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CHAPTER 10

STEAM AND HOT WATER BOILERS

1001.0 Scope. 1003.0 Definitions.


The requirements of this chapter shall apply to the Certain words and terms used in this chapter, unless
construction, installation, operation, repair, and clearly inconsistent with their context, shall mean as
alteration of all boilers and pressure vessels. follows:
Exceptions:
(1) Listed and approved potable water heaters 1003.1 –A–
with a nominal capacity of one hundred and AUTOMATIC BOILER – When applied to any class
twenty (120) gallons (454 L) or less having a
of boiler defined below, such boiler shall be
heat input of 200,000 Btu/h (58.62 kW) or less
equipped with certain controls and limit devices, as
used for hot water supply at a pressure of
specified in Section 1009.0 and Table 10-3.
one-hundred and sixty (160) psi (1,103 kPa) or
less and at temperatures not exceeding 210°F
(99°C), as regulated by the Plumbing Code. 1003.2 –B–
(2) Pressure vessels used for unheated water BOILER – A closed vessel used for heating water or
supply, including those containing air that liquid, or for generating steam or vapor by direct appli-
serves only as a cushion and is compressed cation of heat from combustible fuels or electricity.
by the introduction of water and tanks
BURNER, AUTOMATIC BOILER – A device to
connected to sprinkler systems.
convey fuel into the combustion chamber in prox-
(3) Portable unfired pressure vessels and Inter- imity to its combustion-air supply so as to permit a
state Commerce Commission (I.C.C.) stable controlled heat release compatible with the
containers. burner design and that is equipped with an ignition
(4) Containers for liquefied petroleum gases, system to reliably ignite the entire heat release
bulk oxygen, and medical gas that are regu- surface of the burner assembly.
lated by the Fire Code.
(5) Unfired pressure vessels in Groups B, F, H, 1003.3 –C–
M, R, S, and U Occupancies having a
volume of five (5) cubic feet (0.14 m3) or less CONTINUOUS PILOT – A pilot that burns without
and operated at pressures not exceeding two turndown throughout the entire period that the
hundred and fifty (250) psi (1,724 kPa). boiler is in service, whether or not the main burner is
firing.
(6) Pressure vessels used in refrigeration
systems that are regulated by Chapter 11 of
this code. 1003.4 –D–
(7) Pressure tanks used in conjunction with No definitions.
coaxial cables, telephone cables, power
cables, and other similar humidity control
systems. 1003.5 –E–
(8) Any boiler or pressure vessel subject to No definitions.
regular inspection by federal inspectors or
licensed by federal authorities. 1003.6 –F–
(9) Boilers within the scope of NFPA 85, No definitions.
including associated fuel systems shall be
designed and installed in accordance with
NFPA 85, Boiler and Combustion Systems 1003.7 –G–
Hazards Code. No definitions.

1002.0 Workmanship. 1003.8 –H–


All equipment, appurtenances, devices, and piping HOT WATER-HEATING BOILER – A boiler having
shall be installed in a workmanlike manner in confor- a volume exceeding 120 gallons (454 L), a heat input
mity with the provisions and intent of this chapter. exceeding 200,000 Btu/h (58.62 kW), or an operating

