STEAM AND HOT WATER BOILERS 1001.0 Scope.

The requirements of this chapter shall apply to the construction, installation, operation, repair, and alteration of all boilers and pressure vessels. Exceptions: (1) Listed and approved potable water heaters with a nominal capacity of one hundred and twenty (120) gallons (454 L) or less having a heat input of 200,000 Btu/h (58.62 kW) or less used for hot water supply at a pressure of one-hundred and sixty (160) psi (1,103 kPa) or less and at temperatures not exceeding 210°F (99°C), as regulated by the Plumbing Code. (2) Pressure vessels used for unheated water supply, including those containing air that serves only as a cushion and is compressed by the introduction of water and tanks connected to sprinkler systems. (3) Portable unfired pressure vessels and Interstate Commerce Commission (I.C.C.) containers. (4) Containers for liquefied petroleum gases, bulk oxygen, and medical gas that are regulated by the Fire Code. (5) Unfired pressure vessels in Groups B, F, H, M, R, S, and U Occupancies having a volume of five (5) cubic feet (0.14 m3) or less and operated at pressures not exceeding two hundred and fifty (250) psi (1,724 kPa). (6) Pressure vessels used in refrigeration systems that are regulated by Chapter 11 of this code. (7) Pressure tanks used in conjunction with coaxial cables, telephone cables, power cables, and other similar humidity control systems. (8) Any boiler or pressure vessel subject to regular inspection by federal inspectors or licensed by federal authorities. (9) Boilers within the scope of NFPA 85, including associated fuel systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 85, Boiler and Combustion Systems Hazards Code. Certain words and terms used in this chapter, unless clearly inconsistent with their context, shall mean as follows: AUTOMATIC BOILER – When applied to any class of boiler defined below, such boiler shall be equipped with certain controls and limit devices, as specified in Section 1009.0 and Table 10-3. BOILER – A closed vessel used for heating water or liquid, or for generating steam or vapor by direct application of heat from combustible fuels or electricity. 1003.2 –B– 1003.1 –A– 1003.0 Definitions.

CHAPTER 10

BURNER, AUTOMATIC BOILER – A device to convey fuel into the combustion chamber in proximity to its combustion-air supply so as to permit a stable controlled heat release compatible with the burner design and that is equipped with an ignition system to reliably ignite the entire heat release surface of the burner assembly. CONTINUOUS PILOT – A pilot that burns without turndown throughout the entire period that the boiler is in service, whether or not the main burner is firing. No definitions. No definitions. No definitions. No definitions. 1003.7 1003.6 1003.5 1003.4 –D– 1003.3 –C–

–E– –F– –G–

1002.0 Workmanship. All equipment, appurtenances, devices, and piping shall be installed in a workmanlike manner in conformity with the provisions and intent of this chapter.

1003.8 –H– HOT WATER-HEATING BOILER – A boiler having a volume exceeding 120 gallons (454 L), a heat input exceeding 200,000 Btu/h (58.62 kW), or an operating 157

1003.8 – 1004.1

temperature exceeding 210°F (99°C) that provides hot water to be used externally to itself.

INTERMITTENT PILOT – A pilot that burns during light-off and while the main burner is firing, and that is shut off with the main burner. INTERRUPTED PILOT – A pilot that burns during light-off and that is shut off during normal operation of the main burner. 1003.10 No definitions. 1003.11 No definitions. –J–

1003.9 –I– INTERLOCK – A device that senses a limit or offlimit condition or improper sequence of events and shuts down the offending or related piece of equipment or prevents proceeding in an improper sequence in order to prevent a hazardous condition from developing.

