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James Ruse Agricultural High School

2011
PRELIMINARY COURSE
TERM 2 (Y11) ASSESSMENT TASK
THEORY EXAMINATION

BIOLOGY

Total marks for this paper: 50


General Instructions

This paper has two parts, Part A and


Part B

Reading time 5 minutes


Working time 50 minutes
Write using black or blue pen

Part A
Total marks (8)
Attempt all questions
Allow about 10 minutes for this part

Draw diagrams using pencil


Write your Student Number on the Part
A Answer Sheet and the Part B
Question and Answer Book

Part B
Total marks (42)
Attempt all questions
Allow about 40 minutes for this part

James Ruse Agricultural High School 2011 Prelim Bio Term 2 theory task Marking Guidelines

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PART A

Total marks (8)


There are 8 questions in this part. Attempt all questions. Each question is worth one mark.
Allow about 10 minutes for this part.

Select the most appropriate answer and place an X, using ink, in the corresponding space on your
answer sheet.
1.

2.

What contribution did Robert Brown make towards the development of the cell theory?
(A)

He discovered that plant cells have a nucleus and cytoplasm.

(B)

He used the term cell to describe plant tissue.

(C)

He proposed that a cell is the basic building block of all plant and animal tissue.

(D)

He proposed that cells only develop from existing cells.

The diagrams of two species of seals are shown below. Seal I lives in very cold arctic
conditions. Seal II lives in warmer oceans. Seal I has the largest surface area to volume ratio.

Seal I

Seal II

How is seal I adapted for life in the very cold arctic waters?
(A)

Seal I loses the most amount of heat.

(B)

Seal I loses the least amount of heat.

(C)

The rate at which Seal I loses heat is lower than Seal II.

(D)

The rate at which Seal I loses heat is greater than Seal II.

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3.

The diagram shows a container with two compartments separated by a semi-permeable


membrane that is permeable to only water.

Compartment I

Compartment II

What will happen as a result of osmosis?

4.

5.

(A)

Compartment II will contain all the fluid in the container.

(B)

Compartment I will contain all the fluid in the container.

(C)

Compartment I will have a higher level of fluid than compartment II.

(D)

There will be equal fluid levels in both compartments.

What is a cell specialised to do if a large proportion of its ribosomes are attached to the
endoplasmic reticulum?
(A)

Manufacture glucose for storage.

(B)

Manufacture phospholipids for cell growth.

(C)

Perform photosynthesis with high efficiency.

(D)

Manufacture proteins for export.

Which plant tissue functions to transport sugars throughout a vascular plant?


(A)

Lenticels

(B)

Phloem

(C)

Vascular bundles

(D)

Xylem

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6.

The diagram shows an apparatus for measuring transpiration in a plant.

Condition Label

Environmental Conditions

In natural light and still air


Completely enclosed in a transparent
plastic bag
Illuminated by three 40-watt light
bulbs, each placed 40 cm from the
shoot
In natural light and in air currents from
an electric fan

II
III
IV

What is the sequence of environmental conditions that would yield the smallest to greatest rate
of transpiration?
Rate of Transpiration: Smallest Greatest
(A)

II

III

IV

(B)

II

III

IV

(C)

III

II

IV

(D)

IV

III

II

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7.

The graph shows the absorption of light at various wavelengths for chlorophylls found in
chloroplasts.

Which wavelengths of light are required for the greatest rate of photosynthesis?

8.

(A)

430 nm; 480 nm

(B)

480 nm; 680 nm

(C)

550 nm; 600 nm

(D)

650 nm; 680 nm

What procedure would you employ to test for the presence of glucose in a substance?
(A)

Add a few drops of Benedicts reagent to the substance, gently warm and observe
for an orange colour.

(B)

Add a few drops of iodine reagent to the substance and observe for a blue-black colour.

(C)

Add a few drops of sodium hydroxide and then some copper (II) sulfate to the substance
and observe for a violet colour.

