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ALS Series

Microwave Radio for Point-to-Point


applications

ALCplus2e IDU
AS/ASN ODU
IP/ SDH/ SPDH
Dual Native TDM/IP Microwave Radio

ALS Series ALCplus2e IDU AS/ASN ODU


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B.ALCPLUS2E 1.02. 11

SIAE MICROELETTRONICA S.p.A. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved. The copyright of this document is the property of SIAE MICROELETTRONICA
S.p.A. No part of this document may be copied, reprinted or reproduced in any material form, whether wholly or in part, witho ut the written consent of SIAE
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ALS Series ALCplus2e IDU AS/ASN ODU


Brochure

Document Number
B.ALCPLUS2E.1.02.-11

SIAE MICROELETTRONICA S.p.A. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved. The copyright of this document is the property of SIAE MICROELETTRONICA
S.p.A. No part of this document may be copied, reprinted or reproduced in any material form, whether wholly or in part, without the written consent of SIAE
MICROELETTRONICA S.p.A. Further, the contents of this document or the methods or techniques contained therein must not be disclosed to any person.
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GENERAL INDEX
GENERAL INTRODUCTION ON ALS SERIES ................................................................................................................... 7
Applications ............................................................................................................................................................. 8
Product Range ......................................................................................................................................................... 9
IDUs application range ............................................................................................................................................ 9
ODUs application range ......................................................................................................................................... 10
IDU-ODU compatibility .......................................................................................................................................... 10
Main Features........................................................................................................................................................ 11
NMS common Platform ......................................................................................................................................... 11
ALCplus2e (SPDH/SDH/ETH) - IDU and ODU SYSTEM OVERVIEW ............................................................................. 12
AS/ASN ODU Characteristics ................................................................................................................................. 12
ALCplus2e IDU- 1RU Compact ............................................................................................................................... 15
The ALCplus2e version is an evolution of ALCPlus2 with extended throughput up to 1Gbps per direction and
enhanced Ethernet functionalities. ....................................................................................................................... 15
Additional features ................................................................................................................................................ 16
Throughput ............................................................................................................................................................ 20
ETHERNET CHARACTERISTICS .................................................................................................................................... 22
Ethernet Frame mapping over Radio Link ............................................................................................................. 22
Ethernet Throughput ............................................................................................................................................. 22
Ethernet Interface characteristics ......................................................................................................................... 22
QoS management .................................................................................................................................................. 23
Ethernet Resiliency ................................................................................................................................................ 23
Level 2 priorities: ................................................................................................................................................... 24
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs ................................................................................................................................................ 24
VLAN stacking (QinQ) ............................................................................................................................................ 25
VLAN rewriting ...................................................................................................................................................... 25
Ingress Filter Policing (CIR/EIR according to MEF 10.2) ........................................................................................ 26
Ethernet frame fragmentation .............................................................................................................................. 27
Header compression.............................................................................................................................................. 28
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ............................................................................................................................................ 30
TMN Connection.................................................................................................................................................... 30
TMN Protocols ....................................................................................................................................................... 30
Management Functionalities................................................................................................................................. 32
Management Software.......................................................................................................................................... 32
TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS .................................................................................................................................. 33

ALS Series ALCplus2e IDU AS/ASN ODU


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Document Number
B.ALCPLUS2E.1.02.-11

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Physical Dimensions of system components......................................................................................................... 33


Weight ................................................................................................................................................................... 33
Power supply ......................................................................................................................................................... 34
Power Consumption (W) ....................................................................................................................................... 34
Environmental conditions ..................................................................................................................................... 34
Frequently requested standards compliances (Note1) ............................................................................................. 35
APPENDIX 1: Radio Performances ............................................................................................................................. 36
APPENDIX 2: Adaptive Modulation details................................................................................................................ 37
APPENDIX 3: Ethernet Benchmark parameters. ....................................................................................................... 38
Latency .................................................................................................................................................................. 38
Throughput ............................................................................................................................................................ 40

ALS Series ALCplus2e IDU AS/ASN ODU


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Document Number
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ABBREVIATIONS

ACM

Adaptive Code Modulation

ATPC

Automatic Transmission Power Control

BW

Bandwidth

CAPEX

Capital Expenditure

CRC

Cyclic Redundancy Check

DCCr

Data Communication Channel Regenerator

DCN

Data Communication Network

DSCP

Different Service Code Point

ETH`

Ethernet

FEC

Forward Error Corrector

IDU

Indoor Unit

IP

Internet Protocol

IPV4 IPV6

Internet Protocol Version 4 and Version 6

IS-IS

Intermediate system to intermediate system

LAN

Local Area network

LCT

Local Craft Terminal

MAC

Media Access Control

MDI

Medium Dependent Interface

MDIX

Medium Dependent Interface Crossover

MPS

Multiplex Section Protection

MSE

Mean Square Error

MST

Multiple Section Terminal

NE

Network Element

NMS

Network Management System

NML

Network Manager

NMS5UX/LX

SIAE MICROELETTRONICA Network Management System

ODU

Outdoor Unit

OSI

Open System Interconnection

ALS Series ALCplus2e IDU AS/ASN ODU


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OSPF

Open Shortest Path First

PDH

Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy

QAM

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

QoS

Quality of Service

RU

Rack Unit

SCT

Subnetwork Craft Terminal

SDH

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

SNMP

Simple Network Protocol Management

SPDH

Super PDH

SW

Software

TDM

Time Division Multiplexing

TMN

Telecommunication Management Network

ToS

Type of Service

VLAN

Virtual Local Area Network

WAN

Wide Area Network

XPIC

Cross Polar Interference Canceller

ALS Series ALCplus2e IDU AS/ASN ODU


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B.ALCPLUS2E.1.02.-11

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S.p.A. No part of this document may be copied, reprinted or reproduced in any material form, whether wholly or in part, without the written consent of SIAE
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GENERAL INTRODUCTION ON ALS SERIES


The PDH/SDH/Ethernet ALS MW Radio series is the ideal solution for a
wide range of applications in both access networks and backbone
provisioning. It is also a competitive alternative or complement solution
to optical fiber networks in any application that requires:
Cost-effective, rapid deployment and modular implementation of
a network
Terrain independent connectivity
The ALS Series provides scalable data rates from 4 to 500Mbit/s per radio
module with a single platform across the full range of licensed frequency
bands.

