You are on page 1of 73

Displacement Ventilation

Displacement Ventilation
Displacement
Ventilation vs. Dilution
Ventilation
Characteristics
Design Considerations
Layout and Selection
Product Overview
Casino Case Study

Dilution Air Distribution

Induce as much as possible


Ensure maximum 50 fpm
within Occupied Zone
High velocity jets at diffusers

Diffuser Performance
aerodynamic dependant
Supply air used to dilute
pollution in space
Diffuser located Outside OZ

Dilution Air Distribution


Complete Mixing
in Entire Space
Minimal
Temperature
Stratification
Uniformity is
Sought
Supply of 55F

9 FT

- <0> +
Temperature

Displacement Air Pattern


Low Velocity Supply
Low Induction
Uniform Distribution
Often Located in the
Occupied Zone
Supply between 65F
and 75F

Bodys Thermal Plume

Air Distribution Characteristics


5-10 deg F Cooling
Differential
Supply Air Flows
Along Floor
Rises When Heat
Source is
Contacted
Displaces Room
Air Upward

Air Pattern Cooling

2-10 oF Cooling Differential

0-5 oF Heating Differential

5 oF+ Heating Differential


Morning Warm-up

Heating Options
Perimeter Radiation
Radiant Ceiling
Panels
Fan Coil Units

Air Distribution Characteristics


Stratified Room
Temperature
Maximum 5 deg
F in Occupied
Zone*
80-85 deg F
Return Air

*Based on ASHRAE 55. Current research is showing that occupants may be


comfortable with a larger temperature gradient

Air Distribution Characteristics


Warm Air
at Top
Pollutants
at Top
High Level
Return

Ventilation Effectiveness
How effectively airborne contaminants are
removed from a room.

C Exhaust
Ec =
COccupant
Mix air Systems
Ec= 0.8 1.0

DV Systems
Ec=1.2 - 1.4

Limitations
Pollutants Need to be Buoyant in Air
Warmer/lighter

Ceiling Height of at least 9 ft Recommended


Large Drafts Cause Unwanted Mixing
Limit in Cooling of 38 BTU/Hr/ft^2
Radiant cooling systems
Chilled Beams/Sails
Radiant Panels/Floors

Limit Loads into Space


Higher R walls
Low E windows

Humidity Control
Side-Stream Bypass
RETURN
AIR

EXHAUST AIR

COOLING
COIL
SUPPLY
AIR 65 F
OUTSIDE AIR

PRIMARY
AIR 55 F

Layout and Selection

Performance Data
Sound - NC Level
Pressure Drop Inches W.G.
ASHRAE Test
Standard
Throw Not
Applicable

Performance Data

Displacement Ventilation and


Comfort
Supply air is injected directly into occupied
zone
Designers must be cautious to limit the
velocities near occupants
The aspect ratio or the diffusers is
important
Taller diffusers have higher velocities in the
near zone

Effect of Air Motion on Comfort


Ankle Region

Neck Region

Feeling
Of

AIR VELOCITY, FPM

AIR VELOCITY, FPM

Coolness

Feeling of
Coolness

Feeling of
Warmth

Feeling of
Warmth

TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE, F

TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE, F

Percentage of Occupants Objecting to Drafts in AirConditioned Spaces

Comfort Criteria
Maximum 40 FPM Face Velocity* per
ASHRAE Research Project RP-949
Based on Commercial Applications
Velocity can be increased for Transient
Spaces
Higher airflow rates are acceptable for
Industrial Applications.

Selection
Outlet Type Determined by Room Layout
and Architecture
Outlet Quantity Determined by Air
Volume and Room Layout
Outlet Size Based on Performance
Maximum 40 FPM Face Velocity
Sound and Pressure Drop not Significant

Layout Considerations
Heat sources
pull supply air to
region
Easily moves
along walls to
source entire
room

Layout Considerations

Layout Considerations
For large open
spaces,
diffuser can be
located in the
space
Areas of high
load should
have more
diffusers

Layout Considerations
Diffusers should be
located at least 2 ft
from occupants
Diffusers should
not be located
behind large
objects that might
restrict air flow to
the zone

Ceiling Diffusers
Ceiling mounted diffusers
Supply air will gain some
heat during fall
Reduced if along a surface
Reduced Ventilation Effectiveness

