to accompany
Gerald L. Bradley
Claremon McKenna College
Prepared by
Devilyna Nichols
Purdue University
CONTENTS
Chapter 1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
Chapter 2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
Chapter 3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
Chapter 4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
30
iii
57
72
93
173
iv
Contents
Chapter 5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
Integration
219
Antidifferentiation; the Indefinite Integral
219
Integration by Substitution
226
The Definite Integral and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
233
Applying Definite Integration: Area Between Curves and Average Value
Additional Applications to Business and Economics
245
Additional Applications to the Life and Social Sciences
252
Checkup for Chapter 5
259
Review Problems
262
Chapter 6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
Chapter 7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
353
238
Chapter 1
Functions
9.
f (x) = 3x + 5,
f (0) = 3(0) + 5 = 5
f (1) = 3(1) + 5 = 2
f (2) = 3(2) + 5 = 11
1
,
f (t) = (2t 1)3/2 =
( 2t 1)3
1
f (1) =
= 1,
[ 2(1) 1]3
1
1
1
f (5) =
= = ,
3
3
27
[ 2(5) 1]
[ 9]
1
1
1
f (13) =
.
=
=
3
3
125
[ 2(13) 1]
[ 25]
3.
f (x) = 3x 2 + 5x 2,
f (0) = 3(0)2 + 5(0) 2 = 2,
f (2) = 3(2)2 + 5(2) 2 = 0,
f (1) = 3(1)2 + 5(1) 2 = 6.
5.
h(3) = (3)2 + 1 = 10
h(1) = 2(1) + 4 = 2
h(0) = 2(0) + 4 = 4
h(3) = 2(3) + 4 = 10
1
g(x) = x + ,
x
g(1) = 1 +
1
= 2,
1
1
= 2,
1
1 5
g(2) = 2 + = .
2 2
15. g(x) =
g(1) = 1 +
7.
h(t) =
h(2) =
h(0) =
h(4) =
x
.
1 + x2
17. f (t) = 1 t.
Since negative numbers do not have real square
roots, the domain is all real numbers such that
1 t 0, or t 1. Therefore, the domain is not the
set of all real numbers.
t 2 + 2t + 4,
22 + 2(2) + 4 = 2 3,
02 + 2(0) + 4 = 2,
(4)2 + 2(4) + 4 = 2 3
19. g(x) =
1
x2 + 5
.
x+2
35. f (x) = 4x x 2
f (x + h) f (x) 4(x + h) (x + h)2 (4x x 2)
=
h
h
21. f (x) = 2x + 6.
Since negative numbers do not have real square
roots, the domain is all real numbers such that
2x + 6 0, or x 3.
t +2
23. f (t) =
.
9 t2
Since negative numbers do not have real square roots
and denominators cannot be zero, the domain is the
set of all real numbers such that 9 t 2 > 0, namely
3 < t < 3.
25. f (u) = 3u2 + 2u 6 and
g(x) = x + 2, so
1
.
(x 1)2
u + 1 and g(x) = x 2 1, so
f (g(x)) = f (x 2 1)
= (x 2 1) + 1
= x 2 = x.
33.
4x + 4h (x 2 + 2xh + h2) 4x + x 2
h
4x + 4h x 2 2xh h2 4x + x 2
h
4h 2xh h2 h(4 2x h)
=
h
h
= 4 2x h
=
37.
f (x) =
f (x) = 4 5x
f (x + h) f (x) 4 5(x + h) (4 5x)
=
h
h
4 5x 5h 4 + 5x
5h
= 5
=
h
h
x
x+1
f (x + h) f (x)
=
h
x+h
x+h+1
x
x+1
x+h
(x+h)+1
x
x+1
(x + h + 1)(x + 1)
h
(x + h + 1)(x + 1)
(x + h)(x + 1) x(x + h + 1)
=
h(x + 1)(x + h + 1)
=
= 3x 2 + 14x + 10.
29. f (u) =
x 2 + hx + x + h x 2 xh x
h(x + 1)(x + h + 1)
h
1
=
=
h(x + 1)(x + h + 1) (x + 1)(x + h + 1)
=
3x
39. f (g(x)) = f (1
3x)
= 1
x = 1 3 x
g (f (x)) = g
1 3x = 1 6 x + 9x
3x = 6 x + 9x
6 x = 12x
x = 2x
squaring both sides again,
x = 4x 2
0 = 4x 2 x
0 = x(4x 1)
1
x = 0, x =
4
1.1 Functions
1 3(0) =? 1 3 0
1= 1
1
1 ?
1 3
= 1 3
4
4
and
f (g(x)) = f
g (f (x)) = g
x+3
x2
=
2x + 3
=
x1
x+3
x2
+3
x+3
x2
2x+3
x1
2x+3
x1
+3
2
=x
=x
f (x) = 2x 2 3x + 1,
f (x 2) = 2(x 2)2 3(x 2) + 1
= 2x 2 11x + 15.
45.
f (x) = (x + 1)5 3x 2,
f (x 1) = [(x 1) + 1]5 3(x 1)2
= x 5 3x 2 + 6x 3.
47. f (x) = x,
f (x 2 + 3x 1) = x 2 + 3x 1.
49.
x1
,
x
(x + 1) 1
f (x + 1) =
x+1
x
=
.
x+1
f (x) =
1
u
h(x) = x 2 + 1.
2x+
g(u) =
and
g(u) =
4
2x
can be rewritten as g (h(x)) with
55. f (x) =
1
x2 + 1
can be rewritten as g (h(x))
53. f (x) =
with
1 ?
3
= 1
2
2
1
1
=
2
2
41.
u+
4
u
h(x) = 2 x.
29.8
600x
300 x
(150)(300 x) = (1)(600x)
300 x = 4x
x = 60
150 =
(29.8)2 (4)(2)(67)
2(2)
x 2.76, 12.14
65. C(x) =
63. W (x) =
600x
300 x
(a) 300 x = 0
x = 300
The domain is all real numbers except 300.
(b) Typically, the domain would be restricted to
theh first quadrant. That is, x 0. However,
since x is a percentage, the restriction should be
0 x 100.
(c) When x = 50,
187.5x = 37.5(200),
7, 500
x=
= 40%.
187.5
67. P (t) = 20
6
or 19,400 people.
9+1
6
(b) P (8) = 20
8+1
3
1
P (9) P (8) = 20 20 23 = 15
5
1
of 1,000 people, or
This accounts for about 15
67 people.
(c) P (t) approaches 20, or 20,000 people.
Writing exerciseAnswers will vary.
600(50)
300 50
= 120 workerhours
6
t +1
(a) P (9) = 20
W (50) =
W (100) =
150x
200 x
69.
S(r) = C(R 2 r 2)
= 1.76 105(1.22 104 r 2).
1.1 Functions
3
(b) s1 = 2.9 3 A and s2 = 2.9
2A
3
3
3
s2 = 2.9 2 A = 2 2.9 3 A = 3 2s1.
100
3
=
A
2.9
3
100
=A
2.9
Need an area of approximately 41,002 square
miles.
4, 374
73. Q(p) =
and
p2
p(t) = 0.04t 2 + 0.2t + 12
4, 374
+ 0.2t + 12)2
4, 374
4, 374
Q(10) =
=
2
(4 + 2 + 12)
324
= 13.5 kg/week.
(a) Q(t) =
(b)
(c)
(0.04t 2
4, 374
+ 0.2t + 12)2
4, 374
= 144 = 122
(0.04t 2 + 0.2t + 12)2 =
30.375
30.375 =
(0.04t 2
4x 2 3
, Press
2x 2 + x 3
y=.
Enter (4x 2 3) (2x 2 + x 3) for y1 =
Press graph .
For a better view of the vertical asymptotes, press
zoom and enter Zoom ln. Use arrow buttons to move
crosshair to the leftmost vertical asymptote. When
it appears crosshair is on the line, zoom in again
for a more accurate reading. Move crosshair again
to be on the line. It appears that x = 1.5 is not in
the domain of f . Zoom out once to move crosshair
to the rightmost vertical asymptote and repeat the
procedure of zoom in to find that x = 1 is not the
domain of f.
The domain consists of all values except x = 1.5
and x = 1.
Year
1991
No H.S.
diploma
16, 582
=1
16, 582
24, 007
= 1.45
16, 582
27, 017
= 1.63
16, 582
41, 178
= 2.48
16, 582
23, 908
= 1.46
16, 344
26, 626
= 1.63
16, 344
41, 634
= 2.55
16, 344
60, 525
= 3.65
16, 582
62, 080
= 3.80
16, 344
1994
1
24, 458
= 1.48
16, 545
26, 847
= 1.62
16, 545
44, 963
= 2.72
16, 545
67, 770
= 4.10
16, 545
1997
1
25, 537
= 1.42
17, 985
29, 263
= 1.63
17, 985
45, 150
= 2.51
17, 985
70, 527
= 3.92
17, 985
2000
1
27, 097
= 1.45
18, 727
31, 212
= 1.67
18, 727
51, 653
= 2.76
18, 727
72, 175
= 3.85
18, 727
1995
1
25, 180
= 1.53
16, 465
28, 037
= 1.70
16, 465
43, 450
= 2.64
16, 465
66, 581
= 4.04
16, 465
1998
1
25, 937
= 1.47
17, 647
30, 304
= 1.72
17, 647
48, 131
= 2.73
17, 647
69, 777
= 3.95
17, 647
H.S. diploma
Some college
Bachelors
degree
Advanced
degree
1993
1
24, 072
= 1.52
15, 889
26, 696
= 1.68
15, 889
43, 529
= 2.74
15, 889
69, 145
= 4.35
15, 889
1996
1
25, 289
= 1.48
17, 135
28, 744
= 1.68
17, 135
43, 505
= 2.54
17, 135
69, 993
= 4.08
17, 135
1999
1
26, 439
= 1.52
17, 346
30, 561
= 1.76
17, 346
49, 149
= 2.83
17, 346
72, 841
= 4.20
17, 346
1992
1.2
1.
(4, 3)
3.
x
(5, 1)
5.
x
(0, 2)
7.
= 4 + 16 = 20 = 4 5 = 2 5
9.
= 36 + 4 = 40 = 4 10 = 2 10
15. f (x) = x
2.5
(1, 1)
1
(0, 0)
2.5
17. f (x) = 2x 1
A function of the form y = f (x) = ax + b is a linear
function, and its graph is a line. Two points are
sufficient to draw that line. The xintercept is 21 and
the yintercept is 1.
13. f (x) = x
A function of the form
y
2
y = f (x) = ax + b
is a linear function, and its graph is a line. Two points
are sufficient to draw that line. The xintercept is 0,
as is the yintercept, and f (1) = 1.
y
1
( 1 , 0)
2
2
1
x
2
1 (0, 1)
2
(0, 0)
(1, 1)
x
(2, 8)
(5 , 0)
(0, 0)
(0, 0)
5
x
5
5
25.
f (x) =
x 1 if x 0
x + 1 if x > 0
= (x + 2x 15)
= (x + 5)(x 3).
2
y
(0, 15)
(1, 2)
(0, 1)
x
x
(5, 0)
(1, 2)
(0, 1)
(3, 0)
23. f (x) = x 3
Note that if x > 0 then f (x) > 0 and if x < 0, then
f (x) < 0. This means that the curve will only appear
in the first and third quadrants. Since x 3 and (x)3
have the same absolute value, only their signs are
opposites, the curve will be symmetric with respect
to (wrt) the origin. The xintercept is 0, as is the
yintercept.
1 13
up (A is positive);
, 0 and (0, 3)
2
are its intercepts; the half line starts at (1, 1) and
includes the point (2, 3).
y
6
(2, 4)
1 13
(
, 0)
(1, 1)
(1, 1)
3
4
5
29. y = 3x + 5 and y = x + 3
Add 3 times the second equation to the first. Then
7
4y = 14 or y = . Substitute in the first, then
2
1
x = 3 y = . The point of intersection is
2
1 7
.
P ,
2 2
33. 3y 2x = 5 and y + 3x = 9.
Multiply the second equation by 3 and add it to the
first one. Then,
2x 9x = 5 27,
x = 2, y = 9 3(2) = 3.
The point of intersection is P (2, 3).
y
y
10
(0, 5)
( 1 , 7 )
2 2
(0, 3)
(3, 0)
(2, 3)
2.5
x
( 5 , 0)
5
5
31. y = x 2andy = 3x 2
Setting the expressions equal to each other,
x 2 = 3x 2
x 2 3x + 2 = 0
(x 1)(x 2) = 0
x = 1, 2
So points of intersection are P1(1, 1) and P2(2, 4).
10
(21, 180)
x
15
30
P
2 105
(80, 1,600)
(30, 180000)
1 105
p
40
120
p
0
30
60
11
H
(5, 400)
400
300
700
200
100
350
t
5
10
v
0
50
100
P ($100)
(250, 3800.23)
4,000
(b)
R
2,000
250,000
x (100)
0
250
500
125,000
p
2,000
4,000
12
(b)
y
(a)
10
y x2 3
y x2
y x2 5
N
5,000
5
2,500
10
t
0
10
20
299
4.27years
2(35)
10
y x2
4.5
y (x 2)2
y (x 1)2
5
x
1 0
13
45t 2
, press y =
5t 2 + t + 8
Input (45x 2) (5x 2 + x + 8) for Y1 =.
Use window dimensions [10, 10]1 by [10,
10]1 (z standard).
Press graph .
N
10
Press graph
Press trace
Use left arrow to move cursor to the left most xintercept. When the cursor appears to be at the
xintercept, use the Zoom In feature under the Zoom
menu twice. It can be seen that there are two xintercepts in close proximity to each other. These
xintercepts appear to be x1 1 and x2 0.76.
To estimate the third xintercept, use the zstandard
function under the Zoom menu to view the original
graph. Use right arrow and zoom in to estimate the
third xintercept to be x3 1.8.
y
10
t
0
50
9x 2 3x 4
,
4x 2 + x 1
Press y =
Input (9x 2 3x 4) (4x 2 + x
1) for y1 =
Press graph
Use the Zoom in function under the Zoom
menu to find the vertical asymptotes to be
x1 0.65andx2 0.39. The function f is defined
for all real x except x3 0.65andx 0.39.
y
x
2
10
(x 2)2 + (y + 3)2 = 16
(b) x 2 + y 2 4x + 6y = 11
First, group the x terms together and the y terms
together.
(0, 4)
2
x
3
2
(x 2 4x) + (y 2 + 6y) = 11
Next, complete the square for each grouping
6
(x 2 4x + 4) 4 + (y 2 + 6y + 9) 9 = 11
(x 2)2 + (y + 3)2 = 11 + 4 + 9
(x 2)2 + (y + 3)2 = 24
14
center: (2,
3)
radius: 24 = 4 6 = 2 6
(c) Proceeding as in part (b),
(x 2 2x) + (y 2 + 4y) = 10
(x 2 2x + 1) 1 + (y 2 + 4y + 4) 4 = 10
(x 1)2 + (y + 2)2 = 10 + 1 + 4
(x 1)2 + (y + 2)2 = 5
Since the lefthand side is positive for all
possible points (x, y) and the righthand side
is negative, the equality can never hold. That
is, there are no points (x, y) that satisfy the
equation.
5
. The xintercept of
3
the line is (3, 0) and the yintercept is (0, 5). The
5
equation of the line is y = x + 5.
3
(3, 0)
1.3
1.
Linear Functions
3.
5.
5
x
5
5
15. y = 3x
m = 3, yintercept b = 0, and the xintercept is 0.
20
= 1
02
6 (4)
,
22
(0, 0)
5
x
0
For P1
55
0
m= 1
= 18 = 0
1
11 7
77
9.
5
1
1
, 5 and P2 , 5 the slope is
11
7
17. 3x + 2y = 6 or
3
y= x+3
2
3
m= ,
2
15
29.
1 41
45
m=
=
1
2
52
5 3
(0, 3)
(2, 0)
5
45
1
1
, 1 , the line is y 1 = (x + ),
5
52
5
43
45
or y = x + .
52
52
For P
5
19.
y
5
x
+ = 1 or y = x + 5
2
2
5
m = 25 , yintercept b = 5, and the xintercept is 2.
y
5
(0, 5)
(2, 0)
5
x
5
5
y=x2
or
1
1
y= x+
2
2
or
or
y=5
1 0
01
and for P (1, 0) the equation of the line is
(0, 5,000)
x
27. m =
y 0 = 1(x 1)
or
y = x + 1
16
m=
m=
t
1, 500 0
= 150
0 10
or $10,401.
(c) Need to find t where
(0, 1,500)
(10, 0)
t
200 164
= 4
12 21
17
(c)
(0, 248)
(12, 60)
60
50
dollars
(62, 0)
t
40
30
(12, 25)
20
10
(24, 12)
(0, 10)
(15, 5)
0
0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24
months
(a)
60
(18, 50)
dollars
50
40
20
(24, 25)
10 (0, 10)
0
0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24
months
So,
t
(b)
(b)
(c)
y
60
dollars
50
9
(d) Solving C = C+32, C = 40. So, the
5
temperature 40 C is also 40 F.
40
30
20
212 32 9
=
100 0
5
9
F 32 9
= , or F = C + 32
5
C0
5
9
F = (15) + 32
5
= 59 degrees
9
68 = C + 32,
5
9
36 = C,
5
C = 20 degrees
m=
30
(24, 20)
(2, 15)
10 (0, 10)
(11, 8)
0
0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24
months
53. (a) The original value of the book is $100 and the
value doubles every 10 years. At the end of 30
years, in 1930, the book was worth $800. At the
end of 90 years, in 1990, the book was worth
18
v
y
800
200
t
10
and enter .
Input
7
45
2
59. To graph y =
(0, 60)
t
19
R(x) = xp
Costs = (cost per unit) (number units)
+ fixed overhead
C(x) = (p 3)x + 17,000
C(x) = xp 3x + 17,000
P (x) = xp (xp 3x + 17,000)
= 3x 17,000
b
c
and that of L2 is m2 = .
a
a
By hypothesis, L1 L2.
OA = a 2 + b2 and
OB = a 2 + c2
1 =
or
m1 =
The sum is S = x + y = x +
7.
318
.
x
1
.
m2
The area is
A = lw = 2w(500 w) squarefeet
1.4
1.
(a)
Functional Models
Revenue = (number sold) (selling price)
R(x) = xp = x(6x + 100) thousand dollars
or, R(x) = 1000x(6x + 100) dollars
9.
or
y = 160 x
20
A
(80, 6400)
(0, 0)
(160, 0)
11. Let x be the length of the square base and y the height
of the box. The surface area is 2x 2 + 4xy = 4,000
2,000 x 2
So y =
and the volume is
2x
x2
V = x 2y = x 1,000
2
or
60 r 2
h=
r
So V (r) = r 2h = r(60 r 2)
15. Let r be the radius and h the height of the cylinder.
Since the volume is
4
V = r 2h = 4, or h = 2
r
The cost of the top or bottom is
Ct = Cb = 2(0.02) r 2,
while the cost of the side is
2rh(0.02) =
0.16
r
25.
0.16
r
C 24N
200
0 1.1
C 12.5(N 1)
7.5
15
21
= (2)
0.425
(2)
0.725
2.22
2,400
R(x) = 80x 0.5x 2
40x
if 0 < x 40
if 40 < x < 80
if x 80
0.1x
0.15x 391.25
T (x) =
0.25x
3,576.25
0.28x 5,503.75
if 0 < x 7,825
if 7,825 < x 31,850
if 31,850 < x 64,250
if 64,250 < x 97,925
y
(97,925, 21,916)
20,000
(64,250, 12,487)
R
10,000
4,000
(31,850, 4,387)
(7,825, 783)
0
(80, 3200)
2,500
(40, 2400)
x
0
40
80
100,000
100
22
2(x + w) = 320
x + w = 160
w = 160 x
V (x) = x(160 x)(20)
= 20x(160 x)
(b)
Cost construction
= $9,600,000 + $120,000
+ $160,000
= $9,880,000
(80, 128,000)
x
160
4x 2 + 3(4xy) = 48
= $9,600,000
12xy = 48 4x 2
3xy = 12 x 2
y=
= 50 (area rectangle)
= 50 (length)(width)
V = x 2y =
12 x 2
3x
x3
x(12 x 2)
cubic meters.
= 4x
3
3
23
C
4,000
2,000
(16, 640)
20
40
P($1,000)
60
18
25.5
33
800
3x
(5, 420.5)
800
5, 120
Cost of supervision: 19.20
=
3x
x
5, 120
Total cost: C(x) = 20x +
x
The number of machines which minimize cost is
approximately 16. Note that C(16) = 20(16) +
5, 120
= 640. So, the estimated min cost is $640.
16
x
05
150
24
(b)
3x + 150 = 2x + 275
5x = 125
x = 25
D(x)
30
S(x)
(9, 25.43)
(b)
x
275
S(x)
D(x)
7.5
15
(25, 225)
150
x
0
20
2x + 15 =
40
2x 2 + 17x + 15 = 385
2x 2 + 17x 370 = 0
Using the quadratic formula,
17 (17)2 4(2)(370)
x=
2(2)
so x = 10 (disregard the negative root).
The corresponding equilibrium price is
p = S(x) = D(x), or p = 2(10) + 15 = 35
(b)
p
2.84
385
(2.84)2 4(0.21)(42.57)
2(0.21)
D(x)
S(x)
(10, 35)
15
x
10
25
1
650t = 550 t +
2
650t = 550t + 275
100t = 275
t = 2.75
Since threequarters of an hour is 45 minutes, the
second plane passes the first plane after it has been
flying 2 hours and 45 minutes.
0 < N 30,000
0.01(2)(N )
RA(N ) = 0.01(2)(30, 000)
77 46
= 0.31
100 0
m=
83 76
= 0.07
100 0
E(t)
(125, 84.75)
B(t)
t
100
26
7.
lim (3x 2 5x + 2)
x2
0.31t + 46 = 0.07t + 76
0.24t = 30
t = 125 years
Note that this is where the graphs intersect.
(c) Writing exerciseAnswers will vary.
1.5
1.
3.
lim (x 5 6x 4 + 7)
9.
x0
5.
x0
x3
x3
x3
= (3 1) (3 + 1) = 16.
2
lim x + 1
x + 1 x1/3
=
=
lim
lim x + 2
x1/3 x + 2
13.
x1/3
4
3
7
3
4
7
x+3
does not exist since the limit of the
x5 5 x
denominator is zero while the limit of the numerator
is not zero.
15. lim
17.
x2 1
x1 x 1
(x + 1)(x 1)
= lim
x1
x1
= lim (x + 1) = 2.
lim
x1
19.
x 2 3x 10
x5
x5
(x 5)(x + 2)
= lim
x5
x5
= lim (x + 2) = 7.
lim
x5
xa
xa
x0
xa
x0
lim (x 1)2(x + 1)
11.
Limits
x2
= 3(2) 5(2) + 2 = 4.
59. S(q) = aq + b
D(q) = cq + d
(a) The graph of S is rising, while the graph of D is
falling. So, a > 0 and d < 0. Further, since both
yintercepts are positive, b > 0 and d > 0.
(b)
aq + b = cq + d
(a c)q = d b
d b
qe =
ac
Pe = aqe + b
d b
=a
+b
ac
ad ab
=
+b
ac
ad ab + b(a c)
=
ac
ad bc
=
ac
x2
21.
(x + 1)(x 4)
(x 1)(x 4)
lim (x + 1) 5
= x4
= .
lim (x 1) 3
lim
x4
x4
1.5 Limits
27
x2 x 6
x2 x 2 + 3x + 2
(x 3)(x + 2)
= lim
x2 (x + 1)(x + 2)
lim (x 3)
5
= x2
=
= 5.
lim (x + 1)
1
23.
35. f (x) =
lim
3x 2 6x + 2
,
2x 9
lim f (x) = lim
x+
x+
= lim
2
= +
x
9
lim 2 = 2
x+
x
x2
x4 x 4
x2 x+2
= lim
x4 x 4
x+2
lim 3x 6 +
lim
= lim
x4
x+
x4
1
= .
(x 4)( x + 2) 4
So, lim
3x 6 +
2
x+
f (x) = x 3 4x 2 4,
27.
2
3x6+ x
9
x 2
x
31.
f (x) =
x 2 2x + 3
2x 2 + 5x + 1
x+
x+
33. f (x) =
So, lim
1
2+
1
2+
37.
2
x
5
x
2
x
5
x
+
+
3
x2
1
x2
3
x2
1
x2
1
2
1
2
x+
x+
3x 6 +
2
2
x
9
x
and
lim f (x) = 1
x+
and
lim f (x) = 1
x
2x + 1
,
3x 2 + 2x 7
lim f (x) = lim
9
x
and
lim 3x 6 +
f (x) = (1 2x)(x + 5) = 2x 2 9x + 5
x+
2
x
= +
2
=
x
9
lim 2 = 2
x
x
29.
9
x
x+
2
x
x+
3x 6 +
x+
x2
25.
3x 2 6x + 2
2x 9
3+
2
x
3+
+
2
x
+
2
x
1
x2
7
x2
1
x2
7
x2
=0
=0
x2
28
49.
lim
(0.9)3 + 1
= 17.29
0.9 1
f (0.9) =
= lim
(0.999)3 + 1
= 1,997.002999
0.999 1
(1.001)3 + 1
f (1.001) =
= 2,003.003001
1.001 1
f (1.01) =
f (1.1) =
xc
xc
xc
f (x) + g(x)
1/2
= lim f (x) + lim g(x))
xc
xc
1/2
= [5 + 2] = 3
47.
lim
xc
lim f (x)
f (x)
= xc
limxc g(x)
g(x)
5
5
=
2
2
g(x)
1
x
1
x
2f (x) + limx
1
x
g(x)
1
= 0 and lim 1 = 1,
x
x
0+0
=0
1+ 0
9t 2 + 0.5t + 179
xc
= 2(5) 3(2) = 16
1
x
Since lim
lim
limx
(1.1)3 + 1
= 23.31
1.1 1
x1
45.
=
=
xc
2f (x) +
1 + f (x)
limx x1 2f (x) + x1 g(x)
=
limx 1 + x1 f (x)
(1.01)3 + 1
= 203.0301
1.01 1
43.
1
x
(0.99)3 + 1
f (0.99) =
= 197.0299
0.99 1
f (0.999) =
2f (x) + g(x)
x + f (x)
t 2 = t),
179
9 + 0.5
t + t2
lim P (t) = lim
t
t
0.2 + 1500
t
0.5 179
+ 2
lim 9 +
t
t
t
9
=
= 15
=
1500
0.2
lim 0.2 +
t
t
or, $15,000 per person.
a
55. (a) lim = aS = lim
S
S + c S 1 +
c
S
=a
g(x)
1.5 Limits
29
61. C(t) =
(a) C(0) =
120, 000
7.5x + 120, 000
= lim 7.5 +
=
x+
x
x
7.5 As the number of units produced increases
indefinitely, the average cost per unit decreases,
approaching a minimum of $7.50. The average cost
cannot decrease further, as the expense of materials
cannot be eliminated completely.
lim
30
3+t ,
Q(t) =
(a) P (0) = 30
10,000
3 = 10 thous, or
=
16
thous,
or
16,000
Q(0) = 64
4
(b) Since the function P accepts all t 0, the
function values decrease as t increases. Further,
lim P (t) = lim
t+
lim
t4
30
=0
3+t
0.4
+ 0.013
+1
01.2
C(5) C(4)
0.4
0.4
= 1.2
+ 0.013 1.2
+ 0.013
5 +1
4 +1
0.4
0.4
= 1.2
1.2
5 +1 4 +1
0.0506 0.0637
= 0.0131
64
4t
t+
+ 0.013
= 0.413 mg/ml
(b) Need to find
x+
59. P (t) =
0.4
t 1.2 +1
lim =
x+
(c)
an1
a
1
. . . + an1
+ x 0n
x +
x
= lim
x m1
x+ b x m + b
. . . + b1 xn + b0 1n
m xn
m1 x n +
x
x
an +
Q(t)
Since
lim
x+
16
10
P(t)
xm
= +,
xn
lim f (x) = 0
x+
a
xm
= 1and lim f (x) = n
x+
xn
bm
30
11. lim (x
x0+
x+
bm1
x
+...+
b1
x m1
b0
xm
13.
lim
Now,
1
xn
x n1 . . .
x
+
+ a 1 m + a0 m
+
a
n1
x+
x
xm
xm
x
= ,
lim an
lim bm +
x+
xn
x n1
+ an1 m + . . .
m
x
x
So, lim
= ,
bm1
x+
+...
bm +
x
depending on the signs of anandbm. When
anandbm have the same sign, the limit is +;
when they have opposite signs, the limit is
.
an
1.6
1.
x2
x2+
3.
x2
x2+
5.
7.
9.
x4+
x4+
x4+
= 3(4)2 9 = 39
lim 3x 9 = 3(3) 9 = 0
x3+
x+3
x+2
limx2 (x + 3)
2+3
=
=
limx2 (x + 2) 2 + 2
lim
x2
2+3 5
=
=
2+2 4
15.
x) = 0 0 = 0
x + 1 2
x3+
x3
x + 1 2
x + 1+ 2
= lim
+
x3
x3
x + 1+ 2
x + 1 4
1
= lim
= .
+
x3 (x 3)( x + 1 + 2)
4
n1
= lim
x3
x3
x3+
x3+
19. If f (x) =
then
lim (x + 2) 3
x + 2 x1
=
=
x1 x + 1
lim (x + 1)
2
x1
x1
So, f is continuous at x = 1.
x+1
,
21. If f (x) =
x1
f (1) is undefined since the denominator is zero, and
so f is not continuous at x = 1.
x2
,
x4
f (4) is undefined since the denominator is zero, and
so f is not continuous at x = 4.
23. If f (x) =
x + 1 if x 2
25. If f (x) =
2
if x > 2
then f (2) = 3 and lim f (x) must be determined.
x2
As x approaches 2 from the left,
lim f (x) = lim (x + 1) = 3
x2
x2
x2+
x2+
x3
x0
x0
x0+
x0+
x3
x3+
31
x3+
31. f (x) =
3x + 3
x+1
is not defined at x = 1, so f is not continuous at
x = 1.
33. f (x) =
3x 2
(x + 3)(x 6)
is not defined at x = 3 and x = 6, so f is not
continuous at x = 3 and x = 6.
35. f (x) =
x
x2 x
is not defined at x = 0 and x = 1, so f is not
continuous at x = 0 and x = 1.
v4
v4
= lim f (x) = 6 1
= f (1),
37. f (x) =
x1
x1+
v45+
v45+
32
p (cents)
(a)
75
C(100) =
58
41
x
1
8x 2 636x 320
x 2 68x 960
320 1
= 0.333
C(0) =
960 3
51. C(x) =
12x
100 x
12(25)
=4
100 25
or, $4,000
12(50)
C(50) =
= 12
100 50
or, $12,000
(a) C(25) =
x2+
x2+
x2+
2
x2+
= 3 2 + 2(2) = 9
and as x approaches from the left,
(b)
x2
x2
= A lim x lim 3
x2
x2
= 2A 3
For lim f (x) = 9, 2A 3 must equal 9, or A = 6.
x2
f is continuous at x = 2 only when A = 6.
x
0
100
x100
C(x) =
33
1
f (x) = x x +
x
is not continuous at x = 0 since f (0) is not
defined. However,
f is continuous at x = 1 since
1
f (1) = 1 1 +
= 2 and as x approaches 1 from
1
the left,
1
1
lim x x +
= lim x lim x +
x1
x1
x1
x
x
1
=2
= 1 1+
1
3
x 8 + 9x 2/3 = 29
not continuous at x = 2.
61. Lets assume the hands of a clock move in a
continuous fashion. During each hour the minute
hand moves from being behind the hour to being
ahead of the hour. Therefore, at some time, the hands
must be in the same place.
2.
2x+1
2x 2 5x + 2
,
x2 4
Press y = .
Input (2x 2 5x + 2)/(x 2 4) for y1 =
Press graph .
(a) Press trace . Use arrows to move cursor to be
near x = 2 we see that (1.9, 0.72) and (2.1,
0.79) are two points on the graph. By zooming
in, we find (1.97, 0.74) and (2.02, 0.76) to be
3
two points on the graph. The lim f (x) = ,
x2
4
however, the function is not continuous at x = 2
since f (2) is undefined. To show this, use the
value function under the calc menu and enter
x = 2. There is no yvalue displayed, which
indicates the function is undefined for x = 2.
(b) Use the z standard function under the
Zoom menu to return to the original
graph. We see from the graph that there
is a vertical asymptote at x = 2. The
lim f (x) = and lim f (x) =
x2
x2+
x+2
2x + 1
+1
2
2x+1 + 1
=
3.
1
2x+4+2x+1
2x+1
1
2x + 1
, x =
4x + 5
2
1
and the point ((1,2) is on the
2
line, the equation of the line is
(a) Since m =
1
y 2 = (x (1))
2
1
y 2 = (x + 1)
2
1
1
y2= x
2
2
1
1
y= x +2
2
2
1
3
y= x+
2
2
(b) Since m = 2 and b = 3, the equation of the
line is y = 2x 3.
4.
5
and y3
34
x 2 x 1 (1)2 1 1 1
=
=
=1
x1
x2
x1
1
(c) lim
5
2x + 3 2
2x 3 + 3x 5
x
= lim
(d) lim
7
2
x+ x 2 + 2x + 7
x+
1 + + 2
x
x
5
Since lim 2x + 3 2 = + and
x+
x
7
2
lim 1 + + 2 = 1,
x+
x
x
2x 3 + 3x 5
= .
lim
x+ x 2 + 2x + 7
( 5 , 0)
3
6
(0, 5)
6
6.
0 = x 2 + 3x + 4
x1
0 = x 3x 4
0 = (x 4)(x + 1)
x = 4, 1
2
y
2
25
)
4
(4, 0)
x1
2
x
0
3
5.
x1+
(1, 0)
5
x 2 + 2x 3
x1+
x1
(x + 3)(x 1)
= lim (x + 3)
= lim
x1+
x1+
x1
= 1 + 3 = 4.
x1+
( 3 ,
x1
The yintercept is 4.
7
(a)
x 2 + 2x 3 (1)2 + 2(1) 3
=
x1
x1
1 1
1 2 3
=
=2
2
(b)
x 2 + 2x 3
(x + 3)(x 1)
= lim
x1
x1
x1
1 2
= lim x + 3 = 4
lim
7.
lim
x1
35
(b)
p
(5, 3.8)
3.7
S(x)
59
(7, 52)
D(x)
t
0
12
9.
or t = 9
36
Review Problems
1.
f (x + 1) f (x)
1
1
=
(x + 1) 1 x 1
1
1
=
x
x1
x
1 x1
1
x x1 x1 x
x1
x
=
x(x 1) x(x 1)
x 1 x
1
=
=
x(x 1)
x(x 1)
(c)
x3
x3
=
x 2 + x 2 (x + 2)(x 1)
7.
f (x) = x 2 9 = (x + 3)(x 3)
g(h(x)) = g(x 2 + 3x + 4)
= (x 2 + 3x + 4)5 = f (x).
(b) One of many possible solutions is
h(x) = 1 x
g(u) = u2 +
g(h(x)) = g(1 x)
then
= (1 x)2 + 2(1 x) + 1
then
5.
(a)
f (3 x) = 4 (3 x) (3 x)2
= 4 3 + x (9 6x + x 2)
= 1 + x 9 + 6x x 2
= x 2 + 7x 8
(b)
1
and h(x) = x + 2,
2u + 1
g(h(u)) = g(x + 2)
1
1
=
.
=
2(x + 2) + 1 2x + 5
f (x 2 3) = (x 2 3) 1
= x2 4
5
and h(x) = 3x + 1.
2(u + 1)3
Then,
= x 2 4x + 4.
(b) If g(u) =
h(x) = x 2 + 3x + 4.
Then,
and
= (3x + 1)2 +
9.
5
2((3x + 1) + 1)3
5
= f (x).
2(3x + 2)3
f (x) = x 2 + 2x 8 = (x + 4)(x 2)
The intercepts of the function are (4, 0), (2, 0) and
(0, 8). Further, the vertex of the parabola is
B
B
x= , y=f
2A
2A
2
x=
= 1
2(1)
y = f (1) = (1)2 + 2(1) 8
= 1 2 8 = 9
So, the vertex is (1, 9).
Review Problems
37
y = 2x + 5
(c) 2x + y = 3 y = 2x + 3,
so m = 2 and P (5, 4)
y 4 = 2(x 5), or
y = 2x + 14 2x + y = 14
y
10
(4, 0)
(2, 0)
10
(0, 8)
y = 2x 10
intersect when
11. (a) If y = 3x + 2, m = 3 and b = 2.
3x + 5 = 2x 10,
x = 3.
When x = 3, y = 3(3) + 5 = 4. So
the point of intersection is (3, 4).
(0, 2)
( 2 ,
3
or
0)
x
x
(3, 4)
(b) If 5x 4y = 20 then
5
y= x5
4
and
m=
5
,
4
b = 5.
y = x + 7 and
y = 2 + x
are lines having the same slope, so they are parallel lines and there are no points of intersection.
y
(4, 0)
x
(0, 5)
x
38
y = 3x 2 2x + c
4 = 3(2)2 2(2) + c
c = 4
or
+x2
x2 1
(x + 2)(x 1)
x+2
= lim
= lim
x1 (x + 1)(x 1)
x1 x + 1
lim (x + 2) 1 + 2 3
= x1
=
=
lim( x + 1)
1+ 1 2
x1
lim
31.
3
2
21. lim x 8 = lim (x 2)(x + 2x + 4)
x2 2 x
x2
(x 2)
2
lim
x0
1
x3
= lim 2 lim
x0
x0
1
x3
1
= + and
x0
x3
1
1
lim
= . Since lim 3 does not
x0
x0 x 3
x
1
exist, lim x 3 3 does not exist.
x0
x
Now, lim 2 = 2; but lim
x0+
25.
x
x
=0
= lim
2
x + 5 x 1 + 52
x
lim
27.
x + x3 x22 + x73
x 4 + 3x 2 2x + 7
=
lim
lim
x
x
x3 + x + 1
1 + x12 + x13
Since
lim
3
2
7
x+ 2 + 3
x
x
x
=
1+
1
x
1
x2
x3 + x + 1
1
lim x 1 =
x0
x
=0
lim x
lim
x0
x0
Since lim x = 0, and lim
x0
x0
1
x
1
1
x
=
implies
x1
x2
= 1 and
x2
lim
lim (x 3 + x + 1) = ,
19.
1
1
1+ + 2
x
x
lim
x0
1
1
= , then lim x 1 = 0.
x0
x
x
x2 1
x+3
is not continuous at x = 3
10
sincef (3) =
and division by 0 is undefined.
0
x 3 + 2x 33 if x 3
35.
h(x) = x 2 6x + 9
if x > 3
x3
33. f (x) =
x 2 6x + 9
will never be zero,
x3
since x = 3 is not included in its domain. However, in
checking the break point (the only point in question),
The denominator in
x3
x 2 6x + 9
(x 3)(x 3)
= lim
x3+
x3+
x3
x3
= lim (x 3) = 3 3 = 0.
x3+
x3+
and
lim
1
1
1+ 2 + 3
x
x
= 1,
then
lim
x 4 + 3x 2 2x + 7
=
x3 + x + 1
37. P (x) = 40 +
30
x+1
30
(a) P (5) = 40 + 5+1
= 40 + 5 = $45
Review Problems
39
30
4+1
= 40 + 6 = $46
P (5) P (4) = 45 46 = 1
P (4) = 40 +
10
x
0
30
= 43
x+1
30
3
=
x+1 1
3(x + 1) = 30
3x + 3 = 30
3x = 27
x=9
40 +
10x
150 x
50
100
10(50)
= 5weeks
150 50
41.
10(100)
= 20weeks
150 100
1/2
S
S
=
4
4
3
3/2
1/2
S
S
4
4
=
V (S) =
4
3
4
3
S = 4 r , or r =
2
S 3/2
4
4 S 3/2
S 3/2
S 3/2
V (S) = 3/2 3/2 = 3/2 =
=
3 4
3 8
6 1/2 6
V (2S) =
40
number of hours =
400,000 2,000
=
200x
x
P
(255, 22,050)
So,
C(x) = 80x + 5.76
= 80x +
2,000
x
11,520
.
x
p
150
360
1,920
minimum
x
12
340 p
5
=
or
x = 150 units
Review Problems
41
6,000
or
1,500
x = 180
x
0
57.
2,500
w(x) =
B
x2
if x 4,000
if x > 4,000
For continuity,
4,000A =
or
Ax
5,000
B
(4,000)2
B = A(4, 000)3
So, C = 6xy + 5x 2.
1
Now, the perimeter is (2x) + 2x + 2y = 20
2
so,
x + 2x + 2y = 20,
20 x 2x
or
y=
2
Cost as a function of x is
20 x 2x
C(x) = 6x
+ 5 x 2
2
= 3x(20 x 2x) + 5x 2
= 60x 3x 2 6x 2 + 5x 2
= 60x 6x 2 + 2x 2
55. The fixed cost is $1,500 and the cost per unit is $2,
so the cost is C(x) = 1,500 + 2x, for 0 x 5,000.
As to the question of continuity, the answer is both
5,000
1 104
since 1 sin x 1.
x0+
42
61. To graphy =
21
84
654
54
x
and y =
x , press
9
35
279
10
y=.
Input (21x)/9 84/35fory1 = and press enter .
Input (654x)/279 54/10fory2 =.
Use the zstandard function under the zoom menu to
use the window dimensions given.
Press graph .
It appears from the graph that the two lines are
parallel. However, the difference in the slopes is
21 654
63. Press y = .
Input (x 2 + 1)/(x 1) for y1 = and press enter .
(You can obtain the from 2ND test and enter 6:
).
Input (x 2 1)/(x > 1) for y2 = and press enter .
(You can obtain the > from 2ND test and enter 3:
>). Press graph .
The graph of y is discontinuous x = 1.
Chapter 2
The Derivative
If f (x) = 4, then
h
h
f (x + h) = 4
The difference quotient (DQ) is
4xh + 2(h)2 3h
= 4x + 2h 3
h
f (x + h) f (x)
f (x) = lim
= 4x 3
h0
h
=
f (x + h) f (x)
h
44
=
=0
h
f (x + h) f (x)
f (x) = lim
=0
h0
h
The slope is
m = f (0) = 3
7.
If f (x) = x 3 1, then
f (x + h) = (x + h)3 1
3.
If f (x) = 5x 3, then
= (x 2 + 2xh + h2)(x + h) 1
= x 3 + 3x 2h + 3xh2 + h3 1
f (x + h) = 5(x + h) 3
f (x + h) f (x)
h
f (x + h) f (x)
h
[5(x + h) 3] [5x 3] 5h
=
=
=5
h
h
f (x + h) f (x)
=5
f (x) = lim
h0
h
The slope is
5.
x 3 + 3x 2h + 3xh2 + h3 1 (x 3 1)
h
= 3x 2 + 3xh + h2
f (x + h) f (x)
f (x) = lim
h0
h
m = f (2) = 5.
= lim 3x 2 + 3xh + h2 = 3x 2
If f (x) = 2x 2 3x + 5, then
h0
f (x + h) = 2(x + h) 3(x + h) + 5
2
44
9.
2
If g(t) = , then
t
h0
g(t + h) =
2
t +h
t +h
t
=
h
2
t + h t (t + h)
=
h
t (t + h)
2t 2(t + h)
2
=
=
h(t)(t + h)
t (t + h)
2
g(t + h) g(t)
= 2
g (t) = lim
h0
h
t
1
= 8.
The slope is m = g
2
11. If H (u) =
1 ,
u
f (x + h) f (x)
h
1
= lim
h0
u u + h( u + u + h)
H (u) = lim
then
H (u + h) =
1
u+h
u u + h ( u + u + h)
=
h u u + h ( u + u + h)
u (u + h)
=
h u u + h( u + u + h)
h
=
h u u + h( u + u + h)
1
=
u u + h( u + u + h)
1
=
u u( u + u)
=
1
1
=
u(2 u)
2u u
1
1
=
16
2(4) 4
45
f (x) = lim
h0
(x + h)2 x 2
h
2xh + h2
h
= 2x + h
f (x + h) f (x)
= 2x
f (x) = lim
h0
h
=
y 1 = 2(x 1)
y = 2x 1
21. Since
d
d
k f (x) = k
f (x), from problem 7,
dx
dx
1
1
f (x) = 2
=
x
2 x
1
The slope is m = f (4) = , f (4) = 4, the equation
2
of the tangent line is
1
y 4 = (x 4), or
2
1
y= x+2
2
23. If f (x) =
1
,
x3
then
f (x + h) =
1
(x + h)3
2
19. If f (x) = , then
x
f (x + h) =
f (x + h) f (x)
2
= 2
h
x
2
x+h
x+h
x
=
h
2
2
+
x + h x x(x + h)
=
h
x(x + h)
2
2x + 2(x + h)
=
=
x(x + h)
h(x)(x + h)
=
=
1
(x+h)3
1
x3
x 3(x + h)3
x 3(x + h)3
x 3 (x
+ h)3
hx 3(x + h)3
x 3 (x 3 + 3x 2h + 3xh2 + h3)
hx 3(x + h)3
3x 2h 3xh2 h3
hx 3(x + h)3
3x 2 3xh h2
x 3(x + h)3
46
f (x) = lim
f (x + h) f (x)
h
= lim
3x 2 3xh h2
x 3(x + h)3
h0
h0
3x 2
3
= 4
x 3(x)3
x
= lim 3 = 3
h0
dy
= 3 when x = 1
dx
3
= 3
(1)4
f (x + h) = 3
The difference quotient (DQ) is
f (x + h) f (x)
h
33
=
=0
h
f (x + h) f (x)
dy
=0
= lim
h0
h
dx
dy
= 0 when x = 2.
dx
3h
=3
h
f (x + h) f (x)
dy
= lim
dx h0
h
f (x + h) f (x)
h
(x + h) (x + h)2 x x 2
h
h 2xh h2
= 1 2x h
h
dy
f (x + h) f (x)
= lim
= 1 2x
dx h0
h
dy
= 3 when x = 1.
dx
31. If y = f (x) = x x1 , then
f (x + h) = x + h
1
x+h
f (x + h) f (x)
h
1
x + h x+h
x x1
h
h
1
x+h
1
x
x(x + h)
h
x(x + h)
hx(x + h) x + x + h
=
h
47
hx 2 + h2x + h
h
h(x 2 + hx + 1)
= x 2 + hx + 1
h
dy
f (x + h) f (x)
= lim
dx h0
h
= lim x + hx + 1 = x + 1
2
msec =
f (x + h) = (x + h)3
h0
When x = 1,
dy
= (1)2 + 1 = 2
dx
33. (a) If f (x) = x 2, then f (2) = (2)2 = 4 and
f (1.9) = (1.9)2 = 3.61. The slope of the
secant line joining the points (2, 4) and
(1.9, 3.61) on the graph of f is
msec =
y2 y1
3.61 4
= 3.9
=
x2 x1 1.9 (2)
x 2 + 2xh + h2 x 2
h
2xh + h2 h(2x + h)
=
= 2x + h
h
h
f (x + h) f (x)
f (x) = lim
h0
h
= lim 2x + h = 2x
h0
y2 y1 1.331 1
= 3.31
=
1.1 1
x2 x1
(x + h)3 x 3
h
3x 2h + 3xh2 + h3
h
= 3x 2 + 3xh + h2
f (x + h) f (x)
= 3x 2
f (x) = lim
h0
h
The slope is mtan = f (1) = 3
Notice that this slope was approximated by the
slope of the secant in part (a).
16
16
1
13
,
=
256
16
13
0
13
f (x2) f (x1)
256
= = 0.8125
=
1
x2 x 1
16
0
16
(b) If f (x) = 3x 2 x, then
f (x + h) = 3(x + h)2 (x + h)
48
3x 2 + 6xh + 3h2 x h 3x 2 + x
h
6xh + 3h2 h
= 6x + 3h 1
h
f (x) = lim (6x + 3h 1) = 6x 1
=
(t + h 1)(t + 1) (t 1)(t + h + 1)
h(t + h + 1)(t + 1)
t 2 + th t + t + h 1 t 2 th t + t + h + 1
h(t + h + 1)(t + 1)
2
2h
=
=
h(t + h + 1)(t + 1) (t + h + 1)(t + 1)
2
2
s (t) = lim
=
h0 (t + h + 1)(t + 1)
(t + 1)2
=
h0
(t + h) 1
(t + h) + 1
t +h+1 t +1
=
h
Multiplying numerator and denominator by
(t + h + 1)(t + 1),
1
s
=
1
2
2 = 8
21 + 1
= .
dt
50 30 4
In the long run, the rate at which V is changing
with respect to time is getting smaller and smaller,
decreasing to zero.
=
= 0.006 C/meter
dh
2,000 1,000 1,000
When h = 2,000 meters,
dT
= 0 C/meter
dh
49
h
4,000 [(15 x h)(x + h 2) (15 x)(x 2)]
=
h
h0
4,000(17 2x) = 0
17
= 8.5, or 850 units.
x=
2
When P (x) = 0, the line tangent to the graph
of P is horizontal. Since the graph of P is a
parabola which opens down, this horizontal
tangent indicates a maximum profit.
49.
C(x) = 0.04x 2
+ 5.1x + 40
H (t) = limh0
H (t+h)H (t)
h
50
= 0.0009(p + h)2 + 0.13(p + h) + 17.81
(0/0009p 2 + 0.13p + 17.81)
h
= 0.0009p 2 0.0018ph 0.0009h2 + 0.13p
+0.13h + 17.81 + 0.0009p 2 0.13p 17.81 h
0.0018ph 0.0009h2 + 0.13h
h
= 0.0018p 0.0009h + 0.13
= 0.0018p + 0.13
The instantaneous rate of change when p = 60
is D (60) = 0.0018(60) + 0.13 = 0.022 mm
per mm of mercury. Since D (60) is positive,
the pressure is increasing when p = 60.
(c) 0.0018p + 0.13 = 0
p 72.22 mm of mercury
At this pressure, the diameter is neither
increasing nor decreasing.
57. (a) For y = f (x) = x 2,
f (x + h) = (x + h)2
The difference quotient (DQ) is
f (x + h) f (x) (x + h)2 x 2
=
h
h
2xh + h2
= 2x + h
h
f (x + h) f (x)
dy
= 2x
= f (x) = lim
h0
h
dx
=
For y = f (x) = x 2 3,
f (x + h) = (x + h)2 3
The difference quotient (DQ) is
(x + h)2 3 (x 2 3)
h
=
2xh + h2
h
= 2x + h
f (x + h) f (x)
dy
= f (x) = lim
= 2x
h0
dx
h
For y = f (x) = x 3,
f (x + h) = (x + h)3
The difference quotient (DQ) is
(x + h)3 x 3
h
51
f (x + h) f (x) (x + h) x
=
=1
h
h
So, f (x) = lim 1 = 1.
h0
x 2 1
is not differentiable
x1
at x = 1,
Press y = and input (abs(x 2 1))/(x 1) for y1 =
The abs is under the NUM menu in the math
application.
Use window dimensions [4, 4]1 by [4, 4]1
Press Graph
We see that f is not defined at x = 1. There can be
no point of tangency.
lim
x1+
lim
x1
x 2 1
(x 1)(x + 1)
= lim
=2
x1+
x1
x1
x 2 1
(x 1)(x + 1)
= lim
= 2
x1
x1
x1
y
3x 2h + 3xh2 + h3
= 3x 2 + 3xh + h2
h
dy
f (x + h) f (x)
= f (x) = lim
= 3x 2
h0
dx
h
=
2
1
2
x 2 + 2x (3x) for y1 =
Use window dimensions [1, 10]1 by [1, 10]1
52
Use the value function under the calc menu and enter
x = 3.85 to find f (x) = 4.37310.
For f (x + h), use the value function under
the calc menu and enter x = 3.83 To find
f (x + h) = 4.35192. Repeat this process for
x = 3.84, 3.849, 3.85, 3.851, 3.86, and 3.87.
f (x + h) f (x)
The
can be filled in manually
h
given that the rest of the table is now complete.
So, slope = f (3.85) 1.059.
0.02
0.01 0.001
3.83
3.84
3.849
4.37310 4.37310 4.37310
4.35192 4.36251 4.37204
h
x+h
f (x)
f (x + h)
f (x + h) f (x)
h
0
3.85
4.37310
4.37310
undefined
2.2
1.
1.059
0.001
1.059
0.01
1.058
7.
Techniques of
Differentiation
9.
y = 5x 3
d
d
dy
=
(5x)
(3)
dx
dx
dx
dy
=50=5
dx
2x =
dy
= 2r 21 = 2 r
dx
2 x 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/21
dy
x
= 2
= 2
x
2
dx
2
1
1
1
= 2 1/2 =
or
1/2
2x
2x
2x
9
13. y = = 9t 1/2
t
1
dy
1
= 9 t 1/21 = 9 t 3/2
2
2
dx
9
9
= 3/2 or
2t
2 t3
15.
y = x 2 + 2x + 3
d
d 2
d
dy
(3)
=
(x ) +
(2x) +
dx
dx
dx
dx
dy
= 2x + 2
dx
17.
y = x 9 5x 8 + x + 12
dy
d 9
d
d
d
=
(x )
(5x 8) +
(x) +
(12)
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx
dy
= 9x 8 40x 7 + 1
dx
19.
y = r2
11. y =
y = x 3.7
dy
= 3.7x 3.71 = 3.7x 2.7
dx
0.02
1.058
y = x 4
dy
4
= 4x 41 = 4x 5 = 5
dx
x
1.059
3.851
3.86
3.87
4.37310 4.37310 4.37310
4.37415 4.38368 4.39426
1.05
5.
21.
y=
1
1
1
+ 2
t
t
t
= t 1 + t 2 t 1/2
d
d
1/2
dy
d
= (t 1) + (t 2)
t
dt
dt
dt
dt
1
= 1t 11 + 2t 21 t 1/21
2
1
= 1t 2 2t 3 + t 3/2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
= 2 3 + 3/2 , or 2 3 +
2t
t
t
t
t
2 t3
23. f (x) =
53
27.
4
x 5 4x 2 x 5 4x 2
= 3 3 = x 2 = x 2 4x 1
x3
x
x
x
d
dy
d 2
=
(x )
(4x 1) = 2x 4(1x 11)
dx
dx
dx
4
= 2x + 4x 2 = 2x + 2
x
29.
y = x 3 5x 2 + 3x 1
dy
= 3x 2 10x + 3
dx
dy
= 10. The equation of the tangent
At x = 1,
dx
line at (1, 8) is
y=
1
x 3 + = x 3/2 + x 3/2,
x3
d 3/2
d 3/2
(x ) +
(x
)
dx
dx
3
3 3/21
= x 3/21 +
x
2
2
3
3
= x 1/2 x 5/2
2
2
3
3
3
3
= x 1/2 5/2 , or
x
2
2x
2
2 x5
y + 8 = 10(x + 1),
or y = 10x + 2
f (x) =
25.
1
x
2
x2
+ x 3/2 + 2 +
3x
3
16 x
1 2
1
1
= x + 2x 1 x 3/2 + x 2 + x,
16
3
3
d
1
dy
d
1 2
=
x +
2x
dx
dx
16
dx
d
3/2
d
d
1 2
1
+
+
x
x
x
dx
dx 3
dx 3
3
1
= (2x) + 2(1x 11) x 3/21
2
16
1
1
+ (2x 21) +
3
3
1
1
2
3
= x 2x 2 x 1/2 x 3 +
3
3
8
2
1
2
3
2
1
= x 2 x 1/2 3 + ,
8
x
2
3x
3
1
2
3
2
1
or x 2 +
x 3+
8
x
2
3x
3
31.
y = 1
1
2
+
x
x
= 1 x 1 + 2x 1/2
1
1
dy
= x 2 x 3/2 = 2 3/2
x
x
dx
dy
1
7
,
= . The equation of the tangent
At 4,
4
dx
16
line is
1
7
y = (x 4), or
16
4
1
y= x+2
16
y=
33.
y = (x 2 x)(3 + 2x) = 2x 3 + x 2 3x
dy
= 6x 2 + 2x 3
dx
dy
= 1. The equation of the tangent
At x = 1,
dx
line at (1, 2) is
y 2 = 1(x + 1), or y = x + 3
35.