Figure 1 - ALS Series MW Radio

A single shelf can manage up to 1Gbit/s with 1RU version. A unique distributed processing architecture allows
expanding the node capacity up to 8xGbit/s.
A wide range of tributary interfaces and system configurations offer maximum versatility in system engineering
and network planning. Ethernet traffic is handled by a powerful integrated switch able to manage VLANs, QoS
and ToS.
Modularity options, commonalities, and extensive software management capabilities result in cost-effectiveness
and scalability, yielding a product that will easily fulfill any future requirement.
Full SW licensing approach allows very smooth migration from pure TDM to IP networks, with very low initial
CAPEX.
The ALS equipment is managed by an SNMP agent using communication ports that are able to connect to IP and
OSI DCNs. This approach greatly simplifies integration efforts in existing NMS networks.
Several IDU models are available ranging from single board solutions to nodal implementations in which high
capacities and complex protection schemes are required:

ALC IDU

(Compact for PDH/Ethernet traffic)

ALCplus IDU

(Compact for PDH/Ethernet traffic)

ALplus IDU

(Modular for PDH/Ethernet traffic)

ALSC IDU

(Compact for SDH traffic)

ALS IDU

(Modular for SDH/Ethernet traffic)

ALS Series ALCplus2e IDU AS/ASN ODU


Brochure

Document Number
B.ALCPLUS2E.1.02.-11

SIAE MICROELETTRONICA S.p.A. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved. The copyright of this document is the property of SIAE MICROELETTRONICA
S.p.A. No part of this document may be copied, reprinted or reproduced in any material form, whether wholly or in part, without the written consent of SIAE
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ALCplus2 IDU and ALCplus2e IDU

(Compact and Enhanced Compact for PDH, SDH and pure Ethernet
traffic or a mix of them)

ALplus2 IDU

(Modular, for PDH, SDH and pure Ethernet traffic or a mix of them)

Two ODU versions have been designed with the target of being at the same time compact, light and easy to
install/maintain and characterized by high performances:
ASN ODU
AS ODU

Applications
The ALS Series has been conceived and designed to cover a wide range of applications, such as:
2G / 3G / LTE Cellular Network Infrastructure
10/100/1000 Mbit/s Ethernet connections
WiMAX backhauling
Private data Networks (WANs, LANs, etc.)
Utility Networks (Railways, Pipelines, etc.)
Back-up transmission medium to Fibre Optic links
Spur Links for Backbones/Rings
Last Mile Fibre Extension
Leased Lines Replacement
High Capacity SDH/IP Radio Ring Deployment
High Capacity Broadband Access Networks

ALS Series ALCplus2e IDU AS/ASN ODU


Brochure

Document Number
B.ALCPLUS2E.1.02.-11

SIAE MICROELETTRONICA S.p.A. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved. The copyright of this document is the property of SIAE MICROELETTRONICA
S.p.A. No part of this document may be copied, reprinted or reproduced in any material form, whether wholly or in part, without the written consent of SIAE
MICROELETTRONICA S.p.A. Further, the contents of this document or the methods or techniques contained therein must not be disclosed to any person.
Data subject to change without notice.

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Product Range
The ALS Series is available in all frequency bands from 6 GHz (6L and 6U) to 42 GHz (4GHz is also available),
unduplicated or duplicated configuration and with radio capacity from 4 to 500Mbit/s per radio module with
mixed TDM and ETH interfaces.
The modulation scheme is software programmable from 4QAM to 256QAM for ALplus2/e IDU, with full featured
hitless ACM. ALS exploits an innovative dual native radio engine capable of transmitting both native TDM (4xE1 to
4xSTM-1) and native ETH (up to 1Gbps).
In equipment configurations such as ALS IDU with 4xSTM-1 and 2xSTM-1 or ALCplus2e IDU, frequency re-use (cochannel operation) is available with the XPIC technology (Cross Polar Interference Canceller).

IDUs application range

Figure 2 - IDUs application range

Throughput in above figures are also referred to multishelves configurations, with traffic aggregation. Eg. Gbps capacity can be provided
by one single ALCplus2e IDU as well as by aggregating 2xALCplus2 IDUs. In the same way aggregating 2xALCplus2e IDUs, an aggregated
2.0 Gbps throughput is achieved. Header compression is also available to transport additional throughput.

ALS Series ALCplus2e IDU AS/ASN ODU


Brochure

Document Number
B.ALCPLUS2E.1.02.-11

SIAE MICROELETTRONICA S.p.A. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved. The copyright of this document is the property of SIAE MICROELETTRONICA
S.p.A. No part of this document may be copied, reprinted or reproduced in any material form, whether wholly or in part, without the written consent of SIAE
MICROELETTRONICA S.p.A. Further, the contents of this document or the methods or techniques contained therein must not be disclosed to any person.
Data subject to change without notice.

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ODUs application range

Figure 3 - ODUs application range

IDU-ODU compatibility

AS/ASN ODU

Table 1 - IDU-ODU compatibility

ALS Series ALCplus2e IDU AS/ASN ODU


Brochure

Document Number
B.ALCPLUS2E.1.02.-11

SIAE MICROELETTRONICA S.p.A. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved. The copyright of this document is the property of SIAE MICROELETTRONICA
S.p.A. No part of this document may be copied, reprinted or reproduced in any material form, whether wholly or in part, without the written consent of SIAE
MICROELETTRONICA S.p.A. Further, the contents of this document or the methods or techniques contained therein must not be disclosed to any person.
Data subject to change without notice.

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Main Features
Scalable capacity, integrated XPIC functionality, high performance and reliability, ease of installation, common
NMS platform and cost effectiveness make the ALS Series the proper network solution for a wide set of network
applications.
Both electrical and optical interfaces are available on the same terminal radio equipment.
Adaptive Code and Modulation allows the automatic selection of the optimum modulation scheme according to
current radio link propagation conditions and on received signals quality can be software enabled; on the basis of
received signal quality calculations, the ALS Series can increase the system gain when needed, thus forwarding
the high priority traffic in bad propagation conditions too. In addition, the introduction of heavily coded
modulation schemes allows the system to perform in challenging environmental conditions.
With ACM and traffic classification, each traffic class is assigned with its minimum required QoS, allowing easy
overbooking of existing radio link, without any impact on antenna sizes and infrastructure hardware.
ALCplus2 IDU with its state-of-art high speed ACM can compensate fading speed up to 40dB/s; this allows easy
network planning in very bad environment condition characterized of deep fading conditions and with fast fading
phenomena (e.g multiple path interference for lower frequency bands)
In addition, user configurable ACM profiles allow per-link optimization with the possibility to full customize
adaptive modulation behavior.
Delay compensation allows jitter free modulation switchover

NMS common Platform


The ALS series is integrated into the SCT/LCT, NMS5LX and NMS5UX Network Management System platforms
developed by SIAE MICROELETTRONICA, and capable of controlling and monitoring all equipment included in SIAE
MICROELETTRONICA product catalogue.
As an alternative a WEB management (with embedded WEB server) is available as an installation-less
management option.
All SIAE MICROELETTRONICA NMS solutions are based on standard protocols. SNMP Protocol is used for TMN
connections with standard communication protocol stacks and industry-standard interfaces allowing equipment
connection to any IP or OSI-based DCN.