157
1003.8 – 1004.1 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

temperature exceeding 210°F (99°C) that provides POWER BOILER – A boiler in which steam is gene-
hot water to be used externally to itself. rated at pressures exceeding fifteen (15) psi (103 kPa).
POWER HOT WATER BOILER (HIGH TEMPERA-
1003.9 –I– TURE WATER BOILER) – A boiler used for heating
water or liquid to a pressure exceeding 160 psi (1,103
INTERLOCK – A device that senses a limit or off-
kPa) or to a temperature exceeding 250°F (121°C).
limit condition or improper sequence of events and
shuts down the offending or related piece of equip- PRESSURE VESSEL (unfired) – A closed container,
ment or prevents proceeding in an improper having a nominal internal diameter exceeding six (6)
sequence in order to prevent a hazardous condition inches (152.4 mm) and a volume exceeding one and
from developing. one-half (1-1/2) cubic feet (42 L), for liquids, gases,
vapors subjected to pressures exceeding fifteen (15)
INTERMITTENT PILOT – A pilot that burns during psi (103 kPa), or steam under any pressure.
light-off and while the main burner is firing, and that
is shut off with the main burner. PURGE – The acceptable method of scavenging the
combustion chamber, boiler passes, and breeching to
INTERRUPTED PILOT – A pilot that burns during remove all combustible gases.
light-off and that is shut off during normal operation
of the main burner.
1003.16 –Q–
No definitions.
1003.10 –J–
No definitions. 1003.17 –R–
No definitions.
1003.11 –K–
No definitions. 1003.18 –S–
STEAM-HEATING BOILER – A boiler operated at
pressures not exceeding fifteen (15) psi (103 kPa) for
1003.12 –L–
steam.
LOW-PRESSURE HOT WATER-HEATING BOILER –
A boiler in which water is heated for the purpose of
1003.19 –T–
supplying heat at pressures not exceeding one
hundred and sixty (160) psi (1,102 kPa) and tempera- No definitions.
tures not exceeding 250°F (121°C).
1003.20 –U–
No definitions.
1003.13 –M–
MINIATURE BOILER – A power boiler having an
1003.21 –V–
internal shell diameter of sixteen (16) inches (406
mm) or less, a gross volume of five (5) cubic feet (142 No definitions.
L) or less, a heating surface of twenty (20) square feet
(1.86 m2) or less (not applicable to electric boilers), 1003.22 –W–
and not exceeding 100 psi (689 kPa). No definitions.

1003.14 –N– 1003.23 –X–


No definitions. No definitions.

1003.24 –Y–
1003.15 –P–
No definitions.
PACKAGE BOILER – Any class of boiler defined
herein and shall be a boiler equipped and shipped
1003.25 –Z–
complete with fuel-burning equipment, automatic
controls and accessories, and mechanical draft equip- No definitions.
ment, if used.
PILOT – A burner smaller than the main burner that 1004.0 Detailed Requirements.
is ignited by a spark or other independent and stable 1004.1 Safety Requirements. The construction of
ignition source, and that provides ignition energy boilers and pressure vessels and the installation
required to immediately light off the main burner. thereof shall conform to minimum requirements for

158
STEAM AND HOT WATER BOILERS 1004.1 – Table 10-1

safety from structural and mechanical failure and Jurisdiction. Provisions shall be made for draining
excessive pressures, as established by the Authority the tank without emptying the system, except for
Having Jurisdiction in accordance with nationally pressurized tanks.
recognized standards. 1005.4 Minimum Capacity of Closed-Type Tank.
1004.2 Controls. Required electrical, mechanical, The minimum capacity of the closed-type expansion
safety, and operating controls shall carry approval of tank may be determined from Tables 10-1 and 10-2
an approved testing agency or be accepted by the or from the following formula:
Authority Having Jurisdiction. Electrical controls
Vt = (0.00041t - 0.0466) Vs
shall be of such design and construction as to be suit-
able for installation in the environment in which they (Pa Pa)
are located. (Pf Po)
1004.3 Gauges. All steam boilers shall be provided
with a pressure gauge and a water level glass. All WHERE:
water boilers shall be provided with a pressure Vt = minimum volume of expansion tank, gallons.
gauge and a temperature indicator.
Vs = volume of system, not including expansion
1004.4 Stack Dampers. Stack dampers on boilers tank, gallons.
fired with oil or solid fuel shall not close off more
than 80 percent of the stack area when closed, except t = average operating temperature, °F.
on automatic boilers with prepurge, automatic draft Pa = atmospheric pressure, feet H2O absolute.
control, and interlock. Operative dampers shall not Pf = fill pressure, feet H2O absolute.
be placed within any stack, flue, or vent of a gas- Po = maximum operating pressure, feet H2O abso-
fired boiler, except on an automatic boiler with lute.
prepurge, automatic draft control, and interlock.
1004.5 Welding. Welding on pressure vessels shall
be done by certified welders in conformity with TABLE 10-1
nationally recognized standards. Expansion Tank Capacities for Gravity
Hot Water Systems
1005.0 Expansion Tanks. Based on a two-pipe system with an average operating water
1005.1 General. All hot-water-heating systems shall temperature of 170°F (77°C), using cast-iron column radiation
be provided with an air expansion tank securely with a heat emission rate of 150 Btu per hour per square foot
fastened to the structure. Supports shall be adequate (473 W/m2) equivalent direct radiation.
to carry twice the weight of the tank filled with water Square Feet of Installed
without placing any strain on connecting piping. Expansion Direct Radiation1 Tank Capacity, Gallons
All hot-water-heating systems incorporating hot (x 0.0929 for m2) (x 3.785 for L)
water tanks or fluid relief columns shall be so
Up to 350 18
installed as to prevent freezing under normal oper-
ating conditions. Up to 450 21
Up to 650 24
1005.2 Systems with Open Expansion Tanks.
Systems equipped with an open expansion tank to Up to 900 30
satisfy thermal water expansion shall be provided Up to 1,100 35
with an indoor overflow from the upper portion of Up to 1,400 40
the expansion tank in addition to an open vent. The Up to 1,600 2 to 30
indoor overflow shall be carried within the building Up to 1,800 2 to 30
to a suitable plumbing fixture or to the basement.
Up to 2,000 2 to 35
1005.3 Closed-Type Systems. Systems of the Up to 2,400 2 to 40
closed type shall have an airtight tank or other suit-
able air cushion that will be consistent with the Note:
volume and capacity of the system, and shall be suit- For systems with more than 2,400 square feet (223 m2) of
1