POWER BOILER – A boiler in which steam is generated at pressures exceeding fifteen (15) psi (103 kPa). POWER HOT WATER BOILER (HIGH TEMPERATURE WATER BOILER) – A boiler used for heating water or liquid to a pressure exceeding 160 psi (1,103 kPa) or to a temperature exceeding 250°F (121°C). PRESSURE VESSEL (unfired) – A closed container, having a nominal internal diameter exceeding six (6) inches (152.4 mm) and a volume exceeding one and one-half (1-1/2) cubic feet (42 L), for liquids, gases, vapors subjected to pressures exceeding fifteen (15) psi (103 kPa), or steam under any pressure. PURGE – The acceptable method of scavenging the combustion chamber, boiler passes, and breeching to remove all combustible gases. 1003.16 No definitions. 1003.17 No definitions. –Q– –R–

UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

–K–

1003.13 –M– MINIATURE BOILER – A power boiler having an internal shell diameter of sixteen (16) inches (406 mm) or less, a gross volume of five (5) cubic feet (142 L) or less, a heating surface of twenty (20) square feet (1.86 m2) or less (not applicable to electric boilers), and not exceeding 100 psi (689 kPa). 1003.14 No definitions. 1003.15 –N– –P–

1003.12 –L– LOW-PRESSURE HOT WATER-HEATING BOILER – A boiler in which water is heated for the purpose of supplying heat at pressures not exceeding one hundred and sixty (160) psi (1,102 kPa) and temperatures not exceeding 250°F (121°C).

1003.18 –S– STEAM-HEATING BOILER – A boiler operated at pressures not exceeding fifteen (15) psi (103 kPa) for steam. 1003.19 No definitions. 1003.20 No definitions. 1003.21 No definitions. 1003.22 No definitions. 1003.23 No definitions. 1003.24 No definitions. 1003.25 No definitions. –T–

–U– –V– –W– –X– –Y– –Z–

PACKAGE BOILER – Any class of boiler defined herein and shall be a boiler equipped and shipped complete with fuel-burning equipment, automatic controls and accessories, and mechanical draft equipment, if used. PILOT – A burner smaller than the main burner that is ignited by a spark or other independent and stable ignition source, and that provides ignition energy required to immediately light off the main burner.

1004.0 Detailed Requirements. 1004.1 Safety Requirements. The construction of boilers and pressure vessels and the installation thereof shall conform to minimum requirements for

158

1004.3 Gauges. All steam boilers shall be provided with a pressure gauge and a water level glass. All water boilers shall be provided with a pressure gauge and a temperature indicator. 1004.4 Stack Dampers. Stack dampers on boilers fired with oil or solid fuel shall not close off more than 80 percent of the stack area when closed, except on automatic boilers with prepurge, automatic draft control, and interlock. Operative dampers shall not be placed within any stack, flue, or vent of a gasfired boiler, except on an automatic boiler with prepurge, automatic draft control, and interlock. 1004.5 Welding. Welding on pressure vessels shall be done by certified welders in conformity with nationally recognized standards. 1005.0 Expansion Tanks.

1004.2 Controls. Required electrical, mechanical, safety, and operating controls shall carry approval of an approved testing agency or be accepted by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Electrical controls shall be of such design and construction as to be suitable for installation in the environment in which they are located.

safety from structural and mechanical failure and excessive pressures, as established by the Authority Having Jurisdiction in accordance with nationally recognized standards.

STEAM AND HOT WATER BOILERS

Jurisdiction. Provisions shall be made for draining the tank without emptying the system, except for pressurized tanks.

1004.1 – Table 10-1

1005.4 Minimum Capacity of Closed-Type Tank. The minimum capacity of the closed-type expansion tank may be determined from Tables 10-1 and 10-2 or from the following formula: Vt = (0.00041t - 0.0466) Vs (Pa (Pf Pa) Po)

WHERE: Vs = t Vt =

minimum volume of expansion tank, gallons. average operating temperature, °F. fill pressure, feet H2O absolute.

Po =

Pa =

Pf =

=

volume of system, not including expansion tank, gallons. atmospheric pressure, feet H2O absolute.

maximum operating pressure, feet H2O absolute. TABLE 10-1

Expansion Tank Capacities for Gravity
Based on a two-pipe system with an average operating water temperature of 170°F (77°C), using cast-iron column radiation with a heat emission rate of 150 Btu per hour per square foot (473 W/m2) equivalent direct radiation. Expansion Direct Radiation1 (x 0.0929 for m2) Square Feet of Installed Tank Capacity, Gallons (x 3.785 for L)

Hot Water Systems

1005.1 General. All hot-water-heating systems shall be provided with an air expansion tank securely fastened to the structure. Supports shall be adequate to carry twice the weight of the tank filled with water without placing any strain on connecting piping. All hot-water-heating systems incorporating hot water tanks or fluid relief columns shall be so installed as to prevent freezing under normal operating conditions.