1
= 2x 3 + x 2
x2
2
f (x) = 6x 2 3
x
f (x) = 2x 3 +
54
1
The rate of change of f at x = 1 is f (1) = .
2
f (x) = 6x 2 10x
1
f (x) = x 2 = x x 2
x
2
f (x) = 1 + 3
x
37.
When x = 1,
y 0 = 3(x 1), or y = 3x 3
39.
1
1
f (x) = x 3 + 8x = x 3 + 8 x 1/2
3
3
8
f (x) = x 2 + 1/2
2x
8
1 8
At x = 2, f (2) = 4 + = 4 +
2 2
2 2
1
= 4 + 2 = 3.
2
8
4
Further, y = f (2) = + 4 = . The equation of
3
3
4
is
the tangent line at 2,
3
y
41.
4
22
= 3(x 2), or y = 3x +
3
3
f (x) = 2x 4 + 3x + 1
f (x) = 8x 3 + 3
f (x) = x
f (x) = 1
x+
1
2x 1/2
1
= x x 1/2 + x 2
x2
2
3
x
3
The rate of change of f at x = 1 is f (1) = .
2
x
x
x
45. f (x) = x +
= + = x + 1 = x 1/2 + 1
x
x
x
f (x) =
1
2x 1/2
f (x) = 2x 3 5x 2 + 4
47.
49.
f (1)
6 10
=
= 4
f (1)
25+4
= 2
f (x)
x x + x2 2
3 x + 4x
=
2(x x + x 2)
When x = 4,
3 4 + 4(4)
f (4)
11
=
=
2
f (4)
2(4 4 + 4 ) 24
51. (a)
55
4.4
100(20)
P (9)
=
P (9)
2(9) + 4(93/2) + 5,000
2,000
=
= 0.39%
5,126
200
4.26%
47
200
approaches 0.
45 + 2t
That is, the percentage rate of your salary
will approach 0 (even though your salary will
continue to increase at a constant rate).
56
s(t) = t 4 4t 3 + 8t for 0 t 4
v(t) = 4t 3 12t 2 + 8 and a(t) = 12t 2 24t
ft
sec
57
80 60
20
dP
=
= 0.2%
dT
300 200 100
ft
sec
75. f (x) = ax 2 + bx + c
Since f (0) = 0, c = 0 and f (x) = ax 2 + bx.
Since f (5) = 0, 0 = 25a + 5b.
Further, since the slope of the tangent is 1 when
x = 2, f (2) = 1.
2.3
f (x) = 2ax + b
1 = 2a(2) + b = 4a + b
Now, solve the system: 0 = 25a + 5b and 1 = 4a + b.
Since 1 4a = b, using substitution
0 = 25a + 5(1 4a)
0 = 25a + 5 20a
0 = 5a + 5
a = 1 and
b = 1 4(1) = 5
or
1.
3.
77. (f + g)(x)
(f + g)(x + h) (f + g)(x)
h
f (x + h) + g(x + h) [f (x) + g(x)]
= lim
h0
h
f (x + h) f (x) + g(x + h) g(x)
= lim
h0
h
f (x + h) f (x)
g(x + h) g(x)
= lim
+ lim
h0
h0
h
h
= f (x) + g (x).
= lim
h0
79. (a) Using the graph, the xvalue (tax rate) that
appears to correspond to a yvalue (percentage
reduction) of 50 is 150, or a tax rate of 150
dollars per ton carbon.
(b) Using the points (200,60) and (300,80), from
the graph, the rate of change is approximately
5.
Product and
Quotient Rules;
HigherOrder
Derivatives
1 d
+ x
x 5 2x 3 + 1
x dx
1
1
=
x 5 2x 3 + 1 1 + 2
x
3
1
4
2
+ x
5x 6x
x
1
4
1
= 2x 5 4x 3 + x + 2 +
3
3x
3
f (x) =
58
7.
y=
x+1
,
x2
d
d
(x + 1) (x + 1) dx
(x 2)
(x 2) dx
dy
=
2
dx
(x 2)
(x 2)(1) (x + 1)(1)
=
(x 2)2
3
=
.
(x 2)2
15.
f (t) =
9.
f (t) =
=
t
,
t2 2
(t 2 2)
d
d
(t) t (t 2 2)
dt
dt
(t 2 2)2
(t 2 2)(1) (t)(2t)
(t 2 2)2
t 2 2
= 2
.
(t 2)2
y=
11.
3
,
x+5
d
d
(3) 3 (x + 5)
dx
dx
(x + 5)2
(x + 5)(0) 3(1)
=
(x + 5)2
3
=
.
(x + 5)2
dy
=
dx
13. f (x) =
(x + 5)
x 2 3x + 2
,
2x 2 + 5x 1
d 2
(x 3x + 2)
dx
f (x) =
(2x 2 + 5x 1)2
d
(x 2 3x + 2) (2x 2 + 5x 1)
dx
(2x 2 + 5x 1)2
(2x 2 + 5x 1)
(2x 2 + 5x 1)(2x 3)
(2x 2 + 5x 1)2
(x 2 3x + 2)(4x + 5)
(2x 2 + 5x 1)2
11x 2 10x 7
.
(2x 2 + 5x 1)2
(2x 1)(x + 3) 2x 2 + 5x 3
=
x+1
x+1
d
(x + 1) (2x 2 + 5x 3)
dx
f (x) =
(x + 1)2
d
(2x 2 + 5x 3) (x + 1)
dx
(x + 1)2
f (x) =
2x 2 + 4x + 8 2(x 2 + 2x + 4)
=
(x + 1)2
(x + 1)2
2
17. f (x) = (2 + 5x) = (2 + 5x)(2 + 5x)
d
d
f (x) = (2 + 5x) (2 + 5x) + (2 + 5x) (2 + 5x)
dx
dx
d
= 2(2 + 5x) (2 + 5x)
dx
= 2(2 + 5x)(5)
= 20 + 50x = 10(2 + 5x)
2
2
1/2
19. g(t) = t + t = t + t
2t + 5
2t + 5
d
d 2
(2t + 5) (t + t 1/2) (t 2 + t 1/2) (2t + 5)
dt
dt
g (t) =
(2t + 5)2
1
(2t + 5) 2t + 1/2 (t 2 + t 1/2)(2)
2t
=
(2t + 5)2
2t 2 + 10t t 1/2 +
(2t + 5)2
59
0 = 3x 2 3 = 3(x + 1)(x 1)
or x = 1, 1.
When x = 1, f (1) = 0 and when x = 1,
f (1) = 4. So, the tangent line is horizontal at
the points (1, 0) and (1, 4).
5
1/2
2t 1/2 2t
2t 1/2
4 t 5 + 20 t 3 2t + 5
=
2 t(2t + 5)2
=
21.
29.
dy
11
When x = 1, y = 4 and
=
dx
2
The equation of the tangent line at (1,4) is
11
19
11
(x 1), or y = x +
2
2
2
f (x) = (x + 1)(x 2 x 2)
f (x) = (x + 1)(2x 1) + (x 2 x 2)(1)
= 3x 2 3
Since f (x) represents the slope of the tangent line
and the slope of a horizontal line is zero, need to
solve
dy
15
3
= 3x 2 x 3/2 + 1/2 + 2
2
x
dx
27.
x 2 2x
(x 2 + x + 1)2
or x = 0, 2.
dy
= 3. The equation of
dx
the tangent line at (1, 1) is
y4=
x 2 2x
(x 2 + x + 1)2
0 = x 2 2x = x(x + 2)
When x = 1, y = 1 and
25.
f (x) =
0=
x
y=
2x + 3
dy
3
=
dx
(2x + 3)2
y + 1 = 3(x + 1), or y = 3x + 2
y = 3 x + x 2 x 2 = 3x 1/2 + x 2 x 2
x+1
x2 + x + 1
f (x) =
33.
y = (x 2 + 3)(5 2x 3)
dy
= (x 2 + 3)(6x 2) + (5 2x 3)(2x)
dx
60
When x = 1,
41. (a)
dy
= (1 + 3)(6) + (5 2)(2) = 18
dx
35. y = x +
3
2 4x
dy
(2 4x)(0) 3(4)
= 1+
dx
(2 4x)2
2x 3
x3
dy
(x 3)(2) (2x 3)(3x 2) 4x 3 + 9x 2
=
=
dx
x6
x6
4x + 9
=
x4
y=
When x = 0,
dy
12
=4
= 1+
dx
(2)2
2
x = 2x 1 x 1/2
x
1
dy
2
= 2 1/2
x
2x
dx
y=
37.
(c)
When x = 1,
dy
1
5
= 2 =
dx
2
2
The slope of a line perpendicular to the tangent line
2
at x = 1 is . The equation of the normal line at
5
(1,1) is
2
2
3
y 1 = (x 1), or y = x +
5
5
5
39. y =
5x + 7
2 3x
dy
(2 3x)(5) (5x + 7)(3)
=
dx
(2 3x)2
When x = 1,
dy
(2 3)(5) (5 + 7)(3)
=
= 31
dx
(2 3)2
The slope of a line perpendicular to the tangent line
1
at x = 1 is .
31
The equation of the normal line at (1, 12) is
y + 12 =
1
1
371
(x 1), or y = x
31
31
31
y = 2x 2 3x 3
4x + 9
4
9
dy
= 4x 3 + 9x 4 = 3 + 4 =
x4
x
x
dx
2
f (x) = x 5 4x 3 + 9x 2 6x 2
5
43.
1
2
45. y = x 1 2x 1/2 + 2x x 1/2
6
3
2 1/2
2
1
dy
= y = x 2
x
+ 2 + x 3/2
dx
3
2
12
2
2 3/2 1 5/2
4
d y
x
x
= y = x 3 +
8
3
4
dx 2
1
2
4
= 3 + 3/2 5/2
4x
8x
3x
y = (x 3 + 2x 1)(3x + 5)
47.
dy
= y = (x 3 + 2x 1)(3) + (3x + 5)(3x 2 + 2)
dx
= 12x 3 + 15x 2 + 12x + 7
d 2y
= y = 36x 2 + 30x + 12
dx 2
49. S(t) =
2000t
4 + 0.3t
(4 + 0.3t)(2000) (2000t)(0.3)
(4 + 0.3t)2
The rate of change in the year 2002 is
(4 + 0.6)(2,000) (4,000)(0.3)
S (2) =
(4 + 0.6)2
$378,070 per year.
(b) Rewrite the function as
(a) S (t) =
S(t) =
61
(a) P (x) =
1 1/2
(x 1/2)(0.06x)
x
+ 9)
2
100
(0.03x 2 + 9)2
The rate of change of percentage pollution when
16 million dollars are spent is
0.03(16)2 + 9 21 (16)1/2
P (16) = 100
2
0.03(16)2 + 9
(16)1/2[0.06(16)]
2
0.03(16)2 + 9
(0.03x 2
2,000
4
+ 0.3
t
4
0 as t +, sales approach
t
2,000
6,666.67 thousand, or approximately
0.3
$6,666,667 in the long run.
Since
= 0.63 percent
1+
30
5 5 10
, 2,
and 2 all go to zero as
t t
t
t
t +, the percentage approaches 100% in
the long run, so the rate of change approaches 0.
100 x
x 1/2
53. P (x) =
=
100
0.03x 2 + 9
0.03x 2 + 9
Since
57. (a)
s(t) = 3t 5 5t 3 7
v(t) = 15t 4 15t 2 = 15(t 4 t 2)
a(t) = 15(4t 3 2t) = 30t (2t 2 1)
(b) a(t)
= 0 when 30t (2t 2 1) = 0, or t = 0 and
2
t=
.
2
62
59. s(t) = t 3 + 7t 2 + t + 2
7
3
1
1
67. y = x 1/2 x 1 + x
2
2
5
5
t +1
(a) Speed = rate of change of distance with respect
to time.
1
1
1
dy
= x 1/2 + x 2 +
dx
2
2
2
dD
(t + 1)(0) (5)(1)
= 10 +
dt
(t + 1)2
5
= 10
(t + 1)2
When t = 4,
(b)
dD
5
49
= 10
=
meters/minute.
dt
25
5
5
D(5) = 10(5) +
5
5+1
5
= 45 +
6
5
D(4) = 10(4) +
5
4+1
= 36
5 59
D(5) D(4) = 9 + = meters.
6
6
1
63. F = (KM 2 M 3)
3
dF
2
1
(a) S =
= (2KM 3M 2) = KM M 2
3
3
dM
1
2
dS
= (2K 6M) = K 2M
(b)
dM
3
3
is the rate at which the sensitivity is changing.
65.
H (t) = 16t 2
H (t)
+ S0 t + H 0
1
d 2y
= x 3/2 x 3
2
dx
4
3 5/2
3
3
d 3y
= x
+ 3x 4 = 5/2 + 4
3
dx
8
8x
x
69. (a)
d
dx
fg
h
d
d
(f g) (f g) h
dx
dx
=
h2
d
d
d
h f
g + g f fg h
dx
dx
dx
=
h2
h
(2x + 7)(x 2 + 3)
3x + 5
(3x + 5) (2x + 7)(2x) + (x 2 + 3)(2)
dy
=
dx
(3x + 5)2
(b) y =
3(2x 3 + 7x 2 + 6x + 21)
(3x + 5)2
h g(x + h)
g(x)
1 f (x + h)g(x) f (x)g(x + h)
=
h
g(x + h)g(x)
1 f (x + h)g(x) f (x)g(x) + f (x)g(x)
=
h
g(x + h)g(x)
f (x)g(x + h)
g(x + h)g(x)
1 g(x)[f (x + h) f (x)]
=
g(x + h)g(x)
h
f (x)[g(x + h) g(x)]
g(x + h)g(x)
1
=
.
g(x + h)g(x)
g(x) f (x + h) f (x)
f (x) g(x + h) g(x)
75.
h
h
d
1
.
(f/g) = lim
h0
dx
g(x + h)g(x)
g(x)[f (x + h) f (x)] f (x)[g(x + h) g(x)]
h
h
1
=
g(x)f (x) f (x)g (x)
g(x)g(x)
=
63
x
1
64
7.
y
y f(x)
0
5
x
y f (x)
9.
1.
3.
5.
11.
y = u2 + 1, u = 3x 2,
du
dy
= 2u,
= 3,
du
dx
dy
dy du
y = u = u1/2, u = x 2 + 2x 3,
dy
1
1
= u1/2 = 1/2 ,
2u
du 2
du
= 2x + 2, = 2(x + 1)
dx
x+1
dy
dy du
.
= 2
=
(x + 2x 3)1/2
dx
du dx
1
= u2, u = x 2 + 1,
u2
2 du
= 2x,
= 2u3 = 3 ,
u dx
dy du
4x
=
= 2
du dx
(x + 1)3
y=
dy
du
dy
dx
y = u2 + 2u 3, u = x = x 1/2
du
1
1
dy
= 2u + 2,
= x 1/2 =
du
dx
2
2 x
1
dy du
dy
= (2u + 2)
=
2 x
dx
du dx
1
1
= 2 x + 2 = 1+
x
2 x
2
2.4
1
= (u 1)1, u = x 2
u1
1
dy
= (u 1)2 =
,
du
(u 1)2
du
= 2x,
dx
dy
dy du
2x
.
=
= 2
dx
du dx
(x 1)2
y=
dy
du
dy
dx
13.
1
= x 1
x
du
1
= 2u + 1,
= x 2 = 2
dx
x
dy du
1
=
= (2u + 1) 2
du dx
x
1
2
2
1
+1 2 = 3 2
=
x
x
x
x
2 x
2 1 x
= 3 + 2 = 3 + 3
x
x
x
x
x
2+x
= 3
x
y = u2 + u 2, u =
y = u2 u, u = 4x + 3
du
dy
= 2u 1,
=4
du
dx
dy du
dy
= (2u 1) 4
=
dx
du dx
When x = 0, u = 4(0) + 3 = 3, so
dy
= (2(3) 1) 4 = 20
dx
15.
y = 3u4 4u + 5, u = x 3 2x 5
dy
du
= 12u3 4,
= 3x 2 2,
du
dx
dy du
dy
=
17.
65
= 2, u = 23 2(2) 5 = 1,
25.
1
= (5t 2 6t + 2)1,
6t + 2
d
f (t) = (5t 2 6t + 2)2 (5t 2 6t + 2)
dt
10t 6
2(5t 3)
= 2
=
2
(5t 6t + 2)
(5t 2 6t + 2)2
29.
1
= (4x 2 + 1)1/2
4x 2 + 1
1
d
g (x) = (4x 2 + 1)3/2 (4x 2 + 1)
2
dx
8x
4x
=
=
2(4x 2 + 1)3/2 (4x 2 + 1)3/2
31.
3
= 3(1 x 2)4,
(1 x 2)4
d
f (x) = 12(1 x 2)5 (1 x 2)
dx
24x
=
(1 x 2)5
When x = 3, u = 32 2(3) + 6 = 9, so
dy
31 2
= 1/2 =
dx
9
3
19.
1
1
= u1, u = 3 2 = 3 x 2,
u
x
1
du
2
= u2 = 2 ,
= 2x 3 = 3
u dx
x
1 2
dy du
= 2 3
=
u x
du dx
y=
dy
du
dy
dx
1
1
= 3 4 = 1,
When x = , u = 3
2
(1/2)2
dy
2
1
= 16
=
2
(1) (1/2)3
dx
21.
d
(2x + 3)
dx
= 1.4(2x + 3)0.4 2
= 2.8(2x + 3)0.4
23.
d
(2x + 1) = 8(2x + 1)3
dx
d 5
(x 4x 3 7)
dx
so
dy
= [12(1)3 4][3(22) 2] = 160
dx
y = u = u1/2, u = x 2 2x + 6,
dy
1
1
= u1/2 = 1/2 ,
du 2
2u
du
= 2x 2,
dx
dy
dy du x 1
= 1/2 .
=
u
dx
du dx
f (x) = (x 5 4x 3 7)8
33.
f (t) =
5t 2
g(x) =
f (x) =
5
h(s) = 1 + 3s
4 d
1 + 3s
h(s) = 5 1 + 3s
ds
4 d
= 5 1 + 3s
1 + 3s 1/2
ds
4
3
= 5 1 + 3s 1/2
2s
4
5 3 1 + 3s
=
2 s
3
5
35. f (x) = (x + 2) (2x 1)
d
d
f (x) = (x + 2)3 (2x 1)5 + (2x 1)5 (x + 2)3
dx
dx
66
Now,
Now,
d
d
(2x 1)5 = 5(2x 1)4 (2x 1)
dx
dx
d
d
(x + 1)5 = 5(x + 1)4 (x + 1)
dx
dx
= 10(2x 1)4
= 5(x + 1)4
and
d
d
(x + 2)3 = 3(x + 2)2 (x + 2)
dx
dx
and
d
d
(1 x)4 = 4(1 x)3 (1 x 3)
dx
dx
= 3(x + 2)2
= 4(1 x)3
So,
f (x) = 10(x + 2)3(2x 1)4 + 3(2x 1)5(x + 2)2
So,
f (x) =
(x + 1)4(9 x)
(1 x)5
1/2
3x + 1
3x + 1
=
2x 1
2x 1
1/2
3x + 1
1 3x + 1
d
G(x) =
2 2x 1
dx 2x 1
G(x) =
Now,
3x + 1
2x 1
So, G(x) =
(2x 1)2
2 2x 1
1/2
1
5 2x 1
=
(2x 1)2
2 3x + 1
d
dx
5 (2x 1)1/2
1
1/2
(2x 1)2
2 (3x + 1)
5
=
2(3x + 1)1/2(2x 1)3/2
=
5
39. f (x) = (x + 1)
(1 x)4
d
d
(1 x)4 (x + 1)5 (x + 1)5 (1 x)4
dx
dx
f (x) =
2
(1 x)4
3y + 1
3y + 1
=
41. f (y) =
1 4y
(1 4y)1/2
f (y) =
(1 4y)1/2
d
d
(3y + 1) (3y + 1) (1 4y)1/2
dy
dy
2
(1 4y)1/2
Now,
d
(3y + 1) = 3
dy
and
d
1
d
(1 4y)1/2 = (1 4y)1/2 (1 4y)
2
dy
dy
2
=
(1 4y)1/2
67
So,
49.
f (y) =
3(1 4y)1/2 (3y + 1)
2
(1 4y)1/2
1 4y
3(1 4y) + 2(3y + 1)
=
(1 4y)3/2
5 6y
=
(1 4y)3/2
43.
f (x) =
(1 4y)1/2
(1 4y)1/2
1
3
f (x) = (3x + 4)1/2 3 =
2
2 3x + 4
2
3
3(0)+4
3
4
and f (0) = 2
f (x) =
2
and f (1) = 1, so the equation
3
of the tangent line at (1, 1) is
2
2
1
y + 1 = (x + 1), or y = x
3
3
3
1
= (2x 1)6
(2x 1)6
f (x) =
47.
(x + 2)2/3
2
3x 2/3
(x + 2)2
2
= 2/3
3x (x + 2)4/3
=
53. f (x) =
45.
m = f (1) =
3x + 4 = (3x + 4)1/2
m = f (0) =
1/3
x
x
=
f (x) =
x+2
x+2
2/3
x
1
(x + 2)(1) (x)(1)
f (x) =
3 x+2
(x + 2)2
12
(2x 1)5
x
(3x 2)2
(3x 2)2(1) (x) [2(3x 2)(3)]2
2
(3x 2)2
68
f (5) =
100
61. h = (t 2 + 5)8
dh
= 8(t 2 + 5)7(2t) = 16t (t 2 + 5)7,
dt
d 2h
= 16t[7(t 2 + 5)6(2t)] + (t 2 + 5)7(16)
dt 2
=
67. D(p) =
(a)
= 80(t 2 + 5)6(3t 2 + 1)
63.
f (x) = 1 + x 2 = (1 + x 2)1/2
1
f (x) = (1 + x 2)1/2(2x)
2
x
=
(1 + x 2)1/2
1
1/2
2
1/2
2
(1 + x )
(2x)
(1 + x ) (1) (x)
2
f (x) =
1 + x2
(b)
=
65. (a)
x2
(1 + x 2)3/2
f (t) =
=
4,374
= 4,374p 2
p2
dD
8,784
= 8,748p 3 =
When the price
dp
p3
is $9,
dD dp
dD
=
dt
dp dt
When t = 10,
p(10) = 0.02(10)2 + 0.1(10) + 6 = 9
1
(1 + x 2)3/2
so,
10t 2 + t + 236
= (10t 2 + t + 236)1/2
dD
8, 748
=
[0.04(10) + 0.1]
dt
93
= 6 pounds per week
10(52) + 5 + 236
x2
(1 + x 2)1/2 (1 + x 2)1/2
(1 + x 2)1/2
1 + x2
1 + x2
f (5)
f (5)
100(2.279)
dD
8,748
=
= 12 pounds per dollar
dp
(9)3
(1 + x 2)1/2
=
20(5) + 1
= 2.279
2(10(5)2 + 5 + 236)1/2
69.
p(t) = 20
6
= 20 6(t + 1)1
t +1
c(p) = 0.5 p 2 + p + 58 = 0.5(p 2 + p + 58)1/2
69
1
dc
= (p 2 + p + 58)1/2(2p + 1)
dp 4
2p + 1
=
4 p 2 + p + 58
(a)
6
2+1
dc
dt is positive, the level
L = 0.25w 2.6; w = 3 + 0.21A
71.
12
288
2
(10 + 12)
(10 + 12)3
0.002254 = 0.2254% per day
P (10) =
P (15) =
(15 + 12)2 (15 + 12)3
0.001829
= 18 and
is increasing.
dL
= 0.65w 1.6 mm per kg
dw
When w = 60,
dL
= 0.65(60)1.6 455 mm per kg
dw
(b) When A = 100, w = 3 + 0.21(100) = 24 and
L(24) = 0.25(24)2.6 969 mm long.
(a)
dL
dL dw
=
dA dw dA
Since
dw
= 0.21,
dA
dL
= (0.65w 1.6)(0.21)
dA
144
(t+12)2
When t = 10,
6
dc
= (0.4625)
dt
(2 + 1)2
0.308 ppm/year
Since
=
2
(t + 12)3
(t + 12)
2(18) + 1
dc
=
dp 4 182 + 18 + 58
37
= 0.4625 ppm/thous people
=
80
dc
dc dp
=
dt
dp dt
dp
6
= 0 + 6(t + 1)2 1 =
dt
(t + 1)2
2p + 1
dc
6
=
2
dt
4 p + p + 58 (t + 1)2
When t = 2, p(2) = 20
12
t+12
When p = 18,
(b)
P (t) = 1
75.
K(t) =
(a) K(3) =
2t 4 + 3t + 149
t +2
6t 4 + 16t 3 143
(t + 2)2
70
When t = 5, K(5) =
202. So,
dQ
1000
6(5)4 + 16(5)3 143
=
dt
3(202)1/3
(5 + 2)2
6,501 units per month
dQ
Since
is positive when t = 5, production
dt
will be increasing.
dT
is the rate of change in the time required
dL
with respect to the number of items in the list.
(b) Writing ExerciseAnswers will vary.
77.
(a)
dV
= 0.41(0.02T + 0.4)cm3 per C
dt
(b)
dm (1 + 0.09V )(0.39) (0.39V )(0.09)
=
dV
(1 + 0.09V )2
0.39
gm per cm3
=
(1 + 0.09V )2
(c) When T = 10,
V (10) = 0.41[0.01(10)2 + 0.4(10) + 3.52] = 2.6732cm3
dm dm dV
=
dT
dV dt
0.39
=
0.41(0.02T + 0.4)
(1 + 0.09V )2
When T = 10,
dm
0.39
=
0.41[0.02(10) + 0.4]
dT
[1 + 0.09(2.6732)]2
= 0.02078 gm per C
3
v(t) = s (t) = (3 + t t 2)1/2(1 2t)
2
a(t) = v (t)
3
=
(3 + t t 2)1/2(2)
2
1
+(1 2t) (3 + t t 2)1/2(1 2t)
2
3
2(3 + t t 2)1/2
=
2(3 + t t 2)1/2
2
2(3 + t t 2)1/2
(1 2t)2
+
2(3 + t t 2)1/2
3 4(3 + t t 2) + (1 2t)2
=
2(3 + t t 2)1/2
2
3 12 4t + 4t 2 + 1 4t + 4t 2
=
2
2(3 + t t 2)1/2
=
24t 2 24t 33
4 3 + t t2
(Note: algebraically,
3
+
t t 2 = 0 when
1 + 13
t=
, but this value is not in the
2
domain.)
71
23/2
1
1
1
2197
s
= 3+
5.859
=
2
2
2
8
2
1
1
33
24
24
1
2
2
a
=
2
2
1
1
4 3+
2
2
39
3 13
5.4083
= =
2
2 13
4 3 + t t2
Press y = and input (24x 2 24x 33)/
(4 (3 + x x 2)) for y2 =
Press Graph
You may wish to deactivate y1 so only the graph
of y2 is shown.
Use the zero function under the calc menu
to find the xintercepts are x 0.775 and
x 1.77. (disregard x = 0.775.)
The acceleration is zero for t = 1.77,
s(1.77) = (3 + 1.77 (1.77)2)3/2 2.09
Reactivate y1 and use the value function under
the calc menu. Make sure that y1 is displayed in
the upper left corner and enter x = 1.77 to find
v(1.77) 4.87.
(d) We already have v(t) inputted for y1 = and a(t)
inputted for y2 =
Press y = and input (3 + x x 2) (3/2) for
y3 =
Use window dimensions [0, 2]1 by [5, 5]1
Press Graph
s(t)
5
t
0
5
1
2
a(t)
v(t)
72
(c)
2.5
1.
Marginal Analysis;
Approximations Using
Increments
$4.33
1
C(x) = x 2 + 4x + 57;
5
1
1
p(x) = (36 x) = 9 x
4
4
2
(a) Marginal cost = C (x) = x + 4
5
Revenue = (# sold)(selling price)
1
x2
R(x) = x 9 x = 9x
4
4
Marginal revenue = R (x) = 9
= $15
5.
x
2
2
(b) Estimated cost of 4th unit = C (3) = (3) + 4 =
5
$5.20
(c) Actual cost of 4th unit = C(4) C(3)
1 2
1 2
= (4) + 4(4) + 57 (3) + 4(3) + 57
5
5
= $5.40
(d) Estimated revenue from sale of 4th unit
3
= R (3) = 9 = $7.50
2
(e) Actual revenue from sale of 4th unit
= R(4) R(3)
(4)2
(3)2
= 9(4)
9(3)
= $7.25
4
4
3.
7.
R(x) = x(x 4x + 80) = x 4x + 80x, so
2
R (x) = 3x 8x + 80
2
2
(b) C (3) = (3) + 2 = $4.00
3
1 2
C(4) C(3) = (4) + 2(4) + 39
3
1
(3)2 + 2(3) + 39
3
1
3 + 2x
C(x) = x 2 + 43; p(x) =
4
1+ x
1
(a)
C (x) = x
2
3 + 2x
3x + 2x 2
R(x) = x
=
, so
1+ x
1+ x
R (x) =
=
1
(b) C (3) = (3) = $1.50
2
1 2
1 2
(c)
(3) + 43
C(4) C(3) =
(4) + 43
4
4
= 47 45.25 = $1.75
2(3)2 + 4(3) + 3 33
$2.06
=
(1 + 3)2
16
(e) R(4) R(3)
(d) R (3) =
1+ 4
1+ 3
44 27
= $2.05
=
4
5
9.
73
100
f
3
= 100 = 20%
f
15
(a)
(a)
Q Q(K)K
300
Q(K) = 300K 1/2 =
K
Since K is measured in thousands of dollars, the
current value of K is 900 and
K =
800
= 0.8
1000
Q Q(900)(0.8) =
300
900
(0.8)
= 8,
or an increase of approximately 8 units.
21. T (x) = 60x 3/2 + 40x + 1,200
Estimated percentage change is
T
where T T (x)x
T
1
1
T T (8)
= 147.279
= 90 8 + 40
2
2
T (8) = 60(8)3/2 + 40(8) + 1,200 = 2,877.645
T
147.279
5.12%
100
= 100
2877.645
T
23. Q = 3,000K 1/2L1/3
Since labor force is to remain unchanged, write Q as
3
Q = 3,000 1331K 1/2
Since increase in K = 1 (noting that K is measured
in thousands of dollars)
74
Q Q (K)
3
1/2
1,500 3 1,331
=
1, 500 3 1,331
Q Q (400) =
= 825,
400
or an increase of approximately 825 units.
1
25. C(q) = q 3 + 642q + 400
6
1
1
C (q) = q 2 + 642, C (4) = (4)2 + 642 = 650,
2
2
130
650
= 0.2, or
and C = 130. So, q
increase production by 0.2 units.
27. The maximum percentage error in C is
C
where C C (x)x
C
a
C (x) = a(x b)2(1) =
(x b)2
a
(0.03c)
C C (c)(0.03c) =
(c b)2
.03ac
=
(c b)2
a
C(c) =
cb
.03ac
C
(c b)2
So,
100
= 100
a
C
(c b)
3c
=
%
c b
100
100
V
where V V (R)R
V
C C (q)q
q
f (x0)
f (x0)
f (x1)
f (x1)
75
37. f (x) =
(a)
f (x )
xn = xn1 n1
f (xn1)
4 8x 3 10
3xn1
n1
3
2
4xn1
12xn1
x2 =
3x04 8x03 10
4x03 12x02
3x14 8x13 10
4x13 12x12
15
= 1.875 using x0 = 1
8
3x04 8x03 10
4x03 12x02
8x13 10
4x13 12x12
3x14
= 3.844 using x0 = 4
= 3.821 using x1 = 3.844
(xn)1/3
1
3(xn)2/3
x1 = 2x0,
For n = 1, 2, 3, . . .
x1 =
xn+1 = xn
x 4 4x 3 + 10 3x 4 8x 3 10
f (x)
=
x
=
f (x)
4x 3 12x 2
4x 3 12x 2
xn =
1
1
x = x 1/3; f (x) = x 2/3 = 2/3
3
3x
2.6
1.
2x + 3y = 7
(a) 2 + 3
dy
=0
dx
dy
2
=
dx
3
76
7
2
y= x+
3
3
dy
2
=
dx
3
3.
3
dy
= 3(x + 2)2(1) =
dx
(x + 2)2
1
3
=
x+2 x+2
y
1
=
=y
x+2 x+2
x3 y2 = 5
dy
=0
(a) 3x 2 2y dx
dy
3x 2
=
dx
2y
9.
x 2 + y 2 = 25
dy
=0
2x + 2y
dx
x
dy
=
dx
y
11.
x 3 + y 3 = xy,
dy
dy
=x
+y1
3x 2 + 3y 2
dx
dx
dy
= y 3x 2,
(3y 2 x)
dx
dy
y 3x 2
= 2
dx
3y x
y = x 3 5 = (x 3 5)1/2
1
dy
= (x 3 5)1/2 3x 2
dx
2
3x 2
3x 2
=
=
2y
2 x3 5
5.
xy = 4
(a) x
dy
dx
+ y 1= 0
dy
y
=
dx
x
4
= 4x 1
x
13. y 2 + (2x)(y 2) 3x + 1 = 0
dy
dy
+ (y 2)(2) 3 + 0 = 0
+ (2x) 2y
2y
dx
dx
4
dy
= 4x 2 = 2
dx
x
dy
= 3 2y 2
dx
dy
3 2y 2
=
dx
2y(1 + 2x)
(2y + 4xy)
y
=x =
x
x
7.
xy + 2y = 3
(a) x
15.
dy
dy
+ y 1+ 2
=0
dx
dx
(x + 2)
dy
= y
dx
y
dy
=
x+2
dx
3
= 3(x + 2)1
x+2
x+
y = 1, or x 1/2 + y 1/2 = 1
1 1/2 1 1/2 dy
x
=0
+ y
2
2
dx
dy
=0
x 1/2 + y 1/2
dx
dy
x 1/2 y
= 1/2 =
x
dx
y
17. xy x = y + 2
x
77
25. xy = 2
dy
dy
+ y 1 1=
+0
dx
dx
dy
(x 1)
= 1 y
dx
dy
1 y
=
dx
x1
dy
3(2x + y)2 2 +
= 1,
dx
1
dy
=
2+
,
dx
3(2x + y)2
dy
1
2
=
dx
3(2x + y)2
x2 = y3
2x = 3y 2
dy
dx
2x
dy
=
2
3y
dx
The slope of the tangent line at (8,4) is
dy
1
2(8)
=
=
dx
3(4)2 3
and the equation of the tangent line is
1
1
4
y 4 (x 8), or y = x +
3
3
3
dy
+ y 1= 0
dx
dy
y
=
dx
x
dy
dx
y 2x = 0
dy
dy
x2
= 2xy y 2
dx
dx
2xy y 2
dy
=
dx
2xy x 2
78
13
13
11
(x 1), or y = x +
12
12
12
y2=
16y 2 32y = 0
16y(y 2) = 0
x + y2 = 9
dy
1 + 2y
=0
dx
dy
1
=
2y
dx
31.
dy
(a) For horizontal tangent(s), need
= 0, but
dx
1
y = 0 or y = 2
When y = 0, x = 32(0) = 0 and when y = 2,
x = 32(2) = 64. So, there are vertical tangents
at (0, 0) and (64, 2).
35. x 2 + xy + y 2 = 3
dy
dy
+ y 1 + 2y
=0
dx
dx
dy
2x y
=
dx
x + 2y
2x + x
(a)
2x y
= 0 when 2x y = 0, or y = 2x.
x + 2y
Substituting in the original equation,
x 2 2x 2 + 4x 2 = 3
3x 2 = 3
x = 1
33. xy = 16y 2 + x
dy
dy
+ y 1 = 32y
+1
dx
dx
dy
dy
32y
= 1 y
x
dx
dx
dy
1 y
=
dx
x 32y
x
(a)
1y
x32y
= 0 when 1 y = 0, or y = 1
Substituting into the original equation,
x 1 = 16(1)2 + x
x = 16 + x
0 = 16
3y 2 = 3
y = 1
When y = 1, x = 2(1) = 2, and when
y = 1, x = 2(1) = 2. So, there are vertical
tangents at (2, 1) and (2, 1).
37. x 2 + 3y 2 = 5
2x + 6y
dy
=0
dx
x
dy
=
dx
3y
dy
(3y)(1) (x) 3
d 2y
dx
=
dx 2
(3y)2
dy
3y + 3x
dx
=
9y 2
x
3 + 3x
3y
=
.
9y 2
79
20.88
dx
=
= 1.74 or increasing at a rate of 174
dt
12
units/month.
75x 2 + 17p 2 = 5,300
dp
dx
+ 34p
=0
150x
dt
dt
43.
34p dp
dx
dt
=
dt
150x
When p = 7,
x2
3y
y y
=
2
9y
y
3y 2 x 2
9y 3
(x 2 + 3y 2)
5
= 3
3
9y
9y
dx
34(7)(0.75)
=
dt
150(7.717513)
0.15419 hundred, or
15.419 units/week
4
V = r3
3
dV
dr
= 4 r 2
dt
dt
45.
y
dy
dx
dr
0.002
=
= 20,
dt
4(0.005)2
or increasing at a rate of 20 mm per min.
4
V = R3
3
dR
dV
= 4 R 2
dt
dt
47.
dy
1.704, or a
dx
decrease of 1.704 hours of unskilled labor.
41.
3p 2 x 2 = 12
dp
dx
=0
6p
2x
dt
dt
When p = 4, 48 x 2 = 12, x 2 = 36, or x = 6.
dx
=0
Substituting, 6(4)(0.87) 2(6)
dt
20.88 12
dx
=0
dt
dr
dt
Substituting,
dV
= 4(0.54)2(0.13) 0.476
dt
or increasing at a rate of 0.476 cm3 per month.
49. M = 70w 3/4
(a)
dM
dw
= 52.5w 1/4
dt
dt
80
Substituting,
52.5
dM
=
(0.8) 14.04,
dt
(80)1/4
Substituting,
0 = 6(30)2 + 6(30)2(20)
y (0.7080)(0.8) = 0.5664,
or an increase of 0.5664 units in input y.
K 2
(R r 2)
L
At the center of the vessel, r = 0 so
57. v =
v=
dL dx
=
= 4, or increasing at a rate of 4 feet
dt
dt
per second.
So,
dy
x
dx
Since Q is to remain constant, let C be the constant
value of Q. Then
55. Need y
C = 2x 3 + 3x 2y 2 + (1 + y)3
dy
2
2
0 = 6x + (3x ) 2y
dx
+ (y 2)(6x) + 3(1 + y)2
dy
dx
dy
dx
Since x = 0.8,
L x+L
or L = x
=
12
6
dy
dx
dy
0.7080
dx
0=
53. Let x be the distance between the man and the base
of the street light and L the length of the shadow.
Because of similar triangles,
dy
dx
K 2
R
L
= KL1R 2
Using implicit differentiation with t as the variable,
dv
dL
dR
= K L1 2R
+ R 2 L2
dt
dt
dt
dv
= 0 and
dt
2R dR
R 2 dL
0=K
2
L dt
L
dt
0=
R 2 dL
2R dR
2
dt
L
L dt
L2 dt
L dL
dL/dt
dR/dL
=2
L
R
or double the relative rate of change of R.
59.
x2 y2
+ 2 =1
a2
b
2y dy
2x
=0
+ 2
a2
b dx
2x
2
dy
b2x
= a = 2
2y
dx
a y
b2
Substituting,
b2x
dy
= 2 0
dx
a y0
and the equation of the tangent line is
y y0 =
b2x0
(x x0)
a 2 y0
x02
y02 x0x
y0y
+
=
b2
b2
a2
a2
x02 y02
x0x
y0 y
+
=
+ 2
a2
b2
a2
b
x x
y y
So, 02 + 02 = 1
a
b
61. y = x r/s or y s = x r
sy s1
dy
= rx r1
dx
rx r1
dy
= s1
dx
sy
81
2x 294 150x 2
=
14
rx r1
=
s(x r/s )s1
rx r1
sx rr/s
r (r1)(rr/s)
= x
s
r r/s1
= x
s
(1, 1)
82
It is best to graph x 2 + y 2 = x 2 + y 2 + x using
polar coordinates.
Given that r 2 = x 2 + y 2 and r cos = x, we change
the equation to
r 2 = r + r cos
r(r 1 cos ) = 0
r = 0 gives the origin and thus, we graph
r = 1 + cos using the graphing utility.
Press 2nd format and select Polar Gc
Press mode and selct Pol
Press y = and input 1 + cos
In the viewing window, use min = 0, max = 2,
step = /24 and dimensions [1, 2].5 by
[1.5, 1.5].5
Using trace and zoom, it appears that a horizontal
tangent is approximately y = 1.23.
(c) y =
dy
(1 2x)(10x 3) (5x 2 3x + 2)(2)
=
dx
(1 2x)2
10x 20x 2 3 + 6x + 10x 2 6x + 4
dy
=
dx
(1 2x)2
dy
10x 2 + 10x + 1
=
(1 2x)2
dx
y
y 1.23
(d) y = (3 4x + 3x 2)3/2
dy
3
= (3 4x + 3x 2)1/2(4 + 6x)
dx
2
dy
= (9x 6)(3 4x + 3x 2)1/2
dx
.5
x
.5
5x 2 3x + 2
1 2x
0.84
2.
y 1.23
3.
5
(a) y = 3x 4 4 x + 2 7
x
y = 3x 4 4x 1/2 + 5x 2 7
dy
= 12x 3 2x 1/2 10x 3 0
dx
dy
10
2
= 12x 3 3
x
x
dx
y = x 2 2x + 1
dy
= 2x 2
Slope =
dx
When x = 1, y = (1)2 2(1) + 1 = 4 and
dy
= 2(1) 2 = 4. The equation of the tangent
dx
line is
y 4 = 4(x + 1), or y = 4x
4.
f (x) =
x+1
1 5x
83
(1 5x)(1) (x + 1)(5)
(1 5x)2
1 5x + 5x + 5
6
f (x) =
=
2
(1 5x)
(1 5x)2
6
3
=
f (1) =
2
8
(1 5)
f (x) =
5.
8.
Q Q(L)L
Q(2401) =
6.
T (3)
58
2.98%
= 100
1947
T (3)
s(t) = 2t 3 3t 2 + 2, t 0
(a) v(t) = s (t) = 6t 2 6t
a(t) = s (t) = 12t 6
(b) When stationary, v(t) = 0
Q
375
75,000
(200) =
,
7
7
S = 0.2029w 0.425
dS
dw
= (0.2029)(0.425)w 0.575
dt
dt
(0.2029)(0.425)
=
(0.13) 0.001586,
(30)0.575
or increasing at a rate of 0.001586 m2 per week.
10. (a)
4
V (r) = r 3
3
V (r) = 4 r 2
V (0.75) = 4(0.75)2
= 2.25
7.069 cm3 per cm
6t 2 6t = 0
6t (t 1) = 0, or t = 0, 1
When 0 < t < 1, v(t) < 0, so retreating
t > 1, v(t) > 0, so advancing.
(c) s(1) s(0) + s(2) s(1)
= 1+ 5 = 6
375
(2401)1/4
Since L = 200,
4
(b) V = r 3
3
Want 100 V
V 8, where V V (r)r,
2
V (r) = 4 r and r = a r, where a
represents the % error in the measure of r
(as a decimal).
100
7.
C(x) = 0.04x 2 + 5x + 73
(a) C (x) = 0.08x + 5
C (5) = 0.08(5) + 5 = 5.4, or $540 per unit
(b) C(6) C(5) = 104.44 99 = 5.44, or $544
375
L1/4
375
=
7
Q(L) = 375L1/4 =
Q = 500L3/4
100
V
8
V
4 r 2 ar
8
4 3
r
3
8
100a
3
8
or % error in the measurement of r.
3
84
Review Problems
1.
f (x) = (3x + 1) 6x + 5
11.
f (x) = x 2 3x + 1
f (x + h) f (x)
=
h
(x + h)2 3(x + h) + 1 (x 2 3x + 1)
+ (6x + 5)1/2(3)
3(3x + 1)
+ 3(6x + 5)1/2
=
(6x + 5)1/2
3(3x + 1) + 3(6x + 5)
=
(6x + 5)1/2
27x + 18
=
(6x + 5)1/2
9(3x + 2)
=
6x + 5
h
=
=
x2
+ 2xh + h2
3x 3h + 1 x 2 + 3x + 1
h
2xh + h2 3h
= 2x + h 3
h
f (x) = lim 2x + h 3 = 2x 3
h0
3.
f (x) = 6x 4 7x 3 + 2x +
13. y =
5.
y=
2 x2
.
3x 2 + 1
+ 1)(2x) (2
(3x 2 + 1)2
14x
=
(3x 2 + 1)2
dy
=
dx
(3x 2
1/2
1 2x
1 2x
=
3x + 2
3x + 2
1/2
dy
1 1 2x
=
dx
2 3x + 2
(3x + 2)(2) (1 2x)(3)
(3x + 2)2
7
1 (3x + 2)1/2
1/2
2 (1 2x)
(3x + 2)2
7
=
1/2
2(1 2x) (3x + 2)3/2
=
x 2)(6x)
4
x3
4
f (x) =
(x 3)2
f (x) =
15.
7.
9.
2
1
5
y= x+
x
3x
5
= (x + x 1)2 x 1/2
3
5
dy
= 2(x + x 1)(1 x 2) + x 3/2
dx
2 3
5
1
1
1 2 +
=2 x+
x
x
2 3x 3/2
f (1) = 2.
The slope of the tangent line at (1, 2) is f (1) = 1.
The equation of the tangent line is
y + 2 = (x 1), or y = x 1
17. f (x) =
x 2 + 5 = (x 2 + 5)1/2
1
x
f (x) = (x 2 + 5)1/2(2x) =
2
2
x +5
f (2) = 3. The slope of the tangent line at (2, 3)
is f (2) = 2/3.
Review Problems
85
dx
du dx
= 2(u + 1) 1 = 2(u + 1)
Since u = 1 x,
dy
= 2 [(1 x) + 1]
dx
= 2(2 x)
(b) y =
21. (a)
25. (a)
(b)
f (1)
4
= 400%
= 100
1
f (1)
1
f (t) =
= (t + 1)1
t +1
1
f (t) = (t + 1)2 =
(t + 1)2
1
f (0) =
= 1
(0 + 1)2
1
f (0) =
=1
0+1
100
f (0)
1
= 100%
= 100
1
f (0)
y = u3 4u2 + 5u + 2, u = x 2 + 1.
dy
du
= 2x,
= 3u2 8u + 5,
dx
du
dy
dy du
=
du dx
dx
When x = 1, u = 2, and so
dy
= [3(22) 8(2) + 5][2(1)] = 2
dx
= u1/2, u = 2x + 1
du
1
dy
=2
= u3/2,
2
dx
du
dy
dy du
=
dx
du dx
1
1
= 3/2 2 = 3/2
2u
u
1
f (t) = (t 2 3t + 6)1/2(2t 3)
2
2t 3
=
2(t 2 3t + 6)1/2
2(1) 3
1
f (1) =
=
4
2 12 3(1) + 6
1
u
(b)
y=
u = u1/2,
u = x 2 + 2x 4,
1
dy
=
,
du 2u1/2
du
= 2x + 2,
dx
dy du
dy
=
dx
du dx
When x = 2, u = 4, and so
dy
3
1
[2(2) + 2] =
=
dx
2(4)1/2
2
86
(c)
1/2
u1
, u = x 1 = (x 1)1/2
u+1
1/2
1 u1
(u + 1)(1) (u 1)(1)
dy
=
du 2 u + 1
(u + 1)2
y=
(u + 1)1/2
2
1/2
2(u 1)
(u + 1)2
1
=
1/2
(u 1) (u + 1)3/2
du
1
1
= (x 1)1/2(1) =
dx
2
2(x 1)1/2
dy du
dy
=
dx
du dx
34
5
34
1 = , and so
When x = , u =
9
9
3
=
1
1
dy
=
3/2
1/2
1/2
dx
5
5
34
+1
1
1
2
3
3
9
1
1
= 1/2 3/2
5
8
2
2
3
3
3
1
3
= 1/2
1/2
10
512
2
=
1/2
3
10
1024
81
9 3
27
=
=
32 10 310
27. (a)
f (x) = 4x 3 3x
f (x) = 12x 2 3
f (x) = 24x
(b)
= 8(x + 4)2(x + 1)
f (x) = 8[(x + 4)2(1) + (x + 1) 2(x + 4)(1)]
= 8(x + 4)[(x + 4) + 2(x + 1)]
= 8(x + 4)(3x + 6)
= 24(x + 4)(x + 2)
(c) f (x) = x 1
(x + 1)2
(x + 1)2(1) (x 1) 2(x + 1)(1)
[(x + 1)2]2
(x + 1)[(x + 1) 2(x 1)]
=
(x + 1)4
3x
=
(x + 1)3
f (x) =
f (x) =
29. (a) x 2y = 1,
dy
+ y(2x) = 0
dx
dy
2xy
2y
= 2 =
dx
x
x
x2
27
= 2(x + 4)2(4x + 4)
dy
+ y 3 2
5(1 2xy 3)4 2x 3y 2
dx
dy
= 1+ 4
dx
dy
10y 3(1 2xy 3)4
30xy 2(1 2xy 3)4
dx
dy
= 1+ 4
dx
3
dy
1 + 10y (1 2xy 3)4
=
dx
30xy 2(1 2xy 3)4 4
Review Problems
31. (a)
87
x 2 + 2y 3 =
3
, (1, 1)
xy
x 2 + 2y 3 = 3(xy)1
dy
= 3(xy)2
dx
dy
3
x dx
2 dy
2x + 6y
=
dx
(xy)2
2x + 6y 2
When x = 1 and y = 1
dy
dx
dy
2+6
dx
dy
9
dx
dy
dx
2(1) + 6(1)2
dy
+y1
x
dx
+y
3 1
dy
dx
33. 3x 2 2y 2 = 6,
dy
3x
dy
= 0, or
=
dx
dx
2y
dy
dy
3y 3x
2y(3)
3x
2
2
dx
d y
dx
=
=
2y 2
dx 2
(2y)2
6x 4y
+1
Since
(1 1)2
dy
= 3
3
dx
d 2y
=
dx 2
x+y
xy ,
3y 3x
3x
2y
2y 2
6y 2 9x 2
4y 3
= 5
6y 2 9x 2 = 3(2y 2 3x 2)
5
=
9
= 3(3x 2 2y 2) = 3(6) = 18
dy
3x
=
dx
2y
and so
9
d 2y
18
= 3 = 3
2y
dx 2
4y
(6, 2)
dy
dx
dy
dx
(x + y) 1
(x y) 1 +
dy
=
dx
(x y)2
dy
dy
dy
dy
x
+
y
y
x
+
x
dx
dx
dx
dx
dy
=
2
(x y)
dx
dy
2y
2x dx
dy
=
dx
(x y)2
When x = 6 and y = 2,
dy
dx
dy
16
dx
dy
4
dx
dy
dx
dy
2(2)
2(6) dx
(6 2)2
dy
4
= 12
dx
= 4
= 1
(a)
37. s(t) =
=
dy
4
12 dx
16
P (t) = 3t 2 + 18t + 48
(a)
2t + 1
for 0 t 4
t 2 + 12
v(t) =
2t 2 2t + 24
(t 2 + 12)2
2(t + 4)(t 3)
=
(t 2 + 12)2
=
88
a(t) =
(t 2 + 12)2(4t 2)
(t 2 + 12)4
(t 2 + 12)4
2
(t + 12)(2t + 1)
= 2(t 2 + 12)
(t 2 + 12)4
(2t 2 2t + 24)(2t)
+
(t 2 + 12)4
=
Now, for 0 t 4,
v(t) = 0 when t = 3 and a(t) = 0.
When 0 t < 3, v(t) > 0 and a(t) < 0, so the
object is advancing and decelerating.
When 3 < t 4, v(t) < 0 and a(t) < 0, so the
object is retreating and decelerating.
(b) The distance for 0 < t < 3 is
1
1 1
s(3) s(0) = =
3 12
4
The distance for 3 < t < 4 is
9
s(4) s(3) =
28
1
1
=
3
84
Q(L) = 20,000L1/2
Q Q(L)L
10,000
Q(L) = 10,000L1/2 =
L
10,000 1,000
=
Q(900) =
3
900
L = 885 900 = 15
1,000
(15) = 5,000,
Q
3
or a decrease in output of 5,000 units.
43. Let A be the level of air pollution and p be the
population.
A = kp 2, where k is a constant of proportionality
A A(p)p
A(p) = 2kp and p = .05p, so
A (2kp)(0.05p)
= 0.1kp 2 = 0.1A,
or a 10% increase in air pollution.
45. D = 36m1.14
(a) D = 36(70)1.14 0.2837 individuals per
square kilometer.
(b) (0.2837 individuals/km2)(9.2 106)km2
2.61 million people.
(c) The ideal population density would be
36(30)1.14 0.7454 animals/km2
Since the area of the island is 3,000 km2, the
number of animals on the island for the ideal
population density would be
(0.7454 animals/km2)(3,000 km2)
2,235 animals.
Since the animal population is given by
P (t) = 0.43t 2 + 13.37t + 200,
this population is reached when
2236 = 0.43t 2 + 13.37t + 200
0 = 0.43t 2 + 13.37t 2036
or, using the quadratic formula, when t 55
years. The rate the population is changing at this
time is P (55), where P (t) = 0.86t + 13.37, or
0.86(55) + 13.37 = 60.67 animals per year.
L
Q
47. Need 100
, given that 100
= 1%,
L
Q
Review Problems
89
Q/(L)L
= 1,
Q(L)
A(r) = 2 r
400
L1/3
600L2/3
3
L
= , or 1.5%
=
400
L
(L) 2
L1/3
2 AC
100 dA = 100
F
kD 2 A C
50
=
%
(A C)
200K 1/2
L2/3
200K 1/2
(0.02L)
Q
L2/3
100
= 100
Q
600K 1/2L1/3
0.67%
90
P
, where P P (t)t
P
6
(t + 1)2
1
The next quarter year is from t = 0 to t = , so
4
1
P (0) = 14, P (0) = 6 and t = .
4
(6) 41
P
= 100
10.7%
100
P
14
61.
65,340
dD
= 32,670(2p + 1)2(2) =
dp
(2p + 1)2
dp
= 0.06t 1/2
dt
Now,
Need 100
(a)
dD
when t = 25.
dt
dD dp
dD
=
dp dt
dt
59. P (t) = 20
s(t) = 88t 8t 2
v(t) = s (t) = 88 16t
The car is stopped when v(t) = 0, so
0 = 88 16t, or t = 5.5 seconds.
=
dx dt
dt
dC
1.5
= 0.06 + 1.5x 1/2 = 0.06 +
x
dx
1.5
dC
= 0.06 +
(11)
dt
2,500
= 0.99 hundred,
or decreasing at a rate of $99 per month.
Review Problems
91
4
V (r) = r 3
3
V (r) = 4r 2
V (4.25) = 4(4.25)2 = 72.25
V = (72.25)(0.125) 28.37 in3
69. Let the length of string be the hypotenuse of the
right triangle formed by the horizontal and vertical
distance of the kite from the childs hand. Then,
s 2 = x 2 + (80)2
dx
ds
= 2x
2s
dt
dt
dx
dx
2x
x
ds
dt = dt
=
dt
2s
s
When s = 100, (100)2 = x 2 + (80)2, or x = 60
ds
(60)(5)
=
= 3, or increasing at a rate of 3 feet
dt
100
per second.