ably designed for a hydrostatic test pressure of two installed equivalent direct water radiation, the required
and one-half (2-1/2) times the allowable working capacity of the cushion tank shall be increased on the basis of
pressure of the system. Expansion tanks for systems one (1) gallon (3.785 L) tank capacity per thirty-three (33)
designed to operate at or above thirty (30) psig shall square feet (3.07 m2) of additional equivalent direct radiation.
be constructed in accordance with nationally recog-
nized standards approved by the Authority Having

159
Table 10-2 – 1012.0 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

TABLE 10-2 1009.0 Low-Water Cutoff.


Expansion Tank Capacities for Forced Hot water heating boilers, other than manually fired,
Hot Water Systems shall be equipped with a low-water cutoff, except
Based on an average operating water temperature of 195°F that a coil-type boiler or a water-tube boiler that
(90.6°C), a fill pressure of twelve (12) psig (82.7 kPa), and a requires forced circulation to prevent overheating of
maximum operating pressure of thirty (30) psig (206.8 kPa). the coils or tubes shall have a flow-sensing device
System Volume,1 Tank Capacity, installed in the outlet piping in lieu of the low-water
Gallons Gallons cutoff. The required low-water cutoff or flow switch,
(x 3.785 for L) (x 3.785 for L) as applicable, shall be mounted so as to prevent
damage to the boiler and to permit testing of the
100 15 fuel-supply cutoff without draining the heating
200 30 system, except that such boilers used in Group R
300 45 Occupancies of less than six dwelling units and
400 60 Group U Occupancies need not be equipped with the
500 75 low-water cutoff or flow switch.
1,000 150
2,000 300
1010.0 Combustion Regulators – Safety Valves.
1
Includes volume of water in boiler, radiation, and piping, The following requirements shall be retroactive:
not including expansion tank.
1010.1 Every hot water-heating boiler, other than
manually fired, shall be equipped with two tempera-
1006.0 Safety or Relief Valve Discharge.
ture combustion regulators in series. Every steam-
The discharge from relief valves shall be piped to heating boiler, other than manually fired, shall be
within eighteen (18) inches (457 mm) of the floor or equipped with a pressure combustion regulator and
to an open receptacle, and when the operating a low-water cutoff. (See Section 1011.0.)
temperature is in excess of 212°F (100°C), shall be
1010.2 Boilers and pressure vessels shall be
equipped with a splash shield or centrifugal sepa-
provided with the required number, size, and
rator. When the discharge from safety valves would
capacity of safety or relief valves to ensure positive
result in a hazardous discharge of steam inside the
relief of overpressure in accordance with nationally
boiler room, such discharge shall be extended
recognized standards, as applicable. Valves so
outside the boiler room. No valve of any description
employed shall be constructed, sealed, and installed
shall be placed between the safety or relief valve and
in accordance with nationally recognized standards,
the boiler, nor on the discharge pipe between the
as applicable.
safety valve and the atmosphere. Discharges from
relief valves on industrial boilers shall be discharged
to an approved location. 1011.0 Automatic Boilers.
Automatic boilers shall be equipped with controls
1007.0 Shutoff Valves. and limit devices as set forth in Table 10-3. Auto-
matic boilers shall also be equipped with the
An approved manual shutoff valve shall be installed
following gauges, as applicable: oil temperature, oil
upstream of all control devices on the main burner of
suction pressure, high and low gas pressure, stack
a gas-fired boiler. The takeoff point for the gas
temperature, and windbox pressure.
supply to the pilot shall be upstream of the gas
shutoff valve of the main burner and shall be valved Except as otherwise specified, gas-fired boilers
separately. A union or other approved means of exceeding 400,000 Btu/h (117 kW) input shall
disconnect shall be provided immediately down- conform to nationally recognized standards
stream of these shutoff valves. approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have the
authority to approve solid-fuel-fired boilers that can
1008.0 Gas-Pressure Regulators.
meet the safety requirements for automatic gas- or
An approved gas-pressure regulator shall be oil-fired boilers.
installed on gas-fired boilers where the gas supply
pressure is higher than that at which the main burner
is designed to operate. A separate approved gas- 1012.0 Clearance for Access.
pressure regulator shall be installed to regulate the When boilers are installed or replaced, clearance
gas pressure to the pilot or pilots. shall be provided to allow access for inspection,