1005.3 Closed-Type Systems. Systems of the closed type shall have an airtight tank or other suitable air cushion that will be consistent with the volume and capacity of the system, and shall be suitably designed for a hydrostatic test pressure of two and one-half (2-1/2) times the allowable working pressure of the system. Expansion tanks for systems designed to operate at or above thirty (30) psig shall be constructed in accordance with nationally recognized standards approved by the Authority Having

1005.2 Systems with Open Expansion Tanks. Systems equipped with an open expansion tank to satisfy thermal water expansion shall be provided with an indoor overflow from the upper portion of the expansion tank in addition to an open vent. The indoor overflow shall be carried within the building to a suitable plumbing fixture or to the basement.

Note: 1 For systems with more than 2,400 square feet (223 m2) of installed equivalent direct water radiation, the required capacity of the cushion tank shall be increased on the basis of one (1) gallon (3.785 L) tank capacity per thirty-three (33) square feet (3.07 m2) of additional equivalent direct radiation.

Up to 350 Up to 450 Up to 650 Up to 900 Up to 1,100 Up to 1,400 Up to 1,600 Up to 1,800 Up to 2,000 Up to 2,400

18 21 24 30 35 40 2 to 30 2 to 30 2 to 35 2 to 40

159

Table 10-2 – 1012.0

Based on an average operating water temperature of 195°F (90.6°C), a fill pressure of twelve (12) psig (82.7 kPa), and a maximum operating pressure of thirty (30) psig (206.8 kPa). System Volume,1 (x 3.785 for L) Gallons Tank Capacity, (x 3.785 for L) Gallons

TABLE 10-2 Expansion Tank Capacities for Forced Hot Water Systems

1

The discharge from relief valves shall be piped to within eighteen (18) inches (457 mm) of the floor or to an open receptacle, and when the operating temperature is in excess of 212°F (100°C), shall be equipped with a splash shield or centrifugal separator. When the discharge from safety valves would result in a hazardous discharge of steam inside the boiler room, such discharge shall be extended outside the boiler room. No valve of any description shall be placed between the safety or relief valve and the boiler, nor on the discharge pipe between the safety valve and the atmosphere. Discharges from relief valves on industrial boilers shall be discharged to an approved location. An approved manual shutoff valve shall be installed upstream of all control devices on the main burner of a gas-fired boiler. The takeoff point for the gas supply to the pilot shall be upstream of the gas shutoff valve of the main burner and shall be valved separately. A union or other approved means of disconnect shall be provided immediately downstream of these shutoff valves. An approved gas-pressure regulator shall be installed on gas-fired boilers where the gas supply pressure is higher than that at which the main burner is designed to operate. A separate approved gaspressure regulator shall be installed to regulate the gas pressure to the pilot or pilots. 160 1008.0 Gas-Pressure Regulators. 1007.0 Shutoff Valves.

1006.0 Safety or Relief Valve Discharge.

Includes volume of water in boiler, radiation, and piping, not including expansion tank.

100 200 300 400 500 1,000 2,000

15 30 45 60 75 150 300

Hot water heating boilers, other than manually fired, shall be equipped with a low-water cutoff, except that a coil-type boiler or a water-tube boiler that requires forced circulation to prevent overheating of the coils or tubes shall have a flow-sensing device installed in the outlet piping in lieu of the low-water cutoff. The required low-water cutoff or flow switch, as applicable, shall be mounted so as to prevent damage to the boiler and to permit testing of the fuel-supply cutoff without draining the heating system, except that such boilers used in Group R Occupancies of less than six dwelling units and Group U Occupancies need not be equipped with the low-water cutoff or flow switch. The following requirements shall be retroactive: 1010.0 Combustion Regulators – Safety Valves.