71. Need
When y = 6, x 2 + 36 = 100, or x = 8.
dy
= 3,
Since
dt
(6)(3)
dx
= 2.25,
=
8
dt
or increasing at a rate of 2.25 feet per second.
8325.
ds
(15)(20)
=
3.29,
dt
8325
or decreasing at a rate of 3.29 feet per second.
75. Let x be the distance from point P to the object.
V = ktx
When t = 5 and x = 20, V = 4, so
4 = k(5)(20), or k =
Since a = V ,
1
25
dx
+x1
a=k t
dt
1
8
a = (5 4 + 20) = ft/sec2
5
25
dx
.
dt
x 2 + y = (10)2
dx
dy
=0
2x
+ 2y
dt
dt
dy
dy
y
2y
dx
dt =
dt
=
2x
x
dt
y
as x .
y
y = mx + b
y = m
100
m
y
= 100
y
mx + b
92
y f (x)
x
0
2
y f (x)
20
x3
2x
y=
x3
2x
x2
x
0
10
20
5
2
10
Chapter 3
Increasing and
Decreasing Functions;
Relative Extrema
2x 4 < 0, or x < 2
f (x) = x 3 3x 4
11.
1.
3.
5.
7.
9.
f (x)
g(t) = t 5 5t 4 + 100
13.
f (t) =
1
= (4 t 2)1, defined for t = 2, 2
4 t2
f (t) = (4 t 2)2(2t)
2t
2t
=
=
2
2
[(2 + t)(2 t)]2
(4 t )
f (x) = x 2 4x + 5
f (x) = 2x 4
f is increasing when f (x) > 0
f (t) = 0 when t = 0
2x 4 > 0, or x > 2
93
94
When
21.
f (x) =
When
17. h(u) =
9 u2 = (9 u )
2 1/2
h (u) = 0 when u = 0
When
19.
1
x+1
x + = x 1/2 + x 1/2 = ,
x
x
9
= x + 9x 1 =
x
defined when x = 0
F (x) = x +
x2
+9
,
x
9
x2 9
=
2
x
x2
(x + 3)(x 3)
=
x2
F (x) = 0 when x = 3, 3
F (x) = 1 9x 2 = 1
When
f (t) = 2t 3 + 6t 2 + 6t + 5
25.
27.
g (x) = 0 when x = 1
When
29.
f (t) =
t2
t
+3
When
(t 2 + 3)(1) (t)(2t)
3 t2
f (t) =
= 2
2
2
(t + 3)
(t + 3)2
f (t) = 0 when t = 3
When
t < 3, f (t) < 0 so f decreasing
3
When x = 3, f 3 =
and the point
6
3
3,
is a relative minimum.
6
3
When x = 3, f ( 3) =
and the point
6
3
is a relative maximum.
3,
6
31.
95
t2
t2
=
2
t + t 2 (t + 2)(t 1)
defined for t = 2, 1
h(t) =
When
x = 0, f (x) = 0 so f levels
0 < x < 2, f (x) < 0 so f decreasing
x = 2, f (x) = 0 so f levels
x > 0, f (x) > 0 so f increasing.
The point (0, 0) is a relative maximum and the point
(2, 4) is a relative minimum.
(t 2 + t 2)(2t) (t 2)(2t + 1)
(t 2 + t 2)2
t (t 4)
= 2
(t + t 2)2
h(t) =
h(t) = 0 when t = 0, 4
x
1
s(t) = (t 2 1)4
s (t) = 4(t 2 1)3(2t) = 8t [(t + 1)(t 1)]3
s (t) = 0 when t = 1, 0, 1
(2, 4)
37. f (x) = 3x 4 8x 3 + 6x 2 + 2
When
96
When
t = 3, f (t) = 0 so f levels
t = 3, f (t) = 0 so f levels
When
x = 0, f (x) = 0 so f levels
0 < x < 1, f (x) > 0 so f increasing
x = 1, f (x) = 0 so f levels
x > 1, f (x) > 0 so f increasing.
The point (0, 2) is a relative minimum, but the point
(1, 3) is not a relative extremum.
y
(0, 2)
3
The point 3,
is a relative minimum and
6
3
the point
3,
is a relative maximum.
6
(1, 3)
x
y
(1.73, 0.29)
t
39. f (t) = 2t 3 + 6t 2 + 6t + 5
f (t) = 6t 2 + 12t + 6 = 6(t + 1)2
f (t) = 0 when t = 1
(1.73, 0.29)
When
t = 1, f (t) = 0 so f levels
t > 1, f (t) > 0 so f increasing.
The point (1, 3) is not a relative extremum.
y
(0, 5)
43. f (x) = 3x 5 5x 3 + 4
f (x) = 15x 4 15x 2 = 15x 2(x + 1)(x 1)
f (x) = 0 when x = 1, 0, 1
When
(1, 3)
41.
g(t) =
t2
t
+3
3 t2
(t 2 + 3)(1) (t)(2t)
=
(t 2 + 3)2
t2 + 3
g (t) = 0 when t = 3, 3
g (t) =
97
y
(1, 6)
6
y
(0, 4)
(1, 2)
x
x
0
When
47. f (x) =
When
51. When
x < 2, f is decreasing and graph of f is below
xaxis
x = 2, f levels and graph of f crosses the xaxis
2 < x < 5, f is increasing and graph of f is above
xaxis
x = 5, f levels and graph of f touches xaxis
x > 5, f is increasing and graph of f is above
xaxis.
y
x
0
98
(a)
A(x) =
When 0 x <
10
, R (x) > 0 so R increasing
9
10
x = , R (x) = 0 so R levels
9
10
< x 3, R (x) < 0 so R decreasing.
9
The point (1.11, 49.38) is a relative maximum, so
revenue is maximized when approximately 1.11
hundred, or 111 units are produced.
y
(10, 49.38)
9
R(x)
R(x)
10
9
10
3
dR
dx
242
= 102
11
0.15t
+ 0.81
Note that, since degree numerator < degree of
denominator, y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote.
57. C(t) =
t2
C (t) =
(t 2 + 0.81)(0.15) (0.15t)(2t)
(t 2 + 0.81)2
0.15t 2 + 0.1215
(t 2 + 0.81)2
C (t) = 0 when t = 0.9
When 0 < t < 0.9, C (t) > 0 so C increasing
t = 0.9, C (t) = 0 and C levels
t > 0.9, C (t) < 0 and C decreasing.
The point (0.9, 0.083) is a relative maximum, so the
maximum concentration occurs when t = 0.9 hours.
99
(a)
(0.9, 0.083)
M (r) =
500 80r 2r 2
10,000(1 + 0.004r 2)2
59.
S(x) = 2x 3 + 27x 2
+ 132x + 207, 0 x 17
(a)
S (x) = 0 when x = 2, 11
When 0 x < 11, S (x) > 0 and S is increasing
x = 11, S (x) = 0 and S is levels
11 < x 17, S (x) < 0 and S is decreasing.
The point (11, 2264) is a relative maximum.
(80)2 (4)(2)(500)
2(2)
r 5.495 (rejecting the negative answer)
r=
80
M(5.495) =
2,000
1 + 0.05(5.495)
1.137
1 + 0.004(5.495)2
1,000
x
0
10
61. M(r) =
1 + 0.05r
1 + 0.004r 2
still living
per fish
100
Y (t) = 300
31
31 + t
(3 + t 0.05t 2)
(23.58, 85.81)
+(3 + t 0.05t 2) (31 + t)2(1)
1 0.1t
3 + t 0.05t 2
= 9,300
(31 + t)2
31 + t
(30, 64)
(15, 46.75)
29 3.1t 0.05t 2
= 9,300
(31 + t)2
Y (t) = 0 when t 8.3
When
0 t < 8.3, Y (t) > 0 and Y is increasing
t = 8.3, Y (t) = 0 and Y levels
8.3 < t 10, Y (t) < 0 and Y is decreasing.
1,000
t
0
10
67.
2 1
x
0 1
f (x) = ax 3 + bx 2 + cx + d
73.
101
f (x) = 0 when x = 2, so
0 = 3a(2) + 2b(2) + c
0 = 12a 4b + c
f (x) = 0 when x = 1, so
3
f (x) = x 2/5
5
3
= 2/5
5x
0 = 3a(1)2 + 2b(1) + c
0 = 3a + 2b + c
3
So, 12a 4b + c = 3a + 2b + c, or b = a.
2
Now, f (2) = 8 so
3
8 = a(2) + a(2)2 + c(2) + d
2
8 = 8a + 6a 2c + d
8 = 2a 2c + d
or, d = 8 + 2a + 2c
10
10
Now, f (1) = 19 so
3
19 = a(1)3 + a(1)2 + c(1) + d
2
5
19 = a + c + (8 + 2a + 2c)
2
9
27 = a + 3c, or
2
1
9
3
c=
27 a = 9 a
3
2
2
Using
0 = 3a + 2b + c
3
3
a + 9 a
0 = 3a + 2
2
2
9
0 = a 9, or
2
3
a = 2, b = (2) = 3,
2
3
c = 9 (2) = 12,
2
d = 8 + 2(2) + 2(12) = 12
5
77. y = (x p)(x q)
y = (x p)(1) + (x q)(1)
= 2x p q
p+q
,
2
which is the midpoint of the segment PQ. So any
relative extremum occurs midway between its
intercepts.
102
2
20
y
1
y f (x)
x
0
0.5
1
y f (x)
1
2
(x + 1)2 + (y 4)2 = 10
1
f (x) = (1 x 1/2)1/2 1/2x 1/2
2
1
f (x) = 1/2
4x (1 x 1/2)1/2
10
5
x
0
3.2
103
1.
3.
5.
f (x) = x + 3x + x + 1
2
f (x) = 3x 2 + 6x + 1
f (x) = 6x + 6 = 6(x + 1)
f (x) = 0 when x = 1
When x < 1, f (x) < 0 so f is concave down
7.
1
= t 2 t 1
t
g (t) = 2t + t 2
g (t) = 2 2t 3 = 2
g (t) = 0 when t = 1
f (x) = 4x 3 18x 2 + 7
f (x) = 12x 2 36x = 12x(x 3)
f (x) = 0 when x = 0, 3
When x < 0, f (x) > 0 so f is concave up
0 < x < 3, f (x) < 0 so f is concave down
x > 3, f (x) > 0 so f is concave up.
Since the concavity changes at both critical values
x = 0 and x = 3, the points (0, 5) and (3, 65) are
inflection points.
1
f (x) = x 3 9x + 2
3
f (x) = x 2 9 = (x + 3)(x 3)
f (x) = 12x 2 + 8x + 1
9.
f (x) = x 4 6x 3 + 7x 5
2
2t 3 2 2(t 3 1)
=
=
t3
t3
t3
f (x) = 0 when x = 3, 3
f (x) = 2x
f (x) = 0 when x = 0
When x < 3, f (x) > 0 so f is increasing
f (x) < 0 so f is concave down
3 < x < 0, f (x) < 0 so f is decreasing
f (x) < 0 so f is concave down
0 < x < 3, f (x) < 0 so f is decreasing
f (x) > 0 so f is concave up
x > 3, f (x) > 0 so f is increasing
f (x) > 0 so f is concave up.
Overall, f is increasing for x < 3 and x > 3;
decreasing for 3 < x < 3; concave up for x > 0;
and concave down for x < 0.
The critical value x = 3 corresponds to the point
(3, 20), which is a relative maximum.
104
y
inf
(0, 10)
y
x
inf
(2, 6)
(3, 20)
inf
(0, 2)
(3, 17)
x
(3, 16)
17.
f (x) = (x 2)3
f (x) = 3(x 2)2(1)
15.
f (x) = x 4x + 10
f (x) = 0 when x = 2
f (x) = 6(x 2)
f (x) = 0 when x = 0, 3
f (x) = 0 when x = 2
inf
(2, 0)
(0, 8)
19.
105
f (x) = (x 2 5)3
f (x) = 0 when x = 5, 0, 5
f (x) = (6x) 2(x 2 5)(2x) + (x 2 5)2(6)
= 6(x 2 5) 4x 2 + x 2 5
inf
(5, 0)
f (x) = 0 when x = 5, 1, 1, 5
1< x <
5, so ( 5, 0) is an
= 6(x 2 5)(5x 2 5)
inf
(5, 0) x
inf
(1, 64)
inf
(1, 64)
(0, 125)
21.
The critical
value x = 5 corresponds to the
point ( 5, 0), which is not a relative extremum.
However,
the
concavity
changes
at
x
=
5, so
106
y
4
y
2
(0, 1)
inf
(4, 0)
x
5
inf
(2, 32)
(1, 54)
25. f (x) =
23.
g(x) =
f (x) = (x 2 + x + 1)2(2x + 1) =
x 2 + 1 = (x 2 + 1)1/2
f (x) = 0 when x =
1
x
g (x) = (x 2 + 1)1/2(2x) =
2
x2 + 1
g (x) = 0 when x = 0
1 2
(x + 1)1/2(2x)
(x 2 + 1)1/2(1) (x)
2
g (x) =
2
x2 + 1
(x 2 + 1)1/2
g (x) =
1
= (x 2 + x + 1)1
x2 + x + 1
(x 2 + x + 1)2
x2
(x 2 + 1)1/2 (x 2 + 1)1/2
2
x2 + 1
(x + 1)1/2
x2 + 1 x2
1
= 2
= 2
3/2
(x + 1)
(x + 1)3/2
When x < 0, g (x) < 0 so g is decreasing
g (x) > 0 so g is concave up
1
2
f (x) =
(2x + 1)
(x 2 + x + 1)2
2
2
2 (x + x + 1) (2)
+ (2x + 1)(2)(x 2 + x + 1)(2x + 1)
2(x 2 + x + 1) (x 2 + x + 1) + (2x + 1)2
(x 2 + x + 1)4
6x(x + 1)
(x 2 + x + 1)3
f (x) = 0 when x = 1, 0
When x < 1, f (x) > 0 so f is increasing
f (x) > 0 so f is concave up
1
1 < x < , f (x) > 0 so f
2
f (x) < 0 so f
1
< x < 0, f (x) < 0 so f
2
f (x) < 0 so f
is increasing
is concave down
is decreasing
is concave down
107
1
Overall, f is increasing for x < ; decreasing for
2
1
x > ; concave up for x < 1 and x > 0; and
2
concave down for 1 < x < 0.
At x = 1, the concavity changes, so the point
(1, 1) is an inflection point. The
critical value
1
1 4
x = corresponds to the point ,
, which
2 3
2
is relative maximum. The concavity changes again
at x = 0, so the point (0, 1) is an inflection point.
18
x
18
x2
2(x 3)(x + 3)
=
x2
f (x) = 0 when x = 3, 3
f (x) = 2
f (x) =
36
x3
4
4
f (3) = < 0 and f (3) = > 0;
3
3
f (3) = 11, f (3) = 13.
So (3, 11) is a relative maximum,
(3, 13) is a relative minimum.
( 12 , 43)
(1, 1)
f (x) = 2x + 1 +
31.
(0, 1)
x
33.
f (x) = x 3 + 3x 2 + 1
27.
f (x) = 3x 2 + 6x = 3x(x + 2)
f (x) = 0 when x = 2, 0
f (x) = 6(x + 1)
f (0) = 6 > 0 and f (2) = 6 < 0,
and f (2) = 5 and f (0) = 1.
So (0, 1) is a relative minimum, and (2, 5) is a
relative maximum.
35.
h(t) =
2
= 2(1 + t 2)1
1 + t2
29.
f (x) = (x 9)
2
f (x) = 0 when x = 3, 0, 3
f (x) = 12(x 2 3)
f (3) = 72
and
f (3) = 72 > 0; f (3) = 0 and f (0) = 81.
So (0, 81) is a relative maximum, and
(3, 0), (3, 0) are relative minima.
h(t) =
=
=
108
37.
f (x) =
f (x) =
(x 2)3
x2
2
x 3(x 2)2(1) (x 2)3(2x)
x4
x(x 2)2 [3x 2(x 2)]
=
x4
(x 2)2(x + 4)
=
x3
f (x) = 0 when x = 4, 2
1
f (x) = 6 x 3 (x 2)2(1) + (x + 4)(2)(x 2)
x
(x 2)2(x + 4)(3x 2)
x 2(x 2) (x [(x 2) + 2(x + 4)] 3(x 2)(x + 4))
=
x6
24(x 2)
=
x4
43. f (x) = x 2 4x
(a) f (x) = x(x 4)
f (x) = 0 when x = 0, 4
When x < 0, f (x) > 0 so f is increasing
0 < x < 4, f (x) < 0 so f is decreasing
x > 4, f (x) > 0 so f is increasing.
(b) f (x) = 2x 4 = 2(x 2)
f (x) = 0 when x = 2
When x < 2, f (x) < 0 so f is concave down
x > 2, f (x) > 0 so f is concave up.
(c) at x = 0, there is a relative maximum;
at x = 4, there is a relative minimum;
at x = 2, there is an inflection point.
(d)
y
9
= < 0 and f (4) = 13.5. So,
16
(4, 13.5) is a relative maximum. f (2) = 0, so
the test fails.
f (4)
45. f (x) = 5 x 2
f (x) = 0 when 5, 5
(c) at x =
5, there is a relative minimum;
at x = 5, there is a relative maximum;
109
(d)
y
x
2
x
5
2
1
3
x
3
49.
1
53. (a)
110
400
C(x)
200
C(x)
(b)
10
20
10,000
30
2,000
x
10
50
111
61. M(r)
(a)
1 + 0.02r
1 + 0.009r 2
M r =
M (r) = (1 + 0.009r 2)2(0.018 0.00036r)
(1 + 0.009r 2)4
= 0.018(1 + 0.009r 2) (1 + 0.009r 2)(1 0.02r)
2r(0.02 0.018r 0.00018r 2)
(1 + 0.009r 2)4
= 0.018 1 0.06r + 0.0027r 2 + 0.00018r 3
(1 + 0.009r 2)3
(b) Press y = and input (1 + 0.02x) (1 +
0.009x 2) for y1 =.
Use window dimensions [0, 20]0.05 by
[0, 2]0.25.
Press graph .
St
12 + t 2
(12 + t 2)(5) (5t)(2t)
(a)
N (t) =
(12 + t 2)2
63. N (t) =
=
N (t) =
=
60 5t 2
(12 + t 2)2
(12 + t 2)2(10t) (60 5t 2) 2(12 + t 2)(2t)
(12 + t 2)4
2
2t (12 + t ) 5(12 + t 2) 2(60 5t 2)
(12 + t 2)4
5 12
N (3.46) =
0.7217
12 + 12
or 722 new cases.
=
112
M
, M 3A(t) > 0 and
3
R (t) > 0, so R is increasing.
M
When A(t) > , M 3A(t) < 0 and
3
R (t) < 0, so R is decreasing.
M
So, when A(t) = , the rate is the greatest.
3
(c) R (t) = A(t), so graph of A has an inflection
M
point when A(t) = .
3
dA
= k A(t) [M A(t)] , k > 0
dt
(a) R(t) = dA = k [A(t)]1/2 [M A(t)]
dt
dA
1/2
R (t) = k [A(t)]
dt
1
dA
+ (M A(t))
[A(t)]1/2
2
dt
1/2
dA
2
M
A(t)
[A(t)]
=k
+
[A(t)]1/2
dt
2 [A(t)]1/2 2 [A(t)]1/2
dA 2A(t) + M A(t)
=k
dt
2 [A(t)]1/2
dA M 3A(t)
=k
dt
2[A(t)]1/2
M
.
3
69.
f (x) = x 4 + x
f (x) = 4x 3 + 1
f (x) = 0 when x =
1
0.63
4
f (x) = 12x 2
f (x) = 0 when x = 0
When x < 0.63, f (x) < 0 so f is decreasing
f (x) > 0 so f is concave up
0.63 < x < 0, f (x) > 0 so f is increasing
f (x) > 0 so f is concave up
x > 0, f (x) > 0 so f is increasing
f (x) > 0 so f is concave up.
When x = 0.63, f has a relative minimum. When
x = 0, f does not have a relative extremum, nor
does f have an inflection point, as the concavity
does not switch.
f (0.63) 0.47; f (0) = 0
f
113
20
1
f (x) = x 3 x 2
6
1
g(x) = x 3 + x 2
6
10
10
Then,
1
f (x) = x 2 2x
2
f (x) = x 2,
20
(b)
f (x) = 12x + 6
10
10
f (x) = 6x 2 + 6x 12
10
2
3
24
30
114
3.3
1.
3.
Curve Sketching
5.
x2
x2
x2+
so x = 2 is a vertical asymptote
lim f (x) = 0, so y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote
x+
7.
x2+
lim
9.
115
so y = 3 is a horizontal asymptote.
so y = 1 is a horizontal asymptote.
13.
f (t) =
t 2 + 3t 5
t 2 + 3t 5
=
2
t 5t + 6 (t 2)(t 3)
5
3
1+ 2
t 2 + 3t 5
t
t = 1,
lim
= lim
5
6
x t 2 5t + 6
x
1 + 2
t
t
(2, 2)
inf.
(1, 0)
so y = 1 is a horizontal asymptote.
3
15.
1
1
1
1
=
= 2
x
x 1 x(x 1) x x
h(x) =
1
= 0,
x2 x
so y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote.
17. f (x) = x 3 + 3x 2 2
domain: all real numbers
intercepts
when x = 0, f (0) = 2; point (0, 2)
f (x) = 0 is too difficult to solve
asymptotes: no vertical or horizontal asymptotes
f (x) = 3x + 6x = 3x(x + 2)
2
f (x) = 0 when x = 2, 0
f (x) = 6x + 6 = 6(x + 1)
(0, 2)
f (x) = 0 when x = 1
116
inf.
x = 0.4
x
(2, 0)
(0, 0)
y
25
9)
21. f (x) = (2x
= (2x 1)2(x + 3)(x 3)
domain: all real numbers
intercepts:
when x = 0, f (0) = 9; point (0, 9)
1
f (x) = 0, x = , 3, 3; points
2
1
, 0 , (3, 0), (3, 0)
2
asymptotes: no vertical or horizontal asymptotes.
( 1 , 0)
2
1)2(x 2
inf.
x 1.5
inf.
x 0.98
(2, 125)
(2.25, 48.2)
117
1
2x + 3
domain: x = 23
intercepts:
23. f (x) =
f (x) = 1 +
2
(2x + 3)2
f (x) =
1
x2 + 1
=
x
x2
2
x3
8
(2x + 3)3
27.
25.
1 x 2 1 (x + 1)(x 1)
=
f (x) = x =
x
x
x
domain: x = 0
intercepts:
when x = 0, f (0) undefined
f (x) = 0, x = 1, 1; points (1, 0), (1, 0)
f (x) =
1
1
=
x 2 9 (x + 3)(x 3)
domain: x = 3, 3
intercepts:
118
f (x) = (x 2 9)2(2x) =
2x
(x 2 9)2
f (x) = 0 when x = 0
f (x) =
=
f (x) =
f (x) = 0 when x = 0
+ 3)
9)3
6(x 2
(x 2
f (x) =
20(3x 2 + 1)
(x 2 + 1)3
1
0,
is a relative maximum. Since f is
9
undefined for x = 3, 3, there are no other relative
extrema or inflection points.
y
1
1
f (x) = 0 when x = ,
3
3
1
When x < , f (x) < 0 so f is decreasing
3
x 3
(x 2 + 1)(2x) (x 2 9)(2x)
20x
= 2
2
2
(x + 1)
(x + 1)2
x3
1
< x < 0, f (x) < 0 so f is decreasing
3
f (x) > 0 so f is concave up
1
0 < x < , f (x) > 0 so f is increasing
3
f (x) > 0 so f is concave up
1
x > , f (x) > 0 so f is increasing
3
f (x) < 0 so f is concave down.
(0, 0.11)
x
y1
x
x 2 9 (x + 3)(x 3)
=
x2 + 1
x2 + 1
domain: all real numbers
intercepts:
when x = 0, f (0) = 9; point (0, 9)
f (x) = 0, x = 3, 3; points (3, 0), (3, 0)
29. f (x) =
inf.
x 0.58
inf.
x 0.58
(0, 9)
119
2
1
30
x
0
15
x
10
= x 2(x 2)(5x 6)
6
f (x) = 0 when x = 0, , 2
5
When x < 0, f (x) > 0 so f is concave up
x
0
120
y
y4
x+3
(x 2)2
x
x2
45.
C(x) = 3x 2 + x + 48
A(x) = 3x + 1 +
48 3x 2 + x + 48
=
x
x
f (x) = 0 when x = 8
f (x) is undefined when x = 2
50
48
y 3x 1
x
25
y 3x 1
x
0
lim
Ax 3
= lim
5
x
5 x
2
so A = 10.
3
x = A = 2 A = 4,
5 5
5
5
2
x
2
47. W (x) =
7.5
15
200x
100 x
121
20,000
(100 x)2
40,000
W (x) =
(100 x)3
W (x) =
=
=
2(27 + x 2) 7x(27 + x 2) 2x(189 7x 2)
(27 + x 2)4
2(567x + 7x 3)
(27 + x 2)3
5,000
2,500
x
0
50
100
200x
; 150,000 1500x = 200x;
100 x
x 88.2% will receive a new book, so
100 88.2 = 11.8% will not receive a new
book.
(b) 1500 =
7x
49. Q(x) =
27 + x 2
(a) domain: x 0
intercepts:
when x = 0, Q(0) = 0; point (0, 0)
Q(x) = 0, x = 0
asymptotes: the denominator is never zero, so
there are no vertical asymptotes
lim Q(x) = lim
x 27
x2
7
x
+1
=0
so y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote
Q(x) =
Q(x) =
t
1
122
90
T
10
t
2
t
1 3
55. T (t) = 36
t + 81 t 2 + 73 t 2
(a) domain: 0 t 12
intercepts: when t = 0, T (0) = 2; point
(0, 2)
xintercepts too difficult to find
asymptotes: none
7
1 2 1
t + t+
12
4
3
T (t) = 0 when
T (t) =
t 3t 28 = 0
(t + 4)(t 7) = 0
t = 7 (deleting negative solution)
1
1
T (t) = t +
6
4
T (t) = 0 when
2t 3 = 0
3
t=
2
3
When 0 t < , T (t) > 0 so T is increasing
2
T (t) > 0 so T is concave up
3
< t < 7, T (t) > 0 so T is increasing
2
T (t) < 0 so T is concave down
2
12
5
10.9 C.
57. S(t) =
100(t 2 3t + 25)
t 2 + 7t + 25
(a) domain: 0 t 10
intercepts:
when t = 0, S(0) = 100; point (0, 100)
f (x) = 0 for any x
asymptotes: there are no vertical asymptotes
y = 100 is a horizontal asymptote
S (t) =
100
(t 2 + 7t + 25)(2t 3)
(t 2 + 7t + 25)2
(t 2 3t + 25)(2t + 7)
1000(t 2 25)
1000(t + 5)(t 5)
= 2
2
2
(t + 7t + 25)2
(t + 7t + 25)
S (t) = 0 when t = 5
When 0 t < 5, S (t) < 0 so S is decreasing
5 < t 10, S (t) > 0 so S is increasing.
123
100
50
t
0
10
7,880
+ 4.25
x2
C (x) = 0 when x 43
x
0 30
65
2 1/3
x
3
2(2x 5) 10(x 1)
= 2x 2/3 +
=
3x 1/3
3x 1/3
10
10
= x 2/3 x 1/3
3
3
f (x) = 0 when x = 1
f (x) = (x 2/3)(2) + (2x 5)
20 1/3 10 4/3
+ x
x
9
9
10(2x + 1)
=
9x 4/3
1
f (x) = 0 when x =
2
f (x) =
124
When
x < 0.5, f (x) < 0 so f is concave down
y
10
x 1
x
10
20
x 1
x 1.01
x1
and let g(x) = 2
.
2
x 1
x 1
20
10
10
5
x1
(0, 1.01)
x
3.4
1.
Optimization
f (x) = x 2 + 4x + 5, 3 x 1
f (x) = 2x + 4 = 2(x + 2)
3.4 Optimization
125
1
f (x) = x 3 9x + 2, 0 x 2
3
f (x) = x 2 9 = (x + 3)(x 3)
f (x) = 0 when x = 3 and x = 3, which are not in
the interval.
f (0) = 2, which is the absolute maximum and
40
f (2) = , which is the absolute minimum.
3
5.
f (t) = 3t 5t , 2 t 0
5
1
, x>0
x
1
f (x) = 2
x
f (x) =
13.
f (x) = (x 2 4)5, 3 x 2
1
,u>0
u
1
u2 1 (u + 1)(u 1)
=
f (u) = 1 2 =
u
u2
u2
f (u) = u +
11.
f (x) =
15.
1 1
, x3
x 2
1
x 2 1 (x + 1)(x 1)
=
g (x) = 1 2 =
x
x2
x2
g(x) = x +
1
, x0
x+1
f (x) = (x + 1)2(1) =
1
(x + 1)2
126
= q 3 2q 2 + 175q 162
P (q) = 3q 2 4q + 175
P (q) = 0 when q = 7 (rejecting negative
solution), so profit is maximized when 7 units
are produced.
p
(7, 622)
C(q)
p
(20, 250)
(0, 180)
P(q)
C(q)
(20, 9)
7
q
R(q)
(0, 162)
(b)
(b)
R(q)
(0, 5)
(0, 49)
(0, 4)
P(q)
(7, 152)
200
C(q) 1
= q +4+
q
8
q
1 200
A(q) = 2
8
q
A(q) =
162
C(q)
= q2 + 5 +
q
q
162
A(q) = 2q 2
q
A(q) =
A(q) = 0
p
C(q)
A(q)
p
A(q)
C(q)
(0, 5)
(40, 14)
(0, 4)
4.327
40
(a)
q2 + 1
q +3
q 2 + 6q 1
(q + 3)2
3.4 Optimization
127
q2 + 1
q +3
1
[0.0025q 3 + 0.055q 2 + 3.1875q 1]
q +3
1
P (q) =
(q + 3)
(q + 3)2
=
+0.0025q 3 0.055q 2 3.1875q + 1
1
0.005q 3
=
(q + 3)2
+0.0325q 2 + 0.33q + 10.5625
Press y = and input P , R , and C for y1 =,
y2 =, and y3 =, respectively.
Use window dimensions [0, 45]5 by [0, 3]0.5
Press graph
Use the maximum function under the calc menu
to find the relative maximum of P occurs at
x = 17.3361.
y = A(q)
y = C(q)
1
23.
p
4
P(q)
2
(17.3, 0.98)
1.4
D(p) = 1.3p + 10
p dD
E(p) =
D(p) dp
p
=
(1.3)
1.3p + 10
1.3(4)
13
E(4) =
=
1.3(4) + 10
12
E(4) > 1, so the demand is elastic.
C(q)
R(q)
q
20
40
25.
(b)
q2 + 1
C(q)
=
q
q(q + 3)
1
2q(q 2 + 3q)
A(q) = 2
(q + 3q)2
(q 2 + 1)(2q + 3)
A(q) =
3q 2 2q 3
(q 2 + 3q)2
D(p) = 200 p 2
p dD
E(p) =
D(p) dp
p
(2p)
E(p) =
200 p 2
E(10) =
2(10)2
= 2
200 (10)2
128
3,000
100
p
p dD
E(p) =
D(p) dp
D(p) =
27.
p
E(p) =
3,000
100
p
128
= 4q + 68
q
128
= 2q
q
2q + 68
3,000
2
p
p
3,000
2
3,000 100p
p
p
p2
3,000
=
2
100(30 p)
p
30
=
30 p
30
3
E(10) =
=
30 10
2
=
64 = q 2
q = 8 units
(c) AP (q) = 2q + 68
AP (q) = 2 +
0 = 2 +
2=
f (x) = 4x x
To maximize
128
q2
on the interval 1 x 4,
f (x) = 4 2x = 2(2 x)
128
q2
q 2 = 64
q =8
f 
128
q2
AP (q) = 0 when
128
q
f (x) = 0 when x = 2
Now,
f (2) = 4 = 4
68
f (1) =  5 = 5
y P(q)
f (4) = 0 = 0
y A(q)
P (q)
q
AP (q) = 2q + 68
marginal profit is P
28
P (q) = 4q + 68
17
32
3.4 Optimization
129
dq
dq
+ (3p)
+ (q)(3) = 0
dp
dp
dq
3q
=
2q + 3p
dp
p dq
E(p) =
q dp
D(p) = q
2q
So,
E(p) =
S (r) = 2cr
S (r) = 0 when r = 0
(the lefthand endpoint of the interval)
With S(0) = cR 2 and S(r) = 0, the speed of the
blood is greatest when r = 0, that is, at the central
axis.
39. q 2 + 3pq = 22
(a) Using implicit differentiation,
3q
2q + 3p
=
3p
2q + 3p
225 p 250
F (p) = 0
p
q
(b)
p
p dq
=
(2)
q dp
500 2p
p
=
250 p
p
p
= 1
= 1 when
250 p
250 p
E(p) =
130
1
43. E(v) = [0.074(v 35)2 + 22]
v
(a)
1
[0.148(v 35)(1)]
v
1
2
+ 0.074(v 35) + 22
v2
E (v) =
1
1
0.148v 5.18 (0.074v 2 5.18v + 112.65)
v
v
1
112.65
=
0.148v 5.18 0.074v + 5.18
v
v
1
112.65
=
0.074v
v
v
=
0.074v
v 2 1522.3
v 39
112.65
1
E (v) =
0.074 +
v
v2
112.65
1
+ 0.074v
2
v
v
E (39) > 0, so there is an absolute minimum
when v = 39.
(b) Writing ExerciseAnswers will vary.
45. The relationship between the number of Moppsy
dolls and Floppsy dolls is given by
y=
82 10x
10 x
2C(82 10x)
10 x
164 10x x 2
=C
10 x
C
(10 x)(10 2x)
R (x) =
(10 x 2)
(164 10x x 2)(1)
2
x 20x + 64
=C
(10 x)2
(x 16)(x 4)
=C
(10 x)2
R(x) = Cx +
3.4 Optimization
49.
131
R(D) = D 2
C
D
2
3
=
C 2 1 3
D D
2
3
53. (a)
R(x) = P (x) = A
R (D) = CD D 2
R (D) = C 2D
C
2
R (D) = 2
C
C
is negative, D =
is a
Since R
2
2
maximum for sensitivity. The sensitivity when
C
D = is
2
2
C
C
C
C2
=C
=
R
2
2
2
4
(b) R (x) =
A(B + x m)nx m1
(B + x m)(1 m)
(B + x m)3
2(B + (1 m)x m)
Amx m1 B(1 + m) + x m(1 m)
=
(B + x m)3
1/m
B(m + 1)
R (x) = 0 when x =
m1
=
C
is
2
2
C/2
C
C
C
=
R
3
2
2
2
C3
12
B(m + 1)
when 0 < x <
m1
E 2R
E
2
,
P
(r)
=
I
R
=
I=
r + R
(r + R)2
51.
E 2(r R)
(r + R)3
When R = 0, P (0) = 0
P (R) = 0 when R = r
0 < R < r, P (R) > 0 so P is increasing
1/m
A
(B + x m)2[m(1 m)x m1]
(B + x m)4
[B + (1 m)x m][2(B + x m)(mx m1)]
Ax
B + xm
(B + x m) mxx m1
(B + x m)2
A[B + (1 m)x m]
=
(B + x m)2
1/m
B
R(x) = 0 when x =
m1
R (D) = 0 when D =
P (x) =
55. (a)
S(r) = ar 2(r0 r)
F (r) = r 2S(r) = a(r0r 4 r 5), 0 r r0
132
F (r) = a(4r0r 3 5r 4)
(b)
3.5
= a r (4r0 5r)
3
4
F (r) = 0 when r = r0
5
F (0) = F (r0) = 0, and F
so F (r) is maximized for r =
4r0
5
1.
> 0,
4r0
.
5
E(p) =
1
f (x) = 0 when x =
2
1
<0
f (x) = 2, so f
2
p
ap
p dq
=
(a) =
q dp
b ap
ap b
ap
E(p) = 1 when
= 1,
ap b
b
ap
= 1, or p =
or when
ap b
2a
(b)
57. q = b ap
(a)
Additional Applied
Optimization
b
, so demand is inelastic
2a
b
2a
b
, so demand is elastic
E(p) > 1 when p >
2a
b
b
<p
when
2a
a
when 0 p <
P = xy, or since y = 50 x,
P (x) = x(50 x) = 50x x 2
which is the function to be maximized.
P (x) = 50 2x
a
59. q = m = ap m
p
The elasticity of demand is
p dq
q dp
p
(amp m1)
=
a/p m
p m+1
am
=
m+1 = m
p
a
P (x) = 0 when x = 25
P (x) = 2, so P (25) < 0
and there is a relative maximum when x = 25.
Further, since P (x) < 0 for all x in the domain
0 < x < 50, it is the absolute maximum. So, x = 25
and y = 50 25 = 25 are the desired numbers.
E(p) =
When
0 < m < 1, E(p) < 1 and demand is inelastic
m = 1 E(p) = 1 and demand is of unit elasticity
m > 1, E(p) > 1 and demand is elastic.
5.
133
P (x) = 5 6x
5
P (x) = 0 when x =
6
5
P (x) = 6, so P
<0
6
and there is a relative maximum when x = 65 .
Further, since P (x) < 0 for all x in the domain
x 0, it is the absolute maximum. So, the selling
price for maximum profit is 40 + 65 $41.
7.
y (x) = 160 8x
y (x) = 0 when x = 20
y (x) = 8, so y (20) < 0
and there is a relative maximum when x = 20.
Further, since y (x) < 0 for all x in the domain
x 0, it is the absolute maximum. So, the yield is
maximized when there are 60 + 20 = 80 trees per
acre.
9.
P (x) = 2x + 2
3,600
x
3,600
x
= 2x +
7,200
x
C 2x
2
134
and
A(x) = x
C 2x
2
=
C
x x2
2
17. Let x be the length of the side of the square base and
y be the height of the box. The volume of the box is
V = x 2y
The cost of the four sides is
C
A(x) = 2x
2
C
A(x) = 0 when x =
4
C
<0
A(x) = 2, so A
4
and there is a relative maximum when x = C4 .
Further, since A(x) < 0 for all x in the domain
0 < x < C2 , it is the absolute maximum. When
x = C4 , y = C4 . So for any given perimeter, a square
is the rectangle having the maximum area.
15. Let x be the length of the rectangle and let y be the
vertical distance above the rectangle along the side
of length 5. Then, 5 y is the width of the rectangle.
The area of the rectangle is
A = x(5 y)
By similar triangles,
12 x
5
= , or y = x
12
5
y
and
5
5
A(x) = x 5 x = 5x x 2
12
12
48 4x 2
4 x
=
12x
x
3
and
V (x) = x 2
4 x
x
3
1
= 4x x 3
3
ds
x 2 + 322
ts =
=
48
rs
The time the jeep drives on the road is given by
tr =
dr
16 x
=
rr
80
48 x 2 + 1024 80
T (x) =
T (x) = 0 when
1
0=
2
48 x + 1024 80
1
x
=
80 48 x 2 + 1024
5
x 2 + 1024 = x
3
25
x 2 + 1024 = x 2
9
16 2
1024 = x
9
x
576 = x 2
x = 24
Since the maximum value of x is 16, disregard this
answer and check the endpoints (0 x 16).
T (0) 0.867 hrs
T (16) 0.745 hrs
So, the minimum time to reach the power plant is
0.745 hours, or approx. 44.7 minutes (making the
trip entirely in the sand). Since he has 50 minutes to
deliver the ransom, he can make it in time.
135
25x
x2
20 =
+ 1,440,000
25x
20
x 2 + 1,440,000
5
x 2 + 1,440,000 = x
4
25
x 2 + 1,440,000 = x 2
16
9
1,440,000 = x 2
16
2,560,000 = x 2
x = 1600
Since the maximum value of x is 1500, disregard
this answer and check the endpoints (0 x 1500).
C(0) = 60,000
C(1500) 48,023
So, the minimum cost occurs when the cable runs
entirely underwater.
23. Let x be the width (left to right) of the printed area
and let y be the printed areas length (top to bottom).
Then, the entire paper has a width of x + 4 and a
length of y + 8. Need to minimize the area of the
paper
A = (x + 4)(y + 8)
Since the printed area is 648 cm2,
xy = 648
648
y=
x
136
So,
648
+8
A(x) = (x + 4)
x
2592
+ 32
= 648 + 8x +
x
2592
A(x) = 8 2
x
A (x) = 0 when
2592
0=8 2
x
2592
8= 2
x
x 2 = 324
x = 18
5184
A (x) = 0 + 3
x
Since A(18) > 0, the absolute maximum occurs
when x = 18. So, the paper shold be 18 + 4 = 22 cm
wide and 648
18 + 8 = 44 cm long.
25. The amount of material is the amount for the circular
top and bottom, and the amount for the curved side.
m = 2r 2 + 2rh
Since the volume is 6.89,
V = r 2h
6.89
r2
6.89
2
and m(r) = 2r + 2r
r2
13.78
= 2r 2 +
r
which is the function to be minimized.
13.78
m(r) = 4r
r2
m (r) = 0 when r 1.51
27.56
, so m(1.51) > 0
m(r) = 4 +
r3
and there is a relative minimum when r = 1.51.
Further, since m(r) > 0 for all r in the domain r > 0,
6.89 = r 2h, or h =
C(r) = 3 r 2 + 4 r
K
r2
K
r2
= 3 r 2 +
4K
r
137
8,000
+ 0.2x
x
138
V = x 2y
The restriction given is
4x + y = 108(max), or y = 108 4x
and
V (x) = x 2(108 4x) = 108x 2 4x 3
which is the function to be maximized.
V (x) = 216x 12x 2 = 12x(18 x)
V (x) = 0 when x = 18 (rejecting x = 0)
V (x) = 216 24x, so V (18) < 0
and there is a relative minimum when x = 18.
When 0 < x < 18, V (x) > 0 so V is increasing
x > 18, V (x) < 0 so V is decreasing.
So, the relative maximum is the absolute maximum.
The maximum volume is 108(18)2 4(18)3 =
11,664 cubic inches.
39. Let x be the number of units and C(x) be the cost of
producing those units. Then,
C(x) = 1,200 + 1.2x +
100
x2
25 5 3
=
or, x =
3
3
Since 0 x 12,
5 3
E
20.7e; E(0) = 22e; E(12) = 26e
3
So, to minimize energy expended, the bird should
25
fly to point P which is
2.9 miles from point
3
A.
43. Let S be the stiffness of the beam. Then,
S = kwh3,
where k is a constant ofproportionality. Since
w 2 + h2 = 225, or h = 225 w 2, S can be
expressed as a function of w,
15
, S (w) > 0 so C is increasing
2
15
< w < 15, S (x)) < 0 so S is decreasing.
2
So, the dimensions for maximum
stiffness are
2
15
15
inches and h = 225
13.0
w=
2
2
inches.
45. Let x be the number of miles from the house to
plant A. Then, 18 x is its distance from plant B,
and 1 x 16. Let P (x) be the concentration of
particulate matter at the house. Then,
P (x) =
720
80
+
x
18 x
P (x) =
2x 2 + 9x 81 = 0
9
or, x = (rejecting negative solution)
2
P (4.5) = 0, P (1) 122.4, P (16) = 365;
So, the total pollution is minimized when the house
is 4.5 miles from plant A.
139
b
N
b
N2
C (N ) = 0 when a =
or when aN =
b
,
N2
b
(setup cost = operating cost)
N
C (N ) =
2b
,
N3
140
C (x) = s
pq
nx 2
Now profit is
C (x) = 0 when s =
or, x =
pq
ns
1/2
pq
nx 2
2pq
, so C
C (x) =
nx 3
P (x) = revenuetaxationcost
P (x) = 15x
pq
ns
1/2
>0
and there
is a relative minimum when
1/2
pq
x=
. Further, since C (x) > 0 for
ns
all values of x in the domain x 1, it is the
absolute minimum.
(b) The setup cost xs, at this minimum, becomes
xs = s
pq
=
ns
pqs
n
3x 2
tx
8
7x 2
5x 100
8
7x
3x
t
5
4
4
5
= x + 10 t
2
2(10 t)
P (x) = 0 when x =
5
2(10 t)
5
P (x) = , so P
<0
2
5
and there is a relative maximum when
x = 25 (10 t). Further, since P (x) < 0 for
all x in the domain x > 0, it is the absolute
maximum.
(b) The government share is
G(x) = tx =
2
(10t t 2)
5
2
(10 2t)
G (t) =
5
G(t) = 0 when t = 5
4
G(t) = , so G(5) < 0
5
and there is a relative maximum when t = 5.
Further, since G(t) < 0 for all t in the domain
t > 0, it is the absolute maximum.
141
2(10 0)
= 4, and with t = 5,
5
2(10 5)
x=
= 2.
5
x=
g (t) =
3(4)
= $13.50 and
8
3(2)
= $14.25
p(2) = 15
8
p(4) = 15
g (t) = 0 when t = 3, 3
When t < 3, g (t) < 0 so g is decreasing
3 < t < 3, g (t) > 0 so g is increasing
g (x) =
g (x) = 0 when x = 1, 9
(a)
f (x) = x 4 + 4x 3 + 5
f (x) = 4x + 12x = 4x (x 3)
3
f (x) = 0 when x = 0, 3
3.
(a)
f (x) = 3x 5 10x 4 + 2x 5
f (x) = 15x 4 40x 3 + 2
f (x) = 60x 3 120x 2 = 60x 2(x 2)
f (x) = 0 when x = 0, 2
When x < 0, f (x) < 0 so f is concave down
0 < x < 2, f (x) < 0 so f is concave down
x > 2, f (x) > 0 so f is concave up.
There is an inflection point when x = 2.
142
g (t) = 0 when t = 1, 1
(b)
f (x) = 0 when x = 5, 0, 1
(t 1)(2t) (t 2)(1)
t 2 2t
=
(t 1)2
(t 1)2
f (t) =
f (t) =
f (t) =
g(t) =
3t 2 + 5
t2 + 3
g (t) =
g (t) =
(t 2 + 3)4
24(1 + t)(1 t)
=
(t 2 + 3)3
4.
(a) f (x) =
2x 1
x+3
1
x2 = 1 ;
3
2
x2
1
so there is a horizontal asymptote of y = .
2
x 1/2 x
xx
1
1
(d)
=
f (x) = =
x
x x
x 3/2
x
143
y
2
( 4 , 0)
3
1
(0, 0)
0.5
x
2
16
( 2 ,
)
3
27
(1, 1)
2
5.
(a) f (x) = 3x 4 4x 3
When x = 0, f (0) = 0 so (0, 0) is an intercept.
When f (x) = 0, 3x 4 4x 3 = x 3(3x 4) = 0
4
so f (x) = 0 when x = 0, , and
3
intercept.
There are no asymptotes.
4
, 0 is an
3
is decreasing
is concave down
is decreasing
(b) f (x) = x 4 3x 3 + 3x 2 + 1
When x = 0, f (0) = 1, so (0, 1) is an intercept.
f (x) = 0 is too difficult to solve.
There are no asymptotes.
f (x) = 4x 3 9x 2 + 6x = x(4x 2 9x + 6)
f (x) = 0 when x = 0
f (x) = 12x 2 18x + 6 = 6(2x 1)(x 1)
1
f (x) = 0 when x = , 1
2
When x < 0, f (x) < 0 so f is decreasing
f (x) > 0 so f is concave up
1
0 < x < , f (x) > 0 so f
2
f (x) > 0 so f
1
< x < 1, f (x) > 0 so f
2
f (x) < 0 so f
is increasing
is concave up
is increasing
is concave down
is concave up
points when
x = 0, 23 , or (0, 0) and 23 , 16
27 .
144
3
When x < , f (x) < 0 so f
2
f (x) < 0 so f
3
< x < 1, f (x) < 0 so f
2
f (x) > 0 so f
y
4
(1, 2)
23
)
2 16
( 1 ,
(0, 1)
1
is decreasing
is concave up
x 2 + 2x + 1
x2
When x = 0, f (0) is undefined.
When f (x) = 0, x 2 + 2x + 1 = (x + 1)2 = 0,
so f (x) = 0 when x = 1, and (1, 0) is an
intercept.
x 2 = 0 when x = 0, so there is a vertical
asymptote of x = 0.
(c) f (x) =
x 2 + 2x + 1
lim
= lim
x
x
x2
is concave down
x
0
is decreasing
1+
3
3 1
x = 2 , or 2 , 9 .
y
6
1
2
+ 2
x
x = 1,
1
1
this asymptote at 21 , 1 .
(x 2)(2x + 2) (x 2 + 2x + 1)(2x)
x4
2x 2 2x
2x(x + 1) 2(x + 1)
=
=
=
x4
x4
x3
f (x) =
f (x) =
3
f (x) = 0 when x = and f (x) is undefined
2
when x = 0.
2
y1
10
(3 , 1 ) 0
2
x
10
1 2x
(x 1)2
When x = 0, f (0) = 1 so (0, 1) is an intercept.
1
When f (x) = 0, 1 2x = 0, or x = so
2
1
, 0 is an intercept.
2
(x 1)2 = 0 when x = 1, so there is a vertical
asymptote of x = 1.
(d) f (x) =
1
2
1 2x
x
lim
= 0,
=
lim
1
x x 2 2x + 1
x
x2+
x
so there is a horizontal asymptote of y = 0.
145
f (x) =
6.
1
f (x) = 0 when x = and f (x) is undefined
2
when x = 1.
1
When x < , f (x) > 0 so f
2
f (x) > 0 so f
1
< x < 0, f (x) > 0 so f
2
f (x) < 0 so f
y
(2, 3)
is increasing
(1, 2)
is concave up
(1, 0)
3
is increasing
is concave down
(0, 1)
(4, 0)
3
is an
x = 21 , or 21 , 98 .
y
(1 , 8 )
2 9
(a)
f (x) = x 3 3x 2 9x + 1; 2 x 4
f (x) = 3x 2 6x 9
= 3(x + 1)(x 3)
f (x) = 0 when x = 1, x = 3
both in interval
x1
(0, 1)
( 1 , 0)
2
7.
x
5
5
absolute max = 6
absolute min = 26
146
(b)
R (t) = f (t) = 6t + 14
7
R (t) = 0 when t =
3
7
R
= 216.33, R(0) = 200, and R(4) = 208
3
g(t) = 4t 3 + 9t 2 + 12t 5; 1 t 4
g (t) = 12t 2 + 18t + 12
= 6(2t + 1)(t 2)
1
g (t) = 0 when t = , t = 2
2
both in interval
g(1) = 4(1) + 9(1) + 12(1) 5 = 4
2
3
1
1
1
+9
g
= 4
9.
2
2
2
33
1
5=
+ 12
2
4
3
h(u) = 8 u u + 3; 0 u 25
(c)
= 8u1/2 u + 3
h(u) = 4u1/2 1
4
= 1
u
h(u) = 0 when u = 16
in interval
h(0) = 8 0 0 + 3 = 3
h(16) = 8 16 16 + 3 = 19
h(25) = 8 25 25 + 3 = 18
absolute max = 19
absolute min = 3
So, when the selling price is $135 per unit, the profit
is maximized.
10. C(t) =
0.05t
t 2 + 27
lim
t t 2
C (t) =
(t 2 + 27)(0.05) (0.05t)(2t)
(t 2 + 27)2
1.35 0.05t 2
(t 2 + 27)2
C (t) = 0 when t = 27
=
C (t) =
147
1
(t 2 + 27)2(0.1t)
(t 2 + 27)4
(1.35 0.05t 2)(2(t 2 + 27)(2t))
1
= 2
t (t 2 + 27) 0.1(t 2 + 27)
(t + 27)4
4(1.35 0.05t 2)
=
15t 2 + 10
t3 + 6
The relevant domain is t 0.
11. P (t) =
t (0.1t 2 8.1)
(t 2 + 27)3
C (t) = 0 when t = 9
When
P (t) =
=
15t (t 3 + 2t 12)
(t 3 + 6)2
0.006
0.004
0.002
t
0
P (t) = 0 when t = 0, 2
10
When t = 0, P (0) = .
6
10
or 1.667 million
6
20
40
t
>
27, so C is decreasing
(b) C (t) < 0 when
t
0
10
20
148
Review Problems
y
(2, 15)
1.
f (x) = 2x 3 + 3x 2 + 12x 5
When x = 0, f (0) = 5 so (0, 5) is an intercept.
f (x) = 0 is too difficult to solve.
There are no asymptotes.
( 1 , 3 )
2 2
x
(0, 5)
f (x) = 0 when x = 1, 2
3.
f (x) = 3x 3 4x 2 12x + 17
When x = 0, f (0) = 17 so (0, 17) is an intercept
f (x) = 0 is too difficult to solve.
There are no asymptotes.
f (x) = 9x 2 8x 12
1
2
(1, 12)
is increasing
is concave up
is increasing
is concave down
1 3
,
2 2 .
4
9
is decreasing
is concave down
is decreasing
is concave up
Review Problems
149
Overall,
f is decreasing when 2 < t < 2
f is increasing when t < 2 and t > 2
y
(0.79, 22.51)
(0, 17)
(2.02, 0)
0
5.
(1.68, 0.23)
f (t) = 3t 5 20t 3
When t = 0, f (0) = 0 so (0, 0) is an intercept.
When f (t) = 3t 5 20t 3 = t 3(3t 2 20) = 0 so
20
20
and
,0
t = 0,
3
3
(2, 64)
20
3
20
3
are intercepts.
There are no asymptotes.
(2, 64)
f (t) = 0 when t = 2, 0, 2
When t < 2, f (t) > 0 so f is increasing
7.
t2
t +1
When t = 0, g(0) = 0 so (0, 0) is an intercept.
When g(t) = 0, t = 0.
t + 1 = 0 when t = 1, so there is a vertical
asymptote of t = 1.
g(t) =
lim
t
t2
= ,
= lim
t + 1 t 1 + 1
t
(t + 1)(2t) (t 2)(1)
(t + 1)2
t (t + 2)
t 2 + 2t
=
(t + 1)2
(t + 1)2
150
g (t) =
=
=
2x 2 + 2x + 8
= lim
lim
x
x
x
2
(t + 1)3
4
t
2
5
8
2x 2 + 2x + 8
+2=
x
x
When x = 0, F (0) is undefined.
F (x) = 0, 2(x 2 + x + 4) = 0, which has no solution.
F (x) = 2x +
8
x2
16
x3
yt1
(2, 4)
9.
8
x = ,
(0, 0)
2
2x + 2 +
y
t 1
Review Problems
151
y
20
(2, 10)
y 2x 2
x
5
(2, 6)
F(x) 2x x 2
20
f (x) = x 3(2x
f (x) = 0
7)
3
when x = 1, 0, , 7
2
3)2(x
+ 1)5(x
5
6
3
15. F (x) =
x
2
152
21.
1
1
= g(1) = is the absolute maximum
So, g
2
2
and g(0) = 0 the absolute minimum.
f (x) = 2x 3 + 3x 2 + 12x 5
f (x) = 6x 2 + 6x + 12 = 6(x + 1)(x 2)
f (x) = 0 when x = 1, 2
f (x) = 12x + 6
f (1) = 18 > 0, so there is a relative minimum
when x = 1, or (1, 12); f (2) = 18 < 0, so
there is a relative maximum when x = 2, or (2, 15).
x2
23. f (x) =
x+1
f (x) =
(x
+ 1)(2x) (x 2)(1)
(x + 1)2
x(x + 2)
(x + 1)2
f (x) = 0 when x = 2, 0
f (x) =
f (x) = 2x 3 + 3x 2 + 12x 5
f (x) = 6x 2 + 6x + 12
f (x) = 6(x + 1)(x 2)
f (x) = 0 when x = 1, 2, both of which are in the
interval 3 x 3.
f (1) = 12, f (2) = 15, f (3) = 40, f (3) = 4.
So, f (3) = 40 is the absolute maximum and
f (1) = 12 the absolute minimum.