ALS Series ALCplus2e IDU AS/ASN ODU


Brochure

Document Number
B.ALCPLUS2E.1.02.-11

SIAE MICROELETTRONICA S.p.A. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved. The copyright of this document is the property of SIAE MICROELETTRONICA
S.p.A. No part of this document may be copied, reprinted or reproduced in any material form, whether wholly or in part, without the written consent of SIAE
MICROELETTRONICA S.p.A. Further, the contents of this document or the methods or techniques contained therein must not be disclosed to any person.
Data subject to change without notice.

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11 of 44

ALCplus2e (SPDH/SDH/ETH) - IDU and ODU SYSTEM OVERVIEW


AS/ASN ODU Characteristics
The ODU has been designed with the target of being at the same time compact, light and easy to install/maintain
and characterized by high performances.
AS ODU is available in two different version:
Universal AS ODU supports all modulation schemes (4/8/16/32/64/128/256QAM) and all capacities
from 8 Mbit/s to 400 Mbit/s. AS ODU doesnt require any hardware change if configured for
frequency reuse (independence from XPIC functionality), moreover It is compatible with ALL IDU
models. This model provides up to 20 dB ATPC.
Advanced AS ODU: includes all the characteristics and features of the AS Universal ODU. In
installations where more than 15/30 m of waveguide is used, it is the recommended solution for
modulations higher than 32QAM and 56/28 MHz channel usage.
In addition RF loop is available. This model can also provide up to 40 dB ATPC.

ASN (AS Universal) ODU

AS (AS Advanced) ODU

Figure 4 - ASN Universal ODU and AS Advanced ODU

These modulation independent ODUs allow the install-and-forget approach for simple station upgrading.
.

ALS Series ALCplus2e IDU AS/ASN ODU


Brochure

Document Number
B.ALCPLUS2E.1.02.-11

SIAE MICROELETTRONICA S.p.A. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved. The copyright of this document is the property of SIAE MICROELETTRONICA
S.p.A. No part of this document may be copied, reprinted or reproduced in any material form, whether wholly or in part, without the written consent of SIAE
MICROELETTRONICA S.p.A. Further, the contents of this document or the methods or techniques contained therein must not be disclosed to any person.
Data subject to change without notice.

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Mechanical Layout
The same mounting kit type fits all the ODUs for an easily upgrade.

AS/ASN ODU
Integrated antenna solutions

Figure 5 AS/ ASN ODU with integral antenna in 1+0 and 1+1 configuration

Not integrated antenna solutions

Figure 6 - AS/ASN ODU with not integrated antenna solution in 1+0 and 1+1 configurations

ALS Series ALCplus2e IDU AS/ASN ODU


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Document Number
B.ALCPLUS2E.1.02.-11

SIAE MICROELETTRONICA S.p.A. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved. The copyright of this document is the property of SIAE MICROELETTRONICA
S.p.A. No part of this document may be copied, reprinted or reproduced in any material form, whether wholly or in part, without the written consent of SIAE
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Compact IDU mechanical layout


The single board compact IDUs are provided with adjustable brackets on both sides. It allows an easy IDU
positioning into a rack in three different 30 mm steps as shown in the picture below. This simplifies the IDU
installation in street cabinet applications.

Figure 7 Bracket on IDU compact version

ATPC Feature
Automatic Transmit Power Control (ATPC) is available as a standard feature in all configurations.
Power Control has two operational modes:
Fixed output power attenuation mode (ATPC disabled); the output power can be reduced up to 20dB in
1dB steps (40dB in Advanced AS ODU).
ATPC mode: the ATPC algorithm adjusts the output power attenuation in order to reach a predefined Rx
level at the remote terminal.

ALS Series ALCplus2e IDU AS/ASN ODU


Brochure

Document Number
B.ALCPLUS2E.1.02.-11

SIAE MICROELETTRONICA S.p.A. Proprietary and Confidential. All rights reserved. The copyright of this document is the property of SIAE MICROELETTRONICA
S.p.A. No part of this document may be copied, reprinted or reproduced in any material form, whether wholly or in part, without the written consent of SIAE
MICROELETTRONICA S.p.A. Further, the contents of this document or the methods or techniques contained therein must not be disclosed to any person.
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ALCplus2e IDU- 1RU Compact


The ALCplus2e version is an evolution of ALCPlus2 with extended throughput up to 1Gbps per direction and
enhanced Ethernet functionalities.
The e equipment Includes XPIC technology, advanced header compression and a more complex set of
configurations (2+0 in single shelf arrangement).
ALCplus2e is available with different kind interface options from 4xFE/GE up to 4xFE/GE + (2+32)xE1 + 2xSTM-1
(STM-1 interfaces are also available for SPDH configurations reducing installation cable count)
It supports Synchronous Ethernet with mixed TDM/ETH synchronism distribution and 1588v2.
ALCplus2e supports all modulations schemes up to 256QAM and in addition 40 MHz channel bandwidth in the
6U and 11 GHz frequency bands (7, 14, 28 and 56 MHz already provided by ALCplus2).

10

Figure 8 - ALCplus2 IDU - 18xE1 + 4xGE + 2xSTM-1 + Nodal Bus

10

Figure 9 - ALCplus2 IDU - 34xE1 + 4xGE + 2xSTM-1

1.
2.
3.
4.

TMN-access (ETH, USB-B, RS232)


ETH payload 10/100/1000 RJ45 FE/GE
STM-1 payload With SFP modules
2xE1 payload

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Traffic
Sync In/Out (G703/2 MHz clock or HDB3 AIS)
Traffic + EOC (G704 framing)

CAT6 proprietary expansion Bus Traffic


nxE1 payload on SCSI connectors (120/75 ohm)
Power Supply
ETH payload with optical GE SFP modules
Alarm IN/OUT
IDU-ODU cables interfaces

ALS Series ALCplus2e IDU AS/ASN ODU


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Document Number
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S.p.A. No part of this document may be copied, reprinted or reproduced in any material form, whether wholly or in part, without the written consent of SIAE
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IDU options
o 4xFE/GE Sync/Async + 2xE1
o 4xFE/GE Sync/Async + 2xE1 + 16xE1 + 2xSTM-1(1+1 MSP) + Nodal Bus
o 4xFE/GE Sync/Async + 2xE1 + 32xE1 + 2xSTM-1(1+1 MSP)

Protection Schemes
XPIC 2x(1+0)
1x(1+0) and 2x(1+0)
(1+1)HSB, (1+1)FD/FSD (up to 28 MHz), (1+1)SD

Additional features
Some major upgraded features to be underlined, as following:
1 Gbit/s total throughput capacity managed by a single equipment
2+0 configuration as well as 2+0 XPIC, both available in 1RU shelf
Advanced Ethernet /IP features
Header Compression: over 200% throughput more.

ALCplus2e is available in following HW configurations1:


With built-in XPIC
Without built-in XPIC
ALCplus2e is in link backward compatible with ALCplus2 version.

Both versions will be available with or without Header Compression.