1009.0 Low-Water Cutoff.

UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

1010.1 Every hot water-heating boiler, other than manually fired, shall be equipped with two temperature combustion regulators in series. Every steamheating boiler, other than manually fired, shall be equipped with a pressure combustion regulator and a low-water cutoff. (See Section 1011.0.)

1010.2 Boilers and pressure vessels shall be provided with the required number, size, and capacity of safety or relief valves to ensure positive relief of overpressure in accordance with nationally recognized standards, as applicable. Valves so employed shall be constructed, sealed, and installed in accordance with nationally recognized standards, as applicable. Automatic boilers shall be equipped with controls and limit devices as set forth in Table 10-3. Automatic boilers shall also be equipped with the following gauges, as applicable: oil temperature, oil suction pressure, high and low gas pressure, stack temperature, and windbox pressure. 1011.0 Automatic Boilers.

Except as otherwise specified, gas-fired boilers exceeding 400,000 Btu/h (117 kW) input shall conform to nationally recognized standards approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have the authority to approve solid-fuel-fired boilers that can meet the safety requirements for automatic gas- or oil-fired boilers. 1012.0 Clearance for Access.

When boilers are installed or replaced, clearance shall be provided to allow access for inspection,

maintenance, and repair. Passageways around all sides of boilers shall have an unobstructed width of not less than eighteen (18) inches (457 mm). Clearance for repair and cleaning may be provided through a door or access panel into another area, provided the opening is of sufficient size.

STEAM AND HOT WATER BOILERS

Boilers shall be mounted on floors of noncombustible construction unless listed for mounting on combustible flooring. Boilers shall be connected to a chimney or vent, as provided for other fuel-burning equipment in Chapter 8 of this code. For heating or hot-water-supply boiler applications, the boiler room shall be equipped with a floor drain or other means suitable for disposing of the accumulation of liquid wastes incident to cleaning, recharging, and routine maintenance. No steam pipe shall be directly connected to any part of a plumbing or drainage system, nor shall any water having a temperature above 140ºF (60ºC) be discharged under pressure directly into any part of a drainage system. Pipes from boilers shall discharge by means of indirect waste piping, as determined by the Authority Having Jurisdiction or the boiler manufacturer’s recommendations. Tanks, piping, and valves for oil-burning appliances shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 31, Standard for the Installation of Oil-Burning Equipment. That portion of the oil-burning system supplied on boilers and covered within the scope of NFPA 85 shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 85. Air for combustion and ventilation shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 7 of this code. 1019.0 Air for Combustion and Ventilation. 1018.0 Fuel Piping, Tanks, and Valves. 1017.0 Drainage. 1016.0 Chimneys or Vents.

1015.0 Floors.

1012.0 – 1021.0

Power boilers having a steam-generating capacity in excess of 5,000 pounds per hour (2,268 kg/h) or having a heating surface in excess of 1,000 square feet (93 m2) or input in excess of 5,000,000 Btu/h (1,465 kW) shall have a minimum clearance of seven (7) feet (2,134 mm) from the top of the boiler to the ceiling.

Exception: Subject to the approval of the Authority Having Jurisdiction, boilers may be installed with a side clearance of less than eighteen (18) inches (457 mm), provided that the lesser clearance does not inhibit inspection, maintenance, or repair.

Steam-heating boilers and hot-water-heating boilers that exceed one of the following limits— 5,000,000 Btu/h input (1,465 kW); 5,000-poundsteam-per-hour (2,268 kg/h) capacity; or 1,000square-foot (93 m 2) heating surface—and power boilers that do not exceed one of the following limits—5,000,000 Btu/h input (1,465 kW); 5,000pound steam per hour (2,268 kg/h) capacity; or 1,000- square-foot (1,465 kW) heating surface—and all boilers with manholes on top of the boiler, except those described in the second and fourth paragraphs, shall have a minimum clearance of three (3) feet (914 mm) from the top of the boiler to the ceiling. Package boilers, steam-heating boilers, and hotwater-heating boilers with no manhole on top of the shell and not exceeding one of the above limits shall have a minimum clearance of two (2) feet (610 mm) from the ceiling. 1013.0 Boiler Rooms and Enclosures.