27.
g(s) =
s2
s+1
(s + 1)(2s) (s 2)(1)
(s + 1)2
s(s + 2)
g (s) =
(s + 1)2
g (s) =
x
1
3
Review Problems
153
V
3
2r
< 0, so there is a relative maximum when
A = xy
C 3r 2
4r
and
V (r) = r 2
C 3r 2
4r
rC
3r 3
=
4
4
2
9r
C
V (r) =
4
4
V (r) = 0 when
C
=
4
9r 2
4
, or C = 9r 2. So,
9 r 2 3r 2
3r
h=
, or h = .
4r
2
9r
V (r) =
2
2(x + y) = 320
y = 160 x
So,
A(x) = x(160 x) = 160x x 2
A(x) = 160 2x
A(x) = 0 when x = 80
When 0 < x < 80, A(x) > 0 so A is increasing
80 < x < 160, A(x) < 0 so A is decreasing
So, to maximize the area, the dimensions
are width = 80 feet and length = 160 80 =
80 feet.
(b) Since there are 320 feet of fencing to use in
enclosing the pasture and fencing is only needed
on three sides (choosing the width as the side
opposite the wall)
x + 2y = 320
1
y = 160 x
2
Now,
1
1
A(x) = x 160 x = 160x x 2
2
2
A(x) = 160 x
A(x) = 0 when x = 160
When 0 < x < 160, A(x) > 0 so A is increasing
160 < x < 320, A(x) < 0 so A is decreasing
154
t (x) = 0
1
t (x) =
2
5
4 1+ x
x
41. (a)
when
4 1 + x2
5x = 4 1 + x 2
E(p) =
1
5
25x 2 = 16 + 16x 2, or x =
4
3
2
0.354
t (0) = 0.45; t (1) =
4
p
2p 2
(4p)
=
200 2p 2
100 p 2
2(6)2
= 1.125
100 (6)2
A 1% increase in price will produce a decrease
in demand of 1.125%.
2p 2
(c) 1 =
or p = $5.77
100 p 2
(b) E(6) =
43. (a)
E(p) =
p dq
q dp
p dq
q dp
p
1.4p
300 0.7p 2
1.4p 2
300 0.7p 2
1.4(8)2
0.351
300 0.7(8)2
Since E(8) = 0.35 < 1, revenue increases as
the price increases. So, the cruise line should
raise the price.
(b) E(8) =
Review Problems
155
area rectangle = xy
but the total perimeter is 20, so
3x + 2y = 30, or y =
20 3x
2
1
area triangle = bh
2
1
= xh
2
Using half of the triangle, h is the leg of a right
x
triangle, with as its base, so
2
2
1
3
2
h= x
x =
x
2
2
The total light function, L(x), is
3
1
20 3x
(2A) + (x)
x (A)
L(x) = x
2
2
2
3 2
2
= A 20x 3x +
x
4
3
L (x) = A 20 6x +
x
2
L(x) = 0
when
0 = 20 +
x=
20
6
3
2
3
6 x, or
2
3.8956
C (x) = 0 when
0.1x 2 = 1,600,000
x 2 = 16,000,000, or
x = 4,000
Using the second derivative test, since
C (x) =
3,200,000
x3
C (4,000) > 0
156
f (x) =
C (x) = k1
k2
x
f
k2
x2
(2 + c2x c2x 2)
(1 + x)5
2 (1 + 1)
= 0.524
3
3 (1 + 1)
6
3
1
1
+
2
f
21 =
3 0.793
3
21
1+
f (1) =
1
(c) With C = 2, f (x) = 0 when x =
2
K(1 + c2x 3)
(1 + x)3
K
(1 + x)3(3c2x 2)
(1 + x)6
3K(c2x 2 1)
=
(1 + x)4
1
c
=
1+ 2
1+
3
16
3
f (1) =
16
f (0) =
3
16
= 6K
1
So, there is a relative minimum when x = .
c
(b) With c = 1, f (x) = 0 when x = 1
2k
C (x) = 32
x
k2
>0
C
k1
f (x) =
(1 + c)
= 6K
5 > 0
1 + c1
k2
k1
Using the second derivative test, since
(a)
= 3K
(2 + c 1)
1
= 6K
5
c
1 + c1
C (x) = 0 when x =
51. f (x) =
3K
(1 + x)4(2c2x)
(1 + x)8
1
2
1
2
3
3 0.117
(1 + 0)
0.340
(1 + 0)3
(1 + 2)
0.128
(1 + 1)3
Review Problems
(d)
157
K + Kc2x 3
1 + 3x + 3x 2 + x 3
K
+ Kc2
3
x
= Kc2
lim f (x) = lim
x
x 1
3
3
+
+ +1
x3 x2 x
f (x) =
cS
a + S + bS 2
so y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote
(a + S + bS 2)(1) (S)(1 + 2bS)
R (S) = c
(a + S + bS 2)2
=c
a bS 2
(a + S + bS 2)2
R (S) = 0 when a bS 2 = 0
a
or S =
(rejecting negative answer)
b
a
, R (S) > 0, so R is increasing
When 0 S <
b
a
S>
, R (S) < 0, so R is decreasing.
b
So, there is a relative maximum (which
is also
a
the absolute maximum) when S =
.
b
x
a
b
(a)
P dN1
N1 dp
p
=
(3351)(0.287)p 0.713
3351p 0.287
= 0.287
E1(p) =
158
p dN
N dp
p
0.713
0.651
+
72.5222p
961.737p
3351p 0.287 + 207.8p 0.349
p
961.737 72.5222
=
+
3351p 0.287 + 207.8p 0.349
p 0.713
p 0.651
Chapter 4
Exponential Functions
11. (a) (32)5/2 = 32(5/2) = 35 = 243
1
e0 = 1, e 2.718, e 1.649, 0.607.
e
3.
0
1
1
15. (a) (x + y) =
=
(x 2y 3)1/6 x 2(1/6)y 3(1/6) x 1/3y 1/2
(b) (x 1.1y 2)(x 2 + y 3)0 = x 1.1y 2 1 = x 1.1y 2
y = 4x
y=
3x
(1, 4)
(1, 3)
(0, 1)
y=0
19.
42x1 = 16
2 2x1
(2 )
5.
7.
9.
= (2)4
22(2x1) = 24
24x2 = 24
By the equality rule of exponential functions,
3
4x 2 = 4, or x = .
2
3
2
(a) 82/3 + 163/4 = 81/3 + 161/4
= 22 + 23 = 4 + 8 = 12
3
1/23
3/2
3 7
63
27 + 36
=
=
(b)
3 =
121
113
1211/2
189 7
1331
21.
23x = 4x
23x = (22)x
23x = 22x
By the equality rule of exponential functions,
3 x = 2x, or x = 1.
160
x 2 1 = 3, or x 2 = 4
x = 2, x = 2
x1
2
1
= 232x
8
1
Since = 23,
8
27.
(23)x1 = 232x
23(x1) = 232x
y = Cbx
33.
12
b2
(b) k = 4
5
1
$2, 001.60
0.07
B(10) = 1, 000 1 +
12
1210
$2, 009.66
410
(c) k = 12
31. y = 4 ex
Press y= and input 4 e (x).
Use window dimensions [5, 5]1 by [5, 5]1.
Press graph
0.07
B(10) = 1, 000 1 +
4
161
Solving for P ,
20
0.07
P = 5000 1 +
4
P $3, 534.12
P (0) = 50e0 = 50
1+
0.07
4
45
20
0.07
P = 9, 000 1 +
4
P $6,361.42
C(0) = 3 20.75(0)
9,000 = P e0.07(5)
0.35
P = 9000e
P $6, 342.19
= 3 20 = 3 1 = 3 mg/ml
When t = 1,
C(1) = 3 20.75(1)
1.7838 mg/ml
41. p = 300e0.02x
(a) when x = 100,
p = 300e0.02(100)
p 40.60058
The market price is $40.60.
(b) revenue = (#sold)(selling price)
R(x) = xp
R(100) = 100 300e0.02(100)
R(100) 4,060.058
The corresponding revenue is $4,060.
(c) When x = 50,
R(50) = 50(300e0.02(5))
R(50) 5,518.1916
The corresponding revenue is $5,518.
R(100) R(50)
= 4,060 5,518 = 1,458
C(t2) C(t1)
t2 t 1
C(2) C(1)
21
162
(b) When t = 0,
P (t) = P0(1.031)t
Since the initial population is P0 = 10, 000, the
population after 10 days is
P (10) = 10, 000(1.031)10
13, 570 bacteria
53. C(t) = 0.065 1 + e0.025t
(a) When t = 0,
C(0) = 0.065(1 + e0)
= 0.13 g/cm3
(b) When t = 20,
C(20) = 0.065(1 + e0.025(20))
0.1044 g/cm3
Since t is measured in minutes, one hour
corresponds to t = 60 and
C(60) = 0.065(1 + e0.025(60))
0.0795 g/cm3
(c) average rate of change
25.2
2,767.6
Investing the money would have resulted in the
better deal for the sellers by $2,767.6 billion dollars.
0.1284 0.13
1 0
C(1) C(0)
1 0
Since limx ex = 0,
lim C(t) = 0.065(1 + 0)
= 0.065 g/cm3
(e) Press
y=
163
and input
0.065(1 + e (0.025t))
for y1 =.
Use window dimensions [0, 180]60 by
[0, 0.2].05
Press graph
0.13
0.065
t
60
120
=e
1
0.0513, or 5.13%
0.05
k
re = 1 + kr 1
2
= 1 + 0.079
1
2
0.0806
4
(b) re = 1 + 0.078
1
4
0.0803
12
(c) re = 1 + 0.077
1
12
0.0798
180
59. (a)
d, c, b, a
61. The value of $500 in five years, at an annual inflation
rate of 4%, will be
kt
r
B(t) = P 1 +
k
1(5)
0.04
B(5) = 500 1 +
1
608.326
C(t)
re = e r 1
= e0.0765 1
0.0795
From lowest to highest,
(d)
164
67. I = I0ekx
When x = 3 meters, I = 0.1I0. So
0.1I0 = I0e
0.1 = e
k3
, or
3k
71. M =
When x = 1 meter,
I = I0ek1
Ai
1 (1 + i)n
When A = 150,000, i =
= I0(e3k )1/3
0.09
= 0.0075, n = 360,
12
150, 000(0.0075)
= $1, 206.93
1 (1.0075)360
for the monthly payment
M=
= I0(0.1)1/3
0.46I0
5,000 0.12
12
M=
123 $166.07
0.12
1 1 + 12
This way, you would receive
100 = Ae
0.03(2)
Be
0.005(2)
100 = Ae
Be0.01
100 1.0618A 1.0101B
0.06
x
1
4
x
2.2
1.5 0
1.5
2.3
f (x) 10.5561
4
0.5 0.0625 0.02062
165
y1
2.7196
2.719
2.7187
2,7186
2.7186
..
.
3.
5.
7.
48,000 2.7183
49,000 2.7183
50,000 2.7183
= eln 8ln 25
ln
As n decreases without bound,
1+
approaches e 2.71828.
1
n
5
2
2n
9.
n/3
,
y
6.4584
66.071
..
.
4.2
1.
= e 25
8
= .
25
n
79. To use a calculator to estimate lim
3ln 52
Logarithmic Functions
11.
= 2 log3 10
= 2 log3(2 5)
= 2(log3 2 + log3 5)
= 2 log3 2 + 2 log3 5.
13. log2(x 4y 3) = log2 x 4 + log2 y 3
= 4 log2 x + 3 log2 y.
15.
ln
3
x 2 x = ln(x 2 x)1/3
1
= ln(x 2 x)
3
1
= ln[x(x 1)]
3
1
= [ln x + ln(x 1)]
3
1
1
= ln x + ln(x 1).
3
3
166
17.
2
x (3 x)2/3
ln
x2 + x + 1
= ln x 2 (3 x)2/3 ln x 2 + x + 1
= ln x 2 + ln(3 x)2/3 ln(x 2 + x + 1)1/2
1
2
= 2 ln x + ln(3 x) ln(x 2 + x + 1).
3
2
3 x 2
19.
ln(x e
) = ln x + ln e
3
t
+C
50
t
ln x =
C
50
ln x =
29.
eln x = e(t/50)C , or
x = e(t/50)C
1
ln x = (ln 16 + 2 ln 2)
3
1
= (ln 16 + ln 4)
3
1
= ln(16 4)
3
31.
x 2
= 3 ln x x 2.
21. 4x = 53
Taking the natural log of both sides gives
ln 4x = ln 53.
Using a rule of logarithms gives
x ln 4 = ln 53
ln 53
x=
2.864
ln 4
23. log3(2x 1) = 2
Rewriting in exponential form gives
2x 1 = 32
or x = 5
= ln 641/3
So,
eln x = eln 4
or x = 4.
33. 3x = e2
Taking the natural log of both sides gives
ln 3x = ln e2
So, x ln 3 = 2
2
x=
1.820.
ln 3
25. 2 = e0.06x
Taking the natural log of both sides gives
ln 2 = 0.06x, or
ln 2
11.552
x=
0.06
27. 3 = 2
35.
25e0.1x
= 10
e0.1x + 3
25e0.1x = 10(e0.1x + 3)
+ 5e4x
1 = 5e4x
1
= e4x
5
1
= 4x, or
5
ln(1/5)
x=
4
1
= ln 1 ln 5 = 0 ln 5 = ln 5,
5
ln 5 ln 5
x=
=
0.402.
4
4
Since ln
ln x = ln 4
25e0.1x = 10e0.1x + 30
15e0.1x = 30
e0.1x = 2
ln e0.1x = ln 2
0.1x = ln 2
ln 2
x=
= 10 ln 2 6.9315
0.1
37. log2 x = 5
Rewriting in exponential form,
x = 25
ln x = ln 25
ln x = 5 ln 2 3.4657
167
39. log5(2x) = 7
Rewriting in exponential form,
2x = 57
57
x=
2
ln x = ln
2P = B(13) = P e13r
2 = e13r
ln 2 = ln e13r
ln 2 = 13r
57
and r =
5.33%.
= ln 57 ln 2
= 7 ln 5 ln 2 10.5729.
41.
ln
1
ab3
= ln 1 ln
ab3
= 0 ln(ab3)1/2
1
= ln(ab3)
2
1
= [ln a + ln b3]
2
1
1
= ln a ln b3
2
2
3
1
= ln a ln b
2
2
Since ln a = 2 and ln b = 3,
1
3
11
= (2) (3) = .
2
2
2
43. B(t) = P ert
After a certain time, the investment will have grown
to B(t) = 2P at the interest rate of 0.06. So,
2P = P e0.06t
2 = e0.06t
ln 2 = ln e0.06t
ln 2 = 0.06t
and t =
ln 2
= 11.55 years.
0.06
ln 2
= 0.0533. The annual interest rate is
13
168
0.02t
1.875 = 2 0.13e0.02t
0.13e0.02t = 0.125
e0.02t 0.9615
0.02t ln 0.9615
ln 0.9615
t
1.96 seconds
0.02
53. The decay function is of the form
Q(t) = Q0ekt
Since the halflife is 1,690 years, Q(1690) = 21 Q0
1
and Q0 = Q0ek(1,690)
2
1
= e1,690k
2
1
ln = ln e1,690k
2
1
ln = 1, 690k
2
ln
1
2
1, 690
=k
ln 2
1, 690
The initial amount, Q0 = 50 grams, will reduce to 5
grams when
or k =
5 = 50ekt
1
= ekt
10
1
= ln ekt ,
ln
10
1
ln
= kt
10
ln
1
10
k
or t =
ln 10
k
=t
1, 690 ln 10
ln 10
=
5, 614 years.
t=
ln 2
ln 2
1,690
9,000 = 6,000ek(20)
3
= e20k
2
3
ln = ln e20k
2
3
ln = 20k
2
ln
3
2
20
=k
ln 1.5
20 t
ln 1.5
ln e6k = ln
k=
ln
9
20
So,
169
1
R0 = R0ek(5,730)
2
1
= e5,730k
2
1
ln = ln e5,730k
2
1
ln = 5,730k
2
ln 0.45
6 t
When t = 12 months,
Q(12) = 500 200e
= 459.5 units
ln 0.45
6 (12)
ln
ekt .
1
2
5, 730
=k
or k =
ln 2
5, 730
ln 0.28
5,730 ln 0.28
=
10,523 years.
ln 2
ln 2
5,730
=k
ln 2
5,730
When 99.7% of the original amount remains,
or k =
0.997R0 = R0ekt
0.997 = ekt
ln 0.997 = ln ekt
ln 0.997 = kt
ln 0.997
=t
k
Substituting k from above,
t=
5,730 ln 0.997
ln 0.997
=
24.8 years.
ln 2
ln 2
5,730
5,730
1
2
and
212 = 70 Aek(0)
212 = 70 A, or
A = 142
f (t) = 70 + 142ekt
170
or, ti = 55 + 142e2k
Also, ti = f (4) = 70 + 142ek(4)
so, 70 + 142e4k = 55 + 142e2k
142e4k 142e2k + 15 = 0
Letting u = e2k ,
142u2 142u + 15 = 0
Using the quadratic formula,
142 (142)2 (4)(142)(15)
u=
2(142)
40 = 10 + (98.6 10)(0.97)t ,
30
= (0.97)t
88.6
30
= ln(0.97)t
ln
88.6
ln
so, u 0.1200445
or, e2k 0.1200445 and
72.05 F.
65. S(x) = ln(x + 2)
D(x) = 10 ln(x + 1)
69.
= e10
x 2 + 3x + 2 = e10
x 2 + 3x + (2 e10) = 0
3 + (3)2 4(1)(2 e10)
xe =
2(1)
xe 147 units
Pe = ln(147 + 2)
$5.00
67.
T = Ta + (98.6 Ta )(0.97)t
When T = 40F and Ta = 10F,
ln
30
88.6
ln(0.97)
35.55 hrs
eln(x
t=
so,
ti = 55 + 142(0.1200445)
(c)
30
= t ln(0.97)
88.6
R=
2
log10
3
E
104.4
E
2
6.4 = log10
3
104.4
E
9.6 = log10
104.4
log10
109.6 = 10
E
109.6 = 4.4
10
E
104.4
171
or k =
ln 2
20.9
0.5518 0.99(0.85)t
0.5574 (0.85)t
I (24) = I0e
ln 0.5574 ln(0.85)t
ln 0.5574 t ln(0.85)
ln 0.5574
t
3.6 seconds
ln 0.85
(c) Press
y=
and input
ln 2
20.9
(24)
I0 0.451
So approximately 45.1% of the original amount
should be detected.
ln 0.5
(25)
(b)
I (25) = I0e 20.9
I0 0.436
for y1 = .
Use window dimensions [0, 20]4 by [0, 1].25
Press graph
p
1
75. (a)
y
300
200
H(t)
125
100
A(t)
t
0
20
1
I0 = I0ek(20.9)
2
1
= e20.9k
2
1
ln = ln e20.9k
2
1
ln = 20.9k
2
ln
1
2
20.9
=k
50
t
0
(b)
H
H
125
H
ln
125
H
ln
125
= 125e0.08t
= e0.08t
= ln e0.08t
= 0.08t
t=
ln
H
125
0.08
172
a b (b a)
=
= 1
ba
ba
2H 2
.
625
(a) When t = 0,
P (0) = 51 + 100 ln(0 + 3)
160.86 thousand, or
160,860 people
2.7072
=e
y = Cx k
81.
ln y = ln(Cx k )
ln(t+3)
e2.7072 = t + 3
t = e2.7072 3 12 years
is of form
= ln C + ln x k
= ln C + k ln x
ln y = k ln x + ln c
Y = mX + b
logb x
=
logb a
173
9.
f (x) = (1 3ex )2
d
(1 3ex )
dx
= 2(1 3ex )(0 3ex )
ln x
ln b
ln a
ln b
ln x ln b
ln b ln a
ln x
=
= loga x
ln a
= 6ex (1 3ex )
4.3
1.
f (x) = xex
d
d
f (x) = x ex + ex x
dx
dx
x d
=x e
x + ex 1
dx
= xex + ex = ex (x + 1)
5.
3x
13. f (x) = ln x 3 = 3 ln x
3
1
=
f (x) = 3
x
x
f (x) = x 2 ln x
15.
d
d
(ln x) + ln x (x 2)
dx
dx
2 1
= x + 2x ln x
x
= x + 2x ln x
= x(1 + 2 ln x)
f (x) = x 2
f (x) = 30 + 10e0.05x
f (x) = 0 + 10e0.05x
7.
d
3x
dx
d
= e 3x
3
x
dx
3x 1 1/2
= 3e
x
2
3
3
= e 3x = e 3x
2 x
2 3x
f (x) = e5x
d
(5x) = 5e5x
dx
3x
f (x) = e
Differentiation of
Logarithmic and
Exponential Functions
f (x) = e5x
3.
11. f (x) = e
d
(0.05x) = 0.5e0.05x
dx
f (x) = (x 2 + 3x + 5)e6x
d
d 6x
e + e6x (x 2 + 3x + 5)
dx
dx
3
d
17. f (x) = e2x = e2x/3
= (x 2 + 3x + 5) e6x 6x + e6x (2x + 3)
dx
f (x) = (x 2 + 3x + 5)
6x
f (x) = e
2x/3
d
dx
2
= e2x/3
3
2x
3
174
19. f (x) = ln
x+1
x1
f (x) =
1
x+1
x1
29.
d
dx
x+1
x1
x 1 (x 1)(1) (x + 1)(1)
=
x+1
(x 1)2
2
=
(x + 1)(x 1)
f (x) = e2x + x 3
d
f (x) = e2x (2x) + 3x 2
dx
21.
= 2e2x + 3x 2
s
s
23. g(s) = (e + s + 1)(2e + s)
s
s d
g (s) = (e + s + 1) 2e
(s) + 1
ds
+ (2es + s)(es + 1)
= (es + s + 1)(2es + 1) + (2es + s)(es + 1)
= 2e 2se
0
2e
+ 2e + se + 2e
0
+e +s+1
25.
h (t) =
=
=
(ln t)2
(ln t)(et + 1) (et + t)
(ln
1+ t
2t ln t + t
1 + 21 (u2 + 1)1/2(2u)
u + (u2 + 1)1/2
1 + u(u2 + 1)1/2 u (u2 + 1)1/2
u2
(u2 +1)1/2
(u2 + 1)1/2
1
u2
(u2 + 1)1/2
+ (u2 + 1)1/2
(u2 + 1)1/2
(u2 + 1)1/2
1
u2 + u2 + 1
= 2
2
1/2
(u + 1)1/2
(u + 1)
1
t
t)2
+ 1) et t
t (ln t)2
35. f (x) =
2x
x
t)(et
1
ex + ex
= (ex + ex )
2
2
1
f (x) = (ex ex )
2
f (x) =
d
d
(et + t) (et + t) dt
(ln t)
(ln t) dt
t (ln
et + t
h(t) =
ln t
27.
2(ln t
+ t)1/2
g(u) = ln u + u2 + 1 = ln u + (u2 + 1)1/2
d
1
2
1/2
g (u) =
+
1)
u
+
(u
u + (u2 + 1)1/2 du
+s
= 1 + 2s + e + se 2se
s
+1
1
t
f (x) = ln(ex + x)
d x
1
f (x) = x
(e + x)
e + x dx
ex + 1
= x
e +x
31.
33.
ln t + t = (ln t + t)1/2
1
d
f (t) = (ln t + t)1/2 (ln t + t)
2
dt
f (t) =
f (x) =
d
(2x ) (2x )(1)
x dx
x2
x(ln 2)2x 2x
=
x2
x
2 (x ln 2 1)
x2
175
43.
g(t) = t 3/2e2t ; 0 t 1
g (t) = (t
d
f (x) = (x) (log10 x) + (log10 x)(1)
dx
1
1
=x
+ log10 x
ln 10 x
1
=
+ log10 x
ln 10
1
ln x
1 + ln x
=
+
=
ln 10
ln 10 ln 10
3/2
)(e
= t 1/2e2t 2t +
[1(3x 1) + 3]
=e
(4 3x)
45.
f (x) =
f (x) =
ln(x + 1)
, 0x2
x+1
(x + 1)
1
x+1
ln(x + 1) 1
(x + 1)2
1 ln(x + 1)
=
(x + 1)2
= 0 no solution
4
4 3x = 0 x =
3
e
3 3 3/2
abs. max . =
e
; abs. min . = 0
8
e1x = 0 no solution
41.
3 1/2
t
2
e2t = 0 no solution
3
3
2t + = 0 t =
4
2
3/2
3
2 4
3
3
= 3 3 e3/2 0.1449
e
g
=
4
4
8
e1x = 0
t 1/2 = 0 t = 0
f (1) = e11 = e0 = 1
3
2
2t
2) + (e
f (x) = e1x ; 0 x 1
39.
2t
f (e 1) =
f (0) =
f (2) =
abs. max . =
e1 = eln(x+1)
e = x + 1, or
x=e1
ln(e 1 + 1) 1
= 0.3679
(e 1) + 1
e
ln(0 + 1)
=0
(0 + 1)2
ln(2 + 1)
0.3662
2+1
1
; abs. min . = 0
e
176
f (t) = t 2 ln t
1
2
f (t) = (t )
+ (ln t)(2t)
t
= t (1 + 2 ln t)
55.
m = f (0) = e0(1 0) = 1
y 0 = 1(x 0),
or y = x.
57.
e2x
49. f (x) = 2 , x = 1
x
(x 2)(e2x 2) (e2x )(2x)
x4
2x
2xe (x 1) 2e2x (x 1)
=
=
x3
x4
f (x) =
2e2(1 1)
=0
13
Since the slope of the line tangent is zero, the tangent
line is horizontal and of the form y = b.
Since f (1) = e2, the tangent line is y = e2.
so, m = f (1) =
51.
x; x = 1
1
f (x) = x 2 ln x 1/2 = x 2 ln x
2
1
1
f (x) =
x2
+ (ln x)(x)
2
x
x
= + x ln x
2
f (x) = x 2 ln
1
1
+ ln 1 = . Also, f (1) = 1 ln 1 =
2
2
0, so the point (1, 0) is on tangent line and
So, m = f (1) =
1
1
1
y 0 = (x 1), or y = x .
2
2
2
53.
1
f (t) = (t) 2
+ (1 + 2 ln t)(1)
t
= 2 + 1 + 2 ln t = 3 + 2 ln t
Differentiating,
1
1
1
=2
(2) +
(1 10x)
f (x)
2x + 3
2 x 5x 2
4
1 10x
=
+
2x + 3 2(x 5x 2)
f (x)
(x + 2)5
(3x 5)1/6
f (x)
x + 2 6(3x 5)
Multiplying both sides by f (x)
5
1
(x + 2)5
f (x) =
177
x+1 6x
3(2x + 1)
f (x) = 5x
63.
p dq
q dp
dD
dq
=
= 5000 (p + 11)(e0.1p 0.1)
dp
dp
+(e0.1p )(1)
= 5000e0.1p 0.1(p + 11) + 1
= 5000e0.1p (0.1p 0.1)
ln f (x) = ln 5x
= 500e0.1p (p + 1)
So,
= x 2 ln 5
p
500e0.1p (p + 1)
5000(p + 11)e0.1p
p(p + 1)
=
10(p + 11)
p(p + 1)
p(p + 1)
E(p) =
=
10(p + 11)
10(p + 11)
E(p) =
Differentiating,
f (x)
= (ln 5)2x
f (x)
Multiplying both sides by f (x),
f (x) = (2 ln 5) x 5x
p dq
q dp
p
(3, 000e0.04p 0.04)
=
3, 000e0.04p
= 0.04p
E(p) = 0.04p = 0.04p
E(p) =
178
15(15 + 1)
6ex/10 51 x + 1
0.923, so a 2%
12ex/10
10(15 + 11)
=
x 1/2
x 1/2
increase in price results in a (0.923)(2)
1.85, or 1.85% decrease in demand.
1
x + 1= 2
(c) R(p) = p 5000(p + 11)e0.1p
5
or x = 5 units.
R (p) = 5000 (p 2 + 11p)(e0.1p 0.1)
73. (a) Q(t) = 20,000e0.4t
The rate of depreciation after t years is
+(e0.1p)(2p + 11)
Q(t) = 20,000e0.4t (0.4) = 8,000e0.4t
= 5000e0.1p 0.1(p 2 + 11p) + (2p + 11)
So, the rate after 5 years is
(b) E(15) =
R (p) = 0 when
0.1p + 0.9p + 11 = 0
0.9 (0.9)2 (4)(0.1)(11)
p=
2(0.1)
15.91 (rejecting the negative price)
2
(b) A(x) = e x
Marginal cost equals average cost when
0.2e0.2x =
e0.2x
x
1
or x = 5 units.
x,
)
10
2
which is a constant, independent of time.
1
77. f (x) = 20 15e0.2x
= 6x 1/2ex/10
x+1
5
(a) When a change in x is made, the corresponding
1
x/10
change in f can be approximated by
6e
5x + 1
f f (x)x
x
0.2 =
(b) A(x) =
179
So,
f f (10) 1
= 3e0.2(10) 0.406
= 3000e0.01p (0.01p + 1)
(b) E (p) = 0 when 0.01p + 1 = 0, or p = 100
(c) E (p) = (3000e0.01p )(0.01)
+ (0.01p + 1) (3000e0.01p 0.01)
= 30e0.01p 1 + (0.01p + 1)
f = f (11) f (10)
= (20 15e2.2) (20 15e2)
= 0.368, or 368 copies.
(a)
600
1 + 3e0.02t
N (t) =
=
since
83. N (t) =
F (t) = k(F B)
That is, F (t) is proportional to F B. This
means that the rate you forget material is
proportional to the fraction remaining that will
be forgotten.
(c)
0 (600)(3e0.02t 0.02)
(1 + 3e0.02t )2
36e0.02t
individuals per year.
(1 + 3e0.02t )2
y
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
F(t)
y 0.3
t
0
10
20
N (t)
0.06e0.02t
= 0.02 2
1 + 3e0.02t
N (t)
0.02(1 + 3e0.02t ) + 0.12e0.02t
N (t)
N (t) =
1 + 3e0.02t
36e0.02t
0.02 + 0.06e0.02t
N (t) =
1 + 3e0.02t
(1 + 3e0.02t )2
36e0.02t
N (t) = (0.02 + 0.06e0.02t )
1 + 3e0.02t )3
180
P2(t)
So N (t) = 0 when
0.02 + 0.06e
0.02t
0.02t
P2 (t)
=0
1
=
3
0.02t
= ln
t=
ln
1
3
0.02
ln
1
3
0.02
= 50 ln 3
When
0 < t < 50 ln 3, N (t) > 0, so N (t) is increasing
t > 50 ln 3, N (t) < 0, so N (t) is decreasing.
(c) As t , e0.02t 0, so lim
600
=
1 + 3e0.02t
600
So, in the long run, the number of individuals
approaches 600.
85. P1(t) =
21
20
, P2(t) =
0.3t
1 + 25e
1 + 17e0.6t
(a) P1(t) =
0 (21)(25e0.3t 0.3)
(1 + 25e0.3t )2
P1(10) =
157.5e3
1.556 cm per day
(1 + 25e3)2
0 (20)(17e0.6t 0.6)
P2 (t) =
(1 + 17e0.6t )2
=
204e0.6t
(1 + 17e0.6t )2
ln
204e0.6t
(1 + 17e0.6t )2
10.2e0.6t
1 + 17e0.6t
0.6(1 + 17e0.6t ) + 20.4e0.6t
P2 (t)
1 + 17e0.6t
204e0.6t
0.6 + 10.2e0.6t
=
(1 + 17e0.6t )2
1 + 17e0.6t
204e0.6t
= (0.6 + 10.2e0.6t )
(1 + 17e0.6t )3
=0
0.3t
1 + 25e
1 + 17e0.6t
Press y = and input
21/(1 + 25e (.3x)) 20/(1 + 17e
(.6x)) for y1 = .
Use window dimensions [0,30] 5 by [10,10]1
Press graph .
Use the zero function under the calc menu to
find that the plants have the same height at
approximately 20.71 days
P1(20.71) 20 cm
P1(20.71) 0.286 cm/day and
P2 (20.71) 0.000818 cm/day, so P1 is growing
at a faster rate when they have the same height.
87. R = E + T
When t = t0, R = 11 + 8 = 9
Now,
E (t0)
= 0.09
E(t0)
T (t0)
= 0.02
T (t0)
= 0.6 2
P2(t) =
1
3
1
0.02t = ln
3
ln e
ln R = ln(E + T )
R E + T
=
R
E+T
R (t0) 0.09(11) 0.02(8)
=
11 + 8
R(t0)
= 0.0437
P (t) =
100
= 100(1 + e0.2t )1
1 + e0.2t
20e0.2t
(1 + e0.2t )2
181
When t = 10,
20e0.2(10)
P (10) =
(1 + e0.2(10))2
2.1 thous, or
2,100 people per year
100P (t)
P (t)
100
P (10) =
88.08 thous, or
1 + e0.2(10)
88,080 people
8
10
93. Show
d
x
dx (b ) = (ln
b)bx
(a) Rewrite bx = ex ln b
x
Note: ex ln b = eln b = bx
d
x ln b ) = (ex ln b )(ln
dx (e
b)
Note: ln b is a constant, so
d
x ln b = ln b
dx
100(2,100)
2.38%
88,080
So,
6
Percentage rate
=
(0.65, 4.16)
4
2
d x
(b ) = (ex ln b )(ln b)
dx
= (bx )(ln b)
= (ln b)bx
(b)
y = bx
ln y = ln bx
ln y = x ln b
Now, take the derivative of both sides
y
= ln b
y
y = (ln b)y
d x
(b ) = (ln b)bx
dx
182
4.4
lim 2 e2x = 2 1 = 1
Additional Exponential
Models
x0+
lim
x0+
1.
5 ln x
5/x
= lim
=0
x 1
x
1
x1
lim (x 1)e2x = lim
= lim
=0
x
x e2x
x 2e2x
2
2
=2
=
x
1+ e
1+ 1
lim
5.
(x) 5 x1 (5 ln x)(1) 5 5 ln x
=
f5(x) =
x2
x2
f (t) = 2 + et
When x = 0, f (0) = 3 so (0, 3) is an intercept. When
f (t) = 0, 2 + et = 0, et = 2 has no solution.
lim 2 + et = 2, so y =2 is a horizontal asymptote.
t
lim 2 + et = +
t+
f (t) = et ,
f5(x) = 0 when 5 5 ln x = 0
5 = 5 ln x
1 = ln x
e1 = eln x , or x = e
(0, 3)
3
2
which eliminates f6. So, this is the graph of f5.
y=2
f6(x) = 0 when 3 2x = 0, or x =
3.
As x , f (x) 2.
lim 2 e2x = 2
lim x ln x 5 =
2
2
lim
=2
=
x 1 ex
1 0
2
2
lim
=2
=
x 1 + ex
1+ 0
lim
ln x 5
=0
x
lim (x 1)e2x = 0
7.
g(x) = 2 3ex
When x = 0, g(0) = 1 so (0, 1) is an intercept.
2
Whenf (x) = 0, 0 = 2 3ex , 3ex = 2, ex =
3
2
2
x
ln e = ln , or x = ln .
3
3
So ln 23 , 0 is an intercept.
lim 2 3ex = 2, so y = 2 is a horizontal
x
asymptote.
lim 2 3ex = . g (x) = 3ex so there are no
x+
183
y=2
6e2x
f (x)
=
2
f (x)
1 + 3e2x
2(1 + 3e2x ) + 12e2x
f (x)
f (x) =
1 + 3e2x
2 + 6e2x
12e2x
=
1 + 3e2x
(1 + 3e2x )2
12e2x
2x
= (2 + 6e )
(1 + 3e2x )3
So f (x) = 0 when 2 + 6e2x = 0;
e2x =
(0, 1)
1
3
1
3
1
2x = ln
3
ln e2x = ln
9.
f (x) =
2
1 + 3e2x
1
When x = 0, f (0) = , so
2
f (x) = 0 has no solution.
1
0,
2
x=
is an intercept.
2
lim
= 0, so y = 0
x 1 + 3e2x
is a horizontal asymptote.
2
= 2, so y = 2
1 + 3e2x
is a horizontal asymptote.
lim
12e2x
(1 + 3e2x )2
when 12e2x = 0.
ln f (x) = ln
ln 3
0.549.
2
When 0 < x < 0.549, f (x) > 0, so f is concave up
x > 0.549, f (x) < 0, so f is concave down.
Since the concavity changes at x = 0.549, the point
(0.549, 1) is an inflection point.
0 (2)(6e2x )
, so f (x) = 0
(1 + 3e2x )2
1
3
or x =
x+
f (x) =
ln
y=2
inf
x 0.549
y=0
+ 1),
184
so f (x) = 0 when x = 1.
When x < 1, f (x) < 0, so f is decreasing
When x >1, f (x)> 0, so f is increasing.
1
The point 1,
is a relative minimum.
e
x
f (x) = (e )(1) + (x + 1)(ex ) = ex (x + 2)
so f (x) = 0 when x < 2.
When x < 2, f (x) < 0, so f is concave down
When x > 2, f (x) > 0, so f is concave up.
Since
the concavity
changes at x = 2, the point
2
2, 2 is an inflection point.
e
y
y
(1, e)
inf
(2, 2)
y=0
inf
x 2
(1, 1e )
(1, e)
(0, 0)
(0, 0)
x
lim xe2x = lim ex2
= lim e1x = 0,
x+
x+
so y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote.
f (x) = (x)(e2x ) + (e2x )(1) = e2x (1 x),
so f (x) = 0 when x = 1.
When x < 1, f (x) > 0, so f is increasing
x > 1, f (x) < 0, so f is decreasing.
The point (1, e) is a relative maximum.
f (x) = (e2x )(1) + (1 x)(e2x )
= e2x (x 2)
So f (x) = 0 when x = 2.
When x < 2, f (x) < 0 so f is concave down
x > 2, f (x) > 0 so f is concave up.
Since the concavity changes at x = 2, the point (2, 2)
is an inflection point.
x+
So f (x) = 0 when
x = 2 2.
When
f (x) > 0 so f is concave up.
x < 2 2,
2 2 < x < 2 + 2, f (x) < 0 so f is concave
down.
x > 2 + 2, f (x) > 0, so f is concave up.
The points (0.59, 0.19) and (3.41, 0.38) are inflection
points.
185
inf
x 3.4
(0, 0)
y=6
inf (0, 3)
lim
y=0
6
1 + ex
When x = 0, f (0) = 3, so (0,3) is an intercept.
f (x) = 0 has no solution.
17. f (x) =
6
= 0, so y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote
1 + ex
6
19.
= 6, so y = 6 is a horizontal asymptote.
x+ 1 + ex
0 (6)(ex )
so f (x) = 0 when 6ex = 0
f (x) =
(1 + ex )2
lim
ln(1 + e
= ln 6 x 2 ln(1 + e
(1 + ex ) + 2ex
f (x)
1 + ex
1 + ex
6ex
=
1 + ex
(1 + ex )2
6ex
= (1 + ex )
(1 + ex )3
So f (x) = 0
x0+
is a vertical asymptote.
lim (ln x)2 = +.
x+
f (x) = 2(ln x) x1 so f (x) = 0 when x = 1.
x 2
f (x)
ex
=
1
f (x)
1 + ex
f (x) =
1
2
2
2
+ (ln x) 2 = 2 (1 ln x)
x
x
x
x
when
1 + ex
= 0, or when x = 0.
So f (x) = 0 when 1 ln x = 0
1 = ln x
e1 = eln x , or x = e.
When 0 < x < e, f (x) > 0, so f is concave up
x > e, f (x) < 0, so f is concave down.
The point (e, 1) is an inflection point.
186
P (15) = 60e0.0811(15)
202.52 billion
inf
(e, 1)
(1, 0)
so y = 1 is a horizontal asymptote.
f (t) = 0.03e0.03t
f (t) > 0 for all values of t,
so f is always increasing.
f (t) = 0.09e0.03t
f (t) < 0 for all values of t,
so f is always concave down.
y
y=1
187
100
80
60
k20
T(t)
40
20k
30 = 85e
6
= e20k
17
6
= ln e20k
ln
17
6
= 20k, or
ln
17
k=
ln
6
17
20
20
0
20
ln
6
17
20
ln
17
6
40
60
y 5
t
80
20
20
T (t) = 0, 0 = 5 + 85e0.052t
5 = 85e0.052t
1
= e0.052t
17
1
= ln e0.052t
ln
17
29. f (t) =
2
1 + 3e0.8t
1
1
is an
(a) When t = 0, f (0) = , so 0,
2
2
intercept. f (t) = 0 has no solution.
lim
2
= 2, so y = 2
1 + 3e0.8t
is a horizontal asymptote.
ln
1
= 0.052t, so
17
t=
ln
1
17
0.052
ln
1
17
0.052
ln 17
54.5
0.052
So (54.5,0) is an intercept
lim 5 + 85e0.052t = 5, so y = 5 is a
t+
f (t) =
0 (2)(2.4e0.8t )
4.8e0.8t
=
(1 + 3e0.8t )2
(1 + 3e0.8t )2
4.8e0.8t
(1 + 3e0.8t )2
188
2.4e0.8t
f (t)
=
0.8
f (t)
1 + 3e0.8t
0.8(1 + 3e0.8t ) + 4.8e0.8t
f (t)
f (t) =
1 + 3e0.8t
0.8 + 2.4e0.8t
4.8e0.8t
=
1 + 3e0.8t
(1 + 3e0.8t )2
4.8e0.8t
0.8t
= (0.8 + 2.4e
)
(1 + 3e0.8t )3
f (t) = 0 when 0.8 + 2.4e0.8t = 0
1
e0.8t =
3
1
ln e0.8t = ln
3
1
0.8t = ln , or
3
t=
ln
1
3
0.8
ln
0.8
1
3
2
= 2, so in the long run,
1 + 3e0.8t
approximately 2,000 people will contract the
disease.
(d) lim
ln 3 5 ln 3
=
0.8
4
5 ln 3
, f (t) > 0, so f is concave up
4
5 ln 3
t>
, f (t) < 0, so f is concave down.
4
y
y=2
35. L(t) =
(a)
0.5
x
ln(t + 1)
t +1
L(t) =
(t + 1)
1
t+1
1 ln(t + 1)(1)
(t + 1)2
1 ln(t + 1)
=
(t + 1)2
189
L(e1.5 1) =
=
1
ln(e 1 + 1) ln e
= 0.368
=
e
e
e 1+ 1
ln(1)
L(0) =
=0
1
ln 2
L(1) =
0.347
2
1 1.5
0.025
e3
L(e 1) =
L(t) =
(t + 1)2
1
t+1
1 ln(0 + 1)
=0
(0 + 1)2
1 ln(5 + 1)
L(5) =
0.022
(5 + 1)2
L(0) =
Cekt
1 + Cekt
1
,
200
1
Cek0
=
200 1 + Cek0
1
C
=
200 1 + C
p(0) =
(t + 1)4
(t + 1) 2(t + 1) [1 ln(t + 1)]
=
(t + 1)4
(t + 1) [1 2(1 ln(t + 1))]
=
(t + 1)4
1 2 [1 ln(t + 1)]
=
(t + 1)3
So L(t) = 0 when
1 2 [1 ln(t + 1)] = 0, or
2 [1 ln(t + 1)] = 1
1 ln(t + 1) =
1+
1 + C = 200C, or C =
1
199
1 kt
e
ekt
So, p(t) = 199
=
1 kt
199 + ekt
e
1+
199
Since
1
2
1
= ln(t + 1)
2
1
,
100
1
ek4
=
100 199 + ek4
p(4) =
e1.5 = eln(t+1)
e1.5 = t + 1, or
t = e1.5 1
When 0 t < e1.5 1, L(t) < 0, so L(t) is
decreasing.
e1.5 1 < t 5, L(t) > 0, so L(t) is
increasing.
1 ln(e1.5 1 + 1) 1 ln e1.5
=
(e1.5 1 + 1)2
(e1.5)2
k=
So, p(t) =
ln
e0.1745t
.
199 + e0.1745t
199
99
0.1745
190
= 0.1745
0.1745e0.1745t
199 + e0.1745t
(0.1745)(199)
34.7255
=
=
0.1745t
199 + e
199 + e0.1745t
So,
p (t) =
=
34.7255
199 + e0.1745t
e0.1745t
199 + e0.1745t
2
199 + e0.1745t
p (t)
=
and,
(0.1745)(199) 0.1745e0.1745t
34.7255 0.1745e0.1745t
199 + e0.1745t
199 + e0.1745t
34.7255 0.1745e0.1745t
p (t) =
199 + e0.1745t
34.7255e0.1745t
(199 + e0.1745t )2
34.7255e0.1745t
.
(199 + e0.1745t )2
0.02
P (x)
= 0.02 +
3.5 0.02x
P (x)
0.02(3.5 0.02x) 0.02
P (x) =
P (x)
3.5 0.02x
0.0004x 0.09
=
1,000e0.02x (3.5 0.02x)
3.5 0.02x
= (0.4x 90)e0.02x
So P (x) = 0 when 0.4x 90 = 0, or x = 225.
When 125 < x < 225, P (x) < 0, so P is
concave down
x > 225, P (x) > 0, so P is concave up.
The point (225, 1111) is an inflection point.
191
and
50
25
, t 1/2 = , or
1/2
t
3
2
25
t=
69.44
3
6=
500
625
, the percentage rate of growth
9
V (t)
625
100
> 6%. When t >
, the percentage rate
V (t)
9
V (t)
of growth is 100
< 6%. So, the land should be
V (t)
sold approximately 69.44 years from now.
Q(t)
Q(t)
0.0015Q0e0.0015t
= 0.15% per year
Q0e0.0015t
0.9
1
1
R (x) = 0 + [ln 5 + 0.9 ln x]
0+
+
x
x
x2
ln 5 0.9 ln x + 0.9
=
x2
eln x = e( ln 5+0.9)/0.9
1 1/2
t
t
Now, V (t) = 8, 000e
2
t 1 t 1/2
8,
000e
2
50
V (t)
= 1/2
= 100
So, 100
t
V (t)
8, 000e t
1
x
x = e( ln 5+0.9)/0.9 0.45
Since
R (x) =
(x 2)
0.9
x
+ [ ln 5 0.9 ln x + 0.9](2x)
x4
x [0.9 + 2( ln 5 0.9 ln x + 0.9)]
=
x4
2 ln 5 1.8 ln x + 0.9
=
x3
192
2
b
C
2
(a)
b
b
b
+
aR
+
(1)
E (C) = (C) 2 aR +
C
C2
C
2
2b
b
b
=
aR +
+ aR +
C
C
C
2b
b
b
+ aR +
= aR +
C
C
C
b
b
= aR +
aR
C
C
ln E(C) = ln m + ln C + ln ek/C
ln E(C) = ln m + ln C + k/C
47. E(C) = C aR +
So E (C) = 0 when
b
= 0 (rejecting the negative solution)
C
b
aR =
C
b
C=
aR
aR
b
b
b
b
E (C) = aR +
+
aR
C
C2
C
C2
b
b
b
= 2
aR
aR +
C
C
C
2
b 2b
2b
= 2
= 3
C
C
C
When C =
or,
b
aR
=
2b2
3
b
aR
b
.
aR
b
aR
b
,
aR
E (C)
1
k
= 2
C
E(C)
C
C
k
E (C) =
E(C)
C2
Ck
=
(mCek/C )
C2
(C k)m k/C
=
e
C
49. w(t) =
10
; p(t) = e0.01t
1 + 15e0.05t
193
e0.01t
1 + 15e0.05t
= ln 10,000 + ln e
0.01t
(c)
E(t)
= 0.01
E(t)
ln(1 + 15e
4,000
0.05t
0.05t
2,000
0.75e0.05t
1 + 15e0.05t
1,000
0.05t
E (t) =
3,000
1
60
t
25 50 75 100 125 150
N (t) =
B
1 + Cekt
0.6e0.05t = 0.01
1
e0.05t =
60
1
ln e0.05t = ln
60
1
0.05t = ln , or
60
ln
ln
1
60
ln 60
=
81.9
=
t=
0.05
0.05
0.05
For the domain t 0,
ln 60
, E (t) > 0, so E is increasing
0.05
ln 60
t>
, E (t) < 0, so E is decreasing.
0.05
when 0 t <
9e2k = 3
1
e2k =
3
1
3
1
2k = ln , or
3
ln e2k = ln
k=
ln
1
3
ln
2
1
3
ln 3
2
194
(b)
N (t) =
0.5B =
B
1 + 9e
ln 3
2
t
0
B
1 + 9e(t/2)(ln 3)
1
1 + 9e(t/2)(ln 3) =
0.5
9e(t/2)(ln 3) = 1
t/2
1
=
eln 3
9
3t/2 =
1
9
ln 1
t
= 9 , or
2
ln 3
2 ln
ln 3
1
9
2 ln 9
= 4 hours
ln 3
ln 0.6 = ln(0.03)(0.4)
ln 0.145677 ln(0.4)t
ln 0.145677 t ln(0.4), so
ln 0.145677
t
2.10 years
ln 0.4
1
= ln
ln 3
9
t
1
ln 3t/2 = ln
2
9
t/2
t=
B
1 + 9e(ln 3/2)t
t+
ln 3
= Bk
2B
y
y = F(t)
16,667
y = 500
ln 9
2 ln 9
=
ln 3
ln 23
ln 81
= log3 81 = 4
ln 3
y = N(t)
15
t
195
C (t) = A (t)(kekt ) + (ekt )(1)
(a)
= Aekt (1 kt)
1
So C (t) = 0 when 1 kt = 0, or t = .
k
y
k 0.2
1.5
1
When 0 t < , C (t) > 0, so C is increasing
k
1
t > , C (t) < 0, so C is decreasing.
k
C (t) = A (e
kt
)(k) + (1 kt)(ke
kt
)
= Akekt (kt 2)
1
< 0, so the absolute maximum
C
k
1
concentration occurs when t = and has a
k
value of
1
1 k(1/k) A
C
e
= .
=A
k
ke
k
t
10 15 20 25 30
k 0.5
k1
k2
0.5
Q(t) = Q0ekt
Let t = 0 be the year 1947. Since r = 0.06 and
Q0 = 1,139,
Q(t) = 1,139e0.06t
In the year 1954, t = 7 and
Q(7) = 1,139e0.06(7)
1,733 staff members
(b) Let the original size of the staff be Q0 and
double the staff be 2Q0. Then,
2Q0 = Q0e0.06t
2 = e0.06t
ln 2 = ln e0.06t
ln 2 = 0.06t, or t =
ln 2
= 11.55
0.06
196
s sx/r
(a)
+ esx/r sx s1
e
p (x) = A (x s )
r
s1 sx/r x
= sAx e
+1
r
So p (x) = 0 when
min rate
max rate
x
+ 1 = 0, or x = r.
r
sx s1
s2
sx/r
sA e
+ (s 1)x
r
s
x
s sx/r
s1
+
+x
e
x
r
r
2
x
s
sx
+ s 1+
+x
= sAx s2esx/r
r
r
r
A
61. f (t) =
s 2 s
s2 sx/r s
1 + Cekt
= sAx e
x + s 1+ 2x x
The epidemic is spreading most rapidly when the
r
r
r
rate of change, or derivative, is maximized
s 2 2s
s2 sx/r
= sAx e
x
+
(s
1)
x
r
r2
0 (A)(kCekt )
f (t) =
2
2
2
s2 sx/r
= r sAe e
sx 2rsx + r (s 1)
(1 + Cekt )2
Using the quadratic formula,
2rs (2rs)2 (4)(s)r 2(s 1)
x=
2(s)
2rs 2r s 2 s(s 1)
x=
2s
rs r s
r
x=
s s
=
s
s
So, there are two possible inflection points.
(Checking with p (x) shows that they both are
inflection points.)
kACekt
ekt
=
kAC
(1 + Cekt )2
(1 + Cekt )2
f (t) = kAC
(1 + Cekt )2(kekt )
(1 + Cekt )4
(ekt ) 2(1 + Cekt )(kCekt )
(1 + Cekt )4
1 + Cekt 2Cekt
= k 2ACekt (1 + Cekt )
(1 + Cekt )4
197
c
(eat ebt )
ba
c
(a) y (t) =
(aeat + bebt )
ba
So, y (t) = 0 when
65. y(t) =
1 Cekt = 0
1 = Cekt
1
= ekt
C
1
ln = ln ekt
C
1
ln = kt, or
C
t=
ln
1
C
aeat + bebt = 0
ln
k
1
C
bebt = aeat
ebt
a
=
at
e
b
a
bt+at
e
=
b
a
bt+at
ln e
= ln
b
a
(a b)t = ln
b
ln C
k
t=
y (t) =
y
ln
ln
a
b
ab
ln
b
a
ba
c
(a 2eat b2ebt )
ba
a
b
ab
a
b .
when t =
ab
In the long run,
c
c
(eat ekt ) =
(0 0) = 0.
lim
t+ b a
ba
ln
0.3
0.25
0.2
y2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0
t
0
50
100
150
200
198
t
2
67. V (t) = V0 1
L
1
x+ 2 =0
2
x + = 0
x=
1
2
2
1
f (x) =
2
e(x) /2
2
1
1
(x)2 /2 2
+ 2x + 2
e
2x + 2
2
2
1
= e(x) /2
2
1
1 2 2
2
2+
x 4x + 4
t
2
(a) When L = 8, V (t) = 875 1
=
8
t
875(0.75) .
When t = 5, V (5) = 875(0.75)5 $207.64
The annual rate of depreciation is the derivative,
and logarithmic differentiation must be used.
ln V = ln[8.75(0.75)t ]
= ln 8.75 + ln(0.75)t
= ln 8.75 + t ln 0.75
Differentiating,
V (t)
= 0 + ln 0.75
V (t)
1
= 0 no solution
2
ln
1
L V (t)
V (t)
= 100
100
V (t)
V (t)
2
= 100 ln 1
.
L
69. f (x) =
2
2
1 e(x) /2
2
1
(x )2
= 2 (x 2 2x + 2)
2
2
2
1
2
= 2 x2 + 2 x
2
2 2
2
2
1
1
2x + 2
f (x) =
e(x) /2
2
e(x)
2 /2 2
= 0 no solution
e(x) /2 = 0 no solution
1 2 2
2
1
x
x
+
2 =0
4
4
4
1 2
(x 2x + 2 2) = 0
4
2
x 2 2x + (2 2) = 0
(x ( ))(x ( + )) = 0
x ( ) = 0, or
x=
x ( + ) = 0, or
x=+
So, there are inflection points at x = and
x = + . To test the critical value x = from
the first derivative, note that
2
2
1
e() /2
2
2
1
1 2 2
4+ 4 2
1
1
=
e0 2 < 0
f () =
199
2
2
1
e[(+c)] /2
2
2
2
1
f ( c) = e[(c)] /2
2
(b)
f ( + c) =
2.
[( + c) ]2 = c2
[( c) ] = c
2
So, f ( + c) = f ( c)
(c) This means that the graph of f is symmetric
about the line = c.
3
=
9 (x 6)(y 3)
= 27x 6y 3
1/2
1
(b) (3x 2y 4/3)1/2 =
3x 2y 4/3
=
(a)
(32)(92)
(27)2/3
(b)
1
32
(92)
=
2 =
3
27
1
9
(81)
(3)2
(c)
=1
8
8
3
1.5
= (25) 3
27
27
3
1/3
8
0.5 2
= (25)1.5
=
(25)
3
3
27
10
2
= 25
=
3
3
3
1
(1)1/2
=
(3)1/2(x 2)1/2(y 4/3)1/2
3 (x)(y 2/3)
1
=
3xy 2/3
3/2 2/3 2 3/2 4/3
x
x
y
y
=
1/6
3/2
x
y
x
y 1/3
= x 4/33/2 y 3/21/3
(25)1.5
= x 1/6y 7/6 =
(d)
5
5
x 0.2y 1.2
0.21.5
1.20.4
=
x
y
x 1.5y 0.4
5
= x 1.3y 1.6 = (x 1.3)5(y 1.6)5
= x 6.5y 8 =
2
(a) 42xx =
1
x 6.5y 8
1
64
42xx = 43
So, 2x x 2 = 3
2
0 = x 2 2x + 3
0 = (x 3)(x + 1)
x = 3, 1
log2 4 + log4 16 = 2 2 = 0
2/3 3/2 2/3 3/2
(d)
16
16
27
8
=
27
81
8
81
2
3
2
3
4
27
16
3
= 3
=
8
81
2
9
64
16
9
=
=
4
729
81
y 7/6
x 1/6
(b)
e1/x = 4
ln e1/x = ln 4
1
= ln 4
x
1
x=
ln 4
200
25
= 1 + 2e0.5t
3
22
= 2e0.5t
3
11
= e0.5t
3
11
= ln e0.5t
ln
3
11
= 0.5t, or
ln
3
t=
4.
