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28. Folds (II)


I Main Topic: Mechanics of folds above intrusions
A Background
B G.K. Gilberts idealizaGon
C SuperposiGon
D Displacements around an opening-mode crack (sill)
E Dimensional analysis of governing eq. for bending
F Idealized form of folds over a laccolith
G Development of laccoliths and saucer-shaped sills
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28. Folds (II)


Laccolith, Montana

hTp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/a6/Laccolith_Montana.jpg
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28. Folds (II)


II Mechanics of folds above intrusions

Half-stereogram of Mount Ellsworth

From Gilbert, 1877, Report on the geology of the Henry Mountains

hTp://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/geology/publicaGons/bul/707/images/g53.jpg
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28. Folds (II)


II Mechanics of folds above intrusions
G.K. Gilbert

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David Pollard

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28. Folds (II)


II Mechanics of folds above intrusions (beam theory)
Ideal Cross-sec7on of a
Mountain of Erup7on

Ideal Cross-sec7on of a
Laccolite, showing the typical
form and the arching of the
overlying strata

Figures from Gilbert, 1887


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28. Folds (II)


II Mechanics of folds above intrusions
SuperposiGon

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28. Folds (II)


II Mechanics of folds above intrusions
SuperposiGon

Opening-mode crack
modeled by opening-mode
displacement disconGnuiGes
(dds) of dierent apertures
Openings [X(i)] of dds set so
that sum of tracGon changes
matches boundary condiGon
[B(j)] on crack walls = yyc
[A(ij)][X(i)] = [B(j)], where A(ij)
is eect of unit opening at
element i on tracGons at
element j
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Displacement
DisconGnuiGes

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28. Folds (II)


II Mechanics of folds above intrusions
SuperposiGon

Total stress eld around


crack equals sum of stress
contribuGons of all dds:
t = i
Total displacement eld
around crack equals sum
of displacement
contribuGons of all dds:
ut = ui
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Displacement
DisconGnuiGes
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28. Folds (II)

II Mechanics of folds above intrusions


Displacements arising from
opening of a mode-I crack,
2D elasGc model (from
Pollard and Segall, 1987)
ux =

I
r

(1 2 ) ( R cos r cos ) r sin sin ( )


2G
R

Driving Pressure (over-pressure)

uy =

I
2G

2 (1 ) ( Rsin r sin ) r sin cos ( ) 1


R

Shear modulus of host rock

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28. Folds (II)

II Mechanics of folds above intrusions


Displacements arising from
opening of a mode-I crack,
2D elasGc model (from
Pollard and Segall, 1987)
Now specialize to the crack walls.
Rsin = y 0, hence
ux =

I
r
I
{(1 2 )( R cos r cos )}
(1 2 ) ( R cos r cos ) r sin sin ( )
2G
2G
R

uy =

I
2G

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{2 (1 )( Rsin )}
2 (1 ) ( Rsin r sin ) r sin cos ( ) 1
2G
R

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28. Folds (II)

II Mechanics of folds above intrusions


Displacements arising from
opening of a mode-I crack,
2D elasGc model (from
Pollard and Segall, 1987)
r1 is distance from right end
r2 is distance from len end

So the remaining key


terms are:
R, cos, sin, and rcos.
Along the crack,
these terms are simple:
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R = [(a - x)(a + x)]1/2 = a 2 x 2

= 1 =
,so cos = 0,sin = 1
2
2
r cos = x
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28. Folds (II)

II Mechanics of folds above intrusions


Displacements arising from
opening of a mode-I crack,
2D elasGc model (from
Pollard and Segall, 1987)
Along the crack, R=[(a-x)(a+x)]1/2,rcos = x
u cx ( x a ) =
u cy ( x a ) =
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(1 2 ) ( R cos r cos )} u cx = I {(1 2 ) ( x )}


{
2G
2G

{2 (1 )( Rsin )} u cy = 2GI 2 (1 ) a 2 x 2
2G
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)}
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28. Folds (II)

II Mechanics of folds above intrusions


Displacements arising from
opening of a mode-I crack,
2D elasGc model (from
Pollard and Segall, 1987)

y
x

Now consider the displacements normal to the crack:


u yc =

I
2 (1 )
2G

u yc
u

c
y(max)

a2 x 2

)} u

a2 x 2
a

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c
y(max)

( x = 0) =

) =

x
1
a

+ I
{2 (1 ) a}
2G
2

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28. Folds (II)

II Mechanics of folds above intrusions


Displacements arising from
opening of a mode-I crack,
2D elasGc model (from
Pollard and Segall, 1987)

y
x

Now consider the displacements parallel to the crack:


u cx ( x a ) =

I
+ I
(1 2 ) ( x )} ,andu cy(max) ( x = 0 ) =
{
{2 (1 ) a}
2G
2G
u xc
(1 2 ) ( x )
=
c
u y(max)
2 (1 ) a
For = 0.25,

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c
x
c
y(max)