Boiler rooms and enclosures and access thereto shall comply with Section 904.0 of this code and the Building Code. Equipment shall be set or mounted on a level base capable of supporting and distributing the weight contained thereon. 1014.0 Mounting.

Hot water boiler installations, upon completion, shall have controls set, adjusted, and tested by the installing contractor. A complete control diagram of a permanent legible type, together with complete boiler operating instructions, shall be furnished by the installer for each installation. An installation for which a permit is required shall not be put into service until it has been inspected and approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. It shall be the duty of the owner or his authorized representative to notify the Authority Having 161 1021.0 Inspections and Tests.

1020.0 Operating Adjustments and Instructions.

Equipment requiring vibration isolation shall be installed as designed by a registered engineer and approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

Boilers, tanks, and equipment shall be securely anchored to the structure.

Jurisdiction that the installation is ready for inspection and test. It also shall be the duty of the owner or his authorized representative to post in a conspicuous position on the installation a notice in substantially the following form: “Warning! This installation has not been inspected and approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction and shall not be covered or concealed until so inspected and approved,” and it shall be unlawful for anyone other than the Authority Having Jurisdiction to remove such notice. The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall require such tests as it deems necessary to determine that the installation complies with the provision of this section. Such tests shall be made by the owner or his authorized representative in the presence of the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Exception: On installations designed and supervised by a registered professional engineer, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have the authority to permit inspection and testing by such engineer.

1021.0 – 1024.0

1023.3 Automatic steam-heating boilers shall be inspected externally biennially. Where construction and operating conditions permit, they shall, in addition, be subject to inspection internally biennially. 1023.4 Unfired pressure vessels shall be inspected externally biennially. When subject to corrosion and construction permits, they shall, in addition, be subject to inspection internally biennially.

shall, in addition, be subject to inspection internally annually.

UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

It shall be unlawful to operate a boiler or pressure vessel without first obtaining a valid operating permit to do so from the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Such permit shall be displayed in a conspicuous place adjacent to the boiler or vessel. The operating permit shall not be issued until the equipment has been inspected and approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Exception: The operation only of steam-heating boilers, low-pressure hot-water-heating boilers, hot water supply boilers, and pressure vessels in Group R Occupancies of less than six dwelling units and in Group U Occupancies.

1022.0 Operating Permit.

When the owner or his authorized representative requests inspection of a boiler prior to its installation, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall make such inspection.

Inspection of boilers and pressure vessels covered by insurance may be made by employees of the insuring company holding commissions from the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors, subject to approval of the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Approved insuring company inspectors shall make reports on prescribed forms on inspections authorized by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. The reports shall be filed in the Authority Having Jurisdiction office. Company inspectors shall notify the Authority Having Jurisdiction of suspension of insurance because of dangerous conditions, new insurance in effect, and discontinuance of insurance coverage. 1024.0 Operation and Maintenance of Boilers and Pressure Vessels.

Boilers and pressure vessels shall be operated and maintained in conformity with requirements for adequate protection of the public established by the Authority Having Jurisdiction in accordance with nationally recognized standards.

The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall inspect all boilers and pressure vessels operated under permit at such intervals as deemed necessary, but not less frequently than noted below: 1023.1 Power boilers and miniature boilers shall be inspected externally annually. Where construction and operating conditions permit, they shall, in addition, be subject to inspection internally annually.

1023.0 Maintenance Inspection.

The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall notify the owner or authorized representative of defects or deficiencies that shall be promptly and properly corrected. If such corrections are not made, or if the operation of the boiler or pressure vessel is deemed unsafe by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, they shall have the authority to revoke the permit to operate the boiler or pressure vessel. If the operation of a boiler or pressure vessel is deemed by the Authority Having Jurisdiction to constitute an immediate danger, the pressure on such boiler or pressure vessel may be relieved at the owner’s cost and the boiler or pressure vessel shall not thereafter be operated without approval of the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

1023.2 Steam-heating boilers and hot-water-heating boilers shall be inspected externally annually. Where construction and operating conditions permit, they