(a) (a) y =
ln
11
3
0.5
= 2 ln
= 2x + 3 ln(2x 1) ln(1 x 2)
y
=
y
11
3
= 2 ln
3
11
ex
x 2 3x
5.
ex (x 2 5x + 3)
(x 2 3x)2
3x 2 + 4x 3
x 3 + 2x 2 3x
(c) y = x 3 ln x
dy
= (x 3)
dx
(a) y = x 2ex
When x = 0, y = 0 so (0, 0) is an intercept.
When y = 0, x = 0.
Also, lim x 2ex = +
x
2x
x2
=
= lim
x+ ex
x+ ex
x+
2
lim
= 0 so y = 0 is a horizontal
x+ ex
asymptote. y = (x 2)(ex ) + (ex )(2x)
= xex (2 x)
so y = 0 when x = 0, 2.
Rewriting, y = ex (2x x 2), so
lim x 2ex = lim
1
1 + (ln x)(3x 2)
x
= x 2 + 3x 2 ln x
= x 2(1 + 3 ln x)
(d) y =
2
2x
2x 1 1 x 2
6
2x
y
+
y = 2 +
2x 1 1 x 2
2x
6
2x
e (2x 1)3
= 2 +
+
2x 1 1 x 2
1 x2
2x
3
x
2e (2x 1)3
= 1 +
+
2x 1 1 x 2
1 x2
2 + 3
So, y = 0 when 2 4x + x 2 = 0.
Using the quadratic formula,
x=2 2
When x < 0, y < 0, so y is decreasing,
y > 0, so y is concave up;
201
0<x<2
2, y > 0, so y is increasing,
y =
2<x<2+
x>2+
2, y < 0, so y is decreasing,
y > 0, so y is concave up.
(3.41, 0.38)
y=
x
5
ln
ln x
=
2
x
x2
1
2
ln x
x2
(2x 3)2
x = e5/6
When 0 < x < e1/2, y > 0, so y is increasing,
x 1/2
ln x
2x 2
y =
(2x 3) 2 x1 (1 2 ln x)(6x 2)
eln x = e5/6
(0.59, 0.19)
2 1 0 1
(b) (b)
x = e1/2
5 + 6 ln x = 0
6 ln x = 5
5
ln x =
6
(2, 4e2)
e1/2 = eln x , or
So, y = 0 when
(0, 0)
(ln x)(4x)
1 2 ln x = 0
1 = 2 ln x
1
= ln x
2
1
x
So y = 0 when
(2x 2)2
2x(1 2 ln x) 1 2 ln x
=
=
4x 4
2x 3
(2x 2)
ln x
1
= lim x = lim
=0
2x 2 x 4x x 4x 2
so y = 0 is a horizontal asymptote.
202
1
1/2
The point e ,
is a relative maximum
4e
5
5/6
and the point e ,
is an inflection
12e5/3
point.
So y = 0 when 1 2x 1/2 = 0
1 = 2x 1/2
1
= x 1/2, or
2
1
x=
4
y
(e,
0.1
1
)
4.e
(2.30, 0.08)
(1, 0)
0
10
15
20
y =
0.1
2
(c) (c) y = ln x x = 2 ln(x 1/2 x)
Note that the domain of y is x > 0 and x = 1.
When y = 0, ln(x 1/2 x)2 = 0
x 1/2 x = 1
0 = x x 1/2 + 1 has no solution.
0 = x x 1/2 1 is solved by
letting u = x 1/2, so 0 = u2 u 1
1 1+ 4
1.62
u=
2
(rejecting the negative solution)
x 1/2 1.62 so x 2.6
So, (2.6, 0) is an intercept. Since y is undefined
when x = 1, there is a vertical asymptote at
x = 1. Similarly, there is a vertical asymptote at
x = 0.
2
Since lim
x x = +,
x+
2
x x = +
1 1/2
1
y = 2 1/2
x
1
x x 2
lim ln
(x x 3/2)2
(x x 3/2)2
2x + 25 x 1/2 1
(x x 3/2)2
So y = 0 when 2x + 25 x 1/2 1 = 0.
5
To solve, let u = x 1/2, so 2u2 + u 1 = 0.
2
Using the quadratic formula, there are no
solutions.
1
When 0 < x < , y > 0, so y is increasing,
4
y < 0, so y is concave down;
1
< x < 1, y < 0, so y is decreasing,
4
y < 0, so y is concave down;
x > 1, y > 0, so y is increasing,
y < 0, so y is concave down.
x+
1
2
x 1/2
1/2
x x
1 2x 1/2
x x 3/2
x 1/2
x 1/2
203
So, y = 0 when
y
x1
1 + ex = 0
ex = 1
x = ln 1
or x = 0
(2.62, 0)
(0, 0)
( 1 ,
4
ln 16)
x
0
10
5
10
4
(d) y =
1 + ex
When x = 0, y = 2 so (0, 2) is an intercept.
y = 0, has no solution.
4
lim
= 0 so y = 0 is a horizontal
x 1 + ex
asymptote.
4
= 4 so y = 4 is a horizontal
lim
x+ 1 + ex
asymptote.
0 (4)(ex )
4ex
y =
=
x
2
(1 + e )
(1 + ex )2
So y is never zero. Further, y > 0 for all values
of x, so y is always increasing.
Using logarithmic differentiation,
4ex
ln y = ln
(1 + ex )2
= ln 4 + ln ex ln(1 + ex )2
= ln 4 x 2 ln(1 + ex )
ex
y
=
1
y
1 + ex
= 1 +
2ex
1 + ex
(1 + ex ) + 2ex
y
y =
1 + ex
4ex
1 + ex
=
1 + ex
(1 + ex )2
4ex
= (1 + ex )
(1 + ex )3
4
3
2
(0, 2)
1
4 3 2 1 0
6.
x
1
204
7.
2(10)
0.0625
8,000 = (P ) 1 +
2
8,000
P=
= $4,323.25
(1.03125)20
(a)
So, p = 0 when
3 + 2 ln(t + 1) = 0
2 ln(t + 1) = 3
3
ln(t + 1) =
2
8,000 = P e0.0625(10)
(b)
eln(t+1) = e3/2
P = 8,000e0.625 = $4,282.09
8.
t + 1 = e3/2, or
p =
ln(t + 1)
+5
p=
t +1
Note that the domain is t > 1.
(a)
p (t) =
(t + 1)
1
t+1
1 [ln(t + 1)] (1)
(t + 1)2
1 ln(t + 1)
=
(t + 1)2
+0
= lim
(t
(t + 1) [1 2(1 ln(t + 1))]
=
(t + 1)4
3 + 2 ln(t + 1)
=
(t + 1)3
ln(t + 1)
+ lim 5
t
t +1
1
t+1
+5
1
1
= lim
+5=0+5=5
t t + 1
t
+ 1)4
11 6e3/2
e9
= lim
1 [1 ln(t + 1)] [2(t + 1)(1)]
11 6 ln(e3/2 1 + 1)
(e3/2 1 + 1)6
(t
[3 + 2 ln(t + 1)] 3(t + 1)2
(t + 1)6
p =
p =
e1 = eln(t+1)
e = t + 1, or
t =e1
1
t+1
2
t+1
1 ln(t + 1) = 0
1 = ln(t + 1)
+ 1)2
(t + 1)3
t = e3/2 1
Review Problems
205
R (p) = 1,000 (p 2 + 2p)(ep ) + (ep )(2p + 2)
= 1,000ep (p 2 + 2p) (2p + 2)
11. N (T ) = 10,000(8 + t)e0.1t
p 2
= 1,000e (p 2)
(a) When t = 0, N (0) = 10,000(8)e0 = 80,000
bacteria
So R (p) = 0 when p = 2.
(b) N (t) = 10,000 (8 + t)(0.1e0.1t ) + (e0.1t )(1)
= 10,000e0.1t [0.1(8 + t) + 1]
= 1,000ep [p 2 2p 2]
2 < 0 and the maximum revenue
So R
occurs when the price is approximately $141.42.
The maximum revenue is
R
2 + 2 e 2
2 = 1,000
2
N (t) = 10,000
(e0.1t )(0.1)
+(0.2 0.1t)(0.1e0.1t )
1
R0 = R0ek(5,730)
2
1
ln = ln e5,730k
2
1
ln = 5, 730k, so
2
ln (1/2) ln (1/2)
ln 2
k=
=
=
5,730
5,730
5,730
8+t
t e0.1t
1
= 10,000(0) = 0
0.1e0.1t
So, the bacterial colony dies off in the long run.
= 10,000 lim
Review Problems
1.
f (x) = 5x
When x = 0, f (0) = 1, so (0, 1) is an intercept.
f (x) = 0 has no solution.
206
1
lim 5x = lim 5x
= 0 so y = 0 is a horizontal
x
asymptote.
lim 5x = + so f (x) increases without bound
x+
as x increases.
x
20
15
10
= 10e(ln 2 )t
2 1
3.
f (x) = ln x 2
Note that the domain of f is x = = 0, so x = 0 is a
vertical asymptote.
When f (x) = 0, x = 1 so (1, 0) and (1, 0) are
intercepts.
lim ln x 2 = lim ln x 2 = +, so f increases
x
x
without bound as x decreases and as x increases.
= 10eln(5/20)
4
5
3125
= 10
=
2
8
5
5
5.
9 k(3)
e
10
3
3
9
9 k 3
(e ) =
10 10
10
100
9 1000
=
=
27
3
10
=
Review Problems
207
f (9) = 30 + 20ek(9)
= 30 + 20(e3k )3
3
1
= 30 + 20
2
5 65
= 30 + =
2
2
6
1 + Aekt
Since f (0) = 3,
(d) f (t) =
3=
y = x 2ex
dy
= (x 2)(ex ) + (ex )(2x)
dx
= xex (x + 2)
15.
6
, or A = 1.
1 + Ae0
6
.
1 + ekt
Since f (5) = 2,
Now, f (t) =
2=
13. e2x + ex 2 = 0
Letting u = ex , u2 + u 2 = 0
(u + 2)(u 1) = 0
or, u = 2, 1.
If u = 2, ex = 2 and there is no solution.
If u = 1, ex = 1, so x = 0.
y = x ln x 2 = 2x ln x
dy
1
= (2x)
+ (ln x)(2)
dx
x
= 2(1 + ln x)
17.
6
,
1 + ek(5)
1 + e5k = 3,
e5k = 2.
So,
19.
y = log3(x 2) =
2
ln 3
2
dy
=
dx
ln 3
6
1 + ek(10)
6
=
1 + (e5k )2
6
6
=
= .
2
1 + (2)
5
f (10) =
21. y =
7.
8 = 2e0.04x ,
4 ln x = 8, ln x = 2,
or x = e2 7.389.
ln x
1
2
=
x
x ln 3
ex + ex
1 + e2x
e0.04x = 4,
0.04x = ln 4
x 25 ln 4.
9.
ln(x 2)
ln 3
41
2
e3x + 2ex + ex
(1 + e2x )2
(e2x + 1)(ex + ex )
(1 + e2x )2
ex + ex
ex + ex ex
=
= ex
1 + e2x
1 + e2x ex
208
(x 2 + e2x )3e2x
(1 + x x 2)2/3
Using logarithmic differentiation,
23. y = ln(e2x + ex )
29. y =
1
dy
= 2x
(2e2x ex )
dx
e
+ ex
ex (2ex + 1)
= x x
e (e + 1)
=
ln y = ln
dy
=
dx
=
(x + ln x)(ex ) (ex ) 1 + x1
(x + ln x)2
xex ex ln x ex
(x + ln x)2
ex
x
x
x
ex (x 2 + x ln x + x + 1)
x(x + ln x)2
27. yexx = x + y
dy
2
2
dy
= 1+
exx (1 2x) + exx
dx
dx
dy
xx 2 dy
xx 2
e
(1 2x)
= 1 y e
dx
dx
dy
2
2
exx 1
= 1 y exx (1 2x)
dx
xx 2 (1 2x)
1
y
e
dy
=
2
dx
exx 1
2
1 + y exx (2x 1)
=
2
exx 1
(y)
2ex + 1
ex + 1
ex
x + ln x
25. y =
(x 2 + e2x )3e2x
(1 + x x 2)2/3
y
2x + 2e2x
1 2x
2
=3 2
2
y
x + e2x
3 1 + x x2
6(x + e2x )
2(1 2x)
y =
2
x 2 + e2x
3(1 + x x 2)
2
(x + e2x )3e2x
(1 + x x 2)2/3
3(x + e2x )
(1 2x)
=
x 2 + e2x
3(1 + x x 2)
2(x 2 + e2x )3e2x
(1 + x x 2)2/3
31. f (x) = ex ex
When x = 0, f (0) = 0 so (0, 0) is an intercept.
When f (x) = 0, x = 0.
lim ex ex = so f decreases without
x
bound as x decreases.
lim ex ex = + so f increases without
x+
bound as x increases.
f (x) = ex + ex
f (x) is never zero; further, f (x) > 0 for all values
of x, so f is always increasing.
f (x) = ex ex
So, f (x) = 0 when x = 0.
When x < 0, f (x) < 0 so f is concave down
x > 0, f (x) > 0 so f is concave up.
The point (0, 0) is an inflection point.
Review Problems
209
10
5
(0, 0)
3 2 1
x
0
5
10
=2
33. f (t) = t + et
When t = 0, f (0) = 1 so (0, 1) is an intercept.
f (t) = 0 has no solution.
lim t + et = + (since et increases more
t
rapidly than t decreases).
lim t + et = t, so y = t is an oblique asymptote.
t+
f (t) = 1 et
1 = et
ln 1 = t, or t = 0.
When t < 0, f (t) < 0 so f is decreasing
t > 0, f (t) > 0 so f is increasing.
The point (0, 1) is a relative minimum.
f (t) = et
So, f (t) is never zero; further f (t) > 0 for all
values of t, so f is always concave up.
y
So f (t) = 0 when 1 et = 0
u2 + 2u + 1
(u + 1)2
=2
u+2
u+2
y
25
20
3
(1, 0)
u 2
yt
2 1
35.
F (u) = u2
+ 2 ln(u + 2)
15
10
t
0
5
(1, 1)
(0, 2 ln 2)
3 2 1 0 1
5
u
4
210
G (x) =
(e2x + ex )(4e2x + ex )
(e2x + ex )2
(2e2x ex )(2e2x ex )
(e2x + ex )2
u2 + u 1 = 0
1 1 + (4)(1)(1) 1 5
u=
=
2(1)
2
e3x
(e2x + ex )2
So,
y
6
5
4
3
2
1
(0, ln 2)
1 5
2
1 + 5
x
ln e = ln
(rejecting negative value)
2
1 + 5
x = ln
, or
2
1 + 5
x = ln
0.48
2
ex =
3 2 1
0
1
2
3
39.
So, (0.48, 0) is an intercept.
lim ln(e2x + ex ) = + so G increases
x
without bound as x decreases.
lim ln(e2x + ex ) = lim ln x =
x
3
1 x 3
41.
2e2x ex = 0
ex (2ex + 1) = 0
2ex + 1 = 0
x0+
x+
(0.48, 0)
1
ex = has no solution.
2
G(x) is never zero; further, G(x) < 0 for all x so
G is always decreasing.
Review Problems
211
5
1
So, the functions largest value is e +
and its
e
smallest value is 32.
43. y = ln x 2, x = 1
When x = 1, y = ln 1 = 0 so point (1, 0) is on the
tangent line.
2x
y = (x)
+ (ln x 2) = 2 + ln x 2
x2
slope = y = 2 + ln(1)2 = 2
So, the equation of the tangent line is
y 0 = 2(x 1), or
y = 2x 2.
= x 3e2x ,
45. y
x=2
When x = 2, y = 8 so point (2, 8) is on the tangent
line.
y = (x 3)(e2x ) + (e2x )(3x 2)
slope = y = (2)3(e0) + (e0)(3 4) = 4
So, the equation of the tangent line is
y 8 = 4(x 2), or
y = 4x.
47. f (x) = ekx
Since f (3) = 2, 2 = e3k . Now, f (9) = e9k . Using
the facts that (e3k )3 = e9k ,
f (9) = (e3k )3 = (2)3 = 8
49. Since the money doubles in 15 years,
415
r
B(15) = P 1 +
4
60
r
= P 1+
= 2P
4
Now,
430
r
B(30) = P 1 +
4
602
r
= P 1+
= (2P )2 = 4P
4
So the money quadruples in 30 years.
4
5
ln
5
4
0.1
212
4t
0.08
5,000 = 2,000 1 +
4
4t
0.08
2.5 = 1 +
4
4t
0.08
ln 2.5 = ln 1 +
4
0.08
ln 2.5 = 4t ln 1 +
4
ln 2.5
11.57 years
t=
4 ln 1 + 0.08
4
(0, 10)
x
ln
3
8
3
8
0.1
= 10 ln
2.5 = e0.08t
ln 2.5 = ln e0.08t
ln 2.5 = 0.08t
ln 2.5
t=
11.45 years
0.08
40e0.1x = 15
3
e0.1x =
8
x=
5,000 = 2,000e0.08t
35 = 50 40e0.1x
0.1x = ln
8
9.81
3
$4,975.96
(b) at 6% compounded continuously is
P = Bert
= 10,000e0.06(10)
$5,488.12
61. When interest is compounded quarterly, the effective
rate
is
4
.0825
1+
1 0.08509, or 8.51%.
4
When interest is compounded continuously, the
effective rate is
Review Problems
213
30
1 + 2e0.05t
35
y 30
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
t
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
P (20) =
or 17,283,500 people.
30
(d) lim
= 30
x 1 + 2e0.05t
So, the population approaches 30,000,000 in
the long run.
P (t)
0.1e0.05t
= 0.05 2
P (t)
1 + 2e0.05t
65. (a) The rate of change of the carbon monoxide level
0.05(1 + 2e0.05t ) + 0.2e0.05t
P
P (t) =
(t)
t years from now is Q(t) = 0.12e0.03t . The rate
1 + 2e0.05t
two years from now is Q(2) = 0.12e0.03(2) =
0.05t
0.05t
0.05 + 0.1e
3e
0.13 parts per million per year.
=
1 + 2e0.05t
(1 + 2e0.05t )2
(b) The percentage rate of change of the
carbon
level
from
3e0.05t
monoxide
t years
now is
0.05t
(t)
0.03t
= (0.05 + 0.1e
)
Q
0.12e
(1 + 2e0.05t )3
100
= 100
= 3% per
Q(t)
4e0.03t
year, which is a constant (independent of time).
So P (t) = 0 when
0.05 + 0.1e0.05t = 0
e0.05t = 0.5
0.05t = 0.5, or
ln 0.5
= 20 ln 2 13.9
t=
0.05
When 0 < t < 13.9, P (t) > 0, so P is concave
up. When t > 13.9, P (t) < 0 so P is concave
down. The point (13.9, 15.0) is an inflection
point.
100
= 100
V (t)
2,000e 2t
1
= 1000
2t
214
1
= 20
2t =
0.05
2t = 400
t = 200 years
When 0 < t < 200, the percentage rate is more than
the prevailing rate. When t > 200, the prevailing
rate is greater, so, its best to sell the asset after 200
years.
69. Q(t) = Q0ekt
1
Q0 = Q0ek()
2
1
= ek()
2
1
ln = k, or
2
k=
ln
1
2
ln 2
ln 2
ln 21
ln 2
1
=
k=
=
1
ln 0.5 ln 2
ln 2
e(ln 2/5,730)(5,000)
R0
0.5462, or 54.62%.
C (t) = A (t)(kekt ) + (ekt )(1)
= Aekt (kt + 1)
1
k
1
When 0 < t < , C (t) > 0, so C is increasing
k
1
t > , C (t) < 0, so C is decreasing.
k
1
So, the maximum occurs when t = . Since the
k
maximum occurs after 2 hours,
1
1
2 = , or k =
k
2
The maximum is 10, so
1
10 = A(2)e 2 (2), or
A = 5e
(b) To find when the concentration falls to 1
microgram / ml,
C(t) = 5ete0.5t
5ete0.5t = 1
5ete0.5t 1 = 0
Press y = and input
5e (1)xe (.5x) 1 for y1 =.
Use window dimensions of
[5, 20]2 by [10, 10]1
Press graph .
Review Problems
215
40
1+Cekt
pHl = 21 pH0.
If pH0 = 3.2,
1
pHl = (3.2) = 1.6
2
Then,
40
1 + Cek(0)
40
1+ C
40
3
37
3
40
kt
1 + 37
3e
40
1+
37 k(15)
3e
37 15k
e
= 10
3
27
e15k =
37
27
37
27
15k = ln
37
ln e15k = ln
k=
ln
27
37
15
[H3O ]l = 10
1.6
+]
or
0.0251
0.0210
(0, 0.008)
40
1+
37 0.0210(40)
3e
79. pH
For milk and lime,
pH m = 3pHl .
For lime and orange,
ln 2
5,730
t
ln 2
5,730
(3.8106 )
= R0e459.7
202.31
1 + e3.9380.314t
t
0
1
4
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
20
21
216
100
50
0
12 16 20
(3 x) for y1 =,
Press y = and input
The graph of
y = 3x is a reflection of the
graph ofy = 3x across the yaxis. The graph
of y = 3x is the graph of y = 3x vertically
3x
(2, 3)
(1, 3)
(1, 3)
3x
(2, 3)
(1, 3)
(0, 1)
x
Review Problems
217
=0
ln 5
ln 2
ln 10
This inequality
holdsfor all n 8. To confirm, since
n
(n + 1) (n + 1) n+1
lim
(n + 1)
n
n+1
(n + 1)
lim
lim
lim e
n+1
n
n+1 ln n+1
n
lim e[(ln(n+1)/n)/(n+1)
n
ln
n
n+1
91. To make a table for
n
and
n+1
with n = 8, 9, 12, 20, 25, 31,37, 38,
43, 50, 100, and
1,000,
press
y = and input
n
n + 1 for y1 =
and n + 1 n for y2 =.
Press 2nd tblset and use ask independent and auto
dependent.
Press 2nd table and input each value of n given.
n
n+1
n
n+2
8
9
12
20
25
31
37
38
43
50
1000
1000
22.63
32.27
88.21
957.27
3,665
16,528
68,159
85,679
261,578
1.17 106
1.1 1010
2.9 1047
22.36
31.62
85.00
904.84
3,447
15,494
63,786
80,166
244,579
1.09 106
1.1 1010
2.8 1047
n
n+1
n+1
n+1
n+1
n+1
n
n+1
ln
lim e
n+1
lim
en
1/2 ]
n+1
n
(n + 1)1/2
n2
1
(n+1)3/2 (1)
2
n+1
n1
lim
en
21 (n + 1)3/2(n + 1)
1/2
lim 2(n+1)
n
en
lim
en (n+1)1/2
e0
1
to n
n+1
n+1
is less than or
Chapter 5
Integration
5.1
Antidifferentiation;
the Indefinite Integral
13.
"
1.
I=
3 dx = 3x + C.
=3
"
x6
+ C.
6
"
"
1
I=
dx = x 2 dx
x2
1
= x 1 + C = + C.
x
"
"
2
I=
dt = 2 t 1/2 dt
t
3.
I=
5.
7.
=2
15.
"
ex
+ x x dx
2
"
"
1
x
=
e dx + x 3/2 dx
2
I=
1
x 5/2
= ex +
+C
2
5/2
t 1/2
+C
1/2
=
17.
u3/5
5
+ C = u3/5 + C.
3/5
3
"
11.
y 3/2
y 2
2
+C
3/2
2
= 2y 3/2 + y 2 + C
1
= 2y 3/2 + 2 + C.
y
x 5 dx =
1
= 4t 2 + C = 4 t + C.
"
I = u2/5 du
9.
"
I=
3 y 2y 3 dy
"
"
1/2
= 3 y dy 2 y 3 dy
(3t 2 5t + 2) dt
"
"
"
= 3 t 2 dt 5 t 1/2 dt + 2
dt
I=
3
t
t 3/2
=3
+ 2t + C
5
3
3
2
2 5 3/2
3
=t
t + 2t + C.
3
ex
2
+ x 5/2 + C.
2
5
1
I= u
1 du
3u
" 1.1
u
=
u1.1 du
3u
" 0.1
u
1.1
=
u
du
3
"
"
1
=
u0.1 du u1.1 du
3
"
1.1
1 u1.1 u2.1
+C
3 1.1
2.1
u1.1 u2.1
=
+ C.
2.1
3.3
=
219
220
19.
Chapter 5. Integration
"
x 2 + 2x + 1
dx
x2
"
2
1
=
1 + + 2 dx
x
x
"
"
"
1
=
dx + 2
dx + x 2 dx
x
x 1
+C
1
1
= x + 2 ln x + C
x
1
= x + ln x 2 + C.
x
"
1
3
2
I = (x 2x )
5 dx
x
"
= (x 2 2x 5x 3 + 10x 2) dx
"
=
5x 3 + 11x 2 2x dx
"
"
"
= 5 x 3 dx + 11 x 2 dx 2 x dx
27.
= x + 2 ln x +
21.
5x 4 11x 3 2x 2
+
+C
4
3
2
5
11
= x 4 + x 3 x 2 + C.
4
3
"
2
I=
t(t 1) dt
"
= (t 5/2 t 1/2) dt
"
"
= t 5/2 dt t 1/2 dt
2t 7/2 2t 3/2
+C
7
3
2
2
= t 7/2 t 3/2 + C.
3
7
"
I = (et + 1)2 dt
"
= (e2t + 2et + 1) dt
=
25.
e2t dt + 2
"
et dt +
dt
1
= e2t + 2et + t + C.
2
"
1
5
y/2
I=
dy
+e
3y
y
"
"
"
1
1
1
=
dy 5 y 1/2 dy + e 2 y dy
3
y
1
y 1/2
1 1y
ln y 5
+
e 2 +C
3
1/2
1/2
1
= ln y 10 y 2ey/2 + C.
3
"
I = t 1/2(t 2 t + 2) dt
"
= (t 3/2 t 1/2 + 2t 1/2) dt
"
"
"
= t 3/2 dt t 1/2 dt + 2 t 1/2 dt
=
29.
t 5/2 t 3/2
t 1/2
+2
+C
5/2
3/2
1/2
2
2
= t 5/2 t 3/2 + 4t 1/2 + C.
5
3
=
23.
"
"
I=
31.
dy
= 3x 2
dx
"
"
dy
dx = (3x 2) dx
dx
"
"
"
dy
dx = 3 x dx 2
dx
dx
x2
2x + C
2
3
y = x 2 2x + C
2
y=3
Since y = 2 when x = 1,
3
2 = (1)2 2(1) + C
2
3
2 = + 2 + C, or
2
C=
3
2
221
37.
So, y = 23 x 2 2x 23 .
33.
dy
2
1
= 2
dx
x
x
"
"
2
1
dy
dx =
2 dx
dx
x
x
"
"
"
dy
1
dx = 2
dx x 2 dx
dx
x
y = 2 ln x
= ln x 2 +
(1)3 (1)2
+C
3
2
1 1
5 = + C, or
3 2
31
C=
6
5=
1
+C
x
1
+C
1
1 = 0 + 1 + C, or
1 = ln 1 +
So, f (x) = x3
C = 2
So, y = ln
35.
39.
f (x) = 4x + 1
"
f (x) dx = (4x + 1) dx
"
"
"
f (x) dx = 4 x dx +
dx
"
f (x) = 4
x2
+x+C
2
= 2x 2 + x + C
Since the function goes through the point (1, 2),
2 = 2(1)2 + 1 + C, or
C = 1
So, f (x) = 2x 2 + x 1.
x3 x2
+C
3
2
x 1
+C
1
1
+ 2.
x
Since y = 1 when x = 1,
x2
"
x2
2
31
6
2
f (x) = x 3 2 + 2
x
"
"
2
f (x) dx = (x 3 2 + 2) dx
x
"
"
"
"
f (x) dx = x 3 dx 2 x 2 dx + 2
dx
x4
x 1
2
+ 2x + C
4
1
1
2
= x 4 + + 2x + C
4
x
f (x) =
222
41.
Chapter 5. Integration
f (x) = ex + x 2
"
f (x) dx = (ex + x 2) dx
"
"
"
f (x) dx = ex dx + x 2 dx
"
45.
"
1 x
+C
e +
3
1
1
= ex + x 3 + C
3
1
So, f (x) = ex + x 3 + 5.
3
C(q) =
C (q) dq
When q = 25,
"
=
"
=3
=3
q2
+ C(0) = 0.2q 2 + C(0)
2
1
4 = e0 + (0) + C, or
3
C=5
43.
C (q) = 0.4q dq
"
"
C (q) dq = 0.4q dq = 0.4 q dq
C(q) = 0.4
"
x3
f (x) =
"
"
q 2 dq 24
"
q dq + 48
dq
q3
q2
24 + 48q + C
3
2
= q 3 12q 2 + 48q + C
Since the cost is $5,000 for producing 10 units,
47.
= $646.20
"
N (t) = N (t) dt
"
= (154t 2/3 + 37) dt
"
"
= 154 t 2/3 dt + 37
dt
= 154
C = 4720
t 5/3
+ 37t + C
5/3
462 5/3
t + 37t + C
5
462 5/3
+ 37t.
5 t
223
462 5/3
N (8) =
(8) + 37(8)
5
3,253 subscribers.
M(10) = 0.2(10)2
(a)
"
T (t) =
T (t) dt
"
7e0.35t dt
"
= 7 e0.35t dt
When t = 8,
P (8) = 4(8) + 3(8)5/3 + 10,000
= 10,128 people.
M (t) = 0.4t 0.005t
"
M(t) = M (t) dt
"
= (0.4t 0.005t 2) dt
"
"
= 0.4 t dt 0.005 t 2 dt
2
t2
t3
0.005 + C
2
3
0.005
= 0.2t 2
t3 + C
3
= 0.4
T (t) = 7e0.35t
(a)
M(20) M(10)
1
0.005
3
(20) 18
= 0.2(20)
3
3
1
1
2
= 66 18 = 48 items.
3
3
3
53.
51.
(b)
t 5/3
+C
5/3
= 4t + 3t 5/3 + C
0.005
(10)3
3
1
= 18 items.
3
dP
= 4 + 5t 2/3,
dt
"
dP
then, P (t) =
dt
dt
"
= (4 + 5t 2/3) dt
"
"
=4
dt + 5 t 2/3 dt
= 4t + 5
0.005 3
t .
3
=7
1
e0.35t + C
0.35
= 20e0.35t + C
Since the temperature was 4C when t = 0,
4 = 20e0 + C, or
C = 16
So, T (t) = 20e0.35t + 16.
(b) After two hours,
T (2) = 20e0.35(2) + 16
6.07C.
224
Chapter 5. Integration
"
(c) For the temperature to reach 10C,
57.
c(x) =
"
10 = 20e0.35t + 16
(0.9 + 0.3 x) dx
"
"
= 0.9
dx + 0.3 x 1/2 dx
=
0.35t
6 = 20e
3
= e0.35t
10
3
= ln e0.35t
ln
10
3
= 0.35t, or
ln
10
t
ln
3
10
= 0.9x + 0.3
20
3
ln
10
7
R (q) = 100 2q
(a) Since P (q) = R (q),
"
P (q) = R (q) dq
"
= (100 2q) dq
"
"
= 100
dq 2 q dq
= 100q 2
q2
+C
2
= 100q q 2 + C
Since the profit is $700 when 10 units are
produced,
700 = 100(10) (10) + C, or
22/7
= 88t 14t 2
C = 200
So, P (q) = 100q q 2 200.
(b) Since R (q) = P (q), to maximize P ,
R (q) = 0 when 100 2q = 0, or q = 50
Further, R (q) = 2, so R (50) < 0 and the
maximum profit occurs when q = 50. The
maximum profit is
P (50) = 100(50) (50)2 200
= $2,300.
x 3/2
+C
3/2
0.35
20 10
=
ln
3.44 hours.
7
3
55.
c(x) dx
= 88
22
7
14
22
7
2
138.29 feet
225
(b)
Since v(R) = 0,
a
0 = (R)2 + C, or
2
aR 2
C=
2
aR 2 a 2
a
= (R r 2).
So, v(r) = r 2 +
2
2
2
v(t) = 3 + 2t + 6t 2
65.
x2
x3
0.06 + C
3
2
= x + 0.6x 2 0.02x 3 + C
Since no items are memorized when t = 0,
= 3t + 2
C=0
= 3t + t 2 + 2t 3 + C
= 1 + 1.2x 0.06x 2
So, f (x) = 0 when
1.2 (1.2)2 4(0.06)(1)
x=
2(0.06)
or, x 20.8 (rejecting the negative solution)
"
67.
63.
v (r) = ar
"
v(r) = v (r) dr
"
"
= ar dr = a r dr
= a
r2
a
+ C = r2 + C
2
2
"
b dx =
x
t2
t3
+6 +C
2
3
69.
= 20 meters.
e
x ln b
dx =
"
e(ln b)x dx
1 x ln b
1 x
b +C
+C=
e
ln b
ln b
a(t) = 23
226
Chapter 5. Integration
t2
+ 67t + C
2
23
= t 2 + 67t + C
2
= 23
s(t)
(2.9, 97.6)
(0, 67)
v(t)
23
(0) + 67(0) + C,
2
or C = 0
23 2
t + 67t.
2
(b) To use the graphing utility to sketch graphs of
v(t) and s(t) on same screen,
Press y= and input v(t) for y1 = and
input s(t) for y2 =.
Use window dimensions [0, 5]1 by [0, 200]10.
Press graph .
(c) The car comes to a complete stop when v(t) = 0.
Press trace and verify that the crosshairs are on
the line y1 = 23t + 67.
Move along line until it appears to be at the
tintercept.
Use the zoomin function under the zoom
menu to find that the velocity = 0 when t 2.9
seconds.
(2.9, 0)
So, s(t) =
5.2
Integration by Substitution
1.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
u = 3x + 4
u=3x
u = 2 t2
u = 2 + t2
3.
Let u = 2x + 6. Then du = 2 dx or dx =
"
1
(2x + 6) dx =
2
So
=
5.
"
u5 du
(2x + 6)6
+ C.
12
Let u = 4x 1. Then du = 4 dx or dx =
"
So
du
.
2
1
4x 1 dx =
4
"
du
.
4
u1/2 du
1 2u3/2
+C
4 3
(4x 1)3/2
=
+ C.
6
=
227
7.
9.
Let u = x 2. Then
du
1
= 2x or du = x dx.
dx
2
"
"
2
2
xex dx = ex x dx
"
1
= eu du
2
"
1
1 2
=
eu du = ex + C.
2
2
"
1
du
= 2t or du = t dt.
dt
2
t (t + 1) dt =
2
(t 2 + 1)5t dt
"
=
=
u5
1
2
"
1
du
2
u5 du =
(t 2 + 1)6
+ C.
12
1
du
= 3x 2 or du = x 2 dx.
dx
3
"
"
x 2(x 3 + 1)3/4 dx = (x 3 + 1)3/4x 2 dx
"
"
1
3/4 1
= u du =
u3/4 du
3
3
4(x 3 + 1)7/4
+ C.
21
du
1
= 5y 4, or du = y 4 dy.
dy
5
"
"
"
1
1 1
2y 4
4
y
dy
=
2
du
dy
=
2
y5 + 1
y5 + 1
u 5
"
2
2
1
du = ln y 5 + 1 + C.
=
u
5
5
du
= 2x + 2
dx
1
= 2(x + 1), or du = (x + 1) dx.
2
"
(x + 1)(x 2 + 2x + 5)12 dx
"
= (x 2 + 2x + 5)12(x + 1) dx
"
"
1
12 1
= u du =
u12 du
2
2
=
(x 2 + 2x + 5)13
+ C.
26
dt
= 2u 2 = 2(u 1),
du
1
dt = (u 1) du.
2
"
"
3u 3
3(u 1)
du =
du
2
2
2
(u 2u + 6)
(u 2u + 6)2
"
1
=3
(u 1) du
(u2 2u + 6)2
"
"
1 1
3
=3
dt
=
t 2 dt
t2 2
2
3
+ C.
=
2(u2 2u + 6)
1
dx.
x
1
1
du
=
5 = , or
dx
5x
x
228
Chapter 5. Integration
"
"
ln 5x
1
dx = ln 5x dx
x
x
"
(ln 5x)2
= u du =
+ C.
2
1
1
du
= , or du = dx.
dx
x
x
"
"
1
1
1
dx =
dx
2
2
x(ln x)
(ln x) x
"
1
1
=
+ C.
du =
2
u
ln x
1
du
= 2x, or du = x dx.
dx
2
"
"
2x ln(x 2 + 1)
ln(x 2 + 1)
dx
=
2
x dx
2
x +1
x2 + 1
"
"
ln u 1
ln u
=2
du =
du
u 2
u
(ln u)2
[ln(x 2 + 1)]2
+C=
+ C.
2
2
+ ex ) dx.
du
= ex + ex , or
dx
"
ex + ex
1
dx
=
(ex + ex ) dx
ex ex
ex ex
"
1
=
du = ln ex ex  + C.
u
u1
.
2
du
1
= 2, or du = dx.
dx
2
x
1
dx =
2x + 1
4
"
u1
du
u
"
"
"
1
1
1
1
1
1
du =
du
du
=
4
u
4
4
u
1
1
1
1
= u ln u + C = (2x + 1) ln 2x + 1 + C.
4
4
4
4
This can also be written as
1
= x+
2
1
= x
2
1 1
ln 2x + 1 + C
4 4
1
ln 2x + 1 + C,
4
u1
.
2
du
1
= 2, or du = dx.
dx
2
"
1
x 2x 1 dx =
(u 1)u1/2 du
4
"
1
=
(u3/2 u1/2) du
4
1 2
2
=
(2x + 1)5/2 (2x + 1)3/2 + C
3
4 5
1
1
= (2x + 1)5/2 (2x + 1)3/2 + C.
10
6
1
du
1
x + 1. Then
= x 1/2 = 1/2 , or
2x
2
dx
1
2 du = dx.
x
"
"
1
1
1
dx
=
dx
x( x + 1)
x+1
x
"
1
=2
du = 2 ln  x + 1 + C
u
= 2 ln( x + 1) + C.
35. Let u =
# dy
#
37. y = dx
dx = (3 2x)2 dx
du
Let u = 3 2x. Then, dx
= 2, or 21 du = dx.
"
y=
(3 2x)2 dx =
229
1
2
"
So, y =
u2 du
1 u3
1
y=
+ C = (3 2x)3 + C
2 3
6
"
43.
Since y = 0 when x = 0,
du
= 1, or du = dx.
dx
"
"
1
1
dx =
du
x+1
u
= ln x + 1 + C
Since y = 1 when x = 0,
3=
1
ln (1)2 + 4(1) + 5 + C
2
1
or, C = 3 ln 2
2
1
[1 2(0)]5/2 + C, or
5
1
C=
5
1
1
So, f (x) = (1 2x)5/2 + .
5
5
1 = ln 0 + 1 + C, or
Since y = 3 when x = 1,
(1 2x)3/2 dx
1
= (1 2x)5/2 + C
5
Let u = x + 1. Then
du
Let u = x 2 + 4x + 5. Then
= 2x + 4
dx
1
= 2(x + 2), or du = (x + 2) dx.
2
"
"
x+2
1
dx =
(x + 2) dx
2
2
x + 4x + 5
x + 4x + 5
"
1
1
1
du = ln x 2 + 4x + 5 + C
=
u
2
2
f (x) dx =
f (x) =
1
du
= 2, or du = dx.
dx
2
"
"
1
u3/2 du
(1 2x)3/2 dx =
2
1 2
5/2
=
(1 2x)
+C
2 5
So, y = 61 (3 2x)3 + 29
"
"
1
dy
39.
dx =
dx
y=
dx
x+1
So, y = ln x + 1 + 1.
"
"
dy
x+2
41.
y=
dx =
dx
dx
x 2 + 4x + 5
"
1
0 = (3 2(0))3 + C
6
9
9
0 = + C, or C =
2
2
C=1
1
1
ln x 2 + 4x + 5 + 3 ln 2.
2
2
"
45.
"
f (x) dx =
f (x) =
Let u = 4 x 2. Then
xe4x dx
du
= 2x dx, or
dx
1
du = x dx.
2
"
"
2
2
xe4x dx = e4x x dx
=
1
2
"
2
1
eu du = e4x + C
2
Since y = 1 when x = 2,
2
1
1 = e4(2) + C, or
2
3
C=
2
3
1
2
So, f (x) = e4x + .
2
2
230
Chapter 5. Integration
"
47. (a)
x(t) =
(b) When t = 4,
x (t) dt
"
=
2(3t + 1)
Let u = 3t + 1. Then
=
2
3
"
1/2
dt
du
1
= 3, or du = dt.
dt
3
4
u1/2 dt = (3t + 1)3/2 + C
9
When t = 0, x(0) = 4, so
4
4 = [3(0) + 1]3/2 + C, or
9
40
C=
9
4
40
So, x(t) = (3t + 1)3/2 + .
9
9
40
4
(b)
x(4) = [3(4) + 1]3/2 +
9
9
16.4
4
40
(c)
3 = (3t + 1)3/2 +
9
9
13
3/2
= (3t + 1)
4
2/3
13
1
4
0.4
t=
3
"
49. (a)
x(t) = x (t) dt
"
1
=
dt
2t + 1
Let u = 2t + 1. Then,
(c)
1
du = dt.
2
"
1
=
u1/2 dt
2
1
= (2u1/2) + C
2
= (2t + 1)1/2 + C
When t = 0, x(0) = 0 so C = 1
and x(t) = (2t + 1)1/2 1.
51. (a)
3 = (2t + 1)1/2 1
16 = 2t + 1,
15
or t = .
2
"
C(q) = C (q) dq
"
= 3(q 4)2 dq
Let u = q 4. Then
"
=3
du
= 1, or du = dq.
dq
u2 du = (q 4)3 + C
1
dx
(x + 1)2
"
"
1
dx
=
dx +
(x + 1)2
du
= 1, or du = dx.
dx
"
"
1
=
dx +
du
u2
1
=x
+ C.
x+1
Let u = x + 1. Then
231
1
+ C, or
2+1
10
C=
3
5=2
So, G(x) = x
=
55. (a)
1
10
+
and
x+1
3
G(0) = 0
"
R(x) =
1
10
+
0+1
3
0.5 =
7
meters tall.
3
"
(50 + 3.5xe0.01x ) dx
"
"
2
= 50
dx + 3.5 xe0.01x dx
2
= 50x 175e0.01x + C
2
Since R(0) = 0,
0 = 50(0) 175e0 + C, or
C = 175
So, R(x) = 50x 175e0.01x + 175.
(b) R(1000) = 50(1000) 175e0.01(1000) + 175
$50,175
C(60) =
1
0.3543 mg/cm3
e0.01(60) + 1
1
e0.01(180)
C(t) =
"
=
C (t) dt
0.01e0.01t
(e0.01t + 1)2
+1
0.1419 mg/cm3
57. (a)
1
+ C, or C = 0
+1
1
.
e0.01t + 1
(b) After one hour, when t = 60 minutes, the
concentration is
du
= 0.02x, or
dx
50 du = x dx.
"
"
2
= 50
dx 3.5 e0.01x x dx
"
"
= 50
dx 175 eu du
"
e0
So, C(t) =
R (x) dx
du
= 0.01e0.01t , or
dt
59. (a)
"
L(t)
"
=
L(t) dt
0.24 0.03t
dt
36 + 16t t 2
du
= 16 2t =
dt
1
2(8 t), or du = (8 t) dt.
2
232
Chapter 5. Integration
"
=
0.03
0.03(8 t)
dt =
36 + 16t t 2)1/2
2
"
u1/2 du
(8, 0.37)
0.345
0.25
C = 0.07
0
"
61. (a)
"
so L is increasing;
when t > 8, L(t) < 0 so L is decreasing
x dx.
"
= 150
1
du
= 2x, or du =
dx
2
Let u = x 2 + 9. Then
= 300
1
x dx
(x 2 + 9)3/2
"
300x
dx
(x 2 + 9)3/2
L(t) > 0
12
p (x) dx
p(x) =
or when t = 8
Further, when 0 t < 8,
u3/2 du
300
x2 + 9
+C
300
(4)2 + 9
+C
or, C = 15
So, p(x) =
300
x2 + 9
(b) When x = 5 hundred,
p(5) =
+ 15.
300
(5)2 + 9
+ 15
(c)
90 =
300
x2 + 9
233
"
+ 15
e2x
dx =
1 + ex
ex x
e dx
1 + ex
"
"
u1
1
=
du =
1
du
u
u
63. P (x) = R (x) C (x)
= 7 3x 4x 2 (5 + 2x) = 2 5x 4x 2
"
P (x) = P (x) dx
"
= (2 5x 4x 2) dx
= 1 + ex ln 1 + ex  + C
= 1 + ex ln(1 + ex ) + C.
5.3
5x 2 4x 3
+C
2
3
5(5)2 4(5)3
P (5) = 2(5)
+ C = 219.17 + C
2
3
1.
5(9)2 4(9)3
P (9) = 2(9)
+ C = 1, 156.5 + C
2
3
3.
The change is
= 2x
1, 156.5 + C (219.17 + C)
= 937.33 hundred
So, the profit decreases by $93,733.
du 2 1/3
= x
, or
dx
3
3
du = x 1/3 dx. Further, x 2/3 = u 1.
2
"
x 1/3(x 2/3 + 1)3/2 dx
"
= (x 2/3 + 1)3/2x 2/3x 1/3 dx
"
"
3
3
3/2
=
u5/2 u3/2 du
u (u 1) du =
2
2
3 2 2/3
2 2/3
7/2
5/2
=
(x + 1) (x + 1)
+C
5
2 7
3
3
= (x 2/3 + 1)7/2 (x 2/3 + 1)5/2 + C.
7
5
67. Let u = 1 + ex . Then
Further ex = u 1.
du
= ex , or du = ex dx.
dx
"
5.
7.
9.
"
2
1
2
5 dx = 5x = 5(2) 5(1) = 15
1
3x 2
5
+ 2x
(3x + 2) dx =
0
2
0
95
3(5)2
+ 2(5) 0 =
=
2
2
" 1
3(1)5 3(1)5 6
3t 5 1
=
3t 4 dt =
=
5
5
5
5 1
1
" 1
3 4/3 3 5/3 1
u u
(2u1/3 u2/3) du =
1
2
5
1
3 4/3 3 5/3
(1) (1)
=
5
2
3
6
3
4/3
5/3
(1) (1)
=
2
5
5
" 1
" 1
(4ex e0) dx
ex (4 ex ) dx =
"
1
= (4ex x) = (4e1 1) (4e0 0)
0
11.
4
=3
e
5
" 1
x
4
3
+
(x + 3x + 1) dx =
5
0
5
3(1)4
(1)
+1 0=
+
=
4
5
3x 4
1
+x
0
4
39
= 1.95
20
234
13.
Chapter 5. Integration
"
5
(2 + 2t + 3t 2) dt = (2t + t 2 + t 3)
1
du = (x 3 + x) dx,
4
2
and the limits of integration become (0) + 2(0) +
= 2(5) + (5)2 + (5)3 2(2) + (2)2 + (2)3 = 144 1 = 1 and (1)4 + 2(1)2 + 1 = 4.
"
1 2 3/2 4 1 3/2 4
1 4 1/2
" 3
u
u du =
=
= (u )
1 3
1
1
1
1
4 3
6
4 1
1 + + 2 dx = x + ln x
x
x
x 1
1
1
7
(4)3/2 (1)3/2 =
=
8
1
6
6
(1 + ln 1 1) = + ln 3.
= 3 + ln 3
3
3
" e+1
x
25.
dx
" 1
" 1
x1
1
1
t +1
1
dt
dt =
+
t3
t2 t3
Let u = x 1. Then du = dx and x = u + 1.
3
3
Further,
the limits of integration become 2 1 = 1
1
1 1
1
1
= 2 =
and
(e
+
1) 1 = e.
3
t
2t
1 2(1)2
" e
" e
1
u+1
1
2
1
du =
du
1+
=
u
u
1
1
3 2(3)2
9
e
= (u + ln u)
" 2
1
(2x 4)4 dx
= (e + ln e) (1 + ln 1) = e
Let u = x 4 + 2x 2 + 1. Then
15.
17.
19.
1
du = dx, and the limits of
2
integration become 2(1) 4 = 2 and 2(2) 4 = 0.
"
1 u5 0
1 0 4
u du =
=
2
2 5
2 2
1
1
0
0 (2)5 = 3.2
= (u5) =
2
10
10
Let u = 2x 4. Then
"
21.
1
dt
6t + 1
1
du = dt, and the limits of
6
integration become 6(0) + 1 = 1 and 6(4) + 1 = 25.
"
1 25
1 25 1/2
u
du = (2 u)
=
1
6 1
6
4
1 25 1
= ( u) = ( 25 1) =
1
3
3
3
Let u = 6t + 1. Then,
23.
"
0
(x + x) x 4 + 2x 2 + 1 dx
"
27.
e2
1
(ln x)2
dx
x
1
dx, and the limits of
x
integration become ln 1 = 0 and ln(e)2 = 2.
" 2
2
1
u2 du = (u3)
0
3
0
1
8
=
(2)3 (0) =
3
3
" 1/2 1/x
e
29.
dx
x2
1/3
Let u = ln x. Then du =
1
1
. Then du = 2 dx, and the limits of
x
x
1
1
= 3 and
= 2.
integration become
1/3
1/2
" 3
" 2
eu du
eu du =
=
Let u =
3
= (eu) = e3 e2
2
31.
"
2f (x) + 5g(x) dx
"
= 2
33.
"
2
3
f (x) dx + 5
g(x) dx
"
45.
f (x) dx
1
"
37.
"
"
2
3
f (x) dx
f (x) dx
3f (x) + 2g(x) dx
"
"
"
=3
2
3
"
+2
f (x) dx + 2
41.
=3
39.
=50=5
2
2
3
g(x) dx
"
f (x) dx
g(x) dx
"
ln 3
1
e2x dx = (e2x )
0
2
0
2
1 2 ln 3
1
= (e
e0) = (eln 3 1) = 4
2
2
"
"
43.
= 2(5) + 5(2) = 20
" 4
g(x) dx = G(4) G(4) = 0,
35.
235
f (x) dx
3
dx
5
2x
2
du
Let u = 5 2x. Then, dx
= 2 and 21 du = dx.
When x = 2, u = 5 2(2) = 9 and when x = 1,
u = 5 2(1) = 3.
"
"
3 3 1
1 33
du =
du
2 9 u
2 9 u
"
9
3
3 9 1
du =
ln u
=
3
2 3 u
2
3
3
9
= (ln 9 ln 3) =
ln
2
2
3
3
= ln 3 1.6479
2
"
g(x) dx
= 3(5 0) + 2(2 4) = 3
" 2
2
1
x 4 dx = (x 5)
1
5
1
33
1 5
(2) (1)5 =
=
5
5
" 4
(3x + 4)1/2 dx
40
0.2(12,000 300x) dx
40
= 0.2(12,000x 150x 2)
0
1
du = dx, and the limits of
3
integration become 3(0) + 4 = 4 and 3(4) + 4 = 16.
"
16
1 16 1/2
1 2
=
u du = ( u3/2)
4
3 4
3 3
112
2
16 2
(16)3/2 (4)3/2 =
= (u3/2) =
4
9
9
9
5
0
47.
ln3
Let u = 3x + 4. Then
51.
"
(0.1t + 0.1) dt
L(3) L(0) =
0
3
= (0.05t 2 + 0.1t)
0
2
= 0.05(3) + 0.1(3) 0 = 0.75 ppm
236
53.
Chapter 5. Integration
"
P (8) P (0) =
(5 + 3t 2/3) dt
9 5/3 8
9 5/3
0
= 5t t
= 5(8) + (8)
0
5
5
488
=
98 people
5
5
= 3(0.1t 3 + 0.3t 2 + t)
0
3
2
= 3 (0.1(5) + 0.3(5) + 5) 0 = $75
57.
"
P (3) P (2) =
1500 2
"
= 3000
"
dt 1500
t
2t + 5
dt
t
dt
2t + 5
1
u5
du = dt, and t =
.
2
2
Further, the limits of integration beome 2(2) + 5 = 9
and 2(3) + 5 = 11.
" 3
" 11
u5
= 3000
du
dt 750
2u
2
9
" 3
" 11
5
= 3000
du
1
dt 375
u
9
2
3
11
= 3000(t) 375(u 5 ln u)
Let u = 2t + 5. Then
0.25t
36e
0.05t
"
= 12
"
e0.25t dt 36
e0.05t dt
"
= 48
"
"
= 48
0.2
eu du + 720
"
eu du 720
0
0
0.2
1
0
u
= 48 e 720 eu
eu du
eu du
0.2
= 48 e1 e0 720 e0 e0.2
48.03633 thousand
So, the value decreases by approx. $48,036.33.
(b) In 2010, t = 6.
" 6
12e0.25t 36e0.05t dt
0
0.2
1.5
u
u
= 48 e
720 e
= 48 e1.5 e1
0.3
720 e0.2 e0.3
28.54652 thousand
So, the value increases by approx. $28,546.52.
61.
"
0.33t
dt
0.02t 2 + 10
0
" 4
t
= 0.33
dt
0.02t 2 + 10
0
C(4) C(0) =
237
6
1
du = 2(ln u)
3
u
3
6
= 2(ln 6 ln 3) = 2(ln )
3
= 2 ln 2 1.386 grams.
10.32
= 8.25
1/2
du 8.25(2u
1/2
10
10.32
)
"
67.
10
0.8283,
"
(220x 2200) dx
2
= (110x 2 2200x)
1
2
= 110(2) 2200(2) [110(1) 2200(1)]
= 1870,
4
dt
t +1
11
11
u1/2 du = 4(2u1/2) = 8( u)
= 8( 11
6) 7 facts.
(32t + 80) dt
s(3) s(0) =
0
3
= (16t 2 + 80t) = 16(3)2 + 80(3) 0
0
= 96 feet.
11
=4
dV
= 220(x 10)
dt
" 2
220(x 10) dx
V (2) V (1) =
"
10
L(10) L(5) =
10
10.32
= 16.5( 10.32 10)
= 16.5( u)
=2
71. (a)
#1
y2 = 1 x2
x2 + y2 = 1
65.
t +1
2
1
(1)2 =
4
4
238
Chapter 5. Integration
dx
x2
= 2 ln x + 1
2
1
= 2 ln 2
2
x 2x + y 2 = 0
2
(x 2 2x + 1) + y 2 = 1
(x 1)2 + y 2 = 1
2
x
x+1
5.
1
0
[x (x)] dx
1
= (x 2) = 1
0
5.4
1.
Applying Definite
Integration: Area
Between Curves and
Average Value
2 3/2 x 4
x
4
3
5
=
12
=
3.
(0, 0)
x
2
1
(1, 1)
1
y x
2
7.
1
0
3
x
3
= + 2x 2 3x
1
3
4
=
3
1.5
y x2 4x 3
x=
yx
(1, 1)
1
x 1/2(x 5/2 1) = 0
x1
x 3 x; x 3 x 1/2 = 0;
so x = 0 and x = 1.