ALS Series ALCplus2e IDU AS/ASN ODU
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S.p.A. No part of this document may be copied, reprinted or reproduced in any material form, whether wholly or in part, witho ut the written consent of SIAE
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In addition to the Traffic Management features have been improved:


Bandwidth profiling
o Bandwidth limiting per VLAN
o Bandwidth limiting per priority.
o Frame fragmentation
TDM redundancy on selected E1s
Hard limiting or WRED algorithm (software selectable)
Enhanced Ethernet prioritization based on MPLS Exp bits
Selective QinQ based on VLAN and 802.1p priority
VLAN rewriting
8 queues Ethernet scheduler towards radio interface
Layer2 Link Aggregation (802.3ad), also available on Layer1
M-STP (Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol) support up to 4 instances
Selective RMON on VLAN basis
G.8261/8262/8264 Synchronous Ethernet and 1588v2
Note: These functionalities are available if both terminal of the link are with ALCplu2e.

Regardless to the configuration options, in the following table is summarized the limits applied for the different
HW versions:
IDU type
ALCplus2e IDU XPIC
ALCplus2e IDU 2x(1+0)

Permanent TDM traffic


max. 2x80
max. 2x80

Extra TDM traffic


max. 2x2
max. 2x21

Total
164
164

Table 2- TDM capacity for the different HW version

ALS Series ALCplus2e IDU AS/ASN ODU


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S.p.A. No part of this document may be copied, reprinted or reproduced in any material form, whether wholly or in part, without the written consent of SIAE
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Adaptive Code and Modulation (ACM)


General Concepts
A radio communication system should be designed with a nominal received level well above its threshold, this
allows withstanding received signal reduction in bad weather conditions.
This procedure has a drawback: when propagation conditions are favourable the system could support higher
data traffic but it cannot increase its throughput unless it changes its modulation scheme.
SIAE MICROELETTRONICA radio systems gives this possibility through Adaptive modulation, please refer to
Appendix 1 for more details.

Traffic classification
The adaptive modulation entails a change in the available bandwidth with regard to the modulation scheme that
is used and as a consequence, moving from higher modulation downward, the decreasing of the traffic capacity.
The possibility to classify the traffic allows deciding what traffic to transport according to the available
bandwidth. For example if the modulation is reduced from 256QAM to 4QAM all traffic exceeding 4QAM
capacity cannot be carried anymore.
ALCplus2e solutions have 8 output queues through which 8 priority classes can be managed with user
configurable quality management.
SIAE MICROELETTRONICA implementation manages TDM and ETH traffic in different ways:
E1 ports are manually configured for being high or low priority.
ETH packets are usually classified according to 802.1p Layer 2 tag. SIAE MICROELETTRONICA systems are
also able to classify them, according to IP TOS or IPV6 TC and EXP bits MPLS.
This allows each type of services to be transmitted with the agreed performances.

Link Quality measurement


In order to trigger a modulation change some switching criteria must be implemented. SIAE MICROELETTRONICA
solutions are based on MSE measurements that allow the system to react to any source of degradation, well
before errors are detected by the FEC. It involves one direction at a time and the process is completely jitter and
error free for surviving traffic.
SIAE MICROELETTRONICA implements MSE (Mean Squared Error) based Adaptive Modulation in all channel
bandwidths. 8 ACM profiles are provided, each one can be selected by SW in order to build a user configured
Adaptive Modulation Profile.

ALS Series ALCplus2e IDU AS/ASN ODU


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Figure 10 - ALplus2 ACM profiles

Table 3 - Packet Data Radio System header optimization only - (no header compression)

A continuous monitoring on the MSE parameter is performed by the system, thus when MSE goes below a predefined threshold, a modulation switch request is transmitted backward.
Capacity will be automatically adjusted according to the Table 2.
.

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Throughput
Throughput is defined according to paragraph 26.1 of RFC2544.
Throughput depends on configuration, channel bandwidth and packet size.
Below the maximum Throughput calculated with massive Header compressor working in following multiprotocol
scenario: C-Tag, Multiple s-Tags , MACinMAC , multiple MPLS lables, IP6, UDP, RTP.
Channel
Width

Radio Throughput at point X/X' for Ethernet 128/142 bytes input traffic [Mbit/s]
4QAM
Strong

4QAM

8 QAM

16QAM

32QAM

64QAM

128QAM

256QAM

14 MHz

63

75

104

148

184

221

257

301

28 MHz

126

148

220

292

366

439

510

599

40 MHz

179

212

290

416

496

618

722

825

56 MHz

252

293

437

582

710

845

1.000

1.000

Table 4 - Typical Ethernet throughput

For a complete description of the Header compressor please refer to Header Compression paragraph.
Please refer to Appendix 3 for the Header Compression performances working in different scenarios and the net
throughput.
In the table below the throughput in terms of maximum number of E1s available on the radio frame.

Channel
Width

Typical Radio Throughput at point X/X' for E1 input traffic [E1]


4QAM
Strong

4QAM

8 QAM

16QAM

32QAM

64QAM

128QAM

256QAM

7 MHz

10

12

15

17

20

14 MHz

10

14

20

25

30

35

40

28 MHz

17

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

40 MHz

25

30

43

59

70

80

80

80

56 MHz

34

40

60

80

80

80

80

80

Table 5 - Typical E1 transport capability

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Nodal Interconnections in ALCplus2 or ALCplus2e IDUs (N-concept)


SIAE MICROELETTRONICA Implements proprietary IDUs interconnection using standard CAT6 cables with RJ-45
shielded connectors. This serial high speed connection carries proprietary frames in an MSP like protected
configuration and capacity up to 1.3 Gbit/s.
ALCplus2e IDU implements an innovative distributed switch architecture that allows simple node expansion
through shelves stacking, with a dramatic reduction in initial CAPEX.
Depending on traffic requirements, units can be daisy chained by a CAT6 proprietary expansion bus for TDM
applications (BUS capacity 126E1) and/or by a standard GE connection for Ethernet applications. SIAE
MICROELETTRONICA ring manager SW can manage all units as a single concentrating node with end-to-end
connection provisioning.

Nx2FE/GE + NxSTM-1 + Nx16E1 N=1.8


Figure 11 - ALCplus2e- Nodal configuration

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ETHERNET CHARACTERISTICS
ALplus2e is compliant with MEF9 for service functionality and MEF14 for service performance. Configured in
point-to-point, nodal or ring topology, they can be used to implement standardized Ethernet services such as ELine, E-LAN and E-Tree providing quality of service (QoS), scalability and reliability. Each services could be created
in transparent mode or in virtual mode sharing radio link resources between different services managing VLAN
802.1q tags.

Ethernet Frame mapping over Radio Link


When equipped with Ethernet Interfaces, the ALS Series transfers Ethernet packets directly onto the radio link.
SIAE MICROELETTRONICA ALS maps Ethernet straight into the radio frames (Native IP), this approach provides a
point-to-point unacknowledged connectionless service over the radio channel. A CRC is added to prevent wrong
packets being forwarded.