Recommend to mount near


walls to limit heat gain
Ensure that space below
diffuser is a transient space

Air Volume Calculations

ASHRAE Design Guide


Calculation Method
Supply Air Volume
Supply Air Temperature
Exhaust Air Temperature
Only suitable for zones
with ~9ft ceiling height
Need another calculation
method for large volumes

Loads
Two
Components
to loads
Convection
Radiation

ASHRAE
handbook
lists portions
attributable to
each

Room Load Calculations


Room Load
Coefficients
Occupants, Lamps,
Equipment (aoe) =
0.295*
Overhead Lighting (al) =
0.132*
Conduction and
Radiation (aex) = 0.185*

Remember: Building
Loads are same as OH
*From ASHRAE Design Guide based on RP-949
This methodology should only be used for typical office spaces

Energy / Airflow Modeling


CFD Analysis Useful
for Validation of
Design
Can Predict Airflow in
Building

Why Use DV?


IAQ
Efficient removal of smoke,
odors
Pollutants lighter than supply
air

VE of 1.2 1.4 (typically)


Can be > 3

Thermally comfortable
environment
Meet ASHRAE 55
Higher SAT
No Drafts

Why Use DV?


Energy Efficiency
Reduced Room Cooling Load
Extended Economizer Cycle
Efficient System

Load Flexibility
Cool supply air will find the heat load.
As loads are reconfigured or move, the
system will automatically compensate.

Why Use DV?


Architectural Flexibility
DV is a robust system
Diffusers can be mounted
in various locations

Ceiling
In walls
In furniture
In the floor
In architectural elements

Displacement Outlet Types

Flat 1 Way Diffuser


Flat 3 Way Diffuser
Flat Wall Diffuser
Flat Corner Diffuser
Flat Riser Diffuser
Linear Enclosures
Round Full Circular Diffuser
Round Half Circular Diffuser
Round Corner Diffuser
Floor Diffusers
Flat multi-way Industrial
Diffusers
Special Applications

Displacement Diffuser
Low Velocity Supply
Low Induction
Uniform Distribution
Dual Perforated face

Flat 1-way
1 way discharge
Side wall application where one
way discharge required
Square or rectangular
Mounted against wall inside of
occupied space
3.6 to 14.2 ft2 face area
100-700 CFM
Top, left, right, and rear ducted
options
Accessories
Duct Cover
Base

1-Way Pattern

Flat 3- Way
Square or Rectangular
Side wall application where
three way pattern is required
3-way Air Pattern
7.7 to 27.2 ft2 face area
150-1300 CFM
Top and rear ducted
available
Accessories
Duct cover
Bases

3-Way Pattern

Flat Corner Unit

Square or Rectangular
Mounted in Corner
90 Degree Air Pattern
3.8 to 17.6 ft2 face area
80-800 CFM
Accessories
Duct cover
Base

Corner Pattern

Wall Unit

Square or Rectangular
Mounted in Wall
Provided with plenum
Square inlet
1-way Air Pattern
3.6 to 7.4 ft2 face area
80-300 CFM

Recessed Unit

Rectangular
Mounted in Wall / Stair Riser /
Integrated into baseboards
1-way Air Pattern
20-875 CFM
.19 to 17.5 ft2 face area
Snaps into mounting flange
flush with wall
Can be used in any wall
mounted application where a
pressurized plenum can be
provided
Ideal for concealed look

Linear Enclosure

Displacement Linear Enclosure


Attractive Linear Grille
Rigid Steel Construction Heavy Duty
Ducted from below, behind or from the side
Ideal for:
Offices
Boardrooms
Classrooms
Available 2nd QTR 2006

Circular Unit
Round Face
Mounted Free Standing in
Interior Space
Can be ducted from above
or below
360 Degree Air Pattern
1.5 to 62.5 ft2 face area
115-3100 CFM
Designed for large
capacities
Accessories
Bases
Expansion Collars

Circular Pattern

Elevated Circular Unit


Round Face
Fastened directly to
elevated ductwork
360 Degree Air Pattern
1.5 to 62.5 ft2 face area
115-3100 CFM
Designed for large
capacities

