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FORUM GEOM

ISSN 1534-1178

R, r, and s

Temistocle Brsan

Abstract. Assume that a triangle is defined by the triple (R, r, s) fulfilling the

conditions (1) and (2) (R - the circumradius, r - the inradius, s - the semiperimeter). We find some bounds for the trigonometric functions of the angles and for

the sides of the triangle expressed by R and r (see the formulas (3) and (7) (13)).

the inradius, and, respectively, the semi-perimeter of a triangle if and only if these

numbers satisfy Eulers inequality

R 2r,

and the fundamental double inequality

2R2 + 10Rr r2 2 (R 2r)

(1)

R2 2Rr

s2 2R2 + 10Rr r2 + 2 (R 2r) R2 2Rr.

(2)

This double inequality was found in 1851 and it was subsequently rediscovered in

many different forms. It often appears in the literature under the name of Blundons

inequality. A history of this inequality can be found in [2, pp.15].

In the following, we consider that the triangles are given by triples (R, r, s) that

verify (1) and (2). The objective of this note is to find some bounds (expressed

by R, r) for the sides and trigonometric functions of angles of the triangle. We

recall a well-known result on the conditions in which the inequalities in (2) become

equalities. There is a rich literature on this subject. In a recent short paper [1], we

have presented a simple geometrical proof of Theorem 1 below.

We say that a triangle is wide-isosceles if it is isosceles with the base greater

than or equal to the congruent sides, and is tall-isosceles if it is isosceles with the

congruent sides greater than or equal to the base. The equilateral triangle is both

wide-isosceles and tall-isosceles (see Figure 1).

Theorem 1. In the fundamental double inequality,

(a) the first inequality is an equality if and only if the triangle is wide-isosceles;

(b) the second inequality is an equality if and only if the triangle is tall-isosceles;

(c) both inequalities are equalities if and only if the triangle is equilateral.

We now state and prove our first result.

Publication Date: April 9, 2015. Communicating Editor: Paul Yiu.

100

T. Brsan

wide-isosceles

tall-isosceles

Figure 1

A

1

2r

2r

1

1 1

sin

1+ 1

.

2

R

2

2

R

(3)

Moreover,

(a) the first inequality is an equality if and only if the triangle is tall-isosceles;

(b) the second inequality is an equality if and only if the triangle is wide-isosceles;

(c) both inequalities are equalities if and only if the triangle is equilateral.

Proof. Let O and I be the circumcenter and the incenter of the triangle ABC.

Applying the triangle inequality for the triangle AOI, we have

AO OI AI AO + OI.

(4)

The left-side of (4) is positive because I is contained in the circumcicle of triangle ABC. Taking into account the formulas OA = R, OI 2 = R2 2Rr, and

AI = sinr A , we can write (4) in the form

2

r

R + R2 2Rr

R R2 2Rr

A

sin 2

or

A

R + R2 2Rr

R R2 2Rr

sin

.

2R

2

2R

Therefore, the inequalities (3) are valid.

To prove the assertion (a) (resp. (b)) is equivalent to the fact that the right (respectively left) inequality of (4) becomes an equality if and only if the triangle

ABC is tall-isosceles (respectively wide-isosceles).

(a) The equality AI = AO + OI is equivalent with the fact that the triangle

ABC is isosceles, with AB = AC, and O lying in the segment AI. Obviously, O

and I coincide if and only if ABC is an equilateral triangle.

In the remaining case, we have AO < AI, i.e., R < sinr A . Let a and l denote the

2

lengths of the base and congruent sides of the isosceles triangle. Then, using

the

2

2 a2

a

4l

l

formulas 4R = abc and = rs, we easily derive R = 4l2 a2 , r = 2(2l+a) ,

and sin A2 =

a

2l .

r

sin A

2

101

similarly. Again, we have to consider two cases. If O and I coincide, the triangle

ABC is equilateral. If I (AO),then AO > AI, and R > sinr A , i.e., a > l. In

2

(c) follows from (a) and (b).

Corollary 3. In triangle ABC,

B

C

1

A

max (sin , sin , sin )

2

2

2

2

B

C

1

A

min (sin , sin , sin )

2

2

2

2

1+

1

2r

1

R

2r

1

R

,

(5)

(6)

Moreover,

(a) equality holds in (5) if and only if the triangle is wide-isosceles;

(b) equality holds in (6) if and only if the triangle is tall-isosceles.

Starting from (3), we shall obtain new inequalities by using appropriate formulas

in trigonometry. Thus, we obtain from (3), after squaring and simplifying, the

following inequalities:

r

1

r

2r

2r

1

2 A

1 1

sin

1 + 1

.

