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OVERVIEW OF

FLY ASH USE IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT

By
Dr. Vimal Kumar
Scientist G & Head
Fly Ash Unit (FAU)
Department of Science & Technology
Govt. of India
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OBJECTIVE
RURAL DEVELOPMENT WITH FLY ASH

DEPT. OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT


PMGSY
Employment Schemes
Rural Housing
Training

DEPT. OF DRINKING WATER SUPPLY


Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme
Research & Development

DEPT. OF LAND RESOURCES


IWDP
DPAP
DDP
Hariyali

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WHAT IS FLY ASH?


Fly Ash a finally divided mineral residue of
burning of coal
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Excellent geotechnical properties


Good pozzolanic material
Source of micro and macro nutrients
Very low in heavy / toxic metals
Very low in radioactivity
Granulometry compatible material to soil
Very useful mineral phases
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RANGE OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF


FLY ASH Vs SOIL
Parameters

Fly Ash

Natural Soil

Bulk Density (gm/cc)

0.9-1.3

1.3-1.8

Specific Gravity

1.6-2.6

2.55-2.75

Plasticity

Lower or non-plastic

Could be much higher

Shrinkage Limit (Vol


stability)

Higher

Could be much lower

Grain size

Major fine sand / silt and small


per cent of clay size particles

Sand/silt/clay size particles


depending upon type of soil

Clay (per cen)

Negligible

Could be much higher

Free Swell Index

Very low

Variable

Classification (Texture)

Sandy silt to silty loam

Sandy to clayey silty loam

Water Holding Capacity


(WHC) (per cent)

40-60

05-50

Porosity (per cent)

30-65

25-60

Surface Area (m2 / kg)

500-5000

Lime reactivity (MPa)

1-8

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RANGE OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION


OF FLY ASH, POND ASH AND SOIL
Compounds (per cent) Fly Ash
Pond Ash
SiO2
38-63
37.7-75.1
27-44
11.7-53.3
Al2 O3
0.4-1.8
0.2-1.4
TiO2
3.3-6.4
3.5-34.6
Fe2 O3
MnO
b.d-0.5
b.d-0.6
MgO
0.01-0.5
0.1-0.8
CaO
0.2-8
0.2-0.6
0.04-0.9
0.1-0.7
K2 O
0.07-0.43
0.05-0.31
Na2 O
LOI
0.2-5.0
0.01-20.0
pH*
6-8
6.5-8.5
bd : below detection ; LOI : Loss on Ignition
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Soil
43-61
12-39
0.2-2
1-14
0.02-0.1
0.2-3
1-7
0.4-2
0.2-3
5-16
4.5-8.0
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RANGE OF GEO-TECHNICAL
PROPERTIES OF FLY ASH AND SOIL
Parameter

Range
Fly ash

Soil

Specific Gravity

1.6-2.6

2.55-2.75

Plasticity (per cent)

Lower or Non-Plastic

could be higher

Maximum Dry Density (gm/cc)

0.9-1.3

1.3-1.8

Optimum Moisture Content (per cent)

18.0-38.0

12-18

Cohesion (kN/m2)

Negligible

20-150

Angle of Internal Friction(degrees)

30-40

25-35

Coeff. Of consolidation Cv(cm2/Sec)

1.75X10-5-2.01X10-3

9X10-5-1.1X10-3

Compression index Cc

0.05-0.4

0.1-0.4

Permeability (cm/sec)

8X10-6-7X10-4

3X10-8 - 4X 10-4

Particle size Distribution


(per cent of materials)
Clay size fraction
Silt size fraction
Sand size fraction
Gravel size fraction

1-10
8-85
7-90
0-10

5-40
20-40
40-80
0-30

Coefficient of Uniformity

3.1-10.7

1-20

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FLY ASH BASED BUILDING MATERIALS

LOW-LYING AREA FILLING

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FLY ASH BASED BUILDING

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FLY ASH PAVEMENT BLOCKS


Concrete paver blocks in a circular pattern

Concrete paver blocks in a rectangular pattern


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FLY ASH CONCRETE PAVEMENT

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FLY ASH PAVEMENT BLOCKS

Approach road embankement, Nizamuddin

Construction of Sarita Vihar fly over, New Delhi

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FLY ASH RURAL ROAD

Rural Road at Raichur


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A TYPICAL PROPERTY OF FLY ASH

MOISTURE-DENSITY RELATIONSHIP OF THE FLY ASH-SOIL MIXTURES

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AGRICULTURE WITH FLY ASH

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Forestry
at BTPS
ash pondDEVELOPMENT
WASTE
LAND

WITH

FLY ASH

Saline soil reclamation using fly ash

Forestry at BTPS ash pond


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YIELD INCREASE WITH FLY ASH


Per cent yield increase in fly ash amended soils over control (without fly ash) for
Sl.
no.

Crop

Cereals
1.
Wheat
2.
Paddy
3.
Maize
4.
Jowar
5.
Bajra
6.
Sorghum
7.
Oat
8.
Pearl millet
Pulses
1.
Chickpea
2.
Green gram
3.
Black gram
4.
Arhar
5.
Lentil
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No. of sites

Range

36
34
16
07
03
03
01
01

2.85-99.20
2.90-41.71
4.00-88.41
5.60-32.42
7.10-25.00
7.70-28.15
22.20
32.30

17.25
13.50
21.95
13.47
13.00
17.00
22.20
32.30

04
04
03
01
01

9.70-30.62
5.70-28.20
6.20-13.85
25.00
5.50

21.00
21.00
11.00
25.00
5.50

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various crops

Mode range ave rage


(reprsentative ave rage)*

Contd

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YIELD INCREASE WITH FLY ASH

Contd

Per cent yield increase in fly ash amended soils over control (without fly ash) for various crops
Sl.
Crop
No. of sites
Range
Mode range ave rage
no.
(reprsentative ave rage)*
Oil seeds
1.
Ground nut
17
7.10-77.40
22.23
2.
Sunflower
09
2.60-67.00
28.43
3.
Soybean
08
8.70-63.60
27.22
4.
Mustard
05
5.80-61.80
15.27
5.
Sesamum
02
2.50-7.70
5.10
6.
Raya
01
3.30
3.30
7.
Til
01
40.00
40.00
8.
Linseed
01
21.40
21.40
Cash crops
1.
Cotton

11

9.30-38.20

18.60

2.