160
STEAM AND HOT WATER BOILERS 1012.0 – 1021.0

maintenance, and repair. Passageways around all 1015.0 Floors.


sides of boilers shall have an unobstructed width of Boilers shall be mounted on floors of noncombustible
not less than eighteen (18) inches (457 mm). Clear- construction unless listed for mounting on
ance for repair and cleaning may be provided combustible flooring.
through a door or access panel into another area,
provided the opening is of sufficient size.
1016.0 Chimneys or Vents.
Exception: Subject to the approval of the
Authority Having Jurisdiction, boilers may be Boilers shall be connected to a chimney or vent, as
installed with a side clearance of less than eigh- provided for other fuel-burning equipment in
teen (18) inches (457 mm), provided that the Chapter 8 of this code.
lesser clearance does not inhibit inspection,
maintenance, or repair. 1017.0 Drainage.
Power boilers having a steam-generating For heating or hot-water-supply boiler applications,
capacity in excess of 5,000 pounds per hour (2,268 the boiler room shall be equipped with a floor drain
kg/h) or having a heating surface in excess of 1,000 or other means suitable for disposing of the accumu-
square feet (93 m2) or input in excess of 5,000,000 lation of liquid wastes incident to cleaning,
Btu/h (1,465 kW) shall have a minimum clearance of recharging, and routine maintenance. No steam pipe
seven (7) feet (2,134 mm) from the top of the boiler to shall be directly connected to any part of a plumbing
the ceiling. or drainage system, nor shall any water having a
Steam-heating boilers and hot-water-heating temperature above 140ºF (60ºC) be discharged under
boilers that exceed one of the following limits— pressure directly into any part of a drainage system.
5,000,000 Btu/h input (1,465 kW); 5,000-pound- Pipes from boilers shall discharge by means of indi-
steam-per-hour (2,268 kg/h) capacity; or 1,000- rect waste piping, as determined by the Authority
square-foot (93 m 2) heating surface—and power Having Jurisdiction or the boiler manufacturer’s
boilers that do not exceed one of the following recommendations.
limits—5,000,000 Btu/h input (1,465 kW); 5,000-
pound steam per hour (2,268 kg/h) capacity; or 1018.0 Fuel Piping, Tanks, and Valves.
1,000- square-foot (1,465 kW) heating surface—and Tanks, piping, and valves for oil-burning appliances
all boilers with manholes on top of the boiler, except shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 31, Stan-
those described in the second and fourth paragraphs, dard for the Installation of Oil-Burning Equipment. That
shall have a minimum clearance of three (3) feet (914 portion of the oil-burning system supplied on boilers
mm) from the top of the boiler to the ceiling. and covered within the scope of NFPA 85 shall be
Package boilers, steam-heating boilers, and hot- installed in accordance with NFPA 85.
water-heating boilers with no manhole on top of the
shell and not exceeding one of the above limits shall 1019.0 Air for Combustion and Ventilation.
have a minimum clearance of two (2) feet (610 mm)
Air for combustion and ventilation shall be provided
from the ceiling.
in accordance with Chapter 7 of this code.