Elevated Circular Unit


Used where supply
cannot be within the
occupied zone
Large open space
Far from walls
Raised floor not an
option
Valuable floor space

Half Round Unit

Round Face
Side wall application
180 Degree Air Pattern
4 to 31 ft2 free area
85 - 1550 CFM
Top or rear ducted option,
round or rectangular inlets
available
Accessories
Duct cover
Base

Half Round Pattern

Corner Round Unit

Round Face
Mounted In Corner
90 Degree Air Pattern
2 to 15.5 ft2 face area
40-775 CFM
Accessories
Duct Cover
Base

Floor Displacement Outlet


8 Round Aluminum
Face
Mounted In The Floor
Horizontal Air Pattern
50-80 CFM
Compatible with
underfloor products
Used with raised floors
or can be installed
directly in floor slab

Specials

Sizes
Shapes
Face Types
Colors
Material

Displacement Diffuser Accessories


Duct Covers
Conceal Duct work

Bases
Match room features
Protect diffuser while
cleaning

Expansion Collar

Application of Displacement Ventilation in a Casino


Edgewater Casino, Vancouver, BC

Major Project Challenges

Retrofit of Existing Building

Must Maintain Transparency


Heritage Requirement

Owner Demanded High Level of


Comfort & IAQ

Central Atrium

24 Hour Occupancy

Fast Track Project

CFD Modeling
Temperature Contour

Design Solutions

Double Skin System

New Air Handlers on Main Floor

Utilized Existing Air Handlers on


Second Floor

Raised Floor Added to Main Level

Under Floor Air Delivery on Main


Floor

Displacement Delivery on Main


Floor

Turbulent Floor Outlet

Generates Twist Effect Using Linear Slots


in Combination With Inclined Discharge

Produces Angular Vertical Pattern

High Induction Turbulent Flow for Rapid


Temperature Equalization

Mixing Within Occupied Zone (6 ft from


floor)

Projects Air Upwards 3-6 Feet

Displacement Floor Outlet

Radial Slots With Inclined Discharge

Produces Horizontal Pattern Close to Floor

Low Turbulence

Low Velocity

Minimal Mixing

Air Buoyancy Carries Heat and Pollutants to Ceiling for Exhausting.

Lab Mockup

Attended by Design Team and


Owner
6 Slot Machines Simulated
Floor Outlets Located Below Each
Chair
Measured Velocity and Temperature
at Several Flows
Opportunity to Feel the System

Lab Mockup

Various Wall Mounted Displacement Outlets Were Also Demonstrated

Displacement Benefits

Low Velocity/High Comfort

Heat Sources Pull Supply Air


to Region

Ideal for Variable Occupancy

Minimal Impact by Furnishings

Easily Moves Along Walls to


Fill Entire Room

HVAC System Details

36,000 CFM Supply Air Capacity

Constant Volume with Reheat

67 Deg F Supply Air Temperature

3 CFM per Sq Ft in General Areas

Demand Control Ventilation

Return Through Top of Atrium

Main Floor HVAC

Main Floor HVAC

Displacement Floor Air Outlets in


Gaming Area 1300 Units

Displacement Wall Outlets in


Lobby and Eating Area

Second Floor HVAC

Second Floor HVAC

Displacement Wall
Outlets Throughout

Displacement Wall Outlets

Diffuser Face Recessed into Millwork

Coordination with Architect Critical

Air Delivered Through Pressurized


Plenums

Self Balancing System

Diffuser Face Sized for Maximum 40


FPM Face Velocity

Sizes up to 36 x 72

220 Units

Results

Open Since February 05

Minimal Balancing Required

Passed Opening Day Test

No Draft Complaints

Excellent Temperature ControlWithin 1 Deg F

Results

Supply Air Drawn to Occupants


for High IAQ and Comfort

Flexible System

Extended Hours of Free Cooling

Lower Fan HP

Two New BC Casinos Under


Design with Displacement

Conclusions

Casinos are a Good Application for Displacement Delivery

Comfort ,IAQ and Energy Efficiency are Benefits

CFD is a Valuable Design Tool

Lab Mock Ups are Extremely Beneficial

Coordinated Effort by Entire Design Team and Owner Ensures


Success

Questions?