Sugarcane

06

8.70-63.60

27.22

3.

Jute

03

5.00-20.00

19.00
Contd

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YIELD INCREASE WITH FLY ASH


Per cent yield increase in fly ash amended soils over control (without fly ash) for
Sl.
Crop
no.
Horticulture crops

No. of
sites

Range

Contd

various crops

Mode range ave rage


(reprsentative ave rage)*

1.

Brinjal

06

0-137.80

12.5

2.

Tomato

04

4.50-29.00

16.50

3.

Potato

04

9.20-37.00

24.50

4.

Onion

02

18.40-26.60

22.50

5.

Banana

01

14.00

14.00

6.

Beetroot

01

14.00

14.00

7.

Bhendi

01

16.70

16.70

8.

Bottle gourd

01

15.80

15.80

9.

Chilli

01

6.70

6.70

10.

Palak

01

11.10

11.10

* Representative average-the per cent increase in yields has wide range for the same crop in the same soil and agro-climatic conditions. There can be
many reasons for it. To arise at representative average the following procedure has been adopted.
* The percentage increases are listed in the block of 1-10%, 11-20%, 21-30% and so on. Thus 10 blocks would have the percentage increase figures
pertaining to representative block. Extreme blocks containing practically same number of entries on the higher side as well as on lower side have
been excluded. The central blocks (generally two blocks) having maximum number of entries (representative mode like blocks and also medium
type blocks) have been taken and average of all the readings in these blocks are taken as representative average.

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FLY ASH IS SAFE


Impact of radioactivity & heavy metal content of fly ash on soil and produce
Sample

Radioactivity(Bq/kg)

Trace & Heavy metals (ppm)

40K

226Ra

228Ac

Mo

As

Se

43.6-115.4

55-129

17.1-28.0

2.5-6.7

1.0-4.0

1.6-2.6

Pond ash

280432.5
280-353

69-92

77-108

18.3-23.1

2.6-5.3

1.4-3.6

1.2-2.3

Soil

160-326

30-58.8

37-80

13-17

0-4.8

1.9-2.9

2.4-4.0

Grain

9-95

0.29-0.75

0.60-1.60

0.2-1.6

0-1.2

0-0.45

0.10-1.0

Straw

8.4-10.9

039-0.72

078-1.00

0.29-0.42

0-0.67

0-.40

018-0.55

Vegetables

0.6-85

0.1-0.5

0.4-0.8

0.72-1.3

0.2-0.06

0.10-0.50

0-0.14

Oil seeds

60-110

0.3-0.8

0.6-1.0

0.1-1.3

0.2-0.6

0.3-0.4

0.10-1.06

Safe limit*/
Normal **
range in soil

4000*

1000*

1000*

2-100**

0.1-40**

5-100**

0.1-10**

ESP fly ash

* Source: Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Radiological Safety Division, Dept. of Atomic Energy, Govt. of India letter no
AERD/RSD/28/2002/6007 on dated. July 26, 2002
** Source: P.C Srivastava and U.C. Gupta (1996): trace element in crop production, oxford and IBH publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.,
New Delhi.
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FLY ASH IS SAFE


Characteristics of Ash Pond effluent and well water collected from Ash bund Area of Chandrapur STPP and
Bhusawal TPS
Parameters
pH
TSS (mg/1)
TDS

Ca

Mg

N-NO3
F

Fe

Pb

Cd

Ni

Cr

Co

As

Hg

8.28
218.00
610.00
65.40
31.00
3.43
0.89
0.029
0.15
0.02
0.003
BDL
BDL
BDL
BDL
BDL

8.14
362.00
467.30
54.20
18.90
2.21
1.45
0.032
0.09
0.05
0.001
BDL
BDL
BDL
BDL
BDL

8.19
219.10
587.90
62.80
29.70
3.39
0.97
0.026
0.11
0.01
0.004
BDL
BDL
BDL
BDL
BDL

5.5-9.0
100.00
75.00
30.00
45.00
2.00
1.00
0.10
2.00
3.00
0.10
0.20
0.01

Drinking Water
Standards
IS: 10500
6.5-8.5
500.00
75.00
30.00
45.00
0.6-1.2
0.30
0.10
0.10
0.05
0.05
0.001

<0.1
<0.8

<0.1
<0.8

<0.1
<0.8

Industrial Effluent
Standards IS:2490

Radioactivity (Bq/kg)

- emitters
- emitters

A : Water sample from Farmer's well Village- Chargaon collected on 15.02.97, Chandrapur
B : Drain water (Ash Effluent), well no. 5 discharge point collected on 15.02.97, Chandrapur
C : Water from Farmer's well near ash bund area collected on 19.08.97, Chandrapur

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BDL- Below detection limit

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SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT


WHAT FLY ASH
-

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Business and Employment Generation


Rural Housing & Infrastructure
(incl. PM GSY)
Land Development
Watershed Management
Hariyali & Agriculture

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