Ethernet Throughput
ALCplu2e IDU provides full-duplex Ethernet throughput ranging from 10 up to 500 Mbit/s per radio direction. It is
possible to associate a given bandwidth to a single Ethernet port. It can be assigned in fixed steps up to full wire
speed. A big throughput improvement came using Header Compression technology reported in the paragraph
below.
Please refer to Appendix 3 for Throughput and Latency details.

Ethernet Interface characteristics


The ALS Series implements a multi-port store-and-forward Layer 2 Switch. The embedded Switch supports the
following Layer 2 functionalities:
MAC switching (table of 8192 addresses)
MAC Address learning and aging
Auto negotiation
MDI/MDIX crossover
Automatic MDI/MDIX crossover is supported; it allows NIC-to-SWITCH and SWITCH-to-SWITCH
connection regardless of cable type (straight-through or crossover).
Layer 2 Flow Control / Back Pressure
SIAE MICROELETTRONICA implements flow control based on IEEE 802.3x (full-duplex operation) and Back
Pressure (half-duplex operation) to prevent packet loss during traffic peak.
IEEE 802.1q VLANs and VLAN stacking (Q in Q)
Quality of Service
ITU-T Y.1731 ETH OAM / IEEE 802.1ag

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QoS management
QoS refers to the ability of a network device to provide improved services to selected network traffic over various
underlying technologies, including Ethernet and wireless LANs. In particular, QoS feature provides an improved
and more predictable network services, as follows:
Improving loss characteristics
Avoiding and managing network congestion
Prioritizing services to different kinds of network traffic
Setting traffic priorities across the network
QoS is implemented in SIAE MICROELETTRONICA products in a multilevel approach:
VLAN per port
Level 2 VLAN identifiers (802.1Q)
Level 2 priority bits (802.1P QoS)
Level 3 priorities IPv4 (ToS or DSCP) or IPv6 (TC)
EXP bits MPLS

Ethernet Resiliency
LLF - Link Loss Forwarding
PIRL - Peak Input Rate Limiting - In order to control the traffic flows incoming the equipment and thus the
network, this access limitation/control policies is introduced with a leaky bucket architecture
RSTP - Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol - is a link layer network protocol that ensures a loop-free topology for any
bridged LAN. Thus, the basic function of STP is to prevent bridge loops and ensuing broadcast radiation.
MSTP - Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol - enables VLANs to be grouped into a spanning-tree instance, with each
instance having a spanning-tree topology independent of other spanning-tree instances. This architecture
provides multiple alternate paths enabling a better network load balancing.
ELP - Ethernet Link Protection - ELP is used to protect the network from Ethernet link failures in various network
topologies and application
LAG - Link Aggregation is a recommendation (802.1AX-2008 or 802.3ad) designed for using multiple media in
parallel to increase the link speed beyond the limits of any one single medium and increase the
redundancy for higher availability

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Level 2 priorities:
Priority queues are introduced on switches output ports. 802.1p describes 8 priority levels, mapped onto 8
output queues.
A typical mapping scheme is shown below.

802.1p priority levels

Traffic type

Used queue

0
1
2
3
4

Best Effort
Background
NOT DEFINED
Excellent Effort
Controlled Load

0
1
2
3
4

Video ( latency

100 ms )

Voice ( latency 10 ms )
Network Control

Table 6 802.1p priority levels

Two scheduling algorithms are available in SIAE MICROELETTRONICA equipment: strict priority or weighted
scheduling WFQ (SW selectable).
Strict priority means that Higher priority queues are emptied first
Weighted scheduling (WFQ) means that queues are served proportionally to their weights.
Mixed Strict priority and WFQ

IEEE 802.1Q VLANs


Virtual LAN (VLAN) support is the ability to logically break a LAN into a few smaller LANs and prevent data from
flowing between the sub-LANs.
This is a key performance used to:
Share the same physical carrier among different users that require maintaining a complete logical
network independency.
Micro segment the LAN in a scalable way
Distribute traffic load
Relocate servers into secure locations

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Better control the broadcast messages


VLANs can be activated in three different ways:
Based on Port. A packet belongs to a particular VLAN, depending on the local port ID. This means that
each packet received on a specific port will be forwarded only to the ports belonging to the same VLAN.
Based on IEEE 802.1Q TAG. A packet belongs to a particular VLAN, depending on its VLAN ID, defined by
the VID (VLAN Identifier) TAG content.
Hybrid. It is a mix of previous ones. Locally configured tagged frames are managed according IEEE 802.1Q
TAG, all others follow port rules.
SIAE MICROELETTRONICA equipment can also be configured to add a VLAN tag (VD and user priority) to
untagged traffic.

VLAN stacking (QinQ)


SIAE MICROELETTRONICA products support VLAN stacking (QinQ). This means that if input traffic is 802.1Q
compliant, i.e. VLANs are implemented, it is possible to create other VLAN inserting 4 additional bytes in Ethernet
header for routing and QoS purposes.
VLAN staking (also named QinQ) is a feature that allows an Ethernet frame to include more than one IEEE 802.1Q
TAG. The scope of VLAN staking is to differentiate the traffic at different levels when the packets must cross
networks managed by different entities.
As an example, it can be considered the case of a WAN connection provided by a Service Provider to a company
to connect some remote offices to a headquarter. The packets on the company LAN can be tagged on the basis of
the rules stated by the Companys Network Administrator. However, The Service Provider could also need to TAG
the traffic in order to carry it independently from the traffic of other companies. Moreover, when a packet leaves
the remote office to enter the WAN connection, the Service Provider will add a second TAG to the packet with an
ID that identifies the customer. In this way the first TAG (with the company ID) still remain on the packet, but it is
not used to route it on the Service Provider Network. Finally, when this packet has reached the Main Site, the
Service Provider TAG is dropped and the WAN connection can be fully transparent.
SIAE MICROELETTRONICA radio systems support the VLAN staking. Once a packet enters into the radio, it is
possible to add a new IEEE 802.1Q TAG with an ID depending from the port.

VLAN rewriting
VLAN rewriting is a feature available on radio side that allows to rewrite the VID of C-TAG of the packets received
(uplink side) or sent (downlink side) by the switch. On uplink side (packets received by the switch) the VID can be
rewritten on the basis of the following criteria:

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- LAN port + C-VID: new values of C-VID to be written into the packet can be configured on the basis of its original
C-VID and the LAN port where it has been received.
- LAN port + C-VID + priority: new values of C-VID to be written into the packet can be configured on the basis of
its original C-VID + priority and the LAN port where it has been received.
On uplink side it is possible to configure for all the LAN ports up to 64 LAN port + C-VID or LAN port + C-VID +
priority criteria. On downlink side (packets sent by the switch) the VID can be rewritten on the basis of the C-VID
of the received packet. I.e., new values of C-VID to be written into the packet can be configured on the basis of its
original C-VID. It is possible to configure up to 64 C-VID criteria in downlink, independently by the uplink
configuration.

