A Background
B G.K. Gilbert’s idealizaGon
C SuperposiGon
D Displacements around an openingLmode crack (sill)
E Dimensional analysis of governing eq. for bending
F Idealized form of folds over a laccolith
G Development of laccoliths and saucerLshaped sills

© All Rights Reserved

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A Background
B G.K. Gilbert’s idealizaGon
C SuperposiGon
D Displacements around an openingLmode crack (sill)
E Dimensional analysis of governing eq. for bending
F Idealized form of folds over a laccolith
G Development of laccoliths and saucerLshaped sills

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 13

I Main Topic: Mechanics of folds above intrusions

A Background

B G.K. Gilberts idealizaGon

C SuperposiGon

D Displacements around an opening-mode crack (sill)

E Dimensional analysis of governing eq. for bending

F Idealized form of folds over a laccolith

G Development of laccoliths and saucer-shaped sills

12/2/11

GG303

Laccolith, Montana

hTp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/a6/Laccolith_Montana.jpg

12/2/11

GG303

12/2/11

II Mechanics of folds above intrusions

hTp://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/geology/publicaGons/bul/707/images/g53.jpg

12/2/11

GG303

II Mechanics of folds above intrusions

G.K. Gilbert

12/2/11

David Pollard

GG303

12/2/11

II Mechanics of folds above intrusions (beam theory)

Ideal Cross-sec7on of a

Mountain of Erup7on

Ideal
Cross-sec7on
of
a

Laccolite,
showing
the
typical

form
and
the
arching
of
the

overlying
strata

12/2/11

GG303

II Mechanics of folds above intrusions

SuperposiGon

12/2/11

GG303

12/2/11

II Mechanics of folds above intrusions

SuperposiGon

Opening-mode
crack

modeled
by
opening-mode

displacement
disconGnuiGes

(dds)
of
dierent
apertures

Openings
[X(i)]
of
dds
set
so

that
sum
of
tracGon
changes

matches
boundary
condiGon

[B(j)]
on
crack
walls
=
yyc

[A(ij)][X(i)]
=
[B(j)],
where
A(ij)

is
eect
of
unit
opening
at

element
i
on
tracGons
at

element
j

12/2/11

Displacement

DisconGnuiGes

GG303

II Mechanics of folds above intrusions

SuperposiGon

crack equals sum of stress

contribuGons of all dds:

t = i

Total displacement eld

around crack equals sum

of displacement

contribuGons of all dds:

ut = ui

12/2/11

GG303

Displacement

DisconGnuiGes

8

12/2/11

Displacements arising from

opening of a mode-I crack,

2D elasGc model (from

Pollard and Segall, 1987)

ux =

I

r

2G

R

uy =

I

2G

R

12/2/11

GG303

Displacements arising from

opening of a mode-I crack,

2D elasGc model (from

Pollard and Segall, 1987)

Now specialize to the crack walls.

Rsin = y 0, hence

ux =

I

r

I

{(1 2 )( R cos r cos )}

(1 2 ) ( R cos r cos ) r sin sin ( )

2G

2G

R

uy =

I

2G

12/2/11

{2 (1 )( Rsin )}

2 (1 ) ( Rsin r sin ) r sin cos ( ) 1

2G

R

GG303

10

12/2/11

Displacements arising from

opening of a mode-I crack,

2D elasGc model (from

Pollard and Segall, 1987)

r1 is distance from right end

r2 is distance from len end

terms are:

R, cos, sin, and rcos.

Along the crack,

these terms are simple:

12/2/11

= 1 =

,so cos = 0,sin = 1

2

2

r cos = x

GG303

11

Displacements arising from

opening of a mode-I crack,

2D elasGc model (from

Pollard and Segall, 1987)

Along the crack, R=[(a-x)(a+x)]1/2,rcos = x

u cx ( x a ) =

u cy ( x a ) =

12/2/11

{

2G

2G

{2 (1 )( Rsin )} u cy = 2GI 2 (1 ) a 2 x 2

2G

GG303

)}

12

12/2/11

Displacements arising from

opening of a mode-I crack,

2D elasGc model (from

Pollard and Segall, 1987)

y

x

u yc =

I

2 (1 )

2G

u yc

u

c

y(max)

a2 x 2

)} u

a2 x 2

a

12/2/11

c

y(max)

( x = 0) =

) =

x

1

a

+ I

{2 (1 ) a}

2G

2

GG303

13

Displacements arising from

opening of a mode-I crack,

2D elasGc model (from

Pollard and Segall, 1987)

y

x

u cx ( x a ) =

I

+ I

(1 2 ) ( x )} ,andu cy(max) ( x = 0 ) =

{

{2 (1 ) a}

2G

2G

u xc

(1 2 ) ( x )

=

c

u y(max)