(D)

Add a few drops of Sudan III reagent to the substance and observe for a red colour.

James Ruse Agricultural High School 2011 Prelim Bio Term 2 theory task Marking Guidelines

James Ruse Agricultural High School 2011 Prelim Bio Term 2 theory task Marking Guidelines
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Part B

Student Number

There are 8 questions in this part. Attempt all questions.


Marks vary for each question.
Answer the questions in the spaces provided in this Part B Question and Answer Book.
Write your student number at the top of each page.
Allow about 40 minutes for this part.

________________________________________________________________________________
Question 1 (4 marks)

Structure

Name of structure

Function

Vacuole (1)

Stores water, salts, sugars, proteins (1)

Chloroplast (1)

Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts; this process


yields sugars for the plant (1)

Structure

Name of structure

Function

Mitochondria (1)

Cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria. This


produces energy for the cell. (1)

Nucleolus (1)

Synthesis of RNA occurs here (1)

Question 2 (4 marks)

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Question 3 (8 marks)
(a) Identify the structural parts of the leaf in which photosynthesis occurs. State the names of
these leaf parts. (2 marks)
B = palisade mesophyll; E = spongy mesophyll
(1): correct structural part identified
(1): correct structural part identified
(b) Describe the role of part D in photosynthesis. (2 marks)
D = xylem. Xylem transports water to the leaf cells which use it for photosynthesis.
(1): identifying the leaf structure
(1): description of the role of leaf structure in photosynthesis

Question 4 (8 marks)
(a) In the space below draw a labelled diagram of a cell membrane. (4 marks)

(1): phospholipid bilayer


(1): labelling
(1): embedded proteins
(1): carbohydrates or other component (e.g., cholesterol)

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(b) Explain how the structure of the cell membrane enables the transport of substances into and
out of cells. (4 marks)
Proteins enable transport of substances against their concentration gradient into or out of the cell
(via active transport). Small polar substances like water can diffuse through the small openings
(pores) that occur through the membrane (fluid mosaic structure). The diffusion of water can be
into or out of the cell. The cell membrane can wrap or engulf a substance as it impacts the
membrane, e.g., a hormone. The membranous coating enables the substance to move through the
membrane.

Outcome criteria
Identification of two membrane structures with reasons provided for
how they enable the transport of substances across the membrane
Identification of two membrane structures with a reason provided for
how one structure enables the transport of substances across the
membrane
Identification of one membrane structure with a reason provided for
how it enables the transport of substances across the membrane
Identification of one membrane structure

Marks
4
3
2
1

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Question 5 (7 marks)
The surface area of biological structures has a significant impact upon their function. Evaluate this
statement with respect to the impact of surface area at the organ level in plants and in animals.
Surface area is important for the functioning of a multicellular organism. For example, in plants,
the large SA presented by the root hairs in the soil is advantageous as it enables an efficient
diffusion of water into the plant root from the soil. If the root hairs did not exist the water
absorption by the plant root would be far less in terms of volume and rate of diffusion. In plants,
leafs are flattened to increase the surface area presented to the sunlight. This type of structure thus
maximises the amount of sunlight that can be used for photosynthesis.
Surface area is important for gaseous exchange in a variety of animals. For example, in fish, the
gills are shaped like cylinders in order to maximise the diffusion surface for oxygen from the water
into the fish blood and the diffusion of CO 2 from the fishs blood to the water. In frogs, the surface
area of the thin skin complements the gas exchange occurring in the modified lungs (sacs). In
mammals, the spherical-shaped alveoli facilitate efficient gas exchange from lung space to the
blood vessels.
Surface area is important for the absorption of nutrients in animals. For example, in mammals, the
small intestine is lined with micro foldings called villi; the folding of the small intestine wall
facilitates efficient diffusion of nutrients into the blood.