1013.0 Boiler Rooms and Enclosures.


1020.0 Operating Adjustments and Instructions.
Boiler rooms and enclosures and access thereto shall
Hot water boiler installations, upon completion, shall
comply with Section 904.0 of this code and the
have controls set, adjusted, and tested by the
Building Code.
installing contractor. A complete control diagram of
a permanent legible type, together with complete
1014.0 Mounting. boiler operating instructions, shall be furnished by
Equipment shall be set or mounted on a level base the installer for each installation.
capable of supporting and distributing the weight
contained thereon. 1021.0 Inspections and Tests.
Boilers, tanks, and equipment shall be securely An installation for which a permit is required shall
anchored to the structure. not be put into service until it has been inspected and
Equipment requiring vibration isolation shall be approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
installed as designed by a registered engineer and It shall be the duty of the owner or his autho-
approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. rized representative to notify the Authority Having

161
1021.0 – 1024.0 UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

Jurisdiction that the installation is ready for inspec- shall, in addition, be subject to inspection internally
tion and test. It also shall be the duty of the owner or annually.
his authorized representative to post in a conspic- 1023.3 Automatic steam-heating boilers shall be
uous position on the installation a notice in substan- inspected externally biennially. Where construction
tially the following form: “Warning! This installation and operating conditions permit, they shall, in addi-
has not been inspected and approved by the tion, be subject to inspection internally biennially.
Authority Having Jurisdiction and shall not be
1023.4 Unfired pressure vessels shall be inspected
covered or concealed until so inspected and
externally biennially. When subject to corrosion and
approved,” and it shall be unlawful for anyone other
construction permits, they shall, in addition, be
than the Authority Having Jurisdiction to remove
subject to inspection internally biennially.
such notice. The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall
require such tests as it deems necessary to determine Inspection of boilers and pressure vessels
that the installation complies with the provision of covered by insurance may be made by employees of
this section. Such tests shall be made by the owner or the insuring company holding commissions from the
his authorized representative in the presence of the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspec-
Authority Having Jurisdiction. tors, subject to approval of the Authority Having
Jurisdiction. Approved insuring company inspectors
Exception: On installations designed and super-
shall make reports on prescribed forms on inspec-
vised by a registered professional engineer, the
tions authorized by the Authority Having Jurisdic-
Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have the
tion. The reports shall be filed in the Authority
authority to permit inspection and testing by
Having Jurisdiction office. Company inspectors shall
such engineer.
notify the Authority Having Jurisdiction of suspen-
When the owner or his authorized represen- sion of insurance because of dangerous conditions,
tative requests inspection of a boiler prior to its new insurance in effect, and discontinuance of insur-
installation, the Authority Having Jurisdiction ance coverage.
shall make such inspection.
1024.0 Operation and Maintenance of Boilers and
1022.0 Operating Permit. Pressure Vessels.
It shall be unlawful to operate a boiler or pressure Boilers and pressure vessels shall be operated and
vessel without first obtaining a valid operating maintained in conformity with requirements for
permit to do so from the Authority Having Jurisdic- adequate protection of the public established by the
tion. Such permit shall be displayed in a conspicuous Authority Having Jurisdiction in accordance with
place adjacent to the boiler or vessel. The operating nationally recognized standards.
permit shall not be issued until the equipment has The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall notify
been inspected and approved by the Authority the owner or authorized representative of defects or
Having Jurisdiction. deficiencies that shall be promptly and properly
Exception: The operation only of steam-heating corrected. If such corrections are not made, or if the
boilers, low-pressure hot-water-heating boilers, operation of the boiler or pressure vessel is deemed
hot water supply boilers, and pressure vessels in unsafe by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, they
Group R Occupancies of less than six dwelling shall have the authority to revoke the permit to
units and in Group U Occupancies. operate the boiler or pressure vessel. If the operation
of a boiler or pressure vessel is deemed by the
Authority Having Jurisdiction to constitute an imme-
1023.0 Maintenance Inspection. diate danger, the pressure on such boiler or pressure
The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall inspect all vessel may be relieved at the owner’s cost and the
boilers and pressure vessels operated under permit boiler or pressure vessel shall not thereafter be oper-
at such intervals as deemed necessary, but not less ated without approval of the Authority Having Juris-
frequently than noted below: diction.
1023.1 Power boilers and miniature boilers shall be
inspected externally annually. Where construction
and operating conditions permit, they shall, in addi-
tion, be subject to inspection internally annually.
1023.2 Steam-heating boilers and hot-water-heating
boilers shall be inspected externally annually. Where
construction and operating conditions permit, they

