to push these two concepts aside. Even developers who work with object oriented programming structures must display the data that will be used by the application, and they must generate the functions that will work on this data. ……………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………….

Object Oriented Programming Traditionally, programming languages have been divided into two categories, and these are data and procedures which are carried out on data. By itself, data is static. It will not be static when procedures are carried out which can alter it. The functions and processes that work on data are only useful because they can change data. The division of data and procedures which are carried out on it are based on the way in which computers behave. Because of this, it is difficult to push these two concepts aside. Even developers who work with object oriented programming structures must display the data that will be used by the application, and they must generate the functions that will work on this data. ……………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………. Object Oriented Programming Overview If you are not familiar with an object-oriented programming language, you will first need to understand the foundation that makes up this paradigm. It is a necessity for anyone who plans on writing code. In this article, I will explain the basic OOP structures in detail. The first thing that you will want to become familiar with is an object. An object is a bundle of software that contains methods and variables. The objects which are found in computer programs will often be used to simulate objects which exist in the real world. To truly understand OOP, it is crucial that you understand the importance of objects. Before I discuss objects in the OPP sense, look around you. It is likely that you see a number of objects, and this could include your desk, computer, or chair. ……………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………….

The Importance of Inheritance Within OOP In an object-oriented programming language that is well designed, a function should be able to have functions that reside inside it. In addition to this, other functions should be processed as input and output as well. When an OOP language uses these features, it will utilize a design that is simple and consistent. This is an important concept that can make the difference between a good programming language and a great programming language. When code is written, the subroutine should be capable of returning a function. When this is done, the argument can be raised to a higher nth power. Once this has occured, it can be used in a number of different ways. ……………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………. The Inheritance Concept In OOPs In object oriented programming, objects will be characterised by classes. It is possible to learn a lot about an object based on the class it belongs to. Even if you are not familiar with the name Maybach, If I told you it is a car, you would immediately know that it has four wheels, an engine, and doors. Objected oriented programming takes this concept to a whole new level. It permits classes to be defined in relation to other classes. For example, sedans, sports cars, and roadsters are all types of cars. In the object oriented language, sports cars, sedans, and roadsters are subclasses of the class cars. The class cars is a "superclass" of sedans, roadsters, and sports cars. Every subclass will inherit a state from the superclass. The various types of cars such as sedans and roadsters will share certain behaviors such as braking. Despite this, subclasses are not restricted to the behaviors and states that they have taken from their superclass. A subclass can combine methods and variables with the traits they have inherited from their superclass. For example, while a sedan may have four dours, sports cars will generally have two. It is also possible for subclasses to override any methods that they have inherited, and they can create unique implementations for these methods.

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A Object Oriented Programming Lesson For Beginners In this article I will go over object oriented programming in relation to PHP. This article will be especially useful to those who already have a simple knowledge of programming and variables. You should know what a variable is, and you should also know about the different types of variables. ……………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………. The Use of Access Specifiers In Object Oriented Programming In object oriented programming, a variable will have a certain range. This range can be defined as the place where it can be viewed. In most cases, there are two simple models that are used, and these are lexically scoped and dynamically scoped. Dynamic scoping is a system which is based on time, and lexical scoping is a system that is based on text. An example of lexical scoping would be the phrase "you get what you pay for." Before you can understand access specifiers, it is important to be familiar with the code. With dynamic scoping, you will get a result that is based on the review of the bundle of values. With lexical scoping, a variable may be printed since any variable in the block can be set to a number before a variable is called. When it comes to the implementation of a language, dynamic scoping is clearly the easiest. It is the option that was used in older object oriented programming languages. Despite this, lexical scoping has a number of characteristics that makes it highly desirable. ……………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………. Class-based Object Oriented Programming Class-based object oriented programming is a style that gains inheritance by processing classes as objects. The most prominent style of OOP is class-based instead of object-based. With the class-based OOP system, objects are units that merge states, identities, and behaviors. The foundation and behavior of the object will be characterized by the class, which will act as a diagram of all objects which fall under the same type. The object will need to be constructed on the foundation of a class, and because of this, the object is considered to be the instance of the class that it is based on. The object can be likened to a foundation, and it will have access controls and method pointers. With class-based OOP, encapsulation will stop users from disrupting the invariants within the class, and this is important because it will permit the classes of objects to be implemented. At the same time, it will not have any adverse effects on the user code. Encapsulation is a concept that deals with the collection and protection of information that is related, and the name for this is cohesion. The vast majority of object oriented programming languages don't offer security measures which are formal for the state of an object. The method of access is more closely connected to the design of the interface. ……………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………. The OOP Paradigm Object oriented programming is a concept that was created because of the need to overcome the problems that were found with using structured programming techniques. While structured programming uses an approach which is top down, OOP uses an approach which is bottom up. Traditionally, programming has placed an emphasis on logic and actions.

