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The Genesis of Management

Management since the inception of life is material thing
everywhere whether it be at home or any other place and
modern day is not-exception to it. The basic question is why do
we need Management? When different people with different
mindset come together for a common purpose, management
comes into picture. We need proper management of time,
resources, personnel, materials, machinery, finance, planning,
priorities, policies and practices. Management is a way of doing
all activities in a systematic way to achieve common purpose.
Management is joint performance of each and every individual
according to their expertise.

Successful management largely depends upon effectiveness

and efficiency. Though these two words are quite different but
they are interlinked. Effectiveness is doing the right things and
Efficiency is doing things right. We can not think of one word
without the other.

Now the question is how to be efficient and effective? The

answer to this fundamental question is found in the Bhagavad
Gita which repeatedly says 'try to manage yourself’. Unless and
until we learn to be introspect, we cannot be a good manager.
Introspect does not carry negative meaning, rather it is a
positive phenomenon. Let me make it clear. To be a successful
one we need to be positive. How can one be a positive, a
million dollar question? Though many persons have excellence
and effectiveness but they are merely a face in the crowd and
not an achiever. We must be positive thinker and have a
tendency to create a positive environment around us. Many
people lack this and always try to remain positive only for the
sake of him/her. This attitude is good for inner development but
it does not help in enhancing leadership skill. Question is what
we want for ourselves, a face in a crowd or a crowd for a face?
The basic essence for management is leadership skill. If we can
create positive environment, we can be a leader. All the other
concepts of vision, motivation, excellence in work, achieving

goals, giving work meaning, decision making and planning are

the outcomes of the abovesaid theory of positivism.

While dealing with management, we too often deal problems at

material, external and peripheral levels instead of dealing the
issues from the grass roots level of human thinking. Unless we
change our mental strata, we can not grow, though we can be
qualified but not successful. Once the quality of man’s actions
is enhanced, the output is different. This theory of positivism
ensures betterment of individual life as well as social welfare,
which we can not deny.

Management is to choose wisely and utilize resources

optimally. Management is a wisdom game. Let us take the
example of Mahabharat War. Duryodhan chose large armymen
of Lord Krishna and Arjun opted for Lord Krishna. This shows
the effective manager ‐ the former chose numbers, the latter,

Success squarely depends upon work commitment:

The popular verse 2.47 of the Gita cited above advises non-
attachment to the fruits or results of actions performed in the
course of one's duty. Dedicated work has to mean 'work for the
sake of work'. If we are always calculating the date of
promotion for putting in our efforts, then such work cannot be
commitment-oriented causing excellence in the results but it
will be promotion-oriented resulting in inevitable
Thus the best means for effective work performance is to
become the work itself. Attaining this state of nishkama karma
is the right attitude to work because it prevents the ego, the
mind from dissipation through speculation on future gains or

This situation is called theory of Self‐transcendence. Self-

transcendence involves renouncing egoism, putting others
before oneself, emphasizing team work, dignity, co‐operation,
harmony and trust – and, indeed potentially sacrificing lower
needs for higher goals. This can be possible only when the

person develops the habit of appraising other people. Usually

people lack this courage of accepting other people.

The work must be done with detachment. A concept which is

described as "disinterested work" in the Third Chapter of Gita
where Sri Krishna says, "He who shares the wealth generated
only after serving the people, through work done as a sacrifice
for them, is freed from all sins. On the contrary those who earn
wealth only for themselves, eat sins that lead to frustration and

Management also depends upon the work culture. Work culture

means vigorous and arduous effort in pursuit of a given or
chosen task. In Chapter 16 of the Gita Sri Krishna elaborates on
two types of Work Ethic viz. daivi sampat or divine work culture
and asuri sampator demonic work culture.
Daivi work culture - means fearlessness, purity, self-control,
sacrifice, straightforwardness, self-denial, calmness, absence of
fault-finding, absence of greed, gentleness, modesty, absence
of envy and pride.
Asuri work culture - means egoism, delusion, desire-centric,
improper performance, work which is not oriented towards
service. It is to be noted that mere work ethic is not enough in
as much as a hardened criminal has also a very good work
culture. What is needed is a work ethic conditioned by ethics in
It is in this light that the counsel 'yogah karmasu kausalam'
should be understood. Kausalam means skill or method or
technique of work which is an indispensable component of work
ethic. Yogah is defined in the Gita itself as 'samatvam yogah
uchyate' meaning unchanging equipoise of mind.

The theory of non- attachment to the results of work, as

explained in Gita, says that “If the result of sincere effort is a
success, the entire credit should not be appropriated by the
doer alone. If the result of sincere effort is a failure, then too
the entire blame does not accrue to the doer.” The former
attitude nullifies arrogance and conceit while the latter
prevents excessive despondency, de-motivation and self-pity.
Thus both these dispositions safeguard the doer against
psychological vulnerability.

Assimilation of the ideas leads us to the wider spectrum of

lokasamgraha or general welfare. Whatever the excellent and
best ones do, the commoners follow. This is the leadership