The shaded area is
" 1
( x x 3) dx
2
, x2 + x = 2
x+1
x 2 + x 2 = 0, (x + 2)(x 1) = 0,
x = 1 (rejecting x = 2 since shaded area starts at
x = 0).
0.5
(1, 0)
0
(3, 0)
2
x
4
5.4 Applying Definite Integration: Area Between Curves and Average Value
9.
239
x 3 3x 2 = x 2 + 5x
x3
2
= + x2
0
3
4
=
3
x 3 4x 2 5x = 0
x(x 5)(x + 1) = 0.
There are two shaded areas
"
y
2
0
1
y x2 2x
(x 3 3x 2) (x 2 + 5x) dx
"
5
(x 2 + 5x) (x 3 3x 2) dx
(2, 0)
(0, 0)
1
x
3
1
0
4
x
4x 3 5x 2
=
3
2
4
11 825 443
+
=
.
=
12
12
6
4
4x 3 5x 2 5
x
0
+
+ +
0
1
4
3
2
y x2 5x
x 2 2x = x 2 + 4
2x 2 2x + 4 = 0
2(x 2)(x + 1) = 0
y x3 3x2
x = 1 and x = 2.
The shaded area is
" 2
(x 2 + 4) (x 2 2x) dx
1
(0, 0)
(1, 4)
2x 3
2
+ x 2 + 4x = 9
1
3
15. The equation of the top curve is the equation of the
line through the points (4, 0) and (2, 6).
y
4
(1, 3)
y x2 2x
y x2 4
m=
2
1
2
1
1
1
6
= 1, so y = x + 4.
6
"
2
4
[(x + 4) 0] dx =
x2
2
+ 4x = 18.
4
2
240
Chapter 5. Integration
21.
y
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
(4, 0)
5 4 3 2 1
1
fav =
(2, 6)
=
=
(2, 0)
1
23.
17. The equation of the top curve is the equation of the
line through the points (0, 6) and (2, 8).
[(x + 6) 0] dx =
x2
2
+ 6x = 14
0
2
25. f =
av
10
yx6
1
ln 3 0
ln 3 x
e
"
ex
ex + ex
dx
" 10/3
10/3
1
1
1
du =
(ln u)
=
2
u
ln 3
ln 3 2
1
10
1
ln
ln 2 =
(ln 10 ln 3 ln 2)
ln 3
3
ln 3
1
=
(ln 5 ln 3)
ln 3
fav =
86
m=
= 1, so y = x + 6
20
"
" 1
1
ex (4 e2x ) dx
1 (1) 1
"
1 1 x
(4e ex ) dx
2 1
1
1
(4ex ex )
1
2
3
1
1 3
+ 3e =
e
2
e
2
e
1
20
"
(2x x 2) dx =
(2, 8)
1
x 3 2 2
x2
=
0
2
3
3
y 2x x2
4
0.75
2
1
0.5
x
0
3
0.25
x
19.
" 3
1
(1 x 2) dx
fav =
3 (3) 3
1
x 3 3
=
x
= 2
3
6
3
27.
1
fav =
42
0.5
"
4
2
1.5
2.5
2 1
1
1
du = [ln u] = ln 2
0
u
2
2
5.4 Applying Definite Integration: Area Between Curves and Average Value
y
u
0.75
0.5
ln 2
(4,
)
2
0.25
39.
x
29.
x 4 1 1
(x x 3) dx = x 2
=
0
2
2
0
" 1
GI = 2
(x 0.55x 2 0.45x) dx
"
GI = 2
31.
0.55x 2 0.55x 3 1
=2
0
2
3
= 0.183
" 1
2
1
x x 3.7 x dx
GI = 2
3
3
0
2
x
2x 4.7 1
=2
3
3(4.7) 0
= 0.383
33.
60,000
, so y = 60,000(t 1)
1
" 1
1
yav =
60,000(t 1) dt
1 0 0
2
t
1
= 60,000
t = 30,000 kilograms
0
2
" 5
1
Qav =
2,000e0.05t dt
50 0
400 0.05t 5
=
e
= 2,272 bacteria
0
0.05
m=
y
1
241
1
0.5p 2 + 3p + 7 dp
52 2
1 0.5p 3 3p 2
5
=
+
+ 7p
2
3
3
2
3
2
0.5(5)
3(5)
1
+
+ 7(5)
=
3
3
2
0.5(2)3 3(2)2
+
+ 7(2) = 24 hundred
3
2
37. The equation of the function is the equation of the
line joining (0, 60,000) and (1, 0).
0.25
= 40,000 eu
= 40,000 e0.25 e0
$11, 361.02
(b) Writing ExerciseAnswers will vary.
43. (a) Testing a couple of values shows that P2 is
initially more profitable. It will stay more
profitable until P2 (t) = P1(t).
306 + 5t = 130 + t 2
0 = t 2 5t 176,
0 = (t 16)(t + 11)
or t = 16 years (rejecting the negative solution).
242
Chapter 5. Integration
(b)
"
16
Excess =
(306 + 5t) (130 + t 2) dt
(c)
5t 2 t 3 16
= 176t +
2
3 0
y
(14.7, 391)
= 2,090.67, or $209,067.
(c)
y P2(t)
y P1(t)
y
y P1(t)
(0, 140)
(0, 90)
y P2(t)
(0, 306)
(16, 386)
t
14 15
47.
Pav =
(0, 130)
t
16
= 90e0.1t
= e0.1t
= ln e0.1t
"
10
0
e0.2t
dt
4 + e0.2t
u
du =
=
16 36
16
u 36
= 0.1t
= 0.1t,
1
mg/cm3.
40
51. (a) T (t) = 3 1 (t 5)2 Since t = 2 at 8:00a.m.,
3
a = 2. Since t = 11 at 5:00 p.m., b = 11. So, the
average temperature is
" 11
1
1
3 (t 5)2dt
Tav =
11 2 2
3
=
or t 14.7 years.
" 14.7
(b)
Excess =
(140e0.07t 90e0.1t ) dt
0
14.7
= (2,000e0.07 900e0.1t )
0
582.22, or $582,220
1
10 0
5.4 Applying Definite Integration: Area Between Curves and Average Value
55. (a)
243
" 12
2
1
(M0 + 50te0.1t ) dt
12 0 0
"
" 12
12
1
0.1t 2
=
M0 dt + 50
(te
) dt
12 0
0
Mav =
= 0 C
(b) Need to find t when T (t) = 0, so
1
0 = (t 5)2
3
1
(t 5)2 = 3
3
(t 5)2 = 9
t 5 = 3
t = 2.8
When t = 2, the time is 8:00 a.m. and when
t = 8, the time is 2:00 p.m.
53. (a)
"
1
=
12
"
12
"
12
"
M0 dt 250
e du
0
"
M0 dt + 250
14.4
0
14.4
u
e du
12
0
1
M0t +250(eu)
0
14.4
12
= M0 + 20.83 kiloJoules per hour.
1
(t 3 10.5t 2 + 30t + 20) dt
61 1
1 t4
6
=
3.5t 3 + 15t 2 + 20t
1
5 4
= 39.25 mph.
Sav =
1
=
12
horizontal asymptote.
2
2
M (t) = 50 (t)(e0.1t 0.2t) + (e0.1t )(1)
= 50e0.1t (0.2t 2 + 1).
2
5.
5 = M0 + 50 5e0.5
5
= M0 + 50
e
2
M (t) = 50 (e0.1t )(0.4)
M
2
+(0.2t 2 + 1)(e0.1t 0.2t)
2
= 10e0.1t 2 + (0.2t 2 + 1)
15.
244
Chapter 5. Integration
61.
y M(t)
M0
15
= 250(e0.04x ) 64 141.53
t
0
57.
2 3 1
GI1 = 2
x x x dx
3
3
0
2
4
1
1
x
x
=2
= 0.33
0
6
3
3
" 1
5
1
GI2 = 2
x x 2 x dx
6
6
0
5 2
5
1 5
x x3 =
0.28
=2
0
12
18
18
" 1
3 4 2
GI3 = 2
x x x dx
5
5
0
3 2
3
1 9
=2
= 0.36
x x5 =
0
25
25
10
"
1
20e0.02t
10e
dt
Excess =
1 + e0.02t
0
" 10
" 10
e0.02t
0.02t
dt
dt 20
= 10
e
1 + e0.02t
0
0
"
10
0.02t
10
=
0
3
4
108
k
2 2
and input
x 2 for y1 =,
5
2 2
input
x 2 for y2 =,
5
65. Press
y=
245
= 1 to be
5
2
x = 2.236
The area is given by
"
2.34
2.236
"
"
y1 y 2 +
4.2
2.34
"
y1
4.2
2.34
4.2
2.34
"
y1 y 3 =
2.34
2.236
"
y1
x2
5
(4.2, 2.23)
(2.24, 0)
(2.34, 0.44)
"
t2
v(t)dt
t1
y2
y3
y x3 8.9x2 26.7x 27
2.34
2.236
y2
1
2
5.5
1.
(a)
S(t2) S(t1)
t2 t1
Additional Applications to
Business and Economics
D(q) = 2(64 q 2)
" 6
(64 q 2) dq
A(6) = 2
0
= 2 64q
q3
3
6
= $624
0
246
Chapter 5. Integration
150
(0, 128)
(0, 40)
40
125
p D(q)
p D(q)
100
75
30
(10, 24.26)
20
(6, 56)
50
q 10
10
q6
25
q
0
10
15
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
3.
(a)
D(q) =
"
400
0.5q + 2
7.
12
400
dq
0.5q + 2
0
12
= 800 ln 0.5q + 2
A(12) = 2
"
CS =
2(64 q 2) dq 3(110)
q3
= 2 64q
3
= 800 ln 4 = $1,109.04
(b) The consumers willingness to spend
in part (a) is the area under the demand curve from q = 0 to q = 12.
3
330 = $36
0
p
125
(3, 110)
100
p
200
p D(q)
75
(0, 200)
50
150
25
p D(q)
100
q
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
(12, 50)
50
q 12
q
0
5.
(a)
12
15
D(q) = 40e0.05q
" 10
A(10) = 40
e0.05q dq
0
10
= 800e0.05q = $314.78
0
9.
CS =
(40e0.05q ) dq 5(31.15)
5
= 800e0.05q 93.45
0
= $21.20
247
40
(3, 26.41)
30
(5, 31.15)
p S(q)
p D(q)
30
20
20
10
10
q
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
q
0
PS = 4(34.80)
(0.3q 2 + 30) dq
4
= 139.20 (0.1q 3 + 30q)
0
p
(4, 34.8)
p S(q)
q 2 = 81, or q = 9
So, the equilibrium price is
1
pe = D(9) = 131 (9)2 = $104
3
(b) The corresponding consumers surplus is
" 9
1
131 q 2 dq 9(104)
CS =
3
0
1 3 9
= 131q q 936
0
9
= $12.80
30
1
2
50 + q 2 = 131 q 2
3
3
= 162, or $162,000
20
10
q
0
= 324, or $324,000
17. (a) The supply equals demand when
"
PS = 3(26.41)
(10 + 15e0.3q ) dq
3
= 79.23 (10q + 500e0.03q )
0
= $2.14
0.3q 2 + 70 = 0.1q 2 + q + 20
0 = 0.4q 2 + q 50
1 1 + 4(0.4)(50)
q=
= 10
2(0.4)
248
Chapter 5. Integration
10
= (0.1q 3 + 70q) 400
= 0.67, or $670
= 200, or $200,000
since q0 = 10 means 10,000 units will be
supplied and the corresponding producers
surplus is
" 10
PS = 10(40)
(0.1q 2 + q + 20) dq
= 400
0.1 3 q 2
10
q +
+ 20q
0
3
2
116.67, or $116,670
16
3
q +2
10 3q
q +2
"
=
(7,250 18t 2) (3,620 + 12t 2) dt
"
0 = q + 12q 28
12 (12)2 + 4(1)(28)
q=
2(1)
or, q = 2
2
11
(3,630 30t 2) dt
=
0
11
= (3,630t 10t 3) = $26,620
0
(c)
11
16
3 = $1
2+2
y
y C(t)
(0, 7250)
(11, 5072)
(0, 3620)
y R(t)
= 3.09, or $3,090
t
11
249
= 50,000e1.75(e1.75 e0)
$237,730.13
593
6,537
= 0.090714,
0.3t = ln 0.090714,
or t = 8 weeks.
e0.3t =
= 2500e
= 50,000e2(e2 e0)
$319,452.80
" 5
1200e0.05t dt
PV =
29.
5
= 24,000(e0.05t )
0
= 24,000(e
25.
"
= 1000e1
10
e0 )
"
= 15,000e0.3
e0.06t dt 50,000
e0.1t dt
10
= 10,000e(e0.1t )
= 10,000e(e1 e0)
$17,182.82
"
= 9000e
"
= 2500e1.75
35
0.3
e0.06t dt 30,000
0.25
$5,308.78
e0.05t dt
40
= 50,000e2(e0.05t )
40
"
2
e0.05t dt
35
= 50,000e1.75(e0.05t )
0
250
Chapter 5. Integration
(b)
20 = 32.5e0.04t 32.5
21
= e0.04t
13
21
ln
= ln e0.04t , or
13
(c)
21
13
ln
, or approximately 12 years
0.04
"
PV = V (t)ert dt
"
= 112P (t)ert dt
"
p = 110 18 = 92
12
112(1.3e0.04t )e0.05t dt
18
CS =
12
e0.01t dt
12
= 14,560 e0.01t )
(110 q) dq 18(92)
q2
= 110q
2
18
1656
= 14,560 e0.12 e0
= $162
35. (a)
"
= 145.6
P (t) =
"
=
1.3e0.04t dt
"
= 1.3 e0.04t dt
= 32.5e0.04t + C
37. (a)
"
P (t) =
P (t) dt
"
=
1.2e0.02t dt
"
= 1.2 e0.02t dt
= 60e0.02t + C
When t = 0, P (0) = 0 so C = 60 and
P (t) = 60e0.02t 60.
When t = 3, P (3) = 60e0.02(3) 60
3.71 billion barrels
P (6) P (3) = (60e0.02(6) 60) 3.71
3.94 billion barrels
(b)
12 = 60e0.02t 60
6
= e0.02t
5
6
ln = ln e0.02t
5
ln
251
6
= 0.02t, or
5
t=
6
5
ln
0.02
(a)
60)(0.39e
0.02t
0.035t
+ 23.4e
=
=
9.12
e(10.05t)+(0.250.05t)dt
0.035t
"
= 10
e1.250.1t dt
"
= 10e1.25
0.015t
5
= 10e1.25 10e0.1t
23.4e
0.015t
90.6e0.015t 23.4e0.035t
90.6 0.015t
23.4 0.035t
+
e
e
0.015
0.035
dt
9.12
0
23.4 0.035(9.12)
90.6 0.015(9.12)
e
+
e
0.035
0.015
90.6 0
23.4 0
e +
e
0.015
0.035
589.55 billion years
= 100e1.25
= 100e1.25 e0.5 e0
= 100e1.25 e0.5 1
or $137,334.29
" 3
(b)
PV
10e10.05t e0.05t dt
1
"
= 10
e(10.05t)0.05t dt
"
= 10
e10.1t dt
"
PV = 10 million =
Ae
0.05t
dt
0
6
10 = 20A(e0.05t )
0.3
0
0
10 = 20A(e
e )
1
= A 1.929148 million, or
2(e0.3 1)
$1,929,148
e0.1t dt
3
= 10e 10e0.1t
1
3
0.1t
= 100e e
1
= 100e e0.3 e0
= 100e e0.3 1
70.45291
41. A(t) = 10e10.05t
137.33429
= 10e1
6
5
e0.1t
0.015t
39.
e0.1t dt
= 90.6e
23.4e
" 9.12
PV =
(90.6e0.035t 23.4e0.015t )e0.05t dt
0.035t
"
0
= (56e0.015t )(1.2e0.02t )
"
10e10.05t e10.05(5t dt
= 10
= 67.2e
5
0
+ (60e
"
FV =
or $70,452.91
252
Chapter 5. Integration
43. (a)
"
36
= 300
"
e0.1t dt
5
= e0.5 50,000 + 400(e0.1t )
= 300(18t + 0.2t
3/2
36
)
30,484 members.
45.
FV =
"
Mer(T t) dt =
"
= Me
Mert
r
500,000e0.011(3).
"
MerT ert dt
rt
f (t)er(T t) dt
3.
"
ert dt
T
ert
800e0.011(3t) dt.
Me
rt
=
e e0
r
M
M 0
e erT =
ert 1
r
r
rt
5.6
1.
Additional Applications to
the Life and Social Sciences
0.1(5)
500,000e0.033 + 800e0.033
"
e0.011t dt
3
1
0.011t
0.033
= 800e
)
(e
625 +
0
0.011
486,130 members
5.
100e0.01t e0.013(8t)dt
"
= 100
e0.01t0.104+0.013t dt
= 100e
0.104
"
0
e0.023t dt
"
253
0.104
+ 100e
0.104
"
11. Volume of S =
8
0.023t
"
1 0.023t 8
e
0
0.023
1
= 100,000e0.104 5 +
e0.184 e0
23
1
0.184
0.104
= 100,000e
5+
e
1
23
451,404 members
7.
"
e2
13. Volume of S =
2
1
=
x
dx
e 2
ln x
= ln e2 ln 1
"
e2
(3x + 1)2dx
(9x 2 + 6x + 1)dx
Volum of S =
"
"
2
4 x 2 dx
x 3 2
=
(4 x) dx = 4x
3 2
2
8
8
= 8
8 +
3
3
24 8 24 8
=
+
3
3
3
3
32
=
3
dt
= 100e0.104 5000 +
1
= 3x 3 + 3x 2 + x
0
= [(3 + 3 + 1) (0)] = 7
15.
= (2 0) = 2
"
P (t) = P (t) dt
"
= e0.02t dt
= 50e0.02t + C
"
9.
Volume of S =
"
=
When t = 0, P (0) = 50
(x 2 + 2)2dx
50 = 50e0 + C, or C = 0.
So, P (t) = 50e0.02t and
(x 4 + 4x 2 + 4)dx
3
x 5 4x 3
=
+
+ 4x
1
5
3
243 108
1 4
=
+
+ 12 4
5
3
5 3
3
20 60
729 540 180
+
+
+
=
+
+
15
15 15 15
15
15
1532
=
15
254
Chapter 5. Integration
200e1.6 + 10e1.6
"
200e1(40 +
e0.2t dt
4,207 members
80 members
19. After 30 days, the number of those originally
infected who still have the disease is
"
25. (a)
30
20e0.6 250 + 3
e0.02t dt
30
= 20e0.6 250 + 150(e0.02t )
0
30
0.02t
5 + 3(e
)
4,098 people
"
10
24
0.028 3
2
=
t + 0.336t
0
3
= 64.512.
So, the cardiac output is
R=
h=
b
0.672
=
= 12
2a
2(0.028)
10
30e0.1t dt = 300(e0.1t )
515.48
5
0.0775 liters/sec.
64.512
(0.028t 2 + 0.672t) dt
24
0.02(30)
21.
et/10 dt)
10
= 200e1[40 + 10(et/10) ]
8
= 10e1.6[20 + 5(e0.2t ) ]
= 1,000e0.6
10
0
5000e
"
billion barrels.
y
5
4
y C(t)
3
2
1
10
0
t
0
200e(10t)/10 dt
12 16 20 24
27. (a)
"
1
4
t 48t 3 + 378t 2 + 4,752t dt
12,312
0
5
24
1
t
4
3
2
=
12t + 126t + 2,376t
0
12,312 5
58.611.
24
255
"
31. (a)
5
0.0853 liters/sec.
58.611
(b)
L(t) =
"
y C(t)
2
1
3
(49)1.4 + C,
28
3
or C = 120 (49)1.4
28
120 =
t
0
29.
"
# people =
12 16 20 24
2r(25,000e0.05r ) dr
2
"
= 50,000
re0.05r dr
2
0.05r 2;
Let u =
then 10 du = r dr and the
limits of integration become 0.05(1)2 = 0.05 and
0.05(2)2 = 0.2 So,
" 0.2
= 50,000
eu 10 du
0.05
"
= 500,000
0.05
0.2
eu du
0.05
u
= 500,000 e
0.2
= 500,000(e0.05 e0.2)
208,128 people
So,
3
(49 t 2)1.4 + 120
28
3
= (49 t 2)1.4 + 120
28
L(t) =
3
(49)1.4
28
21
(49)0.4
4
256
Chapter 5. Integration
100,000e0.011(50) +
50
0
= 100,000e
= 50e0.55
0.55
+ 50e
0.55
50e0.011(50t) dt
"
= 3,000e0.7 + 10e0.7
50
0.011t
dt
0
10
10
e0.08t dt
10e0.01t e0.07(10t) dt
10
1
= 10e
300 +
(e0.08t )
0
0.08
1,566 members of the species.
"
"
0.7
50
1
0.011t
2,000 +
(e
)
0
0.011
59,618
The number in the second colony will be
5,000
1 + 49e0.009(50)
64.228, or 64,228
P (50) =
36,320
and the second colony will be
5,000
1 + 49e0.009(100)
41.145, or 41,145
P (100) =
0.011(300)
"
300
50e0.011(300t) dt
8,066
and the second will be
5,000
1 + 49e0.009(300)
6,848
P (300) =
t) + 1
0
" 10
85,000
1
=
+ 1,000
dt
11
11
t
0
" 1
1
85,000
du
=
1,000
11
11 u
" 11
85,000
1
=
du
+ 1,000
u
11
1
11
85,000
=
+ 1,000 ln u
1
11
10,125 people.
"
39.
D(t) =
D (t) dt
"
0.08
dt
t +1
= 0.12t + 0.08 ln t + 1 + C
=
0.12 +
257
0.8e0.13t
dt
(1 + e0.13t )2
70
Press
40
13
80
40
+ .
13(1 + e0.13t ) 13
80
40
+
13(1 + e0.13(12)) 13
2.01, or approximately 201 people infected.
W (12) =
" 1+e1.296
1
110
du
(86.4)(0.015) 2
u
110
=
ln(1 + e1.296) ln 2
1.296
71.7 years of age
=
W (12) D(12)
18.1%.
W (12)
(b)
"
110e0.015T T (1 + e0.015T ) = 0
110e0
= 55 years of age
1 + e0
" 70
1
110e0.015t
Lav =
dt
70 10 10 1 + e0.015t
L(0) =
110
60
1
e0.015t dt
0.015t
1
+
e
10
" 1+e1.05
11
1
=
du
6(0.015) 1+e0.15 u
1+e1.05
11
=
(ln u) 0.15
1+e
0.09
70.78 years of age
=
43. (a)
0 = 0.41t 2 + 0.97t
= t (0.97 0.41t)
so R(t) = 0 when t = 0 and when t 2.37 sec.
258
Chapter 5. Integration
"
(b)
2.37
Volume =
(0.41t 2 + 0.97t) dt
3
2+r
3
2+r =
T
3
r(T ) = 2
t
(b)
T (r) =
0.41 3 0.97 2 2.37
t +
t
0
3
2
0.905 liters
" 2.37
1
Rav =
(0.41t 2 + 0.97t) dt
2.37 0 0
0.905
0.382 liters/sec.
2.37
(c)
45. T (r) =
3
= 3(2 + r)1
2+r
3
3
intercepts: when r = 0, T (0) = ; point 0,
2
2
when T (r) = 0, no solution
vertical asymptote outside of domain (r = 2)
horizontal aymptote
(c) When r = 0, T =
3
r
= 0, or y = 0
2
+1
r
3
= 3(2 + r)2
T (r) =
(2 + r)2
6
T (r) =
(2 + r)3
lim
1
3
and when r = 7, T = .
2
3
Volume
2
" 3/2
3
2 dT
=
T
1/3
" 3/2
9
12
=
+ 4 dT
T2
T
1/3
3/2
9
= 12 ln T + 4T
1/3
T
3
1 4
=
6 12 ln + 6 27 12 ln +
2
3 3
3 81
1 4
= 12 ln +
+ 12 ln
2
3
3 3
1
3 77
= 12 ln 12 ln +
23.93ft3
3
2
3
47. p(r) =
10
200
5 + 2r 2
259
"
pollution = 2
r
0
" 3
r
= 400
dr
5
+
2r 2
0
200
5 + 2r 2
r 2 h3
0
= 2
h
3
1
= r 2h
3
dr
(a)
"
3x + 5e2x dx
"
"
"
=
x 3 dx 3 x 1/2 dx + 5 e2x dx
x3
= 100(ln 23 ln 5)
23
= 100 ln
479.42 units
5
200
2
5 + 2r
45 3 10
=
4.74 miles
L=r =
2
2
" 3 10
2
200
amt of pollution = 2
dr
r
5 + 2r 2
0
50
= 100 ln u
=
(b)
(b) 4 =
(c)
= 100 (ln 50 ln 5)
= 100 ln 10 723.38 units
"
49. Volume =
y dx
"
x 4 2 3 3/2 5 2x
+C
x e
4
3
2
" 2
x 2x + 4
dx
x
"
4
=
x 2x +
dx
x
"
"
"
1
dx
=
x dx 2 dx + 4
x
=
(d)
x2
2x + 4 ln x + C
2
"
1
2
dx
x x
x
"
=
x 5/2 x 1/2 dx
2
= x 7/2 2x 1/2 + C
7
x dx
(3 + 2x 2)3/2
Let u = 3 + 2x 2; then
1
du = x dx
4
"
1
1
=
u3/2 du = (2u1/2) + C
4
4
1
=
+C
2 3 + 2x 2
260
Chapter 5. Integration
"
(e)
ln
"
"
(c)
"
1
du = x dx
2
"
(a)
x
"
1
4
x
1
=
=
=
=
"
3/2
3/2
2
+
x
"
dx
4
dx + 2
1
1
dx
x
4
2 5/24
x +2(ln x)
1
1
5
2 5/2
(4) (1)5/2 + 2[ln 4 ln 1]
5
62
+ 2 ln 4
5
62
62
+ 4 ln 2
+ 2 ln 22 =
5
5
e3x dx
(b)
0
(d)
"
x
dx
0 x+1
Let u = x + 1; then du = dx and x = u 1.
Further, the limits of integration become
0 + 1 = 1 and 1 + 2 = 2
" 2
u1
du
=
u
1
" 2
1
1
=
du
u
1
2
= (u ln u)
1
(e1+x )x dx
"
2
1
1
=
eu du = e1+x + C
2
2
2.
= (2 ln 2) (1 ln 1) = 1 ln 2
eu du = e3 e0 = e3 1
xe1+x dx
Let u = 1 + x 2; then
1
let u = ln x; then du = dx
x
"
1
1
(ln x) dx
2
x
"
1
1
=
u du = (ln x)2 + C
2
4
(f)
eu du
"
" 1 ln x
2
=
dx
x
"
dx
(x + 3) dx
x 2 + 6x + 4
0
Let u = x 2 + 6x + 4; then du = (2x + 6) dx
du
= (x + 3) dx. Further, the limits of
or,
2
integration become 0 + 6(0) + 4 = 4 and
(3)2 + 6(3) + 4 = 31
"
31
1
1 31 1/2
u
du = (2u1/2)
=
4
2
2 4
31
= u1/2 = 31 2
3
3.
(a)
"
Area =
"
x+
x 0 dx
1
4
=
1
x + x 1/2 dx
x 2 2 3/2 4
+ x
1
2
3
2
1 2 3/2
2 3/2
(4)
+ (4)
+ (1)
=
2
3
2 3
73
=
sq. units.
6
261
(9)3
(4)3
2
5(4)
= 5(9)
3
3
310
=
hundred, or approximately $10,333.33
3
x 2 3x = x + 5
x 2 4x 5 = 0
(x 5)(x + 1) = 0
x = 1, 5
6.
"
(4x + 5 x ) dx
2
x 3 5
= 2x 2 + 5x
1
3
(5)3
= 2(5)2 + 5(5)
3
(1)3
2
2(1) + 5(1)
3
= 36 sq. units.
4.
1
5
"
5
1.7 2
1 0.2t
e
t 3t
0.2
2
0
1.7
(5)2 3(5) 62.5e0 0 0
= 62.5e0.2(5)
2
Net change =
When q0 = 4, p0 = 25 (4)2 = 9
" 4
(25 q 2) dq (4)(9)
CS =
0
= 25q
8.
"
=
"
(4)3
36
"
= 5,000e0.15
q(10 q) dq
4
36
R (q) dq
a
q3
3
= 25(4)
= (2 2 ln 2) (1 2 ln 1)
= 1 2 ln 2
5.
= 12.5
2
x2
1
dx
x
21 1
" 2
2
=
dx
1
x
1
2
= (x 2 ln x)
fav =
"
(10q q 2) dq
q3
= 5q
3
2
9
4
e0.05t dt
5,000e0.15
0.05t 3
e
0
0.05
5,000e0.15 0.05(3)
e0
e
=
0.05
$16,183.42
=
262
9.
Chapter 5. Integration
Review Problems
"
1.
50,000e0.02(20)
The number of new arrivals remaining after 20
years is
"
20
700e0.02(20t) dt
(x 3 +
x 9) dx
"
"
"
3
1/2
=
x dx + x dx 9
dx
=
3.
0.4
+ 700e
0.4
20
5.
45,055 people
10.
1
30
Cav =
"
3
0
0.3t
dt
(t 2 + 16)1/2
7.
1
du = t dt, and the limits of
2
integration become 0 + 16 = 16 and (3)2 + 16 = 25
0.3
3
0.1
2
"
"
1
t dt
(t 2 + 16)1/2
25
5x 3
3 ln x + C
3
"
1
t 5 3t 2 + 2 dt
t
"
"
"
=
t 5 dt 3 t 2 dt + t 2 dt
=
x 4 2 3/2
+ x 9x + C
4
3
"
(x 4 5e2x ) dx
"
"
=
x 4 dx 5 e2x dx
x 5 5 2x
+C
+ e
5
2
" 3
5x 3
dx
x
"
3
dx
=
5x 2
x
"
"
1
dx
= 5 x 2 dx 3
x
e0.02t dt
1 0.02t 20
e
0
0.02
20
= 100e0.4 500 + 350 e0.02t
= 100e0.4 500 + 7
"
u1/2 du
=
9.
t6
1
t3 + C
6
t
"
3x + 1 dx
"
= (3x + 1)1/2 dx
16
25
= 0.05(2u1/2)
16
25
= 0.1(u1/2)
16
= 0.1
25 16 = 0.1 mg/cm3.
1
du = dx
3
"
1
u1/2 du
=
3
2
= (3x + 1)3/2 + C
9
Let u = 3x + 1; then
Review Problems
263
"
11.
(x + 2)(x 2 + 4x + 2)5 dx
Let
+ 8x + 3; then, du = (4x + 8) dx, or
1
du = (x + 2) dx
4
"
3(x + 2)
=
dx
2
(2x + 8x + 3)2
"
3
=
u2 du
4
3
=
+C
4(2x 2 + 8x + 3)
"
"
19.
"
"
17.
5xe
x 2
1
Let u = x 2; then du = x dx
2
"
2
= 5 (ex )x dx
"
2
5
5
=
eu du = ex + C
2
2
"
21.
(ln x)1/2
(5x 4 8x 3 + 1) dx
1
= (x 5 2x 4 + x) = (1 2 + 1) 0 = 0
0
"
23.
"
(e2x + 4 3 x) dx
1
0
1
(e2x + 4x 1/3) dx
1 2x
1 2
1 0
1
e + 3x 4/3 =
e + 3(1)
e + 3(0)
0
2
2
2
5
1
= e2 +
2
2
"
25.
30(5x 2)2 dx
1
du = dx, and the limits
5
of integration become 5(1) 2 = 7 and
5(2) 2 = 8
3
"
30 8 2
u 8
=
u du = 6
7
5 7
3
3
3
(7)
(8)
= 1,710
=6
3
3
Let u = 5x 2; then
dx
1
dx
x
1
dx
x
"
2
= u1/2 du = (ln x)3/2 + C
3
dx
Let u = ln x; then du =
v(v 5)12 dv
15.
ln x
x
"
27.
2tet
2 1
dt
= 1
1
e
264
Chapter 5. Integration
x
dx
x+1
0
Let u = x + 1; then du = dx, x = u 1, and
the limits of integration become 0 + 1 = 1 and
(e 1) + 1 = e
" e
" e
u1
1
du =
du
1
=
u
u
1
1
e
= (u ln u) = (e ln e) (1 ln 1)
"
29.
e1
10
8
1
y x x2
6
4
x2
2
x1
0
=e2
31.
"
(x + 2 x) 0 dx
Area =
"
(x + 2x
1/2
4
=5x
x
) dx
4 = 5x x 2
x 2 4 3/2 4
=
+ x
1
2
3
2
4 3/2
101
1 4
(4)
+ (4)
+ (1) =
=
2
3
2 3
6
y
x 2 5x + 4 = 0
(x 4)(x 1) = 0
x = 1, 4
6
10
5
(1, 4)
8
y x x
x4
x
0
"
1
+ x 2 dx
x
1
x 3 2
= ln x +
1
3
3
1
(2)
ln 1 +
=
= ln 2 +
3
3
7
= ln 2 +
3
Area =
y x
(4, 1)
33.
y5x
Review Problems
265
(4)2
1
= 5(4)
4 ln 4 5(1) 4 ln 1
2
2
15
15
4 ln 4 =
4 ln(2)2
=
2
2
15
8 ln 2
=
2
39.
fav =
=
=
=
x2 x 2 = 0
(x 2)(x + 1) = 0
1
41. gav =
20
or, x = 1, 2
So, the limits of integration are x = 1 and x = 2
"
Area =
"
=
(2 + x x 2) 0 dx
(2 + x x 2) dx
x
x 3 2
= 2x +
1
2
3
3
1 (1)3
2 (2)
2(1) +
= 2(2) +
2
3
2
3
=
9
2
y 2 x x2
2
1
"
vev dv
2
1
then du = 2vdv, or du = v dv.
2
Further, the limits of integration become 0 and
(2)2 = 4
"
1 4 u
=
e du
4 0
"
1 0 u
=
e du
4 4
0
1
1
= (eu) = (e0 e4)
4
4
4
1
1
=
1 4
4
e
Let
u = v 2;
" 8
1
(x 3 3x + 2x) dx
81 1
"
1 8 3
(x 3x + 2x 1/2) dx
7 1
1 x 4 3x 2 2 2 3/2 8
+
x
1
7 4
2
3
+
(8)
7
4
2
3
1 3(1) 2 2
+
(1)
4
2
3
11,407 2 2
84
21
q 3 2
= 4 36q
256
0
3
(2)3
= 4 36(2)
0 256
3
64
= , or approximately $21.33
3
266
Chapter 5. Integration
"
= 10
e0.1q dq 26.80
y 0.3x2 0.7x
4
) 26.80
= 100(e
0.1q
= 100(e
0.1(4)
e0) 26.80
x
0
$6.17
47.
"
GI = 2
yx
(x x 3/2) dx
x 2 2 5/2 1
x
0
2
5
1
1 2
(1) 0 =
=2
2 5
5
51. After 6 months, the number of the original population surviving is 75,000 e0.09(6)
The number of new members surviving is
=2
"
60e0.09(6t)dt
= 60e
0.54
"
e0.09t dt
yx
49.
"
x (0.3x 2 + 0.7x) dx
1
GI = 2
"
0
1
=2
(0.3x 0.3x 2) dx
"
= 0.6
(x x 2) dx
= 0.6
x2
x3
1
0
2
3
1 1
0 = 0.1
= 0.6
2 3
e0.09t dt
= 60e0.54 1250 +
y x3/2
"
1 0.09t 6
e
0
0.09
100 0.09t 6
0.54
e
= 60e
1250 +
0
9
100 0.54
= 60e0.54 1250 +
1
e
9
43,984 members
53. After 10 years, the number of the original population
surviving is 100,000 e0.2(10)
The number of new members surviving is
" 10
90e0.1t e0.2(10t) dt
0
"
= 90
10
= 90e
e0.1t2+0.2t dt
"
0
10
e0.3t dt
Review Problems
267
"
So, the total will be
61.
100,000e2 + 90e2
"
10
x=
"
e0.3t dt
1 0.3t 10
e
= 10e2 10,000 + 9
0
0.3
10
= 10e2 10,000 + 30 e0.3t
= 100e2
1,000 + 3(e3 1)
dx
dt
dt
e2t dt
1
= e2t + C
2
1
9
4 = e0 + C, or C =
2
2
1
2t
so, x = (9 e )
2
14,308 members
"
55. Volume of S =
"
=
y=
(x 4 + 2x 2 + 1)dx
=
=
=
=
2
x 5 2x 3
+
+ x
1
5
3
32 16
1 2
+
+2 1
5
3
5 3
33 18
78
+
+3 =
5
3
5
49.01
3
"
57. Volume of S =
1
x
" 3
2
dx
1
dx
1 x
3
= ln x
59.
dy
,
dx
= (ln 3 ln 1)
= ln 3 3.45
"
dy
dx
y=
dx
"
= 2 dx = 2x + C
4 = 2(3) + C, or C = 10
so, y = 2x + 10
"
x(x 2 + 1)1 dx
1
du = x dx
2
8
(t + 1)
dt
268
Chapter 5. Integration
=
du =
ln u9
2
2 9 u
1
= (ln 11 ln 9) 0.1003 billion barrels
2
5
= (u4 + 18u3)
3
4
= (5) + 18(5)3 (3)4 + 18(3)3
= 1,220 people
"
69.
C(x) =
1,200e0.08(5t) dt
"
(18x 2 + 500) dx
1 5 1
du =
ln u3
=
2 3 u
2
1
= (ln 5 ln 4) 0.2554 billion barrels
2
Using substitution with u = 1 + 2t,
e0.08t dt
= 6x + 500x + C
71.
"
FV =
C (x) dx
So,
73.
= 1,200e0.4
"
=
= 15,000e0.4(e0.4 e0)
$7,377.37
75. The number of the original houses still on the market
after 10 weeks is
200e0.2(10)
The number of new listings which will still be on the
market after 10 weeks is
" 10
8e0.2(10t) dt
0
+ 8e
= 8e
"
10
e0.2t dt
"
10
25 +
e
0
0.2t
dt
1 0.2t 10
= 8e2 25 +
(e )
0
0.2
= 8e2 25 + 5(e2 e0)
62 houses.
Review Problems
269
"
200
= 300e
3.96
= 3003.96
=
"
200
e0.0198t dt
1
200
e0.0198t
0
0.0198
300e3.96
(e3.96 e0)
0.0198
14,863 pounds
(t 2 21t + 98) dt
t 3 21t 2
20
= 0.02
+ 98t
8
3
2
2
3
21(20)
(20)
+ 98(20)
= 0.02
3
2
3
(8)
21(8)2
+ 98(8)
3
2
"
20
= 0.02
revenue =
300e0.0198(200t) dt
" 6
1
(0.06t 2 0.2t + 6.2) dt
Pav =
60 0
6
1
= (0.02t 3 0.1t 2 + 6.2t)
0
6
1
0.02(6)3 0.1(6)2 + 6.2(6) 0
=
6
= $6.32 per pound
81.
900(92 + 0.8t) dt
36
= 900(92t + 0.4t 2)
0
= 900 (92(36) + 0.4(36)2) 0
$3,447,360
(b)
(0.3 + 0.003x 2) dx
= 0.3x + 0.001x 3 + C
= 0.3x + 0.001x 3 + 250
270
Chapter 5. Integration
"
GIP T = 2
"
1
x (0.65x 2 + 0.35x) dx
0
1
(0.65x 0.65x 2) dx
=2
0
"
= 1.3
(x x 2) dx
x 2 x 3 1
= 1.3
0
2
3
1 1
0 0.2167
= 1.3
2 3
(10, 254)
y P2(x)
y P1(x)
(10, 253)
(0, 250)
x
10
s(t) =
v(t) dt
"
2
3
(1 + 4t + 3t 2) dt
89.
3
= (t + 2t 2 + t 3)
2
2
= 3 + 2(3) + (3)3 2 + 2(2)2 + (2)3
=
2
= 30 meters
"
GIsw = 2
(x x 1.6) dx
x 2 x 2.6 1
2
2.6 0
1
1
0 0.2308
=2
2 2.6
=2
"
6 2x 2
3
2
dx
2 2
x
2
dx
3
3
2x 3 3
2x
9 3
2( 3)3
2( 3)3
2 3
2 3 +
9
9
4(33/2)
4 3
7.255
9
"
Review Problems
271
" N
1
S(t) dt
N 0 0
(b) Since velocity is the derivative of distance,
93. (a) S =
av
"
D(t) =
y
x = 1.82
y=
S(t) dt
x2
x+1
y = 25 x2
x = 4.98
x = 4.66
distance traveled
(c) Average speed =
time elapsed
1.82
4.66
"
(y2 y1) dx =
1.82
4.66
"
y2 dx
1.82
4.66
y1 dx
#
For each separate integral, use the f (x) dx
function under the calc menu making sure that the
correct y equation is displayed in the upper left
corner. We find the area to be
10.326439 7.32277423 3
An alternative to finding each separate integral is
to use the fnInt function from the home screen.
Select fnInt function from the math menu and enter
fnInt (y2 y1, x, 4.66, 1.82). You input the y
equations by pressing vars and selecting which y
equation you want from the function window under
yvars.
Chapter 6
Integration by Parts;
Integral Tables
5.
"
and
dV = ex dx
V = ex
xex dx = xex
= xe
"
"
t2
1
ln 2t t 2 + C
2
4
1
t2
ln 2t
+C
=
2
2
dx
= xex ex + C
= (x + 1)ex + C
7.
3.
dV = e dx
V = ex
x
(1 x)ex dx = (1 x)ex
and
"
ve
ex dx
"
= (1 x)ex +
and
du = dv
"
"
t2
ln 2t
2
"
t2 1
dt
2 t
"
t2
1
= ln 2t
t dt
2
2
t ln 2t dt =
ex dx
"
+
and
dV = t dt
t2
V =
2
and
ex dx
v/5
dV = ev/5dv
V = 5ev/5
"
5ev/5dv
"
v/5
= 5ve
+ 5 ev/5dv
dv = 5ve
v/5
= 5vev/5 25ev/5 + C
= 5(v + 5)ev/5 + C
= (1 x)ex + ex + C
= [(1 x) + 1]ex + C
9.
= (2 x)ex + C
273
274
of
"
and
du = dx
dV = (x 6)1/2 dx
2
V = (x 6)3/2
3
x
dx = 2x(x + 2)1/2
x+2
= 2x(x + 2)
2
x x 6 dx = x(x 6)3/2
3
2
= x(x 6)3/2
3
2
= x(x 6)3/2
3
"
2
(x 6)3/2 dx
3
"
2
(x 6)3/2 dx
3
4
(x 6)5/2 + C
15
"
u=x
and
du = dx
dV = (x + 1)8 dx
1
V = (x + 1)9
9
1
x(x + 1) dx = x(x + 1)9
9
1
= x(x + 1)9
9
1
= x(x + 1)9
9
8
u=x
and
and
" 4
dV = (x + 5)1/2 dx
u=x
du = dx
and
and
4
4
= 2x x + 5 (x + 5)3/2
1
3
4
= 2(4) 4 + 5 (4 + 5)3/2
3
4
2(1) 1 + 5 (1 + 5)3/2
3
8
=
3
1
(x + 1)9 dx
9
"
1
(x + 1)9 dx
9
1
(x + 1)10 + C
90
"
x
13. Rewriting,
dx = x(x + 2)1/2 dx,
x+2
both terms are easy to integrate; however, the
derivative of x becomes simpler while the derivative
of (x + 2)1/2 does not. So,
V = 2(x + 5)1/2
" 4
4
x
1/2
2(x + 5)1/2 dx
dx = 2x(x + 5)
1
x+5
1
" 4
4
1/2
(x + 5)1/2 dx
= 2x(x + 5) 2
"
"
(x + 2)1/2 dx
" 4
x
15. Rewriting,
x(x + 5)1/2 dx,
dx =
1 x + 5
1
both terms are easy to integrate; however, the
derivative of x becomes simpler while the derivative
of (x + 5)1/2 does not. So,
and
"
"
du = dx
11. Both terms are easy to integrate; however, the
derivative of x becomes simpler while the derivative
of (x + 1)8 does not. So,
2(x + 2)1/2 dx
4
= 2x x + 2 (x + 2)3/2 + C
3
and
"
1/2
"
" 1
x
dx
=
xe2x dx, both terms
2x
0
0 e
are easy to integrate; however, the derivative of x
becomes simpler while the derivative of e2x does
not. So,
"
17. Rewriting,
u=x
dV = (x + 2)1/2 dx
du = dx
V = 2(x + 2)1/2
and
and
dV = e2x dx
1
V = e2x
2
"
19. ln
275
" 1
x 2x 1
1
x
e
dx
=
e2x dx
2x
0
e
2
2
0
" 1
x
1 1
= e2x +
e2x dx
0
2
2 0
x
1
1
= e2x e2x
0
2
4
1 0
1 2 1 2
0 e
= e e
2
4
4
3
1 1
= e2 + = (1 3e2)
4
4 4
u = ln 2t
and
1
2dt
du =
2t
1
= dt
t
and
" e/2
e 2
e 2
e
2
= 2 ln 2
2
4
2
t ln 2t dt =
1/2
and dV = x dx
u = ln 3 x
= ln(x)1/3
V =
x2
2
1
ln x
3
1
dx
du =
3x
and
"
e2
x ln
1
e 2 " e 2 x 2 1
x2
dx
x dx =
ln x
1
2 3x
6
1
e 2 1 " e 2
x2
=
ln x
x dx
1
6 1
6
2
x
x 2 e2
=
ln x
6
12 1
2 2
(e2)2
(e )
ln(e2)
=
12
6
1
1
ln 1
6
12
1
4
=
3e + 1
12
dV = t dt
t2
V =
2
1
2
"
ln x
dx =
x2
be easily integrated. So,
u = ln x
1
du = dx
x
"
2
1
2
1 2
(e + 1)
16
"
23. Rewriting,
and
1
ln 2
and
x 2 ln x dx, ln x cannot
dV = x 2 dx
1
V =
x
"
ln x
1 1
1
ln
x
dx
dx
=
x2
x
x x
"
1
= ln x + x 2 dx
x
1
1
= ln x + C
x
x
1
= (ln x + 1) + C
x
276
"
4x 2 9
dx
x2
4x 2 9
2
=2
+ ln 2x + 4x 9 + C
2x
4x 2 9
=
+ 2 ln 2x + 4x 2 9 + C
x
and
du = 2x dx
dV = xex dx
1
let u = x 2; du = x dx
2
1 x2
V = e
2
and
"
x 3ex dx =
x 2 x2
e
2
"
"
du
dx
is of the form
x(2 + 3x)
u(a + bu)
(formula #6). Using u = x, du"= dx, a = 2,
dx
and b = 3, the formula yields
=
x(2 + 3x)
1 x
ln
+ C.
2 2 + 3x
"
1 x2
e 2x dx
2
31. As written,
x 2 x2 1 x2
e e +C
2
2
1 2
= ex (x 2 1) + C
2
=
"
du
du
=
=
33. Rewriting,
2
"
"
16
16 3u
3 3 u2
x dx
x dx
"
"
27. Rewriting,
=
which is of the
1
du
1
du
3 5x
3 + 5x
"
which is of the
=
2
u du
16
2
3
3
form
(formula #1). Using u = x, du = dx,
4
3 u
u2
3
a + bu
"
a = 3, and b = 5, the formula yields
du
form
(formula #16). Using a = 4 , the
3
a 2 u2
"
formula yields
x dx
1
=
[3 + 5x 3 ln  3 + 5x ] + C
3 5x
(5)2
4 + u
"
1
du
1 1
+ C
=
(3 5x 3 ln  3 5x ) + C
ln 43
=
25
16 3u2 3 2 4
3 u
"
"
(2x)2 (3)2
4x 2 9
29. Rewriting,
dx =
dx
2
x
x2
" 2
u a2
most closely resembles
du (formula
u2
#19). Now,
"
"
4 (2x)2 (3)2
dx
4x 2
"
(2x)2 (3)2
=2
2 dx
(2x)2
(2x)2 (3)2
dx =
x2
"
3
24
3
24
4+ 3u
3
ln + C
4
3u
3
4 + 3u
ln
+C
4 3u
"
"
35.
277
"
= x(ln x) 3 x(ln x) 2
3
"
u=t
ln x dx
V = 5e0.2t
5 " 5
0.2t
0.2t
5e
dt
Q(t) = 2000 5te
0
and
du = dx
y = (x + 1)ex
= (x + 1)ex +
"
5
0
dt
"
te0.5t dt
dV = e0.5t dt
1 0.5t
e
= 2e0.5t
du = dt
V =
0.5
3 " 3
0.5t
0.5t
Q(t) = 100 2te
2e
dt
0
= 100
ex dx
2000te0.2t dt
e
0
u=t
3
e
=5+
+5
0.2t
"
100te0.5t dt
= 100
ex dx
3 x+2
x
e
e
"
Q(t) = Q(t) dt
Q(t) =
0
= (x + 1)ex ex + C
41.
"
43.
V = ex
y = (x + 1)ex ex + 5 +
"
5
= 2000 5te0.2t 25e0.2t
0
1
1
= 2000 25e 25e
0 25e0
50
= 2000
+ 25 $13,212.06
e
dV = ex dx
"
5
5te0.2t
0
= 2000
Slope = y = (x + 1)ex
"
y = y dx
"
= (x + 1)ex dx
u=x+1
"
39.
dV = e0.2t dt
and
du = dt
te0.2t dt
"
= x(ln x)3 3x(ln x)2 + 6
= 2000
ln x dx
45.
3
2te0.5t
0
"
+2
0.5t
dt
3
= 100 2te0.5t 4e0.5t
0
= t ln t + 1 dt
278
u = ln
t +1
and
= ln(t + 1)1/2
1
ln(t + 1)
2
1
du =
dt
2(t + 1)
and
dV = t dt
dV =
" 6
1
4te(20.3t) dt
Cav =
60 0
" 6
2
= e2
te0.3t dt
3
0
47.
t2
2
u=t
du = dt
"
t2
1
dt
2 2(t + 1)
"
t2
1
t2
= ln(t + 1)
dt
4
4
t +1
P (t) =
t2
ln(t + 1)
4
Rewriting,
"
"
t2
1 + t2 1
dt =
dt
t +1
t +1
"
1 + (t + 1)(t 1)
=
dt
t +1
"
"
1
=
dt + (t 1) dt
t +1
So,
t2
1
(t 1)2
P (t) = ln(t + 1)
+C
ln  t + 1  +
2
4
4
=
t2
4
ln(t + 1)
1)2
1
(t
ln  t + 1 
4
8
dV = e0.3t dt
10
V = e0.3t
3
So,
" 6
10 0.3t
10 0.3t 6
2 2
Cav = e te
e
dt
0
3
3
3
0
"
2 2
10 0.3t 6 10 6 0.3t
= e te
e
dt
+
0
3
3
3 0
2 2
10 0.3t 100 0.3t 6
= e te
e
0
3
3
9
100 0
100 1.8
10
2
0
e
e
= e2 (6)e1.8
9
9
3
3
2
280 1.8 100
= e2
e
29.4 mg/ml
+
3
9
9
"
49.
10
FV =
+C
=e
(3,000 + 5t)e0.05(10t) dt
"
0.5
10
(3,000 + 5t)e0.05t dt
1
1
ln 1 + C,
4
8
or C = 2000.125
u = 3,000 + 5t
2000 = 0
and
dV = e0.05t dt
V = 20e0.05t
du = 5 dt
So,
P (t) =
and
So,
t2
(t 1)2
1
+ 2000.125
ln(t + 1) ln t + 1
8
4
4
and when t = 5,
25
1
P (5) =
ln 6 ln 6 2 + 2000.125
4
4
= 6 ln 6 + 1998.125 2,008.8756 thousand.
The population will be approximately 2,008,876
people.
FV = e
"
0.5
10
10
20(3,000 + 5t)e0.05t
20e0.05t 5 dt
=e
0.5
20(3,000
10
+ 5t)e0.05t
0
"
10
+ 100
e
0
0.05t
dt
10
= e0.5 20(3,000 + 5t)e0.05t 2,000e0.05t
0
= e0.5 20(3,000 + 5(10))e0.5t 2,000e0.5
20(3,000 + 0)e0 2,000e0
51.
PV =
279
= 5,000e
du = 3 dt
= 5e
Here,
0.18
+ 5e
0.18
"
te0.02t dt
"
1,000 +
u=t
te
0.02t
dt
dV = e0.02t dt
and
du = dt
= 5e
V = 50e0.02t
9 "
1,000 + 50te0.02t
0.18
= 5e
So,
5te0.02(9t) dt
dV = e0.07t dt
100 0.07t
V =
e
7
5
100
(20 + 3t)e0.07t
PV =
0
7
" 5
100 0.07t
3 dt
e
7
0
5
100
=
(20 + 3t)e0.07t
0
7
" 5
300
+
e0.07t dt
7 0
30,000 0.07t 5
100
0.07t
(20 + 3t)e
e
=
0
7
49
30,000 0.35
100
(20 + 3(5))e0.35
e
=
7
49
100
30,000 0
0
(20 + 0)e
e
7
49
30,000 0.35
= 500e0.35
e
49
2,000 30,000
7
49
0.18
(20 + 3t)e0.07t dt
and
9
0
u = 20 + 3t
"
# members = 5,000e0.02(9) +
0.18
1,000
9
+ 50te0.02t
0
50e
0.02t
dt
"
50
0.02t
dt
9
= 5e0.18 1,000 + 50te0.02t 2,500e0.02t
0 2,500e0
4,367 members
55. (a)
p = D(q)
D(q) = 10 qe0.02q
D(5) = 10 (5)e0.02(5) = $4.47 each
(b)
"
CS =
10 qe0.02q
"
0
5
"
10 dq
u=q
du = dq
dq 5(4.47)
qe0.02q dq 22.35
and
dV = e0.02q dq
V = 50e0.02q
280
5 "
5
= 10q 50qe0.02q
0
50e
0.02q
dV = e0.12t dt
100 0.12t
du = dt
V =
e
12
" 20
25 0.12t
25 0.12t 20
dt
e
= 1.54 te
0
3
3
0
0.007 320
t
0
3
"
25 0.12t 20 25 20 0.12t
e
dt
= 1.54 te
+
0
3 0
3
0.007 320
t
0
3
25
625 0.12t 20
e
= 1.54 te0.12t
0
3
9
0.007 320
t
0
3
625 0.12(20)
25
0.12(20)
e
= 1.54 (20)e
9
3
625 0
0.007
0
e
(20)3 0
9
3
55.2917
u=t
dq 22.35
"
5
5
= 10q 50qe0.02q + 50
0
e0.02q dq 22.35
5
= 10q 50qe0.02q + 2,500e0.02q 22.35
0
0.02(5)
0.02(5)
= 10(5) 50(5)e
+ 2,500e
0 0 + 2,500e0 22.35
14.28456 thousand, or $14,284.56
"
57.
x xex1 dx
GI = 2
0
"
=2
"
x dx
u=x
xe
x1
dx
and
dV = ex1 dx
du = dx
V = ex1
1 " 1
x 2 1
ex1 dx
=2
xex1
0
2 0
0
2
1
x
x1
x1
=2
+e
xe
0
2
1
1e0 + e0 0 0 + e1
=2
2
2
= 1 0.2642
e
So, R
5
0.0904 bit/sec
55.2917
"
R= "
and
61.