Object oriented programming has taken a completely different direction, and will place an emphasis on objects and information. With object oriented programming, a problem will be broken down into a number of units. These units are called objects. The foundation of OOP is the fact that it will place an emphasis on objects and classes. ……………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………. Object Oriented Programming As a Paradigm There has been debate about the proper definition to give to object oriented programming. There has also been some debate about the primary idea behind the concept. In a nutshell, object oriented programming is the technique of writing application text that is split into a number of modules. Object oriented programming is a new framework which is much different from the programming methods that have been used in the past. In fact, the concepts which have been created by OOP are so powerful that they are said by some to be creating a new revolution in programming. Originally, object oriented programming was merely the subject of research. However, powerful system architectures were built based on it, and were compatible with operating systems and central processing units. Many people believe that object oriented programming was derived from the concept of an "object" that is commonly associated with grammar. Traditionally, software has also placed an emphasis on the subject. The components that make up a subject tend to be complex, and programming languages which are subject-oriented tend to be complex as well. To solve these problems, developers started looking at objects instead of subjects. ……………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………….

Object Oriented Programming Lessons If you are familiar with the programming field, it is likely that you have heard people talking about object oriented programming languages. If Java is the first programming language you have worked with, you are probably wandering why so many people are talking about it. If you have worked with Java, you should already be familiar with the object oriented programming approach. You should know something about classes, instances, objects, and inheritance. One of the best things about Java is that the OOP approach is a fundamental part of its architecture. To gain a powerful knowledge of OOP, this article will present an overview of the important concepts that you will want to know. It will present concepts which are found in the Java programming language. I'm going to assume that you are already familiar with basic concepts such as classes and objects, and I will focus on access levels, polymorphism, and program enhancements. Access levels are methods that classes will use to work with one another on a variety of different levels. The classes and the fields which are connected to them will have access levels that will define how they may be handled by other objects during an operation. While coordination among these objects is highly desirable, situations may occur in which you will need to handle the access, and you may have to define the access levels. This will allow you to have control over the operation. If you do not define a certain access level, the system will use the default settings. ……………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………. Understanding Classes Within Object Oriented Programming To fully understand object oriented programming, you will want to be familiar with classes. When you look at the world around you, it will become obvious that many objects are the same type. For example, the car you drive is just one of the millions of cars that exist in the world. In the OOP terminology, the car you drive is an instance of the class cars. Each car will have a state, and it will have behavior as

well. However, the state and behavior of one car is not dependent on the state and behavior of other cars. An example of a behavior a car will have is braking, while the state of the car could be having four wheels. In the object oriented programming, it is possible to have a large number of objects of the same type that have a number of identical attributes. An example of these objects could be video clips or rectangles. The advantage of processing objects which are the same type is that you can generate a diagram for them. This diagram is called a "class." So, the class is a diagram that contains the methods and variables which are related to a specific group of objects. For example, the class of a car would provide the variables that would allow all cars to have a state. In addition to this, the class would also provide information that is related to the methods that will allow changes to take place in the car. ……………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………. Understanding The Message Concept In OOPs To understand object oriented programming, you will need to become familiar with messages. As the name implies, a message is a process in which software objects will communicate with one another. Because of this, having one object is not enough. An object will work best when it is exists in a large application that is populated by other objects. When these objects interact with each other, programmers will be able to gain a high level of functionality, and the behavior of the system will be very complex. To give you an example of this, imagine that you have a motorcycle that is sitting in your garage. By itself, it is nothing but gears and metal. However, when you sit on it, turn it on, and begin riding it, both you and the motorcycle have created interaction. ……………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………. Understanding The Message Concept In OOPs To understand object oriented programming, you will need to become familiar with messages. As the name implies, a message is a process in which software objects will communicate with one another. Because of this, having one object is not enough. An object will work best when it is exists in a large application that is populated by other objects. When these objects interact with each other, programmers will be able to gain a high level of functionality, and the behavior of the system will be very complex. To give you an example of this, imagine that you have a motorcycle that is sitting in your garage. By itself, it is nothing but gears and metal. However, when you sit on it, turn it on, and begin riding it, both you and the motorcycle have created interaction. The software objects that exist within a program must interact as well. They will do this by sending messages to each other. When object Z wants object R to initiate one of R's methods, object Z will transmit a signal to object R. There is a possibility that object R will not have enough information to activate the method. For example, if you want your motorcycle to slow down, you will need to "communicate" with it by pressing down on the brakes. The data that is transferred with the message is called parameters. The messages that are sent between software objects are comprised of three things. The first is the object to which the message is being sent. The second is the name of the method that is being requested. The third is the parameters that must be used with the method. ……………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………….

Object Oriented Programming Issues There are a number of errors that programmers can make when they are using an object oriented programming languages. One example of this is looking at the type of object instead of the membership it is associated with. When this happens, the advantages of polymorphism and inheritance are weakened. ……………………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………….

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