(7)

2

R

R

2

2

R

R

Also, taking into account the identity cos2 t + sin2 t = 1, we deduce that

A

r

1

r

2r

2r

1

1+ 1

cos2

1+ + 1

.

2

R

R

2

2

R

R

Because the left-side term in (8) is positive, it follows that

A

r

r

2

2

2r

2r

cos

1+ 1

1+ + 1 .

2

R

R

2

2

R

R

From (7) or (8), using the identities 2 sin2 A2 = 1 cos A or 2 cos2

cos A, we obtain the following inequalities:

r

2r

2r

r

1

cos A + 1 .

R

R

R

R

A

2

(8)

(9)

= 1+

(10)

Remark. As

(10) is not always positive. We

it is natural, the left-side term of

r

2r

have R 1 R 0 if and only if r R2 2Rr 0, that is r OI.

(Geometricaly, O is in the interior or on the incircle of the triangle ABC).

102

By using the double angle formula, we obtain from (3) and (9),

2r

r

2r

2

1 1

1+ 1

2

R

R

R

r

2r

2r

2

sin A

1+ + 1

1+ 1

2

R

R

R

T. Brsan

(11)

or, by squaring,

r2

r2

2r

2r

2r

2r

2

2 2 1

sin A 2

2 +2 1 .

(12)

2

R

R

R

R

R

R

From (11) and (12), and taking into account the law of sines, we easily obtain

upper bounds and lower bounds for the lengths of the sides. Thus, we have

8R2 8Rr 4r2 8R R2 2Rr a2 8R2 8Rr 4r2 + 8R R2 2Rr.

(13)

Because the inequality in previous section has been found by simple transformations of the inequalities (3), we can obtain the necessary and sufficient conditions

for equality to occur in the inequalities (7) - (13) as immediate consequences of

those specified in Proposition 2. Next we state some results along this order of

ideas, leaving the details to the reader.

Proposition 4. (a) Equality occurs in the first inequality of (7) if and only if triangle ABC is tall-isosceles.

(b) Equality occurs in the second inequality of (7) if and only if triangle ABC is

wide-isosceles.

(c) Equality occurs in both cases if and only if triangle ABC is equilateral.

Proposition 5. (a) Equality occurs in the first inequality of (8), (9), (10) if and

only if triangle ABC is wide-isosceles.

(b) Equality occurs in the second inequality of (8), (9), (10) if and only if triangle

ABC is tall-isosceles.

(c) Equality occurs in both cases if and only if triangle ABC is equilateral.

Proposition 6. In each of the double inequalities (11), (12) and (13), equality

occurs in one or both side if and only if the triangle is equilateral.

Remarks. (1) We can formulate the inequalities (7) - (13) in a symmetrical form as

we have made in Corollary 3 with the inequalities (3).

(2) Of course, one can obtain further inequalities by proceeding in the same way

as above. But, it appears the risk of complicated expressions in R and r for the

leftmost and rightmost sides of the derived inequalities. For example, using the

formula 1 + tan2 t = cos2 t, it is possible to obtain some inequality for tan A2 ,

tan A starting from (9), (10).

Finally, we turn our attention to the left-side of the inequalities (13), i.e., to the

inequality

(14)

a2 8R2 8Rr 4r2 8R R2 2Rr,

103

If ABC is an acute triangle, this inequality can be improved. Indeed, by (10)

we have

2r

r

cos A + 1 .

R

R

In our hypothesis, cos A 0. Thus, after squaring we obtain

r2

2r

r

2r

2

sin A

2 2

1

R

R

R

R

or, equivalently,

(15)

a2 8Rr 4r2 8r R2 2Rr.

As in (10), the equality in (15) holds if and only if the acute triangle ABC is

tall-isosceles.

It is easy to see that (15) improves (14). Indeed, it is straightforward to verify

that

8Rr 4r2 8r R2 2Rr 8R2 8Rr 4r2 8R R2 2Rr,

as well as the fact that the equality sign holds only if ABC is equilateral. Consequently, apart from (14), the equality sign holds for (15) not only for equilateral

triangles but also for tall-isosceles ones.

References

[1] T. Brsan, Blundons double inequality revisited, Recreatii Matematice, 14 (2012) 2224 (in

Romanian).

[2] D. S. Mitrinovic, J. E. Pecaric, and V. Volenec, Recent Advances in Geometric Inequalities,

Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1889.

Temistocle Brsan: Department of Mathematics and Informatics, Gheorghe Asachi Tehnical

University, Iasi, Romania

E-mail address: t birsan@yahoo.com

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