(1 2 )( x ) = (1 2 )( x ) = 1 x
2(3 4)a
( 3 2) a 3 a
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28. Folds (II)

II Mechanics of folds above intrusions


Displacements arising from
opening of a mode-I crack,
2D elasGc model (from
Pollard and Segall, 1987)

Normalized Crack wall displacements


(v = 0.25)

Along the crack (|x/a| 1)


u yc
u

c
y(max)

a2 x 2

For = 0.25,
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a
c
x
c
y(max)

) =

x
1
a

(1 2 )( x ) = (1 2 )( x ) = 1 x
2(3 4)a
( 3 2) a 3 a
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28. Folds (II)


II Mechanics of folds above intrusions
Sketch from eld notes of Gilbert

hTp://pangea.stanford.edu/~annegger/images/colorado%20plateau/laccolith_sketch.jpg
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28. Folds (II)

II Mechanics of folds above intrusions


Dimensional analysis of terms
in governing equa2on for
bending of an elasGc layer
(from Pollard and Fletcher,
2005)
d 4 v 12 p
=
dx 4 BH 3

y
H
v

v = verGcal deecGon of mid-plane {Length}


x = horizontal distance {Length}
L = length of exed part of layer {Length}
p = overpressure {Force/area}
B = sGness {Force/area}
H = thickness of layer {Length}
Dimensions check
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Mid-plane of
layer

Overpressure
(p)

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28. Folds (II)

II Mechanics of folds above intrusions


Dimensional analysis of terms in
governing equaGon for bending of
an elasGc layer (from Pollard and
Fletcher, 2005)
Find constant length scales
and non-dimensionalize
x* =

y
H

Mid-plane of
layer

x
v
, v* =
L
vmax

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28. Folds (II)

II Mechanics of folds above intrusions


Dimensional analysis (cont.)
Now non-dimensionalize the dierenGal operator
1
dx * 1
x
=
L
dx
L
d
d dx *
d 1
=
=
dx dx * dx
dx * L

x* =

d2 d d d 1 d 1 1 d2
= =

=
dx 2 dx dx dx * L dx * L L dx *2
2

2
3
d3 d d2 d 1 1 d2 1 d3
= 2 =
=

3
2
dx dx dx * L L dx * L dx *3
dx
3
4
d4 d d3 d 1 1 d3 1 d4
=
=
=
, etc.



dx 4 dx dx 3 dx * L L dx *3 L dx *4

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28. Folds (II)

II Mechanics of folds above intrusions


Dimensional analysis of terms in
governing equaGon for bending of
an elasGc layer (from Pollard and
Fletcher, 2005)
SubsGtute into governing eq.

y
H
v

d 4 ( v ) 12 p
=
dx 4
BH 3

v = v * vmax

Mid-plane of
layer

d4
d4 1
=
dx 4 dx *4 L4

4
d 4 (v) 1 d 4
1 ( vmax ) d ( v *) 12 p
=
v
*
v
=
=
(
)
max
dx 4
L4 dx *4
L4
dx *4
BH 3

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28. Folds (II)

II Mechanics of folds above intrusions


Dimensional analysis of terms
in governing equaGon for
bending of an elasGc layer
(from Pollard and Fletcher,
2005)

y
H
v

d 4 ( v ) 12 p
=
dx 4
BH 3

d ( v *) 12 p L
=
dx *4
B vmax H 3
4

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d 4 ( v ) 1 ( vmax ) d 4 ( v *) 12 p
= 4
=
dx 4
L
dx *4
BH 3
4

Mid-plane of
layer

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Right side contains only constants


v* ~ L4
v* ~ 1/H3
Long thin layers will deect much
more than short thick layers

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28. Folds (II)


II Mechanics of folds above intrusions
Asymmetric Pressurized Crack
Parallel to a Surface

Symmetric Pressurized Crack in


an Innite Body

Thin beam

Thick
beam

Bending of layer over laccolith should cause shearing at laccolith perimeter.


This suggests laccoliths should propagate up towards the surface as they grow.
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28. Folds (II)

II Mechanics of folds above intrusions


TheoreGcal form of soluGon

d v 12 p
=
= C4
dx 4 BH 3

Mid-plane of
layer

dv
= C4 x + C3
dx 3
d 2 v C4 2
=
x + C 3 x + C2
dx 2
2

dv C4 3 C3 2
=
x +
x + C2 x + C1
dx
6
2

v=

C 4 4 C 3 3 C2 2
x +
x +
x + C1 x + C0
24
6
2

v(x=0) = C0
The funcGon v is even: v(-x) = v(x)
By symmetry, the odd coecients (C3 and C1) must equal zero
That leaves C2; C2 is set so that v = 0 at x=L/2

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28. Folds (II)

II Mechanics of folds above intrusions

The Golden Valley Sill, South Africa a saucer-shaped sill


From Polteau et al., 2008
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28. Folds (II)

II Mechanics of folds above intrusions


1

3
Bending of
overlying
layers

Laccolith

Dike

4
Sill

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Laccolith and
saucer-shaped sill

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