Ingress Filter Policing (CIR/EIR according to MEF 10.2)


ALCplus2e allows limiting the ingress traffic rate on the basis of:
- LAN port (Bandwidth profile per UNI): a different profile is defined for each LAN port (VLAN ID and priority are
not considered in this case by the rate limiting algorithm)
- VLAN (Bandwidth Profile per EVC): a different profile is defined for different VLANs (priority is not considered in
this case by the rate limiting algorithm). Up to 64 VLAN can be managed with different profiles.
- VLAN + priority (Bandwidth Profile per CoS): a different profile is defined for different couples VLAN+priority
(up to 64 different cases can be managed). In this case the packet priority is always considered by the rate
limiting algorithm. More than one priority can be included in the same bandwidth profile.
In general different criteria can be defined for each port/VLAN/priority. Up to 64 Ingress Filtering Policy resources
can be defined and each bandwidth profile defined on the basis either of LAN port, VLAN or VLAN+priority
consumes 1 of such resources.
In order to define the bandwidth profile, the following parameters must be configured:
- CIR (Committed Information Rate): it is the admitted ingress rate (green colored), with values between 0
Kbit/s and 1 Gbit/s.
- CBS (Committed Burst Rate): it is the maximum size of the token bucket of the green packets, with values
between 0 byte and 256 Kbyte.
- EIR (Excess Information Rate): it is maximum ingress rate eventually admitted (yellow colored), with values
between 0Kbit/s and 1Gbit/s.
- EBS (Excess Burst Rate): it is the maximum size of the token bucket of the yellow packets, with values between 0
byte and 256 Kbyte.

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- CF (Coupling Flag): if enabled, the excess tokens eventually charged into the green bucket are moved into the
yellow packet bucket. Red packets, i.e. the ones exceeding the CIR+EIR rate, are automatically discarded.

Ethernet frame fragmentation


QoS approach preserves High priority traffic, by giving them precedence during traffic congestions.
However, in case of real time traffic also latency and jitter are important factors on a end to end communication:
Latency is strictly related to the line/servant speed and usually can be managed by designing the
network topology in a proper way (e.g. by limiting the maximum number of hops in link chains).
Jitter is instead a more sensitive parameter because it depends on congestions.

Figure 12 - 8 queues system architecture

Before the high priority packet is sent over the air, it has always to be placed in the common FIFO buffer of the
servant. It could happen that this buffer is occupied by the last best effort (or lower priority) packet; in this case
the high priority packet collects delay due to the process servant time dedicated to the best effort packet.
This delay heavily depends on the processed best effort packet size (from 64bytes to 1518 bytes of even more in
case of jumbo frames).
A technique used to mitigate this phenomenon is the Frame Fragmentation, i.e. at the TX side long frames are
subdivided in smaller fragments and a sequence label is inserted in order to number the fragments.
At RX side the original frame is rebuilt after all the fragments are received.
In this way, the maximum waiting time for a High Priority packet is reduced to the sub-frame size (some hundreds
of bytes), providing sensitive benefits to the packet jitter.

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Header compression
SIAE MICROELETTRONICA has developed a two level Header Compression that is able to hash L2, L2.5, L3 and L4
headers protocols and thus massively increase the available radio throughput.
The packet compression gain provided is from 3% up to 200%, depending on payload, protocols stacks and packet
size.
In the following figure, supported Header Compression protocol and various compression rates are reported, in
relation with packet sizes compressed protocol stacks.

Figure 13 - Layers involved in the Header compression process

Two stages of compression are possible:


Basic compression (1st stage):
Single layer packet compression, supports header up to 68 bytes (Ethernet + MPLS + IP/UDP + RTP/GTP)
Deep/IP tunneling compression (1st stage + 2nd stage):
Two levels packet compression, supports header up to 128 bytes (Ethernet + MPLS + IP/UDP + RTP/GTP
with additional IPv4/IPv6 tunneling)

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Figure 14 - Relation between packets size and compression ratio

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MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
TMN Connection
The ALS Series provides several communication ports for TMN connections. These ports can be used for:
connection to other equipment
connection to TMNs DCN
direct connection to SIAE MICROELETTRONICAs Element Manager
Depending on equipment configuration, the following TMN ports are available:
two Ethernet 10/100 BASE-T
USB
In addition to the TMN ports listed above, the ALS Series provides other TMN connections depending on IDU
model, with ALCplus2:
TMN and main traffic can coexist on same ports (In band management).
Supervisory information can be terminated by other equipment or, thanks to the standard mapping, by an
external router.

TMN Protocols
The ALS Series allows local and remote management thanks to an embedded SNMP agent.
All ports previously described can be logically connected through two protocol stack versions:
Full IP protocol stack
OSI+IP protocol stack.
Routing among communication ports can be configured as static routing or based on OSPF (Open Shortest Path
First) in case of full-IP stack, and IS-IS in case of OSI+IP option.
When implementing the OSI+IP stack, layers 1 to 3 are compliant with recommendations ITU-T Q.811, Q.812 and
G.784.
The implementation of standard communication protocol stacks in conjunction with industry-standard interfaces
(as depicted in the following figures) enables equipment connection to any IP or OSI based DCN.

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Figure 15 - Full IP Protocol Stack for ALC, ALCplus, ALCplus2 and ALCplus2e Systems (SPDH/SDH/ETH)

Figure 16 - IP Protocol Stack ALC, ALCplus, ALCplus2 and ALCplus2e Systems (SPDH/SDH/ETH)

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Management Functionalities
The management functionalities implemented at NE level are:
Fault management (alarms, events, date, time, severity, etc.)
Configuration and test Management (i.e. configuration of ALS parameters, set-up of loop-backs, manual
forcing of 1+1 switches, mapping of relay alarms and user inputs, etc.)
Software management (i.e. software release management and software download)
Performance management and monitoring relevant to G.828 parameters.
Security Management (i.e. Network Element multi-level access according to Operators rights)

Management Software
In order to satisfy the requirements of local and centralized management, SIAE MICROELETTRONICA has
developed the following software/platforms/systems:
LCT (Local Craft Terminal) for maintenance and line-up activities (MS Windows OS)
SCT (Subnetwork Craft Terminal) for centralized management of up to 100 Network Elements - NEs (MS
Windows OS)
NMS5-LX (Element Manager) for centralized management of medium networks with up to 1000 Network
Elements per server (Linux OS)
NMS5-UX (Element Manager) for centralized management of large networks with up to 10000 Network
Elements per server (HP Unix OS)
Web LCT for maintenance and line-up activities (MS Windows OS & Adobe flash) accessible via Browser
For a more detailed description of SIAE MICROELETTRONICA supervision software platforms, please refer to the
specific product literature.