162
TABLE 10-3
Controls and Limit Devices for Automatic Boilers
Safety Control Timing Hot
(Nominal Maximum Time in Seconds) Water Steam Control
Trial for Main Tempera- Pressure and
Fuel Input Burner Frame Main Assured Assured ture and and Low Limit
Range1 Type Trial Direct Burner Fuel Air Low Fire Pre- Low Water Water Approved Device
Boiler (Inclusive), of for Electric Flame Flame Supply Supply Start Up purging Limit Limit Fuel System
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Group Fuel Btu/h Pilot Pilot Ignition Pilot Failure Control Control Control Control Controls Controls Shutoff Design
Not Not Not Not Not
A Gas 0-400,000 Any type 90 Required 90 90 Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required
Interrupted
400,001 - or Not Not Not Not
STEAM AND HOT WATER BOILERS

B Gas 2,500,000 Intermittent 15 15 15 2-4 Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required
Interrupted
2,500,001 - or
C Gas 5,000,000 Intermittent 15 15 15 2-4 Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required
Over
D Gas 5,000,000 Interrupted 15 15 15 2-4 Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required
Not Not Not Not Not
E Oil 0-400,000 Any type Required 90 90 90 Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required
400,001 - Not Not Not Not
F Oil 1,000,000 Interrupted Required 30 30 2-4 Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required
1,000,001 - Not Not Not Not
G Oil 3,000,000 Interrupted Required 15 15 2-4 Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required
Over
H Oil 3,000,000 Interrupted 15 15 60 2-4 Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required
Not Not Not Not Not Not Not Not Not
K Electric All Not required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required
L Gas, Oil 12,500,00 Any 10 sec Per Per Per Per Per Per Per Per Per Per Per
and/or or more Per NFPA NFPA NFPA NFPA NFPA NFPA NFPA NFPA ASME ASME NFPA NFPA
Coal 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 Power Power 85 85
Boiler Boiler
Code, Code,
Section 1 Section 1
and and
NFPA 85 NFPA 85
M Heat Any None Per Per Per Per Per Per Per Per Per Per Per Per
Recovery NFPA NFPA NFPA NFPA NFPA NFPA NFPA NFPA ASME ASME NFPA NFPA
Steam 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 Boiler & Boiler & 85 85
Generator Pressure Pressure
Code & Code &

163
Table 10-3

NFPA 85 NFPA 85
Table 10-3 continued UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

FOOTNOTES FOR TABLE 10-3 (continued)