T0
C(t) dt
uneau du
Let
Here,
R= "
20
f = un
5
1.54te0.12t 0.007t 2
dt
df = nun1 du
and
dV = eau du
1
V = eau
a
"
1 n au
1 au
e nun1 du
= u e
a
a
"
1 n au n
= u e
un1eau du
a
a
63. area =
"
ln 2
2e
281
dx
ln 2
= 2x ex
0
= 2 ln 2 eln 2 0 e0
u2 a 2 du
"
1
=
2
ln 2
ex dx
ln 2
= 2.5887 x 2 xex + ex
0
2
= 2.5887 (ln 2) (ln 2)(eln 2) + eln 2
0 0 + e0 0.244
" ln 2
2
1
y =
2 ex dx
2(0.38629) 0
" ln 2
= 1.2944
4 4ex + e2x dx
0
1 2x ln 2
= 1.2944 4x 4e + e
0
2
1 2(ln 2)
ln 2
= 1.2944 4 ln 2 4e + e
2
1
0 4e0 + e0 0.353
2
"
( 2x)2 (1)2 2 dx
The formula
can be used with u =
du = 2 dx, and a = 1.
Let u = x and dV = ex dx
ln 2
ln 2 "
2
= 2.5887 x xex
( 2x)2 (1)2 dx
= 2 ln 2 1 0.38629
" ln 2
1
x =
x 2 ex dx
0.38629 0
"
" ln 2
ln 2
= 2.5887
2x dx
xex dx
0
2x,
5
1
2x 2
2x 1 ln 2x + 2x 2 1
2
2
1
1
2(5)
1
2(5)2 1 ln 2(5) + 2(5)2 1
=
2
2
2
1
2(1)
=
ln 5 2 + 7
+ ln
2+1
2
2
2
2
2
1
=
2
16.3768
x =
1
16.3768
"
x 2x 2 1 dx
Using y = 2x 2 1,
" 5
Area =
2x 2 1 dx
"
=
1
( 2x)2 (1)2 dx
282
" 5
2
1
y =
2x 2 1 dx
2(16.3768) 1
" 5
= 0.030531
(2x 2 1) dx
1
5
2x 3
= 0.030531
x
3
1
3
2(1)3
2(5)
5
1
= 0.030531
3
3
2.40
So, the kiosk should be located at the coordinates
(3.48, 2.40).
(b) Writing ExerciseAnswers will vary.
#
Use the f (x) dx function under the calc menu
making sure the current equation is activated for
each integral. The area is approximately 0.75834.
Alternatively, you can use the fnInt function from
the home screen under the math menu and enter:
fnInt(y1 y2, x, 2.236, 2.608)
+ fnInt(y1 y3, x, 2.608, 2.966)
You can insert y1, y2, y3 by pressing vars and select
Function under Y vars and then select which y
function to insert.
y
5
y x3 3.5x2 2x
4
3
2
(2.966, 1.232)
2
and input x 3 3.5x + 2x for y3 = .
Press graph .
Use the intersect function under the calc menu to
Use window dimensions [1, 4]1 by [3, 5]1 for a
find the two points of intersection. Enter a value
good view of where the graphs intersect.
close to the first point of intersection on y1 = and
Use trace and zoom to find the points of intersection
also on y2 =. Then enter a guess. The first point
or use the intersect function under the calc menu to
of
intersection is (0, 5). Repeat this process for the
find (2.966, 1.232) and (2.608, 0.850) are the two
second
point of intersection to find (1.386,20). To
points of intersection.
find
the
area boounded by these two curves, we must
To find the area bounded by the curves, we must find
find
that the xintercept of the hyperbola is x 2.236.
" 1.386
" 1.386
" 1.386
Then we need
y
y
=
y
y1.
2
1
2
2.608
2.966
2.608
"
"
"
0
0
0
#
y1
y1 y 3 =
y1 y 2 +
Use the f (x)dx function under the calc menu
2.608
2.236
2.236
making sure the current equation is activated for
2.608
2.966
2.966
"
"
"
each integral. The area is approximately 1.9548.
Alternatively, you can use the f nlnt function from
y2 +
y1
y3
the
home screen under the math menu and enter
2.236
2.608
2.608
283
"
vars
and
y
(1.386, 20)
15
10
(0, 5)
x
1
Press
y=
and input
(4x 2 7) for y1 = .
4x 2 7 dx
"
u2 7 du
6
7
1 u 2
u 7 ln u + u2 7
4
2 2
2
1
7
7
=
3 29 ln(6 + 29) 2(3) + ln 7
2
2
2
1
= (8.45309083)
2
4.227
20
1
=
2
25
3
284
"
dy
= ey
dx
u2 1
du
u2
1
2
u2 1
2
=
+ ln u + u 1
1
u
0
3
+ ln 2 + 3
+ ln 1 + 0
=
2
1
3
+ ln(2 + 3) ln 1
=
2
0.4509
2
1
dy = dx
ey
and integrate
"
"
y
e dy = dx,
ey = x + C1 or ey = C x
where C is the constant C1. So,
ln ey = ln(C x),
y = ln(C x), or y = ln(C x)
7.
6.2
1.
Introduction to
Differential Equations
x
dy
=
dx
y
y dy = x dx
dy
= 3x 2 + 5x 6
dx
"
dy
y=
dx
dx
"
y = (3x 2 + 5x 6) dx
and integrate
"
"
y dy = x dx,
y2 x2
=
+ C1 or y 2 = x 2 + C
2
2
5
= x + x 2 6x + C.
2
3
9.
3.
1
dy = x dx
y
5.
and integrate
"
y
1/2
"
dy =
x 1/2 dx
2
2y 1/2 = x 3/2 + C1
3
2
1 3/2
x +C
y=
3
where C is the constant 2C1.
11. Separate the variables of
285
y
dy
=
dx
x1
1
1
dy =
dx
y
x1
and integrate
"
1
1
dx
dy =
x1
y
ln  y  = ln  x 1  +C1
"
ln  y  ln  x 1  = C1
y
= C1
ln
 x 1
y
= e C1
 x 1
 y  = e C1  x 1 
y = eC1  x 1 
y = C  x 1
where C is the constant eC1.
13. Separate the variables of
dy
y+3
=
(2x 5)6
dx
1
1
dy =
dx
y+3
(2x 5)6
5+C
 y + 3  = eC1e1/10(2x5)
and integrate
"
1
dx =
x
1
4
+ C1.
1/4 +C
x=
eC2 et/2
(2t + 1)1/4
x=
Cet/2
(2t + 1)1/4
C1 1/10(2x5)5
y + 3 = e e
eC1.
t
dt
2t + 1
 x  = et/2+ln(2t+1)
y = 3 + Ce1/10(2x5)
"
and integrate
"
"
1
dy = (2x 5)6 dx
y+3
1
ln  y + 3  = (2x 5)5 + C1
10
 y + 3  = e1/10(2x5)
xt
dx
=
dt
2t + 1
1
t
dx =
dt
x
2t + 1
and integrate
286
"
"
ey dy =
Since y = 1 when x = 0,
xex dx
Let
4
1
1 = e0 + C, or C =
5
5
u=x
and dV = ex dx
du = dx
V = ex
"
"
ey dy = xex ex dx
So,
1
4
y = e5x +
5
5
ey = xex ex + C1
y = ln xex ex + C1
19. Separate the variables of
dy
1
= y ln t = y ln t 1/2 = y ln t
2
dt
1
1
dy = ln t dt
y
2
and integrate
dy
x
= 2
dx
y
23.
"
"
1
1
dy =
y
2
"
y 2 dy = x dx
"
y 2 dy = x dx
ln t dt
y3 x2
=
+ C1
3
2
3
y 3 = x 2 + C2
2
Let
u = ln t
and dV = dt
1
du = dt
V =t
2
"
"
1
1
1
dy =
t ln t t dt
y
2
t
1
ln  y  = [t ln t t] + C1
2
 y  = et/2(ln t1)+C1
 y  = eC1 et/2(ln t1)
3 2
(2) + C2
2
1/3
3 = 6 + C2
dy
= e5x
dx
"
"
dy
dx = e5x dx
dx
1
y = e5x + C
5
1/3
3=
t (ln t1)/2
1/3
since y = 3 when x = 2,
3 2
x + C2
2
So,
27 = 6 + C2, or C2 = 21
1/3
3 2
y=
x + 21
2
1/3
2
3x + 42
=
2
25.
dy
= y 2(4 x)1/2
dx
1
dy = (4 x)1/2 dx
y2
"
"
y 2 dy = (4 x)1/2 dx
y 1 2
=
(4 x)3/2 + C1
1
3
1 2
= (4 x)3/2 C1
y
3
Since y = 2 when x = 4,
1 2
1
= (0) C1, or C1 =
2 3
2
1 2
1 4(4 x)3/2 + 3
= (4 x)3/2 + =
y
3
2
6
6
y=
4(4 x)3/2 + 3
27.
dy
y+1
=
dt
t (y 1)
y1
1
dy = dt
y+1
t
2
1
1
dy = dt
y+1
t
y 2 ln  y + 1  = ln  t  +C1
287
dC
= 60
dx
dQ
is
dt
the rate of change of Q, and since this rate of change
is proportional to Q,
dQ
= kQ
dt
where k is a positive constant of proportionality.
dP
is the rate
dt
of change of P , and since this rate of change is the
constant 500,
dP
= 500
dt
39. Let Tm = temperature of the surrounding medium
T (t) = objects temperature at time t
Then, dT
dt is the rate of change of T and since this
rate is proportional to Tm T ,
dT
= k Tm T
dt
Since y = 2 when t = 1,
2 2 ln 3 = 0 + C1,
or C1 = 2(1 ln 3)
y 2 ln  y + 1  = ln  t  +2(1 ln 3)
29. Let V denote the value of the investment. Then, dV
dt
is the rate of change of V , and since this rate is equal
to 7% of its size,
dV
= 0.07V
dt
31. The rate of change of p,
to p and t, so
dp
dt ,
is jointly proportional
dp
= kpt
dt
dR
= k(F R)
dt
43. Let N = number of people involved and
P (t) = number of people implicated at time t.
dP
is the rate of change of P and since this
dt
rate is proportional to (P )(N P ),
Then,
288
dP
= kP (N P )
dt
45. If y
= Cekx ,
dD
= k(S0 D)
dt
1
dD = k dt
SD
ln S0 D = kt + C1
the derivative of y is
dy
= Cekx k = kCekx = ky,
dx
ln S0 D = kt C1
S0 D = ektC1
S0 D = eC1ekt
S0 D = Cekt
y = C1ex + C2xex
dy
= C1ex + C2(xex + ex )
dx
= (C1 + C2)ex + C2xex
d 2y
= (C1 + C2)ex + C2(xex + ex )
dx 2
= (C1 + 2C2)ex + C2xex
dy
d 2y
+ y = (C1 + 2C2)ex + C2xex
2
dx 2
dx
2C1ex 2C2xex 2C2ex
+ C1ex + C2xex
D(t) = S0 Cekt
When t = 0, D(0) = 0, so
0 = S0 Ce0, or C = S0.
So, D(t) = S0 S0ekt
= S0 1 ekt
dD
> 0 for all t > 0,
dt
y
S0
24
= 400(98t + 0.02t 2)
0
$986,880
51. Let S0 = amount of sugar placed in the container
and
D(t) = amount of sugar dissolved after time t.
289
dT
= k(T Tm), where k > 0.
dt
1
dT = k dt
T Tm
ln T Tm = kt + C1
= (0)(5)
ln(T Tm) = kt + C1
S
S
=
40
40
S
dS
=
40
dt
"
"
1
1
dS =
dt
S
40
1
ln  S  = t + C1
40
(c)
T Tm = ekt+C1
T Tm = eC1 ekt
T Tm = Cekt
T = Tm + Cekt
 S  = e1/40t+C1
 S  = eC1 e1/40t
S = eC1 e1/40t
T0 = T )m + Ce0
S = Cet/40
or C = T0 Tm
and T (t) = Tm + (T0 Tm)ekt
lim Tm + (T0 Tm)e
kt
= Tm .
"
1
rV W
dV
= rV W
dt
"
dV = dt
1
ln rV W  = t + C1
r
ln rV W  = rt + C2
T0
where C2 = rC1
rV W  = ert+C2
Tm
t
rV = Cert + W
C
W
V (t) = ert +
r
r
When t = 0, V (0) = S, so
S
40
290
"
dp
= k dt
1 p
ln 1 p = kt + C1
"
C 0 2
e +
r
r
C+W
S=
r
Sr W = C
S=
ln 1 p = kt C1
1 p = ektC1
1 p = ekt eC1
and
V (t) =
(b)
Sr W rt W
W
e +
= S
r
r
r
50,000
V (10) = 500,000
0.05
50,000
+
0.05
$175,639.35
1 p = eC1ekt
ert +
1 p = Cekt
W
r
p(t) = 1 Cekt
When t = 0, p(0) = 0, so
e
0.05(10)
0 = 1 Ce0, or C = 1
and p(t) = 1 ekt .
Further, when t = 8, p(8) = 0.05, so
0.05 = 1 e8k
e8k = 0.95
ln 0.95
8k = ln 0.95, or k =
8
t
ln 0.95
8
and p(t) = 1 e
ln 0.95
1t
t
t
8
= 1 e 8
= 1 eln(0.95) = 1 (0.95) 8
61. Let O(t) be the amount of ozone in the room at
time t.
Rate ozone changes
= (amt. ozone/cubic ft.)(rate ozone removed)
O
O
dO
(400) =
=
2400
6
dt
"
"
1
1
dO =
dt
O
6
1
ln O = t + C1
6
O = et/6+C1
O = eC1 et/6
59.
dp
= k(1 p)
dt
where k is a constant of proportionality
) = eC1et/6
O(t) = Cet/6
When t = 0, O(0) = O0, the initial amount of ozone
in the room and O(t) = O0et/6
291
When t = 4, p(4) = 4, so
O0
.
2
4 = 3 + 3e2k(4)
1
= e8k
3
1
ln = 8k,
3
O0
O0et/6
2
t
1
ln = , or
2
6
1
t = 6 ln
2
t = 6 ln 2, or approx 4.16 minutes.
or k =
ln 3
4 t
and D = S
= k(6 2p)
1
dp = k dt
6 2p
1
ln 6 2p = kt + C1
2
ln 6 2p = 2kt 2C1
6 2p = e2kt2C1
6 2p = e2C1 e2kt
6 2p = e2C1e2kt
6 2 = Ce2kt
Ce2kt
6 Ce2k
=3
2
2
When t = 0, p(0) = 6, so
p(t) =
6=3
Ce0
,
2
or C = 6
So p(t) = 3 + 3e2kt
= 3 + 3e
t
dp
= k(D S)
dt
= k (7 p) (1 + p)
1
3
and p(t) = 3 + 3e
(b) lim 3 + 3e
63. (a)
ln
65. (a)
ln
2 ln83
1
3
ln 3
8
ln 3
4 t
=3
when
7 p = 1+ p
6 = 2p
3=p
dD
dI
= aI and
= bI
dt
dt
Solve the second equation first since it involves
only two variables.
dI
= b dt
I
ln I = bt + C1, I (t) = Cebt
where C = eC1. Since I (0) = I0 = C
I (t) = I0ebt
Substitute I (t) in the other differential equation
to get
dD
= aI0ebt
dt
aI
D(t) = 0 ebt + C2
b
aI
D(0) = D0 = 0 + C2
b
aI0
bt
e 1
D(t) = D0 +
b
292
aI
D0 + b0 ebt 1
D(t)
= lim
lim
t+ I (t)
t+
I0ebt
69.
"
aI0ebt
a
=
= lim
t+ I bebt
b
0
1
R kC
dC
= R kC
dt
"
dC = dt
1
ln R kC = t + C1
k
ln R kC = kt dC1
R kC = ektkC1
R kC = ekC1 ekt
R kC = ekC1ekt
R kC = C2ekt
R C2ekt
k
Since = C(0) = C0,
C(t) =
R C2 e 0
.
e
or C2 = R kC0
C0 =
dP
= kP (C P )
dt
So,
d 2P
dt 2
d 2P
=0
dt 2
when
R (R kC0)ekt
k
R
R
C(t) =
C0 ekt
k
k
R
R
ekt
= + C0
k
k
C(t) =
0 = k(C 2P ),
(eliminating when
or, P =
and
dP
dP
+ (C P )
=k P
dt
dt
dP
= k(C 2P )
dt
dP
= 0)
dt
6.3
C
.
2
1.
d 2P
C
dP
,
is increasing
> 0, so
2
2 dt
dt
C d 2P
dP
P> ,
is increasing
< 0, so
2
2 dt
dt
dP
C
Therefore, 2 is a maximum when P = .
dt
2
Improper Integrals;
Continuous Probability
"
1
dx
3
x
1
" N
= lim
x 3dx
N
1
= lim
N 2
=
1
lim
2 N
N
1
x 2 1
1
1
1
1
= (0 1) =
N2 1
2
2
"
3.
1
dx = lim
N
x
"
1/2
293
dx
N
= lim 2 x 1/2
N
1
N
= 2 lim x 1/2
N
1
N 1 =
=2
So, the integral diverges.
5.
"
1
dx = lim
N
2x 1
"
11.
1
dx
3 2x 1
N
1
= lim
ln 2x 1
N 2
3
N
1
lim ln 2x 1
=
3
2 N
1
lim [ln(2N 1) ln 7]
=
2 N
=
"
N
1
1
= lim
N 2
2x 1 3
1
1 1
1
1
1
+
= =
lim
=
2N 1 5
2 5 10
2 N
9.
"
5e
2x
= lim 5
N
x3 + 2
15.
"
1
x2
x3 + 2
"
dx = lim
2 dx
u 1
e
N
N
1
1
2
=
= 2 lim
N e
e
e N
"
"
3x
2xe
dx = lim 2
dx
eu du
= 2 lim
e2x dx
1
2x N
e
N 2
0
5
= lim e2N e0
2 N
5
5
= 1 =
2
2
2 dx = Nlim
dx
"
N 3+2
1
=
lim 2 u1/2
3
3 N
2
N3 + 2 3 =
lim
=
3 N
1
dx
(2x
1)2
3
" N
= lim
(2x 1)2 dx
3
"
x2
1/2 dx
N 1
x3 + 2
1
x3 + 2
"
= 5 lim
17.
xe3x dx
294
" N
x 3x N
1 3x
= 2 lim e
e
dx
N
0
3
3
0
"
x 3x N 1 N 3x
= 2 lim e +
e
dx
N
0
3
3 0
x 3x 1 3x N
= 2 lim e
e
N
0
9
3
1
N
1
e3N e3N 0 e0
= 2 lim
N
3
9
9
N
1
1
= 2 lim e3N e3N +
N
3
9
9
1 2
=2 =
9 9
"
19.
ln x
dx = lim
N
x
"
"
1
dx = lim
N
x ln x
"
1
ln x
1
dx
x
"
x 2ex dx = lim
"
N
x 2ex dx
2xe
dx
"
N
+
2
0
2 x
x e
xe
dx
+2
= lim
N
xex
0
"
+2
N
xex
0
e
dx
x 2ex
ln x
dx
x
ln
N
1
lim u2
=
0
2 N
1
lim (ln N )2 0 =
=
2 N
x e
= lim
= lim
N "
2 x
"
dx
N
x 2ex 2xex 2ex
N
0
N
2 N
N
= lim
N e 2N e 2e
N
0 0 2e0 = 2
= lim
0
" N
" N
10
1
= lim
dx
=
10
lim
dx
2
N 0 (x + 10)
N 0 (x + 10)2
Using substitution with u = x + 10 and du = dx,
" N +10
1
du
= 10 lim
N 10
u2
1 N +10
= 10 lim 10
N
u
1
1
1
= 10 lim
+
= 10 0 +
=1
N
N + 10 10
10
The third condition is also met, so f is a probability
density function.
295
"
= lim
33. (a)
xex dx
= lim
N
xex 0 +
"
dx
(b)
N
xex ex 0
N
= lim
N eN eN (0 1)
= lim
= (0 0) (0 1) = 1
The third condition is also met, so f is a probability
density function.
29. The first condition is not met. For example
f (1) = 23 (1)2 + 2(1) = 21 . Since it is not
the case that f (x) 0 for all x, f is not a probability
density function.
"
=
"
(c) P (X 4) =
4
35. (a)
1
dx
3
2
x 5
= 2 = 1
3
#
#5
Note: f (x) dx = 2 f (x) dx in this
problem, so neednt even integrate to conclude
that the probability is 1.
" 4
1
(b) P (3 x 4) =
dx
3 3
31. (a) P (2 x 5) =
(c)
(b)
x 4 1
=
3 3 3
1
dx
3
(c)
x 5 1
=
3 4 3
#4
Note: can also calculate as 1 0 31 dx.
" 4
1
P (0 x 4) =
(4 x) dx
0 8
" 4
x 2 4
x
1 1
=
x dx =
8
2 16 0
0 2
= (2 1) 0 = 1
#
#4
Note: f (x) dx = 0 f (x) dx in this
problem, so neednt even integrate to conclude
that the probability is 1.
" 3
1
P (2 x 3) =
(4 x) dx
2 8
x
x 2 3
9
1
3
=
1
=
2 16 2
2 16
4
3
=
16
" 4
1
P (X 1) =
(4 x) dx
1 8
x
x 2 4
1
9
1
=
=
= (2 1)
1
2 16
2 16
16
#1 1
Note: can also calculate
" as 1 0 8 (4 x) dx.
3
dx
P (1 x < ) =
x4
1
" N
1
1 N
= 3 lim
dx
=
3
lim
N 1 x 4
N
3x 3 1
1
1
1
= 3 lim 3 +
=3 0+
=1
N
3N
3
3
#
#
Note: f (x) dx = 1 x34 dx in this
problem, So neednt even integrate to conclude
that the probability is 1.
" 2
3
dx
P (1 x 2) =
4
1 x
1 2
1
1
7
= 3 3 1 = 3 +
=
24 3
8
3x
" 2
3
P (X 2) = 1
dx
4
1 x
296
= 1
7 1
=
8 8
41. E(X) =
"
"
"
1 4
1
x (4 x) dx =
(4x x 2) dx
8
8 0
0
1
x 3 4
2
=
2x
0
8
3
1 32 4
(4)3
1
0 =
2(4)2
=
=
3
3
8
8 3
"
E(X) =
xf (x) dx
4
37. (a) P (X 0) =
"
2xex dx
2
"
= lim
2xex dx
2
43.
N 2
= lim
N
= lim
N 2
eu
3
dx
x4
" N
= lim 3
x 3 dx
"
(c) P (X 2) =
2xe
x 2
45.
"
"
dx
e0.04t dt
N
25e0.04t
N
0
N
= 60,000 lim e0.04t
N
0
0.04N
e0
= 60,000 lim e
xf (x) dx
"
1 5
1
dx =
x dx
3
3 2
2
1 x 2 5
=
2
3 2
21 7
1
=
= (25 4) =
6
6
2
N
0
= 2,400 lim
"
= lim 2,400
4
1
= eu0 = e4 + 1 = 1 4
e
E(X) =
1 N
N
2x 2 1
1 N
3
= lim
N
2
x2 1
3
3
1 1
3
= 1 =
= lim
0
2 N N 2 1
2
2
"
PV =
2,400e0.04t dt
39.
= 3 lim
#
#
Note: f (x) dx = 0 f (x) dx in this
problem, so neednt even integrate to conclude
that the probability is 1.
" 2
2
(b) P (1 x 2) =
2xex dx
4
1
1
= eu1= e4 + e1 = 4
e e
eN + e0 = 0 + 1 = 1
2
"
eu du = lim
xf (x) dx
47.
= 60,000 1 = $60,000
"
PV =
(12,000 + 900t)e0.05t dt
0
"
= lim
(12,000 + 900t)e0.05t dt
297
N
= 5 lim eN/10 10et/10
N
0
= 50 lim eN/10 eN/10 e0
N
= 50 lim e0 eN/10
N
20(12,000 + 900t)e0.05t
= lim
"
18,000e0.05t dt
= lim
N
20(12,000 + 900t)e0.05t
"
+ 18,000
= 50 1 = 50 units
e0.05t dt
= 20 lim
12,000 + 900N )e0.05N
N
= 20(30,000) = $600,000
49. Number of
patients
"
= lim
N/20
"
et/20 dt
N
= 10 lim eN/20 20et/20
N
0
N/20
N/20
e0
e
= 200 lim e
N
= 200 lim e0 eN/20
N
5e(Nt)/10 dt
= lim 5eN/10
N
10e(Nt)/20 dt
= lim 10e
51.
1 x 2 45
1
dx =
0
45
45 2
0
45
1
1
(45)2 0
= (x 2) =
0
90
90
45
=
seconds
2
"
"
0
et/10 dt
55. (a)
45
"
1 x/3
e
dx
3
3
"
1 N x/3
= lim
e
dx
N 3 3
N
1
lim 3ex/3
=
3
3 N
= 1 lim eN/3 e1
N
1
1
= 1
= 0.368
3
e
P (X > 3) =
298
(b)
"
1 x/3
e
dx
P (2 X]le5) =
2 3
5
= 1 ex/3 = 1 e5/3 e2/3
"
(c)
e2/3
1
e5/3
(c)
E(X) =
"
= lim
1
3
x x/3 dx
N
xex/3 3ex/3
N
0
N/3
N/3
= lim
3e
N e
0 3e0
= lim
"
E(X) =
15
0.02e0.02x dx
10
15
1
0.02x
= 0.02
e
1
0.02
15
= e0.02x = e0.3 + e0.2
xf (x) dx
"
x 0.02e0.02x dx
"
xe0.02x dx
N
50xe0.02x
0
= 0.02 lim
N
xe0.02x
0
"
+ e24
0.787
= lim (0.02)
= lim
P (10) X 15) =
0.02N
57. (a)
e0.24
= lim
= 3 minutes.
=
(d)
1
x ex/3 dx
3
12
= lim
xf (x) dx
e0.02x dx
N
e0.02x
N
12
= lim
= lim
"
"
= lim 0.02
0.325
"
0.02e0.02x dx
12
P (X) > 12 =
"
"
50e
0.02x
0.02x
dx
dx
N
xe0.02x 50e0.02x
N
0
= 50 months.
10
(b)
e0.2
"
P (X < 8) =
1
e0.3
0.078
0.02e
0.02x
8
= e0.02x = e0.16 + e0
"
dx
"
=
0
xf (x) dx
x kekx dx = lim
"
xekx dx
= 1
1
e0.16
0.148
" N
x kx N
1
e
= k lim
ekx dx
N
0
k
k
0
"
N
N
kx
kx
= lim xe +
e ]dx
N
299
"
N
N
e0.2x
"
E(X) =
= lim
kx
(b)
1
1
= 5, or k = .
k
"5
2
1 x/5
e
dx
0 5
2
= ex/5 = e2/5 + e0
P (X < 2) =
= 1
(c)
e2/5
"
0.330
N
1 x/5
P (X > 7) = lim
e
dx
N 7 5
N
= lim ex/5
N
7
N/5
+ e7/5
= lim e
1
"
e7/5
P (0 X 5) =
0
1 0.2x 5
e
0
0.2
5
= e0.2x = e1 + e0
= 0.2
= 5 minutes.
"
70,000e0.08t dt
"
e0.08t dt
25 0.08t N
e
N
0
2
N
= 875,000 lim e0.08t
N
0
= 875,000 lim e0.08N e0 = $875,000
= 70,000 lim
1
= 1 0.632
e
xe0.2x dx
N
xe0.2x 5e0.2x
N
0
= lim
N 0.2N 5e0.2N 0 5e0
= lim
0.2e0.2x dx
N
0
61. (a)
"
= lim 70,000
"
x 0.2e0.2x dx
= lim 0.2
63. P V = lim
0.247
+ e1.2 = e1.2 0.301
xf (x) dx
= lim
0.2N
So,
0.2e0.2x dx
= lim
(c)
P (X > 6) = lim
1 kx N
= lim xe
e
N
0
k
1
N ekN ekN
= lim
N
k
1
1
0 e0 =
k
k
(b)
"
6
0.0866e0.0866t dt
300
N
1
0.0866t
= lim 0.0866
e
N
6
0.0866t
N
= lim e0.0866t
N
6
1
0.0866t
0.5196
= 0.5196
+e
= lim e
N
e
0.595
" N
(b) P (X 6) = lim
0.135e0.135t dt
N
1
0.135t
e
= lim 0.135
N
6
0.135t
N
= lim e0.135t
N
6
1
= lim e0.135N + e0.81 = 0.81
N
e
0.445
"
lim
"
A rt
t rt 1 N rt
= lim e + B e +
e dt
N
r
r
r 0
A rt Bt rt B rt N
= lim e
e 2e
N
0
r
r
r
A
B
B
A
= 0 e0 0 2 e0 = + 2
r
r
r
r
"
"
69.
E(x) =
xf (x)dx =
kxekx dx
0
"
= lim
= lim
xe
= lim
= lim
xe
N "
+
kx
kx
"
1.
21
= 0.25, and
4
1
x1 = 1, x2 = 1.25, x3 = 1.50, x4 = 1.75, x5 = 2.
2
For
x 2 dx with n = 4, x =
"
ekx dx
1 kx N
e
0
k
x 2 dx
x
f (x1) + 2f (x2) + 2f (x3) + 2f (x4) + f (x5)
2
0.25 2
=
1 + 2(1.25)2 + 2(1.5)2 + 2(1.75)2 + 22
2
2.3438.
=
"
x 2 dx
x
f (x1) + 4f (x2) + 2f (x3) + 4f (x4) + f (x5)
3
0.25 2
=
1 + 4(1.25)2 + 2(1.5)2 + 4(1.75)2 + 22
3
2.3333.
"
3.
1
1 0
= 0.25,
dx with n = 4, x =
2
4
0 1+ x
and x1 = 0, x2 = 0.25, x3 = 0.50, x4 = 0.75, x5 = 1.
1
For
"
(a) By the trapezoidal rule,
0
kxekx dx
Numerical Integration
(A + Bt)ert dt
6.4
1
1
1
=
N ekN ekN +
k
k
k
1
dx
1 + x2
x
f (x1) + 2f (x2) + 2f (x3) + 2f (x4) + f (x5)
2
0.25
2
2
=
+
1+
1 + (0.25)2 1 + (0.5)2
2
2
1
0.7828.
+
+
1 + (0.75)2 2
"
1
dx
1 + x2
301
x
f (x1) + 4f (x2) + 2f (x3) + 4f (x4) + f (x5)
3
0.25
2
4
=
+
1+
1 + (0.25)2 1 + (0.5)2
3
4
1
0.7854.
+
+
1 + (0.75)2 2
"
5.
" 0
0 (1)
=
4
1
0.25, and x1 = 1, x2 = 0.75, x3 = 0.5,
x4 = 0.25, x5 = 0.
" 2
1 + x 2 dx
(a) By the trapezoidal rule,
For
ex dx
2
x
f (x1) + 4f (x2) + 2f (x3) + 4f (x4) + f (x5)
3
2
2
2
0.25
1 + 4e(0.25) + 2e(0.5) + 4e(0.75) + e1
=
3
0.7469.
=
1 + x 2dx with n = 4, x =
"
9.
dx
42
1
with n = 6, x =
= and
6
3
2 ln x
7
8
10
11
x1 = 2, x2 = , x3 = , x4 = , x6 = , x7 = 4.
3
3
3
3
" 4
dx
(a) By the trapezoidal rule,
ln
x
2
4
For
x
f (x1) + 2f (x2) + 2f (x3) + 2f (x4) + f (x5)
2
0.25
x
=
1 + (1)2 + 2 1 + (0.75)2
2
2
2
2
2
f (x1) + 2f (x2) + 2f (x3) + 2f (x4) + 2f (x5) + 2f (x6) + f (x7)
+ 2 1 + (0.5) + 2 1 + (0.25) + 1 + (0)
1.1515.
(b) By Simpsons rule,
" 2
1
x
f (x1) + 4f (x2) + 2f (x3) + 4f (x4) + f (x5)
3
0.25
1 + (1)2 + 4 1 + (0.75)2
=
x
3
+ 2 1 + (0.5)2 + 4 1 + (0.25)2 + 1 + (0)2 3
f (x1) + 4f (x2) + 2f (x3) + 4f (x4) + 2f (x5) + 4f (x6) + f (x7)
1.1478.
1
" 1
4
1
2
4
2
4
1
3
2
1
0
=
+
+
+
+
+
+
= 0.25, and
For
ex dx with n = 4, x =
3 ln 2 ln7/3 ln8/3 ln3 ln10/3 ln11/3 ln 4
4
0
x1 = 0, x2 = 0.25, x3 = 0.50, x4 = 0.75, x5 = 1.
1.9228
" 2
2
" 1
ex dx
(a) By the trapezoidal rule,
1 0
3
1
11. For
= 0.25
1 + x 2dx with n = 4, x =
4
0
x
and x1 = 0, x2 = 0.25, x3 = 0.05, x 4 = 0.75,
f (x1) + 2f (x2) + 2f (x3) + 2f (x4) + f (x5)
=
2
x
5 = 1.
0.25
(0.25)2
(0.5)2
(0.75)2
1
" 1
=
1 + 2e
+ 2e
+ 2e
+e
3
2
1 + x 2dx
(a) By the trapezoidal rule,
0.7430.
0
=
7.
1 + x 2 dx
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
3
+
+
+
+
+
+
=
2 ln 2 ln7/3 ln8/3 ln3 ln10/3 ln11/3 ln 4
1.9308
" 4
dx
(b) By Simpsons rule,
2 ln x
302
x
f (x1) + 4f (x2) + 2f (x3) + 4f (x4) + 2f (x5)
2
0.25
3
3
3
3
=
1 + 1.0625 + 2 1.25 + 2 1.5625 + 2
2
1.0970
" 1
3
(b) By Simpsons rule,
1 + x 2dx
x
0.25
3
3
3
3
=
1 + 4 1.0625 + 2 1.25 + 4 1.5625 + 2
3
1.0948
" 2
20
= 0.25 and
e x dx with n = 8, x =
13. For
8
0
x1 = 0, x2 = 0.25, x3 = 0.5, x4 = 0.75, x5 = 1, x6 =
1.25, x7 = 1.5, x8 = 1.75, x9 = 2.
" 2
(a) By the trapezoidal rule,
e x dx
0
x
0.25
=
1 + 2e 0.25 + 2e 0.5 + 2e 0.75 + 2e1
2
"
"
1
dx
x2
x
f (x1) + 2f (x2) + 2f (x3) + 2f (x4) + f (x5)
2
0.25
2
2
2
1
=
1+
+
+
+
2
(1.25)2 (1.5)2 (1.75)2 22
0.5090.
=
M(b a)3
. For
12n2
M(2 1)2
=
n = 4, a = 1, and b = 2,  E4 
12(42)
M
, where M is the maximum value of
192
 f (x)  on 1 x 2. Now f (x) = x 2,
f (x) = 2x 3, and f (x) = 6x 4. For
6
6
1 x 2,  f (x) = 4 4 = 6. So,
x
1
6
 E4 =
0.03125.
192
" 2
1
dx
(b) By Simpsons rule,
2
1 x
The error estimate is  En 
x
f (x1) + 4f (x2) + 2f (x3) + 4f (x4) + f (x5)
3
2
4
1
0.25
4
+
+
+
=
1+
3
(1.25)2 (1.5)2 (1.75)2 22
0.5004.
M(b a)5
. For
180n4
M(2 1)5
=
n = 4, a = 1, and b = 2,  E4 
180(44)
M
where M is the maximum value of
46,080
 f (4)(x)  on 1 x 2. Now f (x) = 6x 4,
f (3)(x) = 24x 5, and f (4)(x) = 120x 6. For
120 120
1 x 2,  f (4)(x) = 6 6 = 120. So,
x
1
120
 E4 
0.0026.
46,080
x
f (x1) + 4f (x2) + 2f (x3) + 4f (x4) + 2f (x5)
3
+4f (x6) + 2f (x7) + 4f (x8) + f (x9)
0.25
=
1 + 4e 0.25 + 2e 0.5 + 4e 0.75 + 2e1
3
0.8362
" 2
1
21
= 0.25, and
dx with n = 4, x =
15. For
2
4
1 x
x1 = 1, x2 = 1.25, x3 = 1.50, x4 = 1.75, x5 = 2.
"
31
= 0.2, and
10
1
x1 = 1, x2 = 1.2, x3 = 1.4, . . . , x10 = 2.8, x11 = 3.
17. For
x dx with n = 10, x =
303
"
15
and f (4)(x) = x 7/2. For 1 x 3,
16
1
(4) (x) = 15 x 7/2 15 (17/2 ) = 15 .

f
x
16
16
16
=
f (x1) + 2f (x2) + 2f (x3) + . . .
2
15
32
So,  E10 =
0.0000167.
180(10,000) 16
+ 2f (x10) + f (x11)
" 1
0.2
2
1 0
=
1 + 2 1.2 + 2 1.4 + 2 1.6 + 2 1.8
19. For
= 0.25, and
ex dx with n = 4, x =
2
4
0
x1 = 0, x2 = 0.25, x3 = 0.50, x4 = 0.75, x5 = 1.
+ 2 2 2 2.2 + 2 2.4 + 2 2.6 + 2 2.8 + 3
" 2
2
(a) By the trapezoidal rule,
ex dx
2.7967.
x dx
M(b a)3
The error estimate is  En 
.
12n2
For n = 10, a = 1, and b = 3,  E10 
M(3 1)3
8M
M
=
=
, where M
12(102)
1,200
150
is the maximum value of  f (x)  on
1
1 x 3. Now, f (x) = x 1/2, f (x) = x 1/2,
2
1 3/2
. For 1 x 3,
and f (x) = x
4
1
1
1
 f (x) = x 3/2 (13/2) = . So,
4
4
4
1
1
 E10 =
0.0017.
150 4
" 3
x
=
f (x1) + 4f (x2) + 2f (x3) + . . . + 4f (x10)
3
+f (x11)
0.2
=
1 + 4 1.2 + 2 1.4 + 4 1.6 + 2 1.8 + 4 2
3
+2 2.2 + 4 2.4 + 2 2.6 + 4 2.8 + 3
2.7974.
M(b a)5
The error estimate is  En 
.
180n4
For n = 10, a = 1, and b = 3,  E10 
M(3 1)5
32M
, where M is the
=
4
180(10 )
180(104)
maximum value of  f (4)(x)  on 1 x 3.
1
3
Now f (x) = x 3/2, f (3)(x) = x 5/2,
4
8
x
=
f (x1) + 2f (x2) + 2f (x3) + 2f (x4) + f (x5)
2
2
2
2
0.25
=
1 + 2e(0.25) + 2e(0.5) + 2e(0.75) + e1 1.4907.
2
M(b a)3
. For
12n2
M(1 0)3
n = 4, a = 0, and b = 1,  E4 
=
12(42)
M
, where M is the maximum value of
192
2
 f (x)  on 0 x 1. Now, f (x) = ex ,
2
2
f (x) = 2xex , and f (x) = 4x 2 + 2 ex .
2
For 0 x 1,  f (x) = 4 12 + 2 e1 = 6e.
6e
So,  E4 =
0.0849.
192
" 2
2
(b) By Simpsons rule,
ex dx
The error estimate is  En 
x
=
f (x1) + 4f (x2) + 2f (x3) + 4f (x4) + f (x5)
3
2
2
2
0.25
=
1 + 4e(0.25) + 2e(0.5) + 4e(0.75) + e1
3
1.4637.
M(b a)5
.
180n4
For n = 4, a = 0, and b = 1,  E4 
M
M(1 0)5
=
, where M is
4
46,080
180(4 )
the maximum value of  f (4)(x)  on
2
0 x 1. Now, f (x) = 4x 2 + 2 ex ,
2
f (3)(x) = 8x 3 + 12x ex , and f (4)(x) =
304
2
16x 4 + 48x 2 + 12 ex . For 0 x 1,
2
 f (4)(x) = 16 14 + 48 12 + 12 e1 = 76e.
76e
So,  E4 
0.0045.
46,080
"
1
dx. The
x
1
= x 1 are f (x) = x 2,
x
f (x) = 2x 3, f (3)(x) = 6x 4, and f (4)(x) =
24x 5.
derivatives of f (x) =
M(b a)3
,
12n2
where M is the maximum value of  f (x) 
2
2
on 1 x 3. Now  f (x) = 3 3 = 2
x
1
2(3 1)3
4
on 1 x 3.  En 
= 2 , which
12n2
3n
2
is less
than 0.00005 if 4 < 3(0.00005)n or
4
n>
163.3. So, 164 intervals
3(0.00005)
should be used.
M(b a)5
(b) For Simpsons rule,  En 
, where
180n4
M is the maximum value of  f(4)(x)  on
24 24
1 x 3. Now,  f (4)(x) = 5 5 = 24 on
x
1
24(3 1)5
768
1 x 3.  En 
=
which
180n4
180n4
4
is less
than 0.00005 if 768 < 180(0.00005)n or
768
n> 4
17.1. So, 18 subintervals
180(0.00005)
should be used.
(a) For the trapezoidal rule,  En 
"
1
dx. The
x
1
derivatives of f (x) = = x 1/2 are f (x) =
x
15
3 5/2 (3)
1 3/2
, f (x) = x 7/2,
, f (x) = x
x
8
4
2
105 9/2
(4)
and f (x) =
x
.
16
M(b a)3
,
12n2
where M is the maximum value of  f (x) 
3
3
on 1 x 2. Now  f (x) = x 5/2 on
4
4
3 (2 1)3
1
1 x 2.  En 
=
, which
4 12n2
16n2
2
is less
than 0.00005 if 1 < 16(0.00005)n or
1
n>
35.4. So, 36 intervals
16(0.00005)
should be used.
M(b a)5
(b) For Simpsons rule,  En 
, where
180n4
M is the maximum value of  f (4)(x)
 on 1
105
105
x 9/2
on
x 2. Now  f (4)(x) =
16
16
105(2 1)5
7
1 x 2.  En 
=
, which
16(180)n4
192n4
is less than 0.00005 if 7 < 192(0.00005)n4 or
7
n> 4
5.2. So, 6 subintervals
192(0.00005)
should be used.
"
2.4
ex dx.
1.2
M(b a)3
,
12n2
where M is the maximum value of  f (x)  on
1.2 x 2.4. Now  f (x) = ex  e2.4 on
e2.4(2.4 1.2)3
=
1.2 x 2.4.  En 
12n2
1.728e2.4
which is less than 0.00005
12n2
if 1.728e2.4 < 12(0.00005)n2 or n >
1.728e2.4
178.2. So, 179 intervals
12(0.00005)
should be used.
M(b a)5
(b) For Simpsons rule,  En 
, where
180n4
M is the maximum value of  f (4)(x)  on
1.2 x 2.4. Now  f (4)(x) = ex  e2.4
e2.4(2.4 1.2)5
on 1.2 x 2.4.  En 
180n4
2.4
5
which is less than 0.00005
if e (1.2) <
2.4
5
e (1.2)
180(0.00005)n4 or n > 4
7.4.
180(0.00005)
So, 8 subintervals should be used.
" 1
305
1 0
=
8
0
0.125, and x1 = 0, x2 = 0.125, x3 = 0.25, . . . ,
x8 = 1.875, x9 = 2.
27. For
1 x 2 dx with n = 8, x =
" 1
1 x 2 dx
x
f (x1) + 2f (x2) + 2f (x3)
2
+ . . . + 2f (x8) + f (x9)
= 0.0625 1 (0)2 + 2 1 (0.125)2
+2 1 (0.25)2 + 2 1 (0.375)2
+2 1 (0.5)2 + 2 1 (0.625)2
+2 1 (0.75)2 + 2 1 (0.875)2
+ 1 (1)2 0.7725
=
x
f (x1) + 2f (x2) + 2f (x3) + 2f (x4)
2
+2f (x5) + 2f (x6) + 2f (x7) + 2f (x8)
+2f (x9) + 2f (x10) + f (x11)
e0.4(1)
e0.4(1.5)
= 0.25
+2
1
1.5
e0.4(2)
e0.4(2.5)
+2
+2
2
2.5
e0.4(3)
e0.4(3.5)
+2
+2
3
3.5
e0.4(4)
e0.4(4.5)
+2
+2
4
4.5
e0.4(5)
e0.4(5.5)
+2
+2
5.5
5
e0.4(6)
+
0.6929
6
x
f (x1) + 4f (x2) + 2f (x3) + 4f (x4)
3
+ . . . + 4f (x8) + f (x9)
1
1 (0)2 + 4 1 (0.125)2
=
24
+2 1 (0.25)2 + 4 1 (0.375)2
+2 1 (0.5)2 + 4 1 (0.625)2
+2 1 (0.75)2 + 4 1 (0.875)2
+ 1 (1)2 0.7803
1
(0.6929) = 0.1386
61
1
"
31. Volumn of S =
0
x
1+ x
2
dx
1 0
7
4
3
2
1
and x1 = 0, x2 = , x3 = , x4 = , x5 = , x6 =
7
7
7
7
6
5
, x7 = , x8 = 1.
7
7
306
1
2
2
2
2
1
2
3
4
7
0+2
=
+2
+2
+2
2
8
9
10
11
2
2 2
5
6
1
+2
+2
+
12
13
2
0.114124
So, the volume is
(0.114124) 0.3585
"
33.
F V = erT
0
10
= e0.06(10)
"
"
0.01t
t
te
dt
f (t1) + 4f (t2) + 2f (t3) + 4f (t4)
3
0
+2f (t5) + 4f (t6) + 2f (t7) + 4f (t8) + f (f9)
1
=
0 + 4e0.01 + 2 2e0.02 + 4 3e0.03 + 2 4e0.04
3
0.06t
te
dt
te0.06t dt
10 0
Using the trapezoidel rule with n = 5, t =
5
and t1 = 0, t2 = 2, t3 = 4, t4 = 6, t5 = 8, t6 = 10
= e0.6
10
"
and t1 = 0, t2 = 1, t3 = 2, . . . , t9 = 8.
80
8
15.749112
f (t)ert dt
"
t
f (t1) + 2f (t2) + 2f (t3)
te0.06t dt
2
0
+2f (t4) + 2f (t5) + f (t6)
2
=
0 + 2 2e0.12 + 2 4e0.24 + 2 6e0.36
2
+2 8e0.48 + 10e0.6
10
14.308884
So, F V e0.6(14.308884) 26.07249 or $26,072
"
35. P (T ) = P0S(T ) +
RS(T t)dt
= 3000e0.01(8) +
"
50 t e0.01(8t)dt
= 3000e
0.08
+ 50e
= 50e
0.08
0.08
"
te
"
60 +
0
0.01t
te
dt
0.01t
Distance
1
12
3
+2(615)e(0.04/12)(124) + 4(510)e(0.04/12)(126)
dt
+2(415)e(0.04/12)(128) + 4(550)e(0.04/12)(1210)
+(593)e(0.04/12)(1212)
$5949.70
307
"
1.
(a)
5
[2 + 2(5) + 2(7) + 2(8) + 2(8) + 2(5)
2
+2(6) + 2(4) + 2(3) + 0]
235 square feet
Area
"
2x ln x 2 dx
u = ln x 2
Let
= 2 ln x
"
du =
q0
1
[1.21 + 2(3.19) + 2(3.97) + 2(5.31)
2
+2(6.72) + 2(8.16) + 2(9.54) + 11.03]
= 43.01
"
"
2x 1/2 dx
2 2 3/2
V =
x
3
2
dx
x
xe0.2x dx
(b)
0
Let
u=x
and
du = dx
1 "
= 5xe0.2x
0
dV = e0.2x dx
= 5e0.2x
5e0.2x dx
1
= 5xe0.2x 25e0.2x
0
0.2(1)
0.2(1)
0 25e0
= 5(1)e
25e
S(q)dq
dV =
"
4 2 3/2
2 2 3/2 2
x dx
x ln x
3
x
3
"
4 2 3/2
4 2
=
x ln x
x 1/2 dx
3
3
4 2 3/2
8 2 3/2
=
x ln x
x +C
3
9
4 2 3/2
=
x [3 ln x 2] + C
9
S(q)dq
0
and
0.125
[0 + 2(0.125 0.0063) + 2(0.25 0.0631)
2
+2(0.375 0.1418) + 2(0.5 0.2305)
+2(0.625 0.3342) + 2(0.75 0.4713)
+2(0.875 0.6758) + (1 1)] 0.197125
" 1
GI = 2
[x L(x)] dx
0
2(0.197125) 0.394
= 25 20e0.2
"
(c)
Let
x 1 2x dx
u=x
du = dx
and
dV = (1 2x)1/2 dx
1 2
= (1 2x)3/2
2 3
308
" 0
0
x
1
= (1 2x)3/2
(1 2x)3/2 dx
4
3
3
4
" 0
x
1
0
= (1 2x)3/2 +
(1 2x)3/2 dx
4
3
3 4
x
1
0
= (1 2x)3/2 (1 2x)5/2
4
15
3
298
4 3/2
1
1
5/2
=
(9) (9)
= 0 (1)
15
3
15
15
"
x1
dx =
ex
(d)
"
(x 1)ex dx
u=x1
Let
dV = ex dx
and
du = dx
V = ex
"
= (x 1)ex
ex dx
"
= (x 1)ex +
ex dx
= (x 1)ex ex + C
= [(x + 1) 1] ex + C
= xex + C
2.
(a)
"
1
x 1.1
"
dx = lim
= lim
= lim
x 1.1 dx
N
10x 0.1
10N
0.1
+ 10(1)0.1
= 0 + 10 = 10
"
(b)
xe
2x
Let
"
dx = lim
u=x
du = dx
" N
x 2x N
1 2x
= lim e
e
dx
N
1
2
2
1
"
x 2x N 1 N 2x
= lim e +
e
dx
N
1
2
2 1
x 2x 1 2x N
= lim e
e
N
1
4
2
N
1
e2N e2N
= lim
N
2
4
1 2(1) 1 2(1)
e
e
2
4
1
1
3
= 0 + e2 + e2 = e2
4
4
2
" N
"
x
(c)
dx = lim
x(x + 1)2 dx
2
N 1
1 (x + 1)
dV = (x + 1)2 dx
1
du = dx
V =
(x + 1)
"
N
1
x N
= lim
dx
N
x+1 1
x+1
1
" N
1
x N
dx
= lim
+
N
x+1 1
1 x+1
x
N
= lim
+ ln  x + 1 
N
1
x+1
1
N
+ ln(N + 1) + ln 2
= lim
N
N +1
2
Let
xe
2x
dx
dV = e2x
1
V = e2x
2
u=x
and
1
N
= lim = 1, and
N
N + 1 N 1
lim ln(N + 1) = ,
Since lim
N
and
= lim
1
N
+ ln(N + 1) + ln 2 =
2
N +1
"
" 0
x 2
= lim
xe
dx + lim
M
xex dx
2
309
"
1
2
"
M 2
"
1
2
"
"
N 2
eu du
0
1
lim
eu du
M M 2
2 N N 2
1
1
0
0
=
eu 2 +
lim eu 2
lim
N
M
2 N
2 M
2
2
1
1
=
e0 eM +
lim
lim e0 eN
2 M
2 N
1
1
= (1 0) + (1 0(= 0
2
2
3.
1
2
"
(a)
ln
eu du + lim
(b)
lim
3x
eu du +
2
dx
"
ln(3x)1/2 ln(3x)1/2 dx
4 + x2
1
1
ln(3x) ln(3x) dx
2
2
"
1
=
(ln 3x)2 dx
4
"
which most resembles (ln u)n du (formula
4.
du
dy
2
= 2
dx
x y
"
"
2
y dy = 2 dx
x
"
"
y dy = 2 x 2 dx
(a)
y2
1
+C
= 2
x
2
4
y 2 = + 2C
x
Since y = 1 when x = 1,
1
#27). Let u = 3x; then du = 3 dx or du = dx,
3
"
"
1
1
1
(ln u)2 du
(ln u)2 du =
=
3
12
4
"
1
2
=
u(ln u) 2 ln u du
12
Using formula #23,
1
u(ln u)2 2(u ln  u  u) + C
=
12
1
=
3x(ln 3x)2 2(3x) ln  3x  +3x + C
12
x
x
x
= (ln 3x)2 ln 3x + + C
4
2
4
x
2
=
(ln 3x) 2 ln 3x + 2 + C
4
is of the form
x
u a 2 + u2
(formula #11). Let x = u, dx = du, and a = 2,
1 4 + x 2 + 2
= ln
+C
2
x
"
"
dx
du
(c)
is of the form
2
2
2
x x 9
u u2 a 2
(formula #21). Let x = u, dx = du, and a = 3,
x2 9
+C
=
9x
"
"
dx
dx
(d)
can be written as
2
x(4 + 3x)
3x 4x
"
du
so it is of the form
(formula #6).
u(a + bu)
Let x = u, dx = du, a = 4, and b = 3,
1 x
= ln
+C
4
3x 4
"
"
dx
(1)2 =
So,y 2 =
(b)
4
+ 2C,
1
or
C=
4
4
+ 5, or y =
+ 5.
x
x
dy
xy
= 2
x +1
dx
"
"
1
x
dy =
dx
y
x2 + 1
5
2
310
"
"
1
1
1
dy =
du
y
2
u
ln y = ln u + C1
"
1
ln y = ln x 2 + 1 + C1
2
y
= C1
ln
x2 + 1
y
= e C1
2
x +1
y = eC1 x 2 + 1
y = C x2 + 1
dy
= xeyx = xey ex
dx
"
e
"
PV =
0
"
dy =
1
dA = 0.05 dt
A
ln A = 0.05t + C1
eln A = e0.05t+C1
Since y
= 3 when x = 0, C = 3. So,
y = 3 x 2 + 1.
(c)
dA
= 0.05A
dt
5.
xe
dx
(50 + 3t)e0.06t dt
"
lim
(50 + 3t)e0.06t dt
e
3 dt
3
0
" N
N
50
0.06t
0.06t
= lim (50 + 3t)e
e
dt
+ 50
N
0
3
0
N
50
= lim
(50 + 3t)e0.06t + 50e0.06t
N
0
3
N
50
lim 50e0.06t + 3te0.06t + 50e0.06t
=
N
0
3
N
50
=
lim 100e0.06t + 3te0.06t
0
3 N
50
100e0.06N + 3N e0.06N 100e0 + 0
lim
=
3 N
50
5,000
1,666.6667 thousand,
= 100 =
3
3
or approximately $1,666,666.67
7.
311
N
xe0.03x +
0
= lim
(a)
"
P (X > 12) =
"
= lim 0.03
N
e0.03x dx
12
N
1
e0.03x
N
12
0.03
N
= lim e0.03x
N
12
= lim e0.03N + e0.03(12)
= lim 0.03
N
0.36
=e
(b)
"
P (3 X 6) =
0.6977
0.03x
dx
1 0.03x N
= lim xe
e
N
0
0.03
1 0.03N
e
N e0.03N
= lim
N
0.03
1 0
0
e
0.03
100
=
33.3 months
3
0.03e0.03x dx
12
"
8.
0.03x
"
Amount of drug = lim
0.7e0.2(Nt)dt
= lim 0.7e0.2N
"
0.03e0.03x dx
e0.2t dt
N
= lim 0.7e0.2N 5e0.2t
N
0
0.2N
0.2N
= 3.5 lim e
e0
e
N
6
= e0.03x = e0.18 + e0.09
0.07866
(c)
= 3.5 1 = 3.5 mg
"
E(X) =
xf (x) dx
"
= lim 0.03
N
9.
xe0.03x dx
N
x
= lim 0.03
e0.03x
N
0
0.03
" N
1
e0.03x dx
0 0.03
(a)
dm
= kmt
dt
"
"
1
dm = kt dt
m
ln m =
kt 2
+ C1
2
2 /2+C
m = eC1e
kt 2 /2
m = eC1ekt
m(t) = Cekt
2 /2
2 /2
312
5 + 25 x 2 4
25 x 2 5 ln
=
3
x
5 + 25 42
=
25 42 5 ln
4
5 + 25 32
=
25 32 5 ln
3
2
m0
= m0ek(12) /2
2
1
= e72k
2
1
ln = 72k,
2
ln 0.5
or k =
72
= (3 5 ln 2) (4 5 ln 3)
2 /144
= 1 ln 25 + ln 35
5
3
3
1.027326
= 1 + ln
= 1 + 5 ln
2
2
2 2
ln
144 t
ln 2
(b)
= m0(0.6771)
So, approximately 67.7% of the original mass
remains.