162

Safety Control Timing (Nominal Maximum Time in Seconds) Type of Trial for Pilot 90 15 15 15 15 90 30 15 2-4 2-4 2-4 90 2-4 2-4 15 15 90 30 15 15 60 2-4 Not Required 90 90 Failure
3 5 6 7 8

TABLE 10-3 Controls and Limit Devices for Automatic Boilers
Assured Fuel Supply Control
9 4

STEAM AND HOT WATER BOILERS

Boiler Group Any type 15 15 Not Required 15 Pilot Control Controls Controls
2

A Interrupted or Intermittent

Fuel Control Control

Gas

Fuel Input Range1 (Inclusive), Btu/h Low Fire Start Up

0-400,000

Trial for Main Burner Frame Direct Electric Flame Ignition Pilot Assured Air Supply Shutoff
10

Main Burner Flame

Hot Control Water Steam and Tempera- Pressure Limit ture and and Low PreLow Water Water Approved Device purging Fuel System Limit Limit

B Interrupted or Intermittent Interrupted

Gas

D Any type

C

Gas

E Not Interrupted Required Not Interrupted Required Interrupted 15

Gas

2,500,001 5,000,000

400,001 2,500,000

Not Not Not Not Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Not Not Not Not Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required

Design

11

H Any 10 sec Per NFPA 85 Per NFPA 85 Per NFPA 85 Per NFPA 85 Per NFPA 85

G

F

Oil

Oil

0-400,000

Over 5,000,000

Oil

K

L

Gas, Oil and/or Coal

Electric

Oil

1,000,001 3,000,000

400,001 1,000,000

Not Not Not Not Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Not Not Not Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Not Not Not Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required

Over 3,000,000

12,500,00 or more

All

Not Not Not Not Not Not Not Not Not Not required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required

Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Required Per NFPA 85 Per NFPA 85 Per NFPA 85 Per ASME Power Boiler Code, Section 1 and NFPA 85 Per ASME Power Boiler Code, Section 1 and NFPA 85 Per NFPA 85 Per NFPA 85

M None Per NFPA 85

Heat Recovery Steam Generator

Any

Per NFPA 85

Per NFPA 85

Per NFPA 85

Per NFPA 85

Per NFPA 85

Per NFPA 85

Per NFPA 85

Per NFPA 85

Per NFPA 85 Per ASME Boiler & Pressure Code & NFPA 85 Per ASME Boiler & Pressure Code & NFPA 85

Table 10-3

163

Table 10-3 continued

FOOTNOTES FOR TABLE 10-3 (continued)

UNIFORM MECHANICAL CODE

1

2

(b) The nominal boiler rating, as determined by the building official, plus twenty-five percent (25%).

(a) The maximum burner input as shown on the burner nameplate or as otherwise identified by the manufacturer. Automatic boilers shall have one flame failure device on each burner, which shall prove the presence of a suitable ignition source at the point where it will reliably ignite the main burner, except that boiler groups A, B, E, F, and G, which are equipped with direct electric ignition, shall monitor the main burner, and all boiler groups using interrupted pilots shall monitor only the main burner after the prescribed limited trial and ignition periods. Boiler group A, equipped with continuous pilot, shall accomplish 100 percent shutoff within ninety (90) seconds upon pilot flame failure. The use of intermittent pilots in boiler group C is limited to approved burner units.

Fuel input shall be determined by one of the following:

3

4

5

Boiler groups C and D shall have controls interlocked to accomplish a nonrecycling fuel shutoff upon high or low gas pressure, and boiler groups F, G, and H using steam or air for fuel atomization shall have controls interlocked to accomplish a nonrecycling fuel shutoff upon low atomizing steam or air pressure. Boiler groups F, G, and H equipped with a preheated oil system shall have controls interlocked to provide fuel shutoff upon low oil temperature. Boiler groups C, D, and H, when firing in excess of four-hundred thousand (400,000) Btu per combustion chamber, shall be provided with low fire start of its main burner system to permit smooth light-off. This will normally be a rate of approximately one-third (1/3) of its maximum firing rate. Automatic boilers shall have controls interlocked to shut off the fuel supply in the event of draft failure if forced or induced draft fans are used or, in the event of low combustion airflow, if a gas power burner is used. Where a single motor directly driving both the fan and the oil pump is used, a separate control is not required.