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TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Physical Dimensions of system components
System Version

Width (mm)

Height (mm)

Depth (mm)

AS ODU 1+0

254

254

154

AS ODU 1+1

358

254

296

ASN ODU 1+0

254

254

114

ASN ODU 1+1

278

254

296

Compact IDU 1RU

482

44

223

Weight
System Version

Weight(Kg)

AS ODU (1+0)

5,5

AS ODU (1+1)

15,3

ASN ODU (1+0)

4,5

ASN ODU (1+1)

13,3

Compact IDU 1RU (1+0)

2,3

Compact IDU 1RU (1+1)

3,4

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Power supply
ODU Range
-40.8 -57.6 Vdc
According to ETSI EN300132-2

Power Consumption (W)

Configuration
1+0 Radio Terminal

75

1+1 Radio Terminal

105

Environmental conditions

Environmental Conditions

Range

Operational range for IDU

-5 C

Operational humidity for IDU

+50 C

up to 95% not condensing

Protection Class for ODU

IP65

Wind load

200 km/h

Surge and lightning protection

according to ETSI EN 301 489

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Frequently requested standards compliances (Note1)


EN 300 132-2

Power supply interface at the input to telecommunications equipment

EN 300 019

Environmental conditions and environmental tests for telecommunications equipment


(Operation: class 3.2 for IDU and class 4.1 for ODU; storage: class 1.2; transport: class
2.3)

EN 301 390

Fixed Radio Systems; Point-to-point and Point-to-Multipoint Systems; Spurious


emissions and receiver immunity at equipment/antenna port of Digital Fixed Radio
System

EN 302 217

Characteristics and requirements for point-to-point equipment and antenna

EN 301 489

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) standard for radio equipment and services

EN 60950

Information Technology Equipment Safety

ITU-R

ITU Recommendations for all frequency bands

ITU-R F.1191

Bandwidths and unwanted emissions of digital fixed service systems

CEPT

CEPT Recommendations for all frequency bands

IEEE 802

802.1ag (Connectivity Fault Management), 802.1p (QoS), 802.1Q (VLAN), 802.1W


(RSTP), 802.3ad-2008 (link aggregation), 802.3i (10BASE-T), 802.3u (100BASE-TX/FX),
802.3x (Flow control), 802.3ab (1000 BASE-T), 802.3z (1000BASE LX/SX)

IEEE 1588-2008

Standard for a Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol for Networked Measurement


and Control Systems

ITU-T 1731

Ethernet OAM fault management

ITU-T G.703

Physical/electrical characteristics of hierarchical levels

ITU-T G704

Characteristics of 1544 and 2048 Kbit/s hierarchical levels

ITU-T G.742

Second order digital multiplex equipment operating at 8449 Kbit/s and using positive
justification

ITU-T G.783

Characteristics of synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) equipment digital block

ITU-T G.823

The control of jitter and wander within digital networks which are based on the 2048
Kbit/s hierarchy

ITU-T G.825

The control of jitter and wander within digital networks which are based on the
synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)

ITU-T G.957

Optical Interfaces for equipment and system relating to the synchronous digital
hierarchy

ITU-T G.8261

Timing and Synchronization Aspects in Packet Networks

ITU-T G.8262

Characteristics of synchronous Ethernet Equipment slave Clock

ITU-T G.8264

Distribution of timing through packet networks

Note1: where applicable

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APPENDIX 1: Radio Performances


Output Power (dBm) at point C 1

4 GHz

6L/6U GHz 7/8 GHz 10/11 GHz

13 GHz

15 GHz

18 GHz

23 GHz

25 GHz

28 GHz

32 GHz

38 GHz

42 GHz

4 QAM

+28

+29

+29

+28

+28

+28

+23

+23

+22

+21

+20

+19

+17

8 QAM

+28

+29

+29

+28

+28

+28

+23

+23

+22

+21

+20

+19

+17

16 QAM

+25

+26

+26

+25

+25

+25

+21

+21

+20

+19

+18

+17

+15

32 QAM

+25

+26

+26

+25

+25

+25

+21

+21

+20

+19

+18

+17

+15

64 QAM

+24

+25

+25

+24

+24

+24

+19

+19

+18

+17

+16

+15

+13

128 QAM

+24

+25

+25

+24

+24

+24

+19

+19

+18

+17

+16

+15

+13

256 QAM

+23

+24

+24

+23

+23

+23

+18

+18

+17

+16

+15

+14

+12

15 GHz

18 GHz

23 GHz

25 GHz

28 GHz

32 GHz

38 GHz

42 GHz

Receiver Sensitivity (dBm) at BER 10-6 at point C


(1+0 conf., 28 MHz BW, FR filter losses included)
4 GHz

6L/6U GHz 7/8 GHz 10/11 GHz 13 GHz

4 QAM

-89,5

-89,5

-89,5

-89

-89

-89

-88,5

-88,5

-88

-81

-86

-86,5

-85,5

8 QAM

-82,5

-82,5

-82,5

-82

-82

-82

-81,5

-81,5

-81

-80,5

-79

-79,5

-78,5

16 QAM

-81

-81

-81

-80,5

-80,5

-80.5

-80

-80

-79,5

-79

-77,5

-78

-77

32 QAM

-77,5

-77,5

-77,5

-77

-77

-77

-76,5

-76,5

-76

-75,5

-74

-74,5

-73,5

64 QAM

-75,5

-75,5

-75,5

-75

-75

-75

-74,5

-74,5

-74

-73,5

-72

-72

-71,5

128 QAM

-73,5

-73,5

-73,5

-73

-73

-73

-72,5

-72,5

-72

-71,5

-70

-70,5

-69

256 QAM

-70,5

-70,5

-70,5

-70

-70

-70

-69,5

-69,5

-69

-68,5

-67

-67,5

-66,5

Typical values

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APPENDIX 2: Adaptive Modulation details


In order to better understand how Adaptive Modulation operates, we should recall some information from
signals theory:

Ps10
Ps10
Br
NF
Eb
N0

114

10

LOG10 ( Br )

Received field at BER

NF

Eb
N0

10

10 - 3

Bit rate
Receiver noise figure
Energy per bit/Noise spectral density (at specified BER)
10

We can discover that minimum received signal, able to guarantee certain performances (BER), depends on some
fixed figures, such as required bit rate (Br) and demodulator implementation
If a receiver is working at such a level that cannot allow the required quality, alternative methods can be
implemented.
Increasing TX power on remote terminal. This can obviously be done, if transmitter is not jet emitting its
maximum power.
Reducing user bit rate
Changing modulation scheme and FEC redundancy
SIAE MICROELETTRONICA implementation does all the above with its ALCplus2/ALCplus2e IDUs .
In addition, SIAE MICROELETTRONICA maintains channel width constant, with no effect on other links, without
any need to reconfigure the entire network.

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APPENDIX 3: Ethernet Benchmark parameters.


All parameters are measured according to RFC2544 - Benchmarking Methodology for Network Interconnect Dev.
SIAE MICROELETTRONICA Native ETH solutions optimize Ethernet frames transport over Radio Frame. This
approach makes ETH parameters dependant on Ethernet Frame Size.