Outcome criteria

Marks

Justification provided using examples for plants in terms of water


absorption and photosynthesis. Justification provided using examples
7
from at least two kinds of animals in terms of gas exchange and
nutrient absorption. Organs involved are stated.
As above but missing one component (e.g., no mention of gas exchange
in animals; only one animal used as an example; no example provided 6
for water absorption in plants; etc).
As above but missing two components

As above but missing three components

As above but missing four components

As above but missing five components

Describes one component (e.g., role of SA for water absorption in


1
plants)

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Question 6 (6 marks)
(a) Identify an organism that uses a closed circulatory system. (1 mark)
Mammals (humans), fish
(b) Using a similar format to the diagram above, draw a labelled diagram of an open circulatory
system. (2 marks)

Outcome criteria

Marks

Labelled diagram clearly showing short blood vessels to/from heart


with the no branched vessels in the organs (pool of blood); organs are 2
bathed in the blood.
One of the above

(c)

Identify an organism that uses an open circulatory system. (1 mark)

Molluscs snails, cuttlefish; crustaceans (crayfish, prawns, slaters, barnacles, crabs)


(d)

Explain why closed circulatory systems are found in large, multicellular organisms. (2 marks)

Multicellular organisms are relatively large organisms, made of many different cells. Each of these
cells requires gas exchange, nutrients and excrete wastes, thus transport systems are developed in
order to provide for such processes. Multicellular organisms use a closed circulatory system to
transport nutrients because diffusion via open circulatory systems is inefficient and slow to supply
all the cells of the body adequately.
Outcome criteria

Marks

recognises the advantage of closed circulatory systems over open


1
closed circulatory systems in terms of the diffusion rate.
recognises that the large number of cells in multicellular organisms
require a large amount of nutrients and produce a large amount of 1
cellular wastes.
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Question 7 (4 marks)
(a)

Identify which diagram represents the digestive system of a carnivore.


Give a reason for your answer. (2 marks)

I = Carnivore: proteins digested in stomach and amino acids are absorbed in small intestine which
is long. Stomach is large compared to length of small intestine. Hardly any plant material to digest
and hence has a very short/small caecum.
(1): distinguishing I = carnivore
(1): one reason for I
(b) Identify which diagram represents the digestive system of the nectar feeder. Give a reason for
your answer. (2 marks)
III = nectar feeding herbivore. Possums eat a diet mainly of simple sugars that are easily absorbed.
Hence the possum does not have the need for a large stomach, long small intestine or large/long
caecum (compared to II).
(1): one reason for the difference e.g., human is omnivorous;
(1): one reason for III

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Question 8 (5 marks)
The diagrams below represent the main stages of mitosis in animal cells. The diagrams are not
necessarily in stated order.

L
(a)

Using the letters, identify the correct sequence of diagrams to represent


mitosis. Write your sequence from left to right, starting from the left with the first stage. (2
marks)
HMJILK

Outcome criteria

Marks

Sequence correct

One error in sequence

Two or more errors in sequence

(b) Identify the stage which represents the process of cytokinesis. (1 mark)
(1): L
(c) Identify a site of mitosis in insects. Explain the need for mitosis at this site. (2 marks)
During the pupal stage of insects, new groups of cells, set aside in the embryo, begin to form into
discs (imaginal discs) which are the sites of mitosis. Here growth occurs since new cells form as the
pupa changes into the adult.
Outcome criteria

Marks

Explanation provided for mitosis occurring at identified insect site

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Identification of one mitosis site in insects

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Part A Answer Sheet

Student Number

Total marks (8)


There are 8 questions in this part. Attempt all questions.
Each question is worth one mark.
Allow about 10 minutes for this part.
Write your Student Number at the top of this Part A Answer Sheet.

Select the most appropriate answer and use ink to place an X in the corresponding space on your
answer sheet.

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

James Ruse Agricultural High School 2011 Prelim Bio Term 2 theory task Marking Guidelines
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