In boiler groups B, C, and D a 90-second main burner flame failure limit may apply if continuous pilots are provided on manufacturer assembled boiler-burner units that have been approved by an approved testing agency as complying with nationally recognized standards approved by the building official. Boiler groups F and G equipped to re-energize their ignition systems within eight-tenth (0.8) second after main burner flame failure will be permitted thirty (30) seconds for group F or fifteen (15) seconds for group G to re-establish their main burner flames.

6

7

8

Boiler groups C, D, and H shall not permit pilot or main burner trial for ignition operation before a purging operation of sufficient duration to permit a minimum of four complete air changes through the furnace, including combustion chamber and the boiler passes. Where this is not readily determinable, five complete air changes of the furnace, including combustion chamber up to the first pass, will be considered equivalent. An atmospheric gas burner with no mechanical means of creating air movement or an oil burner that obtains two-thirds or more of the air required for combustion without mechanical means of creating air movement shall not require purge by means of four air changes, so long as its secondary air openings are not provided with means of closing. If such burners have means of closing secondary air openings, a time delay must be provided that puts these closures in a normally open position for four minutes before an attempt for ignition. An installation with a trapped combustion chamber shall, in every case, be provided with a mechanical means of creating air movement for purging.

9

10

Every automatic low-pressure steam-heating boiler, small power boiler, and power steam boiler shall be equipped with two high-steam pressure limit controls interlocked to shut off the fuel supply to the main burner with manual reset on the control, with the higher setting and two low-water-level limit controls, one of which shall be provided with a manual reset device and independent of the feed water controller. Coil-type flash steam boilers may use two high-temperature limit controls, one of which shall be manually reset in the hot water coil section of the boiler instead of the low-water level limit control.

Every automatic hot-water-heating boiler, low-pressure hot-water-heating boiler, and power hot water boiler shall be equipped with two high-temperature limit controls with a manual reset on the control, with the higher setting interlocked to shut off the main fuel supply, except that manual reset on the high-temperature limit control shall not be required on any automatic package boiler not exceeding four-hundred thousand (400,000) Btu/h input and that has been approved by an approved testing agency. Every automatic hot-water heating, power boiler, and package hot-water supply boiler shall be equipped with one low-water level limit control with a manual reset interlocked to shut off the fuel supply, so installed as to prevent damage to the boiler and to permit testing of the control without draining the heating system, except on boilers used in Group R Occupancies of less than six units and in Group U Occupancies and further, except that the low-water level limit control is not required on package hotwater supply boilers approved by a nationally recognized testing agency. However, a low-water flow limit control installed in the circulating water line may be used instead of the low-water level limit control for the same purpose on coil-type boilers.

11

Boiler groups C, D, and H shall use an approved automatic reset safety shutoff valve for the main burner fuel shutoff, which shall be interlocked to the programming control devices required. On oil burners where the safety shutoff valve will be subjected to pressures in excess of ten (10) psi when the burner is not firing, a second safety shutoff valve shall be provided in series with the first. Boiler groups C and D using gas in excess of one (1) pound-per-square-inch pressure or having a trapped combustion chamber or employing horizontal fire tubes shall be equipped with two approved safety shutoff valves, one of which shall be an automatic reset type, one of which may be used as an operating control, and both of which shall be interlocked to the limitcontrol devices required. Boiler groups C and D using gas in excess of one (1) pound per square inch pressure shall be provided with a permanent and ready means for making periodic tightness checks of the main fuel safety shutoff valves. Control and limit device systems shall be grounded with operating voltage not to exceed one-hundred and fifty (150) volts, except that, upon approval by the building official, existing control equipment to be reused in an altered boiler control system may use two-hundred and twenty (220) volt single phase with one side grounded, provided such voltage is used for all controls. Control and limit devices shall interrupt the ungrounded side of the circuit. A readily accessible means of manually disconnecting the control circuit shall be provided with controls so arranged that when they are de-energized, the burner shall be inoperative.

164

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