Latency
According to paragraph 26.2 of RFC2544, objective of this test is:
To determine the latency as defined in RFC 1242.
Latency is capacity dependent, therefore in the following tables different latency parameters will be specified for
each configuration.Please note that, according to RFC2544, the latency is measured Last In First Out (LIFO). The
effective link delay will be this value plus packet transfer time over physical ETH interfaces.
ALplus2 implements 8 ACM profiles with all Channel BW. Please refer to Adaptive Modulation paragraph for
ACM details.

Typical Latency [ms]


64 bytes MTU

Modulation
4QAM

8 QAM

16QAM

32QAM

64QAM

128QAM

256QAM

4QAM
Strong
1.042

0.844

0.627

0.477

0.401

0.477

0.52

0.507

14

0.954

0.8

0.575

0.418

0.345

0.439

0.458

0.444

28

0.475

0.406

0.274

0.214

0.176

0.227

0.237

0.231

56

0.241

0.207

0.14

0.112

0.094

0.125

0.126

0.121

Channel width (MHz)

Typical Latency [ms]


512 bytes MTU
Channel width (MHz)

Modulation
4QAM

8 QAM

16QAM

32QAM

64QAM

128QAM

256QAM

4QAM
Strong
1.522

1.233

0.913

0.67

0.573

0.607

0.642

0.608

14

1.186

0.995

0.719

0.518

0.428

0.51

0.523

0.499

28

0.595

0.508

0.347

0.271

0.224

0.265

0.272

0.265

56

0.304

0.261

0.181

0.144

0.122

0.152

0.147

0.14

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Typical Latency [ms]


1024 bytes MTU

Modulation
4QAM

8 QAM

16QAM

32QAM

64QAM

128QAM

256QAM

4QAM
Strong
2.09

1.693

1.229

0.895

0.756

0.768

0.774

0.726

14

1.462

1.226

0.882

0.639

0.518

0.59

0.594

0.557

28

0.735

0.628

0.426

0.334

0.276

0.311

0.312

0.298

56

0.377

0.324

0.226

0.179

0.154

0.178

0.172

0.162

Channel width (MHz)

Typical Latency [ms]


1518 bytes MTU

Modulation

Channel width (MHz)

4QAM
Strong

4QAM

8 QAM

16QAM

32QAM

64QAM

128QAM

256QAM

2,609
1,715

2,113
1,439

1,541
1,044

1,115
0,757

0,938
0,618

0,908
0,669

0,914
0,663

0,845
0,623

0,867

0,74

0,508

0,395

0,326

0,356

0,351

0,333

0,447

0,384

0,27

0,214

0,185

0,205

0,196

0,183

14
28
56

Typical Latency [ms]


10000 bytes MTU

Modulation

Channel width (MHz)

4QAM
Strong

4QAM

8 QAM

16QAM

32QAM

64QAM

128QAM

256QAM

11.684

9.465

6.974

4.755

4.214

3.35

3.222

2.761

14

6.104

5.12

3.557

2.634

2.176

2.02

1.907

1.656

28

3.136
1.651

2.677
1.418

1.881
1.052

1.483
0.83

1.235
0.697

1.067
0.71

1.003
0.601

0.982
0.549

56

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Throughput
Throughput is defined according to paragraph 26.1 of RFC2544.
This Annex is dedicated to show the throughput in different scenarios and the related compressor efficiency
according to the different traffic transported protocols.

SCENARIO 1: The tables show the benefit of Header Compression in a scenario where traffic is transported
using the following protocol stack: C-TAG + S-TAG with IPv4 traffic in UDP sessions.
In this case Header Compressor works as not fully loaded or in a relaxed environment using only a single layer
compressing process. Please note that effective throughput always depends also on MTU size.

Typical Radio Throughput at point X/X' for Ethernet 641/72 bytes input traffic [Mbit/s]
Channel width
7 MHz
14 MHz
28 MHz
56 MHz

4QAM
Strong
18
36
71
143

4QAM

8 QAM

16QAM

32QAM

64QAM

128QAM

256QAM

22
43
84
166

30
59
125
248

43
84
166
331

51
105
208
403

64
125
249
480

72
146
290
572

84
171
340
682

Typical Radio Throughput at point X/X' for Ethernet 128 bytes input traffic [Mbit/s]
Channel width
7 MHz
14 MHz
28 MHz
56 MHz

4QAM
Strong
13
26
53
106

4QAM

8 QAM

16QAM

32QAM

64QAM

128QAM

256QAM

16
32
62
123

23
44
93
184

32
62
123
245

38
78
154
299

47
93
185
356

53
108
215
424

63
127
252
505

Typical Radio Throughput at point X/X' for Ethernet 512 bytes input traffic [Mbit/s]
Channel width
7 MHz
14 MHz
28 MHz
56 MHz

4QAM
Strong
10
19
38
77

4QAM

8 QAM

16QAM

32QAM

64QAM

128QAM

256QAM

12
23
45
89

17
32
67
134

24
45
89
178

28
56
112
217

35
67
134
258

40
78
156
308

47
92
183
366

Typical payload size has been enlarged in order to handle the chosen header protocol stack

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Typical Radio Throughput at point X/X' for Ethernet 1518 bytes input traffic [Mbit/s]
Channel width
7 MHz
14 MHz
28 MHz
56 MHz

4QAM
Strong
9
18
36
73

4QAM

8 QAM

16QAM

32QAM

64QAM

128QAM

256QAM

11
22
43
84

16
30
63
126

22
43
84
168

26
53
105
205

33
64
126
243

37
74
147
290

44
87
173
346

SCENARIO 2: The throughput is calculated in a typical VOIP scenario. Traffic is generated in a eNodeB using CTAG, S-TAG, MPLS, IPv4, GTP layers and then encapsulating VOIP shot packets in IPv6(with UDP and RTP) .

Max Radio Throughput at point X/X' for Ethernet 1281/136 bytes input traffic [Mbit/s]
Channel width

4QAM
Strong

4QAM

8QAM

16QAM

32QAM

64QAM

128QAM

256QAM

7 MHz
14 MHz
28 MHz
56 MHz

25

30

41

59

73

87

101

119

49

59

83

117

146

175

203

238

100

117

174

231

290

347

404

474

199

232

346

461

562

669

798

950

SCENARIO 3: Throughput with Header compression and optimizations not activated: traffic is considered as a
pure stream of bits.

Pure radio channel Throughput [Mbit/s]

Channel width

4QAM
Strong

4QAM

8QAM

16QAM

32QAM

64QAM

128QAM

256QAM

7 MHz
14 MHz
28 MHz
40 MHz
56 MHz

11

17

21

26

31

36

43

17

21

33

42

52

62

72

85

35

42

66

83

104

124

145

170

50

60

87

118

141

175

206

240

71

83

132

165

202

240

286

341

Typical payload size has been enlarged in order to handle the chosen header protocol stack

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Switching capabilities
IDU type

Mac table size

ALCplus2e

8192

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