1
Fuel input shall be determined by one of the following:
(a) The maximum burner input as shown on the burner nameplate or as otherwise identified by the manufacturer.
(b) The nominal boiler rating, as determined by the building official, plus twenty-five percent (25%).
2
Automatic boilers shall have one flame failure device on each burner, which shall prove the presence of a suitable ignition source
at the point where it will reliably ignite the main burner, except that boiler groups A, B, E, F, and G, which are equipped with
direct electric ignition, shall monitor the main burner, and all boiler groups using interrupted pilots shall monitor only the main
burner after the prescribed limited trial and ignition periods. Boiler group A, equipped with continuous pilot, shall accomplish
100 percent shutoff within ninety (90) seconds upon pilot flame failure. The use of intermittent pilots in boiler group C is limited
to approved burner units.
3
In boiler groups B, C, and D a 90-second main burner flame failure limit may apply if continuous pilots are provided on manu-
facturer assembled boiler-burner units that have been approved by an approved testing agency as complying with nationally
recognized standards approved by the building official. Boiler groups F and G equipped to re-energize their ignition systems
within eight-tenth (0.8) second after main burner flame failure will be permitted thirty (30) seconds for group F or fifteen (15)
seconds for group G to re-establish their main burner flames.
4
Boiler groups C and D shall have controls interlocked to accomplish a nonrecycling fuel shutoff upon high or low gas pressure,
and boiler groups F, G, and H using steam or air for fuel atomization shall have controls interlocked to accomplish a nonrecy-
cling fuel shutoff upon low atomizing steam or air pressure. Boiler groups F, G, and H equipped with a preheated oil system
shall have controls interlocked to provide fuel shutoff upon low oil temperature.
5
Automatic boilers shall have controls interlocked to shut off the fuel supply in the event of draft failure if forced or induced draft
fans are used or, in the event of low combustion airflow, if a gas power burner is used. Where a single motor directly driving
both the fan and the oil pump is used, a separate control is not required.
6
Boiler groups C, D, and H, when firing in excess of four-hundred thousand (400,000) Btu per combustion chamber, shall be
provided with low fire start of its main burner system to permit smooth light-off. This will normally be a rate of approximately
one-third (1/3) of its maximum firing rate.
7
Boiler groups C, D, and H shall not permit pilot or main burner trial for ignition operation before a purging operation of suffi-
cient duration to permit a minimum of four complete air changes through the furnace, including combustion chamber and the
boiler passes. Where this is not readily determinable, five complete air changes of the furnace, including combustion chamber up
to the first pass, will be considered equivalent. An atmospheric gas burner with no mechanical means of creating air movement
or an oil burner that obtains two-thirds or more of the air required for combustion without mechanical means of creating air
movement shall not require purge by means of four air changes, so long as its secondary air openings are not provided with
means of closing. If such burners have means of closing secondary air openings, a time delay must be provided that puts these
closures in a normally open position for four minutes before an attempt for ignition. An installation with a trapped combustion
chamber shall, in every case, be provided with a mechanical means of creating air movement for purging.
8
Every automatic hot-water-heating boiler, low-pressure hot-water-heating boiler, and power hot water boiler shall be equipped
with two high-temperature limit controls with a manual reset on the control, with the higher setting interlocked to shut off the
main fuel supply, except that manual reset on the high-temperature limit control shall not be required on any automatic package
boiler not exceeding four-hundred thousand (400,000) Btu/h input and that has been approved by an approved testing agency.
Every automatic hot-water heating, power boiler, and package hot-water supply boiler shall be equipped with one low-water
level limit control with a manual reset interlocked to shut off the fuel supply, so installed as to prevent damage to the boiler and
to permit testing of the control without draining the heating system, except on boilers used in Group R Occupancies of less than
six units and in Group U Occupancies and further, except that the low-water level limit control is not required on package hot-
water supply boilers approved by a nationally recognized testing agency. However, a low-water flow limit control installed in
the circulating water line may be used instead of the low-water level limit control for the same purpose on coil-type boilers.
9
Every automatic low-pressure steam-heating boiler, small power boiler, and power steam boiler shall be equipped with two
high-steam pressure limit controls interlocked to shut off the fuel supply to the main burner with manual reset on the control,
with the higher setting and two low-water-level limit controls, one of which shall be provided with a manual reset device and
independent of the feed water controller. Coil-type flash steam boilers may use two high-temperature limit controls, one of
which shall be manually reset in the hot water coil section of the boiler instead of the low-water level limit control.
10
Boiler groups C, D, and H shall use an approved automatic reset safety shutoff valve for the main burner fuel shutoff, which
shall be interlocked to the programming control devices required. On oil burners where the safety shutoff valve will be subjected
to pressures in excess of ten (10) psi when the burner is not firing, a second safety shutoff valve shall be provided in series with
the first. Boiler groups C and D using gas in excess of one (1) pound-per-square-inch pressure or having a trapped combustion
chamber or employing horizontal fire tubes shall be equipped with two approved safety shutoff valves, one of which shall be an
automatic reset type, one of which may be used as an operating control, and both of which shall be interlocked to the limit-
control devices required. Boiler groups C and D using gas in excess of one (1) pound per square inch pressure shall be provided
with a permanent and ready means for making periodic tightness checks of the main fuel safety shutoff valves.
11
Control and limit device systems shall be grounded with operating voltage not to exceed one-hundred and fifty (150) volts,
except that, upon approval by the building official, existing control equipment to be reused in an altered boiler control system
may use two-hundred and twenty (220) volt single phase with one side grounded, provided such voltage is used for all controls.
Control and limit devices shall interrupt the ungrounded side of the circuit. A readily accessible means of manually discon-
necting the control circuit shall be provided with controls so arranged that when they are de-energized, the burner shall be inop-
erative.

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