2 (1 ) a

For = 0.25,

12/2/11

c

x

c

y(max)

(1 2 )( x ) = (1 2 )( x ) = 1 x

2(3 4)a

( 3 2) a 3 a

GG303

14

12/2/11

Displacements arising from

opening of a mode-I crack,

2D elasGc model (from

Pollard and Segall, 1987)

(v = 0.25)

u yc

u

c

y(max)

a2 x 2

For = 0.25,

12/2/11

a

c

x

c

y(max)

) =

x

1

a

(1 2 )( x ) = (1 2 )( x ) = 1 x

2(3 4)a

( 3 2) a 3 a

GG303

15

II Mechanics of folds above intrusions

Sketch from eld notes of Gilbert

hTp://pangea.stanford.edu/~annegger/images/colorado%20plateau/laccolith_sketch.jpg

12/2/11

GG303

16

12/2/11

Dimensional analysis of terms

in governing equa2on for

bending of an elasGc layer

(from Pollard and Fletcher,

2005)

d 4 v 12 p

=

dx 4 BH 3

y

H

v

x = horizontal distance {Length}

L = length of exed part of layer {Length}

p = overpressure {Force/area}

B = sGness {Force/area}

H = thickness of layer {Length}

Dimensions check

12/2/11

Mid-plane
of

layer

Overpressure

(p)

GG303

17

Dimensional analysis of terms in

governing equaGon for bending of

an elasGc layer (from Pollard and

Fletcher, 2005)

Find constant length scales

and non-dimensionalize

x* =

y

H

Mid-plane
of

layer

x

v

, v* =

L

vmax

12/2/11

GG303

18

12/2/11

Dimensional analysis (cont.)

Now non-dimensionalize the dierenGal operator

1

dx * 1

x

=

L

dx

L

d

d dx *

d 1

=

=

dx dx * dx

dx * L

x* =

d2 d d d 1 d 1 1 d2

= =

=

dx 2 dx dx dx * L dx * L L dx *2

2

2

3

d3 d d2 d 1 1 d2 1 d3

= 2 =

=

3

2

dx dx dx * L L dx * L dx *3

dx

3

4

d4 d d3 d 1 1 d3 1 d4

=

=

=

, etc.

dx 4 dx dx 3 dx * L L dx *3 L dx *4

12/2/11

GG303

19

Dimensional analysis of terms in

governing equaGon for bending of

an elasGc layer (from Pollard and

Fletcher, 2005)

SubsGtute into governing eq.

y

H

v

d 4 ( v ) 12 p

=

dx 4

BH 3

v = v * vmax

Mid-plane
of

layer

d4

d4 1

=

dx 4 dx *4 L4

4

d 4 (v) 1 d 4

1 ( vmax ) d ( v *) 12 p

=

v

*

v

=

=

(

)

max

dx 4

L4 dx *4

L4

dx *4

BH 3

12/2/11

GG303

20

10

12/2/11

Dimensional analysis of terms

in governing equaGon for

bending of an elasGc layer

(from Pollard and Fletcher,

2005)

y

H

v

d 4 ( v ) 12 p

=

dx 4

BH 3

d ( v *) 12 p L

=

dx *4

B vmax H 3

4

12/2/11

d 4 ( v ) 1 ( vmax ) d 4 ( v *) 12 p

= 4

=

dx 4

L

dx *4

BH 3

4

Mid-plane
of

layer

GG303

v* ~ L4

v* ~ 1/H3

Long thin layers will deect much

more than short thick layers

21

II Mechanics of folds above intrusions

Asymmetric Pressurized Crack

Parallel to a Surface

an Innite Body

Thin beam

Thick

beam

This suggests laccoliths should propagate up towards the surface as they grow.

12/2/11

GG303

22

11

12/2/11

TheoreGcal form of soluGon

d v 12 p

=

= C4

dx 4 BH 3

Mid-plane
of

layer

dv

= C4 x + C3

dx 3

d 2 v C4 2

=

x + C 3 x + C2

dx 2

2

dv C4 3 C3 2

=

x +

x + C2 x + C1

dx

6

2

v=

C 4 4 C 3 3 C2 2

x +

x +

x + C1 x + C0

24

6

2

v(x=0)
=
C0

The
funcGon
v
is
even:
v(-x)
=
v(x)

By
symmetry,
the
odd
coecients
(C3
and
C1)
must
equal
zero

That
leaves
C2;
C2
is
set
so
that
v
=
0
at
x=L/2

12/2/11

GG303

23

From Polteau et al., 2008

12/2/11

GG303

24

12

12/2/11

1

3

Bending
of

overlying

layers

Laccolith

Dike

4

Sill

12/2/11

Laccolith
and

saucer-shaped
sill

GG303

25

13

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