Review Problems
"
1.
te1t dt
Let
" 4
25 x 2
dx using the
x
3
43
trapezoidal rule with n = 8, x =
= 0.125,
8
dV = e1t dt
V = e1t
e1t dt
"
= te1t +
e1t dt
= te1t e1t + C
"
= te1t
25 (3)2
25 (3.125)2
0.125
+
3.125
3
2
25 (3.375)2
25 (3.25)2
+2
+2
3.25
3.375
25 (3.5)2
25 (3.625)2
+2
+2
3.5
3.625
25 (3.75)2
25 (3.875)2
+2
+2
3.875
3.75
25 (4)2
+
1.027552
4
and
du = dt
10. To approximate
u=t
= e1t (t + 1) + C
"
x(2x + 3)1/2 dx
3.
Let
u=x
du = dx
and
dV = (2x + 3)1/2
Review Problems
313
x
(2x + 3)3/2
3
"
5.
" 4
ln S
S 1/2 ln S 1/2 dS
dS =
S
1
u = ln S
1
= ln S
2
1
dS
du =
2S
4 "
= S 1/2 ln S
1/2
Let
4 "
= S 1/2 ln S
1
dV = S
and
1/2
2S 1/2
1
4
dS
1
dS
2S
S 1/2 dS
= 2 ln 4 2 = 2 ln(2)2 2 = 4 ln 2 2
"
Let
u = 2x + 1
du = 2 dx
and
u = x2
and
1/2
dV = x 3x 2 + 2
dx
du = 2x dx
4
= S 1/2 ln S 2S 1/2
1
=
4 ln 4 2 4 [1 ln 1 2(1)]
7.
9.
Let
V = 2S 1/2
2
8
5/2
7/2
=
(2(1) + 1)(1 + 3) (1 + 3)
5
35
2
8
1/2
x 3 3x 2 + 2
dx = x 2 x 3x 2 + 2
dx
1
(2x + 3)3/2 dx
3
dV = (x + 3)3/2 dx
2
V = (x + 3)5/2
5
" 1
1
2
2
5/2
(x + 3)5/2 2 dx
= (2x + 1)(x + 3)
2
5
2 5
2
(2x + 1)(x + 3)5/2
=
5
1
2
4
7/2
(x + 3)
2
7
5
3/2
2
1
3x 2 + 2
V =
6
3
3/2
1
3x 2 + 2
V =
9
"
So, x 2 x(3x 2 + 2)1/2 dx
3/2
3/2 " 1
x2
2
2x dx
3x 2 + 2
3x + 2
9
9
3/2
3/2 2 "
x2
2
=
3x 2 + 2
x dx
3x + 2
9
9
3/2
x2
2
=
3x + 2
9
5/2
1
2
2
3x 2 + 2
+C
5
9
6
3/2
5/2
x2
2
2
2
=
3x + 2
+C
3x + 2
135
9
"
"
"
5 dx
dx
5
5 dx
11.
=
=
2
2
4 x2
2(4 x ) 2
8 2x
"
du
which is of the form
(formula #16). Let
2
a u2
x = u, dx = du, and a = 2,
2 + x
5
1
ln
+C
=
2 2(2) 2 x
5 2 + x
= ln
+C
2x
8
=
314
"
w 2ew/3dw =
13.
"
w 2e 3 w dw
"
3
1
+
2x
0
Using substitution with u = 1 + 2x,
" N
(1 + 2x)1/3 dx
= lim
N
N
3
= lim (1 + 2x)2/3 = .
N 4
0
So, the interval diverges.
t2
"
21.
xe2x dx
3t
dx
+1
0
N
1
= 3 lim
ln(t 2 + 1) = .
N 2
0
= 3 lim
1
1
1
ew/3 + C
= 3w 2ew/3 + 6
3
( 31 )2
1
= 3w 2ew/3 + 54 w 1 ew/3 + C
3
3t
dx
t2 + 1
1
w = u, dw = du, and a = ,
3
"
2
1 2 w/3
wew/3 dw
1
= 1w e
3
3
"
2 w/3
+ 6 wew/3 dw
= 3w e
Using formula #22,
"
which is of the form
"
19.
"
1 2x N 1 N 2x
e
dx
= lim
xe
+
N
0
2 0
2
1 2x 1 2x N 1
= lim xe
e
=
N
0
4
4
2
23.
"
"
x 2e2x dx = lim
x 2e2x dx
"
1
ln x
dx = lim
N
x
"
x 1/2 ln x dx
Review Problems
315
= lim
2x
1/2
N "
ln x
1
2x
"
N
2x 1/2 ln x 2
1
1
dx
x
1/2
= lim
xy
dy
=
dx
1 x2
x dx
dy
=
y
1 x2
33.
x 1/2 dx
N
= lim 2 x 1/2 ln x 2x 1/2
N
1
1/2
1/2
(ln 1 2)
N ln N 2N
= 2 lim
ln  y  = 1 x 2 + 1 + ln 2
y
ln = 1 1 x 2
2
2
y = 2e1 1x
dy
= x 3 3x 2 + 5,
dx
"
y = (x 3 3x 2 + 5) dx
27.
x4
x 3 + 5x + C.
4
35. (a)
"
P (1 X 4) =
f (x) dx
1
"
(b)
kxC1
"
=e
y=
(c)
,
"
P (X 2) =
"
Since y = 4 when x = 1, 4 = 1 1 2 + C, or
C = 6.
So,
y = x x 2x + 6
5
"
f (x) dx
37. (a)
1
x 3 1
dx = = .
3 2 3
3
(5x 3x 2) dx = x x 2x + C.
5
3
2
dy
= 5x 4 3x 2 2,
dx
4
where C = eC1
"
f (x) dx
"
C1 kx
x 4
1
dx = = 1.
3
3 1
P (2 X 3) =
80 y = Cekx , or y = 80 Cekx
31.
x 2 1
1
dx = = .
3
3 1 3
P (X 0) =
f (x) dx
0
"
= lim
= lim
= lim
.2e0.2x dx
N
e0.2x
0.2N
+ 1 = 1.
316
(b)
"
P (1 X 4) =
f (x) dx
= 5,000 + 35,000(e4k )2
2
5
= 5,000 + 35,000
$22,857.14
7
"
=
0.2e0.2x dx
4
= e0.2x
1
(c) P (X 5) =
= e
"
0.8
+e
0.2
0.3694.
f (x) dx
5
"
= lim
0.2e
0.2x
.
gallon
minute
dx
N
= lim e0.2x
N
5
0.2N
+ e1 0.3679.
= lim e
N
Now,
dV
= k(V 5,000),
dt
Separate the variables and integrate to get
"
"
1
dV = k dt
V 5,000
ln(V 5,000) = kt + C1,
V 5,000 = ekt+C1 = eC1ekt ,
or
V (t) = 5,000 + Cekt
where C = eC1 and the absolute values can be
dropped since V 5,000 > 0.
Since the machine was originally worth $40,000,
40,000 = V (0) = 5,000 + C
or C = 35,000. So,
V (t) = 5,000 + 35,000ekt .
Since the machine was worth $30,000 after 4 years,
39,000 = V (4) = 5,000 + 35,000e4k ,
35,000e4k = 25,000 or
e4k =
25,000 5
= .
35,000 7
gallons leaving
gallon
pounds of salt in the tank
gallons of brine in the tank
Q
=
.
200
dQ
Q
Q
=
(4) = .
50
dt
200
Separate the variables and integrate to get
"
"
1
1
dQ =
dt,
Q
50
t
ln Q = + C1,
50
So,
Q = eC1et/50 = Cet/50,
where C = eC1. Since there are initially 600 pounds
of salt in the tank (3 pounds of salt per gallon times
200 gallons), 600 = Q(0) = C. So,
Q(t) = 600et/50
The amount of salt in the tank after 100 minutes is
Q(100) = 600e2 = 81.2012 pounds.
43. Let Q(t) denote the amount (in million of dollars)
dQ
of new currency in circulation at time t. Then
is
dt
Review Problems
317
Q(t)
(18) million per day.
5,000
So, t =
4,5000
= e18t/5,000,
5,000
1
18t
ln
=
10
5,000
5,000
ln 10 = 640 days.
18
f (t) = et/20
is the fraction of the residents remaining for at least
t years, and
r(t) = 100t
Q
=18t/5,000
5,000
r(t)f (N t) dt
= 0 + lim
100eN/20
"
tet/20 dt
N
= lim 100eN/20 20tet/20 400et/20 dt
N
0
318
"
55.
(a)
"
1
dD =
d
"
k dt
ln D = kt + C1
D = ekt+C1
D = eC1 + ekt
8,000e0.05t dt
= lim
0.07e0.07u du = 0.1466
dS
dD
= kD and
= 2kS
dt
dt
15
10
"
(b)
N
20(8,000 + 400t)e0.05t +8,000
= 20 lim
"
e0.05t
N
(8,000 + 400t)e0.05t + 8,000e0.05t
= 20 lim
= 20(16,000) = $320,000
51. Let x denote the time (in minutes) between your
arrival and the next batch of cookies. Then x is
uniformly distributed with probability density
function
1
f (x) = 45 if 0 x 45
0 otherwise
So, the probability that you arrive within 5 minutes
(before or after) the cookies were baked is
P (0 X 5) + P (40 X 45)
= 2P (0 X = le5)
" 5
1
2x 5 2
dx =
=
= .
45 0 9
0 45
"
N
53. (a)
0.07e0.07u du = lim e0.07u = 0.7047
5
D(t) = C kt
"
1
dS = 2k dt
S
ln S = 2kt + C2
S = e2kt+C2
S = eC2 e2kt
S(t) = Ce2kt
= 5e2 ln 10/3
Review Problems
57. (a)
319
and P (t) =
kt + c
1/c
P0
c
1/c
cP0
=
1/c
P0 kt c
P  = e(bd)t+C1
cc P0
1/c
kt c
P0
P = e e
C1 (bd)t
P (t) = Ce(bd)t
P0
=
1/c
cP0
c
P (t) = kP 1+ c
1
dP
= kP 1+ c
dt
(b)
1
1
p 1+ c
kt
c
1,000
3 = 3,375
e
1,000(0.02)(5)
1
3
(c) P (5) =
Pc
= kt + C1
c1
1/c
P0
p 1 c dP = k dt
cP 1/c = kt + C1
kt + C1
p 1/c =
c
c kt + C c
1
P 1/c
=
c
C
c
P (t) =
kt + C1
c
P0
dP = k dt
kt
people
59.
"
lim
300 200e0.03t e0.02(Nt) dt
"
= lim
= lim 300e
0.02N
"
e0.02t dt
lim 200e0.02N
N
"
e0.01t dt
0
N
e0.02t dt
200 lim e
"
0.02N
"
e0.01t dt
N
= 300 lim e0.02N 50e0.02t
N
200 lim e
N
0.02N
N
100e0.01t
0
320
= 15,000 lim e0.02N e0.02N e0
N
+ 20,000 lim e0.02N e0.01N e0
N
= 15,000 lim e0 e0.02N
N
+ 20,000 lim e0.03N e0.02N
M(2 0)5
M
=
where M
4
180(8)
23,040
is the maximum value of f (4)(x) on 0 x 2.
2
Now f (3)(x) = 8x 3 + 12x)ex , and f (4)(x) =
2
(16x 4 + 48x 2 + 12)ex . For 0 x 2,
2
f (4)(x) = [16(2)4 + 48(2)2 + 12]e2 460e4.
460e4
1.0901.
So, Eg 
23,040
b = 2, Eg 
= 15,000(1 0) + 20,000(0 0)
= 15,000 pounds
"
20
= 0.25, and
8
x1 = 0, x2 = 0.25, x3 = 0.50, . . . , x8 = 1.75, x9 = 2.
" 2
2
ex dx =
(a) By the trapezoidal rule,
2
61. For
ex dx with n = 8, x =
"
21 1
dx with n = 8, x =
= = 0.125,
x
8
8
1
and x1 = 1, x2 = 1.125, x3 = 1.25, . . . , x8 = 1.875,
x9 = 2.
63. For
x
f (x1) + 2f (x2) + 2f (x3) + . . .
2
0.25
2
2
+f (x9) =
1 + 2e(0.25) + 2e(0.5)
2
2
M(b a)3
. For
12n2
n = 8, a = 0 and
M(2 0)3 M
=
where
b = 2, Eg 
12(8)2
96
M is the maximum value of f (x) on
2
2
0 x 2. Now f (x) = ex , f (x) = 2xex ,
2
andf (x) = (2 + 4x 2)ex . For 0 x 2,
f (x) [2 + 4(2)2]e22 = 18e4. So,
18e4
Eg 
10.2372.
96
" 2
2
x
(b) By Simpsons rule,
ex dx =
3
0
[f (x1) + 4f (x2) + 2f (x3) + 4v(x4) + . . . +
0.25
2
2
[1 + 4e(0.25) + 2e(0.5) +
f (c9)] =
3
2
4e(0.75) + 2e1+
2
2
2
+4e(1.25) + 2e(1.5) + 4e(1.75( + 2e2] =
16,5386. The error estimate is
M(b a)5
. For n = 8, a = 0, and
En
180n4
2 x
e
"
xe1/x dx
x
f (x1) + 2f (x2) + 2f (x3) + . . . + 2f (x8)
2
+f (x9)
= 0.0625 (1)e1 + 2(1.125)e1/1.125
+2(1.125E 1/1.25 + 2(1.375)E 1/1.375 + 2(1.5)E 1/1.5
+2(1.625)E 1/1.625 + 2(1.75)1/1.75
+2((1.875)E 1/1.875 + (2)E 1/2 2.9495
E8
M(2 1)3
M
=
2
12(8)
768
Review Problems
321
1
f (x) = (x) e 2 + e1/x (1)
x
1
= e1/x + 1
x
1
f (x) = e1/x
x2
1
1
+ + 1 e1/x 2
x
x
1 1/x
1
= 2d
1+ + 1
x
x
1 1/x
= 3e
x
3
1
1/x
e 2 + e
4
f (x) =
x
x
1
3
= e1/x 5 4
x
x
5
12
(4)
1/x
f = e
+ 5
x6
x
1
3
1
e1/x 2
+ 5 4
x
x
x
1/x 5 + 12x
1/x 1 + 3x
=e
+e
x6
x7
1
= 7 e1/x [x(5 + 12x) + (1 + 3x)]
x
1
= 7 e1/x 12x 2 + 8x + 1
x
1/x
(3)
1/x
E8
e
E8
0.003539
768
"
1
x3
21e
0.000077.
737,280
xe1/x dx
x
f (x1) + 4f (x2) + 2f (x3) + 4f (x4)
3
+ . . . + 4f (x8) + f (x9)
1
=
(1)e1 + 4(1.125)e1/1.125
24
+ 2(1.25)e1/125 + 4(1.275)e1/1.375
65. (a)
M(b a)3
< 0.00005
12n2
M(1 0.5)3
< 0.00005
12n2
0.125M
n2 >
12(0.00005)
En
n2 > 208,33333M
+ 2(1.5)e1/1.5 + 4(1.625)e1/1.625
+ 2(1.75)e1/1.75 + 4(1.875)e1/1.875
+ (2)e1/2 2.94834
For the error estimate,
E8
M
M(2 1)5
=
4
737,280
180(8)
f (x) = e11x
f (x) = 1.131.1x
f (x) = 1.21e1.1x
Since f (x) is always decreasing for 0.5 x 1
but greater than zero. The maximum value of
f (x) = 1.21e1.1(0.5) = 1.21e0.55 0.69811.
So
n2 > 145.439
n > 12.0598,
or
n = 13.
322
M(b a)5
< 0.00005
180n4
M(1 0.5)5
< 0.00005
180n4
0.03125M
n4 >
180(0.00005)
(b)
En
n4 > 3/4722M
f (3)(x) = 1.331e1.1x
f
(4)
(x) = 1.4641e
1.1x
So,
"
"
x 3 2x 2 + 5x 2 x ln x
dx
0.406
"
Use the
x 3 2x 2 + 5x 2 dx = .03465167.
0.406
24
67.
y = x ln x
qp(q) dq
0
q
[f (0) + 4f (4) + 2f (8) + 4f (12)
3
+ 2(f )(16) + 4f (20) + f (24)]
4
= [04(4)(42.9) + 2(8)(31.32) + 4(12)(19, 83)
3
+ 2(16)(13.87) + 4(20)(10.58) + (24)(7.25)]
(1, 0)
x
y = x 3 2x2 + 5x 2
(0.406, 0.37)
y=
and input x 3 2x 2 + 5x 2
graph
and input
2
(9 x 2)
for
y1 = .
y=
"
Use the
Press
graph
x2
1
73. To use numeric integration feature to compute the
integral,
Review Problems
323
Press
y=
and enter
e(x
2)
for
y1 = .
Press
graph
0
Repeat this process with x = 10 as the upper limit to
find
" 10
2
1
ex dx = 0.5
0
Repeat this process with x = 50 as the upper limit to
find
" 50
2
1
ex dx = 0.5
0
"
2
1
The improper integral
ex appears to
0
converge to 0.5.
75.
aS
dS
=
dt
b + cS + S 2
" 2
"
S + cS + b
dS = dt
aS
"
"
1
c
b1
S+ +
dS = dt
a
a
aS
b
1 2 c
S + S + ln S = t + c
2a
a
a
Chapter 7
Functions of Several
Variables
f (x, y) = 5x + 3y
f (1, 2) = 5(1) + 3(2) = 1
f (3, 0) = 5(3) + 3(0) = 15
1.
15.
g(x, y) = x(y x 3)
3.
5x + 2y
4x + 3y
The domain of f is the set of all real pairs (x, y)
4
such that 4x + 3y = 0, or y = x.
3
17. f (x, y) =
g(x, y) =
y2 x2
g(4, 5) = 52 42 = 9 = 3
9.
ln(r + t)
r +s+t
ln(2)
f (1, 1, 1) =
0.2310
3
ln(3e2) 2 + ln 3
=
0.1048
f (0, e2, 3e2) =
4e2
4e2
F (r, s, t) =
7.
f (x, y, z) = xyz
f (1, 2, 3) = (1)(2)(3) = 6
f (3, 2, 1) = (3)(2)(1) = 6
13.
f (r, s) =
19. f (x, y) = x 2 y
The domain of f is the set of all real pairs (x, y)
such that x 2 y 0, or y x 2.
s
.
ln r
3
3
=
ln e2 2
e3
25.515
f (ln 9, e3) =
ln(ln 9)
f (e3, 3) =
11.
y
x
+
x
y
2
1 5
g(1, 2) = + =
1 2 2
3
2
13
g(2, 3) = + = 2.167
2
3
6
g(x, y) =
23. f (x, y) = x + 2y
With C = 1, C = 2, and C = 3, the three sketched
level curves have equations
x + 2y = 1, x + 2y = 2, and x + 2y = 3.
325
326
y
C2
3
2
4
3
1
C 3
x
1
C1
2
C=e
C=1
3
25. f (x, y) = x 2 4x y.
With C = 4, and C = 5, the two sketched level
curves have equations x 2 4x y = 4 and
x 2 4x y = 5.
C = 4
(4, 4)
C=5
(0, 4)
(2, 9)
y
C=2
So,
R(x1, x2) = x1(200 10x + 20x2)
C=1
C = 1
C = 2
+ 100(16) 10(16)2
= $7, 230
327
35. f (x, y) = Ax a y b .
a a
b b
= (2a+b )Ax a y b .
x 0, y 0, and A > 0.
(a) If a + b > 1, 2a+b > 2 and f more than doubles.
(b) If a + b < 1, 2a+b < 2 and f increases but does
not double.
(c) If a + b = 1, 2a+b = 2 and f doubles (exactly).
37. Let R denote the manufacturers revenue. Then
R = (revenue from domestic sales) + (revenue from
sales abroad)
y
y
x
x
+ y 50
+
R(x, y) = x 60 +
5 20
10 20
x2
y2
xy
= 60x + 50y
+
.
5
10
10
39. (a)
S(15.83, 87.11)
= 0.0072(15.83 0.425)(87.11 0.725)
Input into home screen to find S(15.83, 87.11)
0.5938
To sketch several additional level curves of
S(W, H ), we will use the list feature of the
calculator.
In general, 0.0072W 0.425H 0.725 = S
S
W 0.425
0.0072
1/0.725
S
0.425
W
H=
0.0072
H 0.725 =
150
125
S(W, H) 1.5
100
75
S(W, H) 0.5938
50
25
50
100
150
S(W, H) 0.3
200
250
300
350
400
= 100
2.53966S(W0, H0)
253.97% increase.
S(W0, H0)
( 70 , 0)
3
328
Press y = .
Input (0.1802L1)/(0.0000563 x 2) for y1 =.
From the home screen, enter
{100, 200, 300} STO 2nd L1.
Use zstandard function under the zoom menu
for the standard window dimensions.
Press graph .
Note that
there are vertical asymptotes when
r = 0.0000563 but that the graph is defined
in between these asymptotes as well.
y
r
(0, 258)
(x + 1)(y + 2) = 260
(129, 0) x
y = 2
x = 1
45. (a)
V (3,875,1.675,0.004)
9.3(3, 875)
=
(0.0075)2 (0.004)2
1.675
0.866cm/sec
9.3P
(0.0075)2 r 2
1.675
= 5.55P (0.0000563 r 2)
To sketch several level curves of V , set
V (P , r) = C for several values of C and
solve for P . We will use the list feature of the
calculator with C = 100, 200 and 300. Setting
V (P , r) = C
5.55(0.0000563 r 2) = C
In general,
P=
0.1802C
0.0000563 r 2
0.0122(V 1) V 2
Press y = .
Input (L1 + 273.15)/(0.0122(x 1)) x12
for y1 =.
From the home screen, enter {100,0,100}
Sto 2nd L1.
Use window dimensions [0,35000]5,000 by
[0,2.9]0.3.
Press graph .
329
0.056
250,000
0.056
12
=
(b) M 250000, 30,
12(30)
12
0.056
1 1+
12
$1,435.20
The total amount paid is
(1435.20)(12)(30) = $516,672
Since the original loan is for $250000, the
interest paid is 516,672 250,000 = $266,672
P
2.2
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
C 159.76
C 120
0.8
0.6
15,000 25,000 35,000 45,000
1/
55. Q(K, L) = A K + (1 )L
1/
Q(sK, sL) = A (sK) + (1 )(sL)
1/
= A s K + (1 )s L
1/
= A(s )1/ K + (1 )L
1/
= sA K + (1 )L
= sQ(K, L)
7.2
Partial Derivatives
1.
f (x, y) = 7x 3y + 4
fx = 7 fy = 3
3.
f (x, y) = 4x 3 3x 2y + 5x
53.
fx = 12x 2 6xy + 5
fy = 3x 2
5.
f (x, y) = 2xy 5 + 3x 2y + x 2
0.052
250,000
0.052
12
=
(a) M 250000,15,
12(15)
12
0.052
7.
1 1+
12
$2,003.13
The total amount paid is
(2003.13)(12)(15) = $360,563.40
Since the original loan is for $250000, the
interest paid is 360,563.4 250,000 =
$110,563.40
fx = 2y 5 + 6xy + 2x
51. M(A, n, i) =
fy = 2x(5y 4) + 3x 2 = 10xy 4 + 3x 2
z = (3x + 2y)5
z
330
9.
11.
3
3t
= s 1t
2s
2
3
3t
fs = (1)s 2t = 2
2
2s
3 1
3
ft = s =
2
2s
f (s, t) =
19.
fy =
z = xe
z
= x(yexy ) + exy (1)
x
= (xy + 1)exy
z
= x(exy )(x) = x 2exy
y
xy
f (x, y) =
e2x
= e2x y 2
y2
fx = e2x y 2 =
fy = e
2x
(2y
e2x
y2
ln(x + 2y)
y2
fx =
21.
13.
f (x, y) =
f (x, y) = x 2 + 3y
fx (x, y) = 2x fx (1, 1) = 2(1) = 2
fy (x, y) = 3 fy (1, 1) = 3
23.
f (x, y) =
y
= y(2x + y)1
2x + y
2e2x
)= 3
y
2y
(2x + y)2
2(1)
=2
(2(0) + 1)2
(2x + y)(1) (y)(1)
2x
fy (x, y) =
=
(2x + y)2
(2x + y)2
2(0)
fy (0, 1) =
=0
(2(0) + 1)2
fx (0, 1) =
15.
17.
2x + 3y
yx
(y x)(2) (2x + 3y)(1)
fx =
(y x)2
5y
=
(y x)2
(y x)(3) (2x + 3y)(1)
fy =
(y x)2
5x
=
(y x)2
f (x, y) =
z = u ln v
z
= (1) ln v = ln v
u
z
1
u
=u
=
v
v
v
25.
27.
29.
331
f (x, y) = 5x 4y 3 + 2xy
33.
(fx )
x
(fx )
fxy =
y
+ (s 2 + t 2)1/2(1)
=
fst =
2y
fx = 2xyex
fxx =
2y
and fy = x 2ex
2y
(fx )
x
fts =
s2
(s 2 + t 2)3/2
1 2
2 3/2
(fs ) = s (s + t )
(2t)
t
2
st
2
(s + t 2)3/2
1
(ft ) = t (s 2 + t 2)3/2(2s)
s
2
st
= fst
(s 2 + t 2)3/2
(fx )
fxy =
y
= 2xy(e
2y
(fy )
y
x 2y
s 2
(s 2 + t 2)
1
+ 2
2
3/2
2
1/2
+t )
(s + t ) (s 2 + t 2)
t2
(s 2 + t 2)3/2
1 2
2 3/2
ftt = t (s + t )
(2t)
2
(fy )
x
f (x, y) = ex
(s 2
31.
s 2 + t 2 = (s 2 + t 2)1/2
+ (s 2 + t 2)1/2(1)
1
fs = (s 2 + t 2)1/2(2s) = s(s 2 + t 2)1/2
2
1
ft = (s 2 + t 2)1/2(2t) = t (s 2 + t 2)1/2
2
1
fss = s (s 2 + t 2)3/2(2s)
2
fy = 5x 4(3y 2) + 2x = 15x 4y 2 + 2x
fxx =
f (s, t) =
)(x 2) + e
= 2x(x 2y + 1)e
(fy )
fyx =
x
2y
x 2y
(2x)
37.
x 2y
400
+ 50p2
p1 + 3
D
D1
= 5 and
=2
p1
p2
2y
= fxy
D1
D2
= 50 and
= 100
p2
p1
500
p2 + 4
332
7p2
1 + p12
p1
D2(p1, p2) =
1 + p22
Q = QK (900, 1000)
D1(p1, p2) =
39.
D1
7
D2
1
=
> 0 and
=
p2
p1
1 + p12
1 + p22
Since both partial derivatives are positive for all p1
and p2, the commodities are substitute commdities.
41. z = x 2 y 2
z
2z
= 2x and 2 = 2
x
x
z
2z
= 2y and 2 = 2
y
y
2z
2z
Since 2 + 2 = 0 the function satisfies Laplaces
x
y
equation.
z = xey yex
43.
30(1,000)1/3
(900)1/2
30(10)
= 10, or
=
30
2z
z
= ey yex and 2 = yex
x
x
z
2z
= xey ex and 2 = xey
y
y
2z
2z
+
= yex + xey = 0 the function
x 2
y 2
does not satisfy Laplaces equation.
Since
4900
5041
( 5041)3
58.48
QL(5041, 4900)
= 90(4900)3/2[0.4(5041)1/2 + 0.6(4900)1/2]3
3
0.4
90
0.6
=
+
( 4900)3
4900
5041
91.54
(c) additional labor employment
49. F (L, r) =
kL
r4
333
k(1.2L)
= 2.93F (L, r)
(0.8r)4
57. P (x, y, u, v) =
F
F
(1.2L, 0.8r) = 2.44
(L, r)
L
L
F
F
(L, r)
(1.2L, 0.8r) = 3.66
r
r
Px =
53.
V
= 2RH is the rate of change of the volume
R
with respect to the radius. When the height is kept
constant,
V
V
R
R
Since R = 3, H = 12, and R = 1,
V [2(3)(12)](1) = 72, or an increase in
volume of approximately 226 cubic cm.
Py =
100xy
xy + uv
F
c x 2
=
4
z
59.
1
(y z)1/2(1)
2
c x 2
=
8 yz
is the rate of change of blood flow with respect to the
pressure in the capillary. Since this rate is negative,
the blood flow is decreasing.
QL = 120K
1/2
1 2/3
L
= 40K 1/2L2/3
3
QLL =
80 1/2 5/3
K L
3
334
dt
x dt
y dt
= (2)(2t) + (3)(5)
= 4t + 15
67. z =
3x
; x = t; y = t 2
y
z dx
z dy
dz
=
dt
x dt
y dt
3
3x
=
(1) + 2 (2t)
y
y
3 6xt
= 2
y
y
=
x dt
y dt
dt
= (y)(2e2t ) + (x)(3e3t )
= 2ye2t 3xe3t
71. Q(x, y) = 10xy 1/2
Q
Q
x +
y
x
y
5x
= (10y 1/2)x +
y
y 1/2
5 30
= 10 36 (3) +
(5)
36
= 55
Q
73.
(a)
dt
x dt
y dt
= (20x + 20y)(0.5) + (20x)(0.4t)
335
C(R, H ) = 0.0005 R 2 + R 2 + 2 RH
+ 0.01( R 2H )
= 0.0005(2 )[R 2 + RH ] + 0.01 R H
= 0.001 [R 2 + RH + R 2H ]
424
Q(t)
= 100
16.31%
Q(t)
2,600
(b)
Q
C
C
R +
H
R
H
= [0.001(2R + H + 2RH )] R
+ 0.001(R + R 2) H
C
81. x 2 + xy + y 3 = 1
fx
dy
=
dx
fy
2x + y
=
x + 3y 2
When x = 1 and y = 1, the slope is
2(1) + 1
1
=
=
2
1 + 3(1)
2
The equation of the tangent line is
1
y 1 = (x + 1)
2
3
1
y = x + , or x 2y = 3
2
2
83. V (x, y) = (2x + 3)(y + 5)
(a)
Vx = 2(y + 5)
Vy = 2x + 3
(b)
(c)
336
6
6y, or y = 1
y2
and only critical point is (2, 1).
So, fy = 0 when 0 =
0 = (34)(1) + (57)(y)
34
0.6 bond units
y =
57
7.3
fxx =
32
12
+ 2, fyy = 3 6, fxy = 0
3
x
y
6
0<0
(2)3
(1)3
Optimizing Functions of
Two Variables
f (x, y) = 5 x 2
y2
fx = 2x so fx = 0 when x = 0
fy = 2y so fy = 0 when y = 0
and only critical point is (0, 0).
7.
fx = 6x 2 + 6x 12
= 6(x + 2)(x 1)
So, fx = 0 when x = 2, 1.
fy = 3y 2 3
= 3(y + 1)(y 1)
D = (2)(2) 02 > 0
fxx < 0
f (x, y) = xy
fx = y and fx = 0 when y = 0
fy = x and fy = 0 when x = 0
and only critical point is (0, 0).
f (x, y) =
16 6
+ + x 2 3y 2
x
y
16
+ 2x
x2
16
So, fx = 0 when 0 = 2 + 2x, or x = 2.
x
6
fy = 2 6y
y
f (x, y) = 2x 3 + y 3 + 3x 2 3y 12x 4
fx =
f (x, y) = x 3 + y 2 6xy + 9x + 5y + 2
fx = 3x 2 6y + 9
337
So, fy = 0 when
2xy 6y = 0
2
y
y 6y = 0
2
12
1 3
y 6y = 0
6
fy = 2y 6x + 5
So, fy = 0 when 0 = 2y 6x + 5. Solving this
system of equations by adding,
0 = x 2 6x + 8
= (x 2)(x 4)
y 3 36y = 0
y(y + 6)(y 6) = 0
So, x = 2, 4.
or y = 0, y = 6, y = 6
When y = 0, x = 0; y = 6, x = 3;
y = 6, x = 3.
So the critical points are (0, 0), (3, 6) and (3, 6).
Now,
7
When x = 2, 0 = (2)2 2y + 3, or y = .
2
19
When x = 4, 0 = (4)2 2y + 3, or y = .
2
7
19
So, the critical points are 2,
and 4,
2
2
fxx = 6x, fyy = 2, fxy = 6
For the point 2,
7
,
2
2 y 2
fx = (x 2 + 2y 2)(2xe1x
19
is a relative minimum.
and fxx > 0, so 4,
2
= 2xe
1x 2 y 2
11.
f (x, y) = xy 6x 3y
2
fx = y 12x
2
y2
12
) + (e1x
2 y 2
)(2x)
(x 2 + 2y 2 1)
So, fx = 0 when x = 0 or x 2 + 2y 2 1 = 0
fy = (x 2 + 2y 2)(2ye1x
2 y 2
= 2ye
1x 2 y 2
2 y 2
) + (e1x
2 y 2
)(4y)
(x 2 + 2y 2 2)
So, fy = 0 when y = 0, or x 2 + 2y 2 2 = 0.
There are no solutions to the system of equations
x 2 + 2y 2 1 = 0 and x 2 + 2y 2 2 = 0. Further,
2
when x = 0, fy = 0 when 0 = 2ye1y (2y 2 2),
or y = 0, 1, 1. When y = 0, fx = 0 when
338
2 y 2
+(x 2y + 2y 3 2y)(2ye1x
2
2
fxy = 2 e1x y (4xy)
+(x 3 + 2xy 2 x)(2ye1x
)
2 y 2
2 y 2
)
)
So, fy = 0 when 0 = 4x + 3y 2
2 2
3x
= 4x + 3
4
27 4
= x 4x
16
27 3
= 4x
x 1 = 0,
64
4
or x = 0, .
3
When x = 0, fx = 0 when y = 0.
2
4
4
When x = , fx = 0 when 0 = 3
4y,
3
3
D = (4)(2) 0 < 0
4
or y = .
3
So the critical points are (0, 0) and
4
4
(4)2 > 0
6
3
3
fx = 3x 4y
4 4
.
,
3 3
3x 2
.
4
4 4
,
3 3
is a relative minimum.
17.
339
f (x, y) = 4xy 2x 4 y 2 + 4x 2y
fy =
fx = 4y 8x + 4
3
So, fx = 0 when
4y 8x 3 + 4 = 0
fy = 4x 2y 2
So, fy = 0 when
fxx =
4x 2y 2 = 0, or y = 2x 1
4(2x 1) 8x 3 + 4 = 0
fyy =
8x 3 + 8x = 0
8x(x + 1)(x 1) = 0
1
+ 3x 2y + 1)4
fxy =
D = (4)(4) 0 > 0
and fxx < 0, so 23 , 1 is a relative maximum.
1
+ 3x 2y + 1
(2x + 3)
fx = 2
(x + y 2 + 3x 2y + 1)2
+ y2
3
So, fx = 0 when x = .
2
1
(x 2 + y 2 + 3x 2y + 1)4
0 + (2x + 3)
3
For the point , 1 ,
2
1
+ 3x 2y + 1)4
+ y2
[2(x 2 + y 2 + 3x 2y + 1)(2y 2)]
(x 2
(x 2 + y 2 + 3x 2y + 1)2(2) + (2y 2)
+ [2(x 2 + y 2 + 3x 2y + 1)(2y 2)]
or x = 0, x = 1, x = 1
When x = 0, y = 1; when x = 1, y = 3;
whenx = 1, y = 1.
So, the critical points are (0, 1), (1, 3) and
(1, 1).
Now,
x2
+ y2
+ (2x + 3) [2(x 2 + y 2 + 3x 2y + 1)(2x + 3)]
4y 8x 3 + 4 = 0
f (x, y) =
(x 2
(x 2 + y 2 + 3x 2y + 1)2(2)
Substituting above,
19.
(2y 2)
(x 2 + y 2 + 3x 2y + 1)2
21.
f (x, y) = x ln
y2
x
+ 3x xy 2
= x(ln y 2 ln x) + 3x xy 2
= x ln y 2 x ln x + 3x xy 2
1
2
+ ln x(1) + 3 y 2
fx = ln y x
x
= ln y 2 ln x + 2 y 2
3
So, fx =0 when
0 = 2 ln y ln x2 + 2 y
2x(1 y )
1
2xy =
fy = 2x
y
y
340
0 = ln 1 ln x + 2 1
0 = 1 ln x
ln x = 1, or x = e.
When y = 1, fx = 0 when
0 = ln 1 ln x + 2 1, or x = e.
So, the critical points are (e, 1) and (e, 1).
1
2x
2
fxx = , fyy = 2 2x, fxy = 2y
x
y
y
For the point (e, 1),
1
D=
(4e) 0 > 0
e
and fxx < 0, so (e, 1) is a relative maximum.
For the point (e, 1),
1
D=
(4e) 0 > 0
e
and fxx < 0, so (e, 1) is a relative maximum.
23. Profit = (profit from sales Duncan shirts)
+ (profit from sales James shirts)
P (x, y) = (x 2)(40 50x + 40y)
+ (y 2)(20 + 60x 70y)
Px = (x 2)(50) + (40 50x + 40y)(1)
+ (y 2)(60) + 0
= 20(5x + 5y + 1)
64
.
l2
Cw = 8l
5
= 2.5
2
64
w2
64
.
w2
2
Solving each equation for w ,
So, Cw = 0 when 0 = 8l
64
l2
8
64
w = 2 , w2 = 4
l
l
64
8l = 2
w
8
w2 =
l
8w =
So,
64
l4
= 8l , 64l = 8l 4
So, fx = 0 when y = 0, or x =
8l(l 3 8) = 0, or l = 2.
negative solution).
= xe1x
128
128
, Cww = 3 , Clw = 8
w
l3
32
.
(2)(2)
So, cost is minimized when the dimensions of the
box are 2 ft 2 ft 8 ft.
When l = 2 and w = 2, h =
fxx = (e1x
Py = 4y + 100 x
So, Py = 0 when 0 = 4y + 100 x.
Solving this system of equations by multiplying the
first equation by 4 and adding to second,
0 = 15x 300, or x = 20.
When x = 20, Px = 0 when 0 = 4(20) + 100 y,
or y = 20. So, the critical point is (20, 20).
Pxx = 4; Pyy = 4; Pxy = 1
D = (4)(4) (1)2 > 0 and Pxx < 0
So, profit is maximized when 20 gallons of each are
produced.
29. f (x, y) = C + xye1x y
2
2
2
2
fx = y x(2xe1x y ) + e1x y (1)
2
= ye1x
2 y 2
(2x 2 + 1)
2 y 2
2 y 2
(2x 2y + y)
)(4xy)
+ (2x 2y + y)(2xe1x
Px = 4x + 100 y
So, Px = 0 when 0 = 4x + 100 y.
(2y 2 + 1)
fx = e1x
= 2x 2 2y 2 + 100x + 100y xy
2 y 2
When y = 0, fy = 0 when x = 0.
2
2
When x =
.
, fy = 0 when y =
2
2
2
2
When x =
, fy = 0 when y =
.
2
2
Again rejecting the negative
solutions,
the critical
2
2
points are (0, 0) and
,
. Rewriting fx as
2
2
2
(rejecting the
2
2
2
2
2
fy = x y(2ye1x y ) + e1x y (1)
8
= 2.
(2)2
So, (2, 2) is the critical point.
When l = 2, w =
Cll =
341
2 y 2
Similarly,
fyy = (e1x
2 y 2
)(4xy)
+ (2xy 2 + x)(2ye1x
fxy = (e
1x 2 y 2
2 y 2
)(2x 2 + 1)
+ (2x 2y + y)(2ye1x
2 y 2
2
units of each stimuli maximizes
So,
2
performance.
342
V0
and
xy
1
k2
1
x 2y 2
E(x, y) =
+
+
8m x 2 y 2
V0
2
k2
2xy 2
Ex =
3+
8m
x
V02
31. V0 = xyz, so z =
So, Ex = 0 when 0 =
2
2xy 2
+
,
x3
V02
or x 2 =
k2
Ey =
8m
So, Ey = 0 when 0 =
V0
.
y
2
2x 2y
3+
y
V02
y
2
So, Px = 0 when 0 = 50 x +
=
5
10
500 4x + y.
2x 2y
2
+
,
y3
V02
or x 2 =
33.
V02
y4
V0 V02
1/3
= 4 , or y = V0 .
y
y
V0
1/3
1/3
When y = V0 , x =
= V0
1/3
V0
V0
1/3
and z = 1/3 1/3 = V0 .
V0 V0
6
k2
2y 2
+ 2
Exx =
8m x 4
V0
6
k2
2x 2
Eyy =
+ 2
8m y 4
V0
k 2 4xy
Exy =
8m V02
2
k2
k2
k2
D=
>0
4/3
4/3
4/3
mV0
mV0
2mV0
and
Py =
x
y
+ 40
10
5
y
x
+ 40 = x + 400 2y
10
5
Solving this system by multiplying the first equation
by two and adding to the second,
So Py = 0 when 0 =
5
5
10
and Pxx < 0
So, profit is maximized when 200 machines are
supplied to the domestic market and 300 are
supplied to the foreign market.
343
=
2
2
6
x
2 2 (1.2) + x
T
1
2y
1 1
=
2
2
6
y
4 2 (2.5) + y
T
T
=
= 0 when
x
y
1
1
y
1
1
x
= and
=
4 (2.5)2 + y 2 6
2 (1.2)2 + x 2 6
which leads to x = 0.424 and y = 2.236.
In addition to his path, the boundary cases
must also be considered. That is, a path where
Tom moves directly to the river (perpendicular
to the river), then Tom swims directly across the
river (perpendicular to the river), and Mary runs
to the finish. The second boundary path is along
the diagonal connection S and F .
Case 1
x = 0, y = 0
1.2 2.5 4.3
Time =
+
1.942
+
4
6
2
Case 2
x = 0.424, y = 2.236
1.273 3.354 1.64
Time =
+
+
= 1.748
2
4
6
Case 3
x = 1.395, y = 2.905
1.84 3.833 0
Time =
+ = 1.878
+
4
6
2
The minimum time is when x = 0.424 miles
and y = 2.236 miles.
344
=
x
1.7
6.3
(1.2)2 + x 2
T
1
1
y
=
y
3.5
6.3
(2.5)2 + y 2
We must find when
Press
y=
T
T
=
=0
x
y
T
for y1 =.
x
Use window dimensions [0, 2]0.5 by [1, 2]0.5.
Press graph .
Use the zero function under the calc menu to
find x 0.3363.
T
Repeat process for
to find y 1.6704.
y
Repeating the case scenarios as in part (a)
Input
Case
1
2
3
x
0
0.3363
1.395
y
0
1.6704
2.905
Time
2.103
1.9562
2.177
72
12
L = 6 x y = 6xy y
3
3
Since the surface area must be 500, the constraint is
3 2
x
500 = 2xy + 2
4
3 2
and
g(x) = 2xy +
x
2
72
Lx = 6y; Ly = 6x
3
gx = 2y + 3x; gy = 2x
So, the three Lagrange equations are
6y = (2y + 3x)
72
6x = 2x
3
3 2
2xy +
x = 500
2
Solving the second equation for and substituting
into the first equation gives
36
6y = (2y + 3x) 3
3x
72y
6y = 6y + 3 3x 36
3x
72
y = 3 3x 36
3x
1 2
3
y= x
x
8
2
Substituting into the third equation gives
1 2
3
3 2
2x
x
x +
x = 500
8
2
2
1 3 2
3 2
x = 500
x 3x +
2
4
x 3 4 3x 2 + 2 3x 2 = 2,000
x 3 2 3x 2 2,000 = 0
345
x 3 2 3x 2 2,000 = 0
fy =
(y ln y)(x + 14y) x 2 xy 7y 2 = 0
7y
x 2 + xy + 7y 2
x ln y
To use the graphing utility to determine critical
points of the function,
45. f (x, y) =
(x ln y)(2x + y) (x 2 + xy + 7y 2)(ln y)
(x ln y)2
7y 2
x 2 ln y
x 2 7y 2
= 0, or x 2 7y 2 = 0.
x 2 ln y
x 2 7y 2 = 0
x2
(y ln y)(x + 14y) x 2 xy 7y 2
xy(ln y)2
fy = 0 when
(y ln y)(x + 14y) x 2 xy 7y 2 = 0.
The critical points are found by solving the system
D = 4 (4)2 < 0
ln y[2x 2 + xy x 2 xy 7y 2]
x 2 ln2 y
x
y
(x ln y)2
Next, fx = 0 when
Press y = .
1
3
2
y = (13.866)
(13.866)
8
2
12.025 feet.
fx =
(x ln y)(x + 14y) (x 2 + xy + 7y 2)
47.
346
S
= 2(2m + b 3)(2) + 2(4m + b 2)(4)
m
= 40m + 12b 28 = 0
S
= 2(b 1) + 2(2m + b 3) + 2(4m + b 2)
b
= 12m + 6b 12 = 0.
7.4
1.
3.
347
7.
x
2
0
2
4
6
y
5
2
1
x
2
y = 15
xy
10
0
6
8
6
xy = 10
x2
4
0
4
16
36
x 2 = 60
x = 10
y
5
4
3
2
1
5.
x
1
2
2
5
x = 10
y
2
2
3
5
y = 12
xy
2
4
6
25
xy = 37
x2
1
4
4
25
5
4
3
x 2 = 34
2
1
4
9.
y
6
x
0
1
2.2
3.1
4
x = 10.3
2
y
1
1.6
3
3.9
5
y = 14.5
xy
0
1.6
6.6
12.09
20
xy = 40.29
x2
0
1
4.84
9.61
16
x 2 = 31.45
5
4
m=
3
2
1
x
1
348
y
6
5
y = ln y
xy
x2
1
3
5
7
10
2.75
2.83
2.91
3.00
3.11
2.75
8.49
14.55
21
31.1
1
9
25
49
100
3
2
1
x
1
11.
x
2.1
1.3
1.5
2.7
x = 0.8
y
3.5
2.7
1.3
1.5
y = 6.0
xy = 12.96
4.41
1.69
2.25
7.29
x 2 = 15.64
x 2 = 184
y = ln y
xy
x2
2.60
5.20
4
2.20
8.80
16
1.79
10.74
36
1.39
11.12
64
0.99
9.9
100
,
,
,
, 2
x = 30
y = 8.97
xy = 45.76
x = 220
x
2
4
6
8
10
5
4
3
2
1
x
1
xy = 77.89
1
A = eb = e2.71 15.029
2
y = 14.6
b=
3
x2
xy
7.35
3.51
1.95
4.05
x = 26
2
349
3.003
19. (a)
y
20.15
40
30
20
10
x
10
(b)
x
1
(b)
xy
x2
4.5
3.5
4.0
5.0
1.0
0.8
1.0
1.5
4.5
2.8
4.0
7.5
20.25
12.25
16.00
25.00
x = 17.0
y = 4.3
xy = 18.8
x 2 = 73.50
20
30
40
xy
x2
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
44
38
32
25
18
12
6
220
380
480
500
450
360
210
25
100
225
400
625
900
1,225
x = 140
y = 175
xy = 2,600
x 2 = 3,500
350
x 2 4 6 8 10
y 12 19 24 30 37
y
50
40
30
20
10
x
2
(b)
x
2
4
6
8
10
x = 30
y
12
19
24
30
37
y = 122
xy
24
76
144
240
370
xy = 854
10
12
x2
4
16
36
64
100
x 2 = 220
Since y = Aemx ,
ln y = ln A + ln emx
ln y = mx + ln A
y = ln y
xy
x2
0
1
2
3
4
5
5.02
5.19
5.31
5.42
5.52
5.67
0
5.19
10.62
16.26
22.08
28.35
0
1
4
9
16
25
x = 15
y = 32.13
xy = 82.5
x 2 = 55
y = ln V
4.04
4.09
4.13
4.17
4.13
4.17
4.25
4.32
xy
4.04
8.18
12.39
16.68
20.65
25.02
29.75
34.56
x2
1
4
9
16
25
36
49
64
9
10
x = 55
4.37
4.44
y = 42.11
351
39.33
44.40
xy = 235.0
81
100
27. (a)
x 2 = 385
y
Average price of gasoline
(in cents)
300
250
200
150
100
50
t
0
0
10
15
Years after 1988
20
A = eb = e3.985 53.785
So, the exponential function that best fits the
data is V (t) = 53.785e0.041t . Her account is
growing at a rate of approximately 4.1% per
year.
(b) When t = 20, V (20) 53.785e0.041(20)
122.1 thousand, or $122,100.
(c) To find t when V (t) 300 thousand,
x
y
xy
x2
0
95
0
0
3
114
342
9
6
111
666
36
9
123
1,107
81
12
151
1,812
144
15
159
2,385
225
18
259
4,662
324
,
,
,
, 2
x
y
xy
x
= 63 = 1,012 = 10,974 = 819
(b)
300 = 53.785e0.041t
5.5778 = e0.041t
ln 5.5778 = 0.041t, or
ln 5.5778
42 years
0.041
(d) Using the two points named by Frank,
t
57 = Aer(1)
68 = Aer(10)
Solving the first for A and substituting in the
second gives
r
68 = (57e )e
10r
1.19298 = e9r
ln 1.19298 = 9r
ln 1.19298
0.0196 and A = 57e0.0196
or r
9
55.89. Franks function fits the first and last
data point, but may not be a good fit with the
other data points. Franks function would be
less usable to predict other values.
m=
29. (a) Let t denote the number of years after 1996 and
y the corresponding GDP in billions of yuan.
Then,
352
(b)
t
0
1
2
3
4
5
y 6,788 7,446 7,835 8,191 8,940 9,593
y
ty
t2
6,788
0
0
7,446
7,446
1
7,835
15,670
4
8,191
24,573
9
8,940
35,760
16
9,593
47,965
25
,
,
, 2
t
y
ty
t
= 15 = 48,793 = 131,414 = 55
t
0
1
2
3
4
5
,
m=
538.9 and b =
x
y
xy
x2
0
99
0
0
4
6,360
25,440
16
8
36,064
288,512
64
12
79,477
953,724
144
16
61,109
977,744
256
20
42,156
843,120
400
24
37,726
905,424
576
,
,
,
, 2
x
y
xy
x
= 84 = 262,991 = 3,993,964 = 1,456
(55)(48,793) (15)(131,414)
6(55) (15)2
712,405
6,784.8. So, the equation of
105
the leastsquares line is y = 538.9x + 6,784.8
=
33. (a)
31. (a)
ln W 4.054 4.693 5.297 5.704 5.873 6.040 6.284 6.611
ln C 1.668 2.617 3.645 4.358 4.649 4.905 5.276 5.766
y
Reported cases of AIDS
(thousands)
90
80
70
ln C
6
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1980
2
t
1984
1988
1992
Years
1996
2000
2004
ln W
0
(b)
x
y
xy
x2
4.054
1.668
6.762
16.435
4.693
2.617
12.282
22.024
5.297
3.645
19.308
28.058
5.704
4.358
24.858
32.536
5.873
4.649
27.304
34.492
6.040
4.905
29.626
36.482
6.284
5.276
33.154
39.489
6.611
5.766
38.119
43.705
,
,
,
, 2
x
y
xy
x
= 44.556 = 32.884 = 191.413 = 253.221
(253.221)(32.884) (44.556)(191.413)
8(253.221) (44.556)2
201.68
4.976. So, the equation of the
=
40.531
leastsquares line is y = 1.631x 4.976
(c)
ln C = 1.631 ln W 4.976
b=
e4.976
C = e4.976W 1.631
C(W ) = 0.00690W 1.631
7.5
1.
Constrained Optimization:
The Method of Lagrange
Multipliers
f (x, y) = xy
g(x, y) = x + y
fx = y; fy = x; gx = 1; gy = 1
f (x, y) = x 2 + y 2
g(x, y) = xy
fx = 2x; fy = 2y; gx = y; gy = x
40.531
C = eln W
353
5.
f (x, y) = x 2 y 2
g(x, y) = x 2 + y 2
fx = 2x; fy = 2y; gx = 2x; gy = 2y
The three Lagrange equations are:
2x = 2x; 2y = 2y; x 2 + y 2 = 4
From the first equation, either = 1 or x = 0. If
x = 0, the third equation becomes y 2 = 4 or y = 2.
From the second equation, either = 1 or y = 0. If
y = 0, the third equation becomes x 2 = 4 or x = 2.
354
7.
f (x, y) = x 2 y 2 2y
g(x, y) = x 2 + y 2
11.
g(x, y) = x 2 + y 2 4 = 0
fx = 2x; fy = 2y 2; gx = 2x; gy = 2y
2x = 2x; 2y 2 = 2y; x 2 + y 2 = 1
From the first equation, either = 1 or x = 0. If
= 1, the second equation becomes 2y 2 = 2y,
1
4y = 2, or y = . From the third equation,
2
2
3
1
2
.
x +
= 1, or x =
2
2
If x = 0, the third equation becomes 02 + y 2 = 1 or
y = 1. So, the only points
constrained
at whichthe
1
1
3
3
extrema can occur are
, ,
, ,
2
2
2
2
3
1
(0, 1), and (0, 1). Now, f
,
2
2
1
3
3
=f
,
= , f (0, 1) = 1, and
2
2
2
3
f (0, 1) = 3. So, the constrained maximum is
2
and the constrained minimum is 3.
9.
f (x, y) = exy
yexy = 2x
xexy = 2y
x2 + y2 4 = 0
y
x
= , or x 2 = y 2.
x
y
2 + y 2 = 4 to obtain x = 2 and
Substitute
in
x
y = 2.
Now,
( 2, 2)= f (
= e2 and
f
2, 2)
2
f ( 2, 2) = f ( 2, 2) = e . So, the
constrained maximum is e2 and the constrained
minimum is e2.
13.
f (x, y, z) = xyz
g(x, y, z) = x + 2y + 3z 24 = 0
fx = yz, fy = xz, and fz = xy
gx = 1, gy = 2, and gz = 3
The three Lagrange equations are:
yz = ; xz = 2; xy = 3
x
Dividing the first two leads to y = , dividing the
2
x
first by the third leads to z = .
3
Substitute in x + 2y + 3z = 24 to obtain x = 8,
8
y = 4, and z = .
3
256
.
3
f (x, y, z) = x + 2y + 3z
g(x, y.z) = x 2 + y 2 + z2 16 = 0
fx = 1, fy = 2, and fz = 3
gx = 2x, gy = 2y, and gz = 2z
The three Lagrange equations are:
1 = 2x; 2 = 2y; 3 = 2z
Dividing the first two leads to y = 2x, dividing
the first by the third leads to z = 3x. Substitute
4
in x 2 + y 2 + z2 = 16 to obtain x = ,
14
12
8
y = , and z = .
14
14
56
4
8
12
= = 4 14 and
Now, f , ,
14
14 14
14
4 8 12
56
f , ,
= = 4 14.
14
14
14
14
So, the constrained maximum
is
4 14 and the
constrained minimum is 4 14.
17.
+ 85x
0.5xy
+ 125y 2,500
Since the constraint is x + y = 300 (hundred units),
g(x, y) = x + y.
0.4y 2
P (x, y) = 0.3x 2
fx = 0.6x 0.5y + 85
fy = 0.5x 0.8y + 125
gx = 1; gy = 1
The three Lagrange equations are:
0.6x 0.5y + 85 =
0.5x 0.8y + 125 =
x + y = 300
Equating leads to
0.6x 0.5y + 85 = 0.5x 0.8y + 125
1
400
y= x+
3
3
355
356
1
. From the second
y
2
equation = . Setting the two expressions for
x
1
2
equal to each other gives = or x = 2y,
y
x
and substituting this into the third equation yields
2y 2 = 3,200, y 2 = 1,600, or y = 40.
Only the positive value is meaningful in the context
of this problem. So, y = 40, and (since x = 2y),
x = 80. That is, to minimize the amount of fencing,
the dimensions of the field should be 40 meters by
80 meters.
23. Let f denote the volume of the parcel. Then,
f (x, y) = x 2y
The girth 4x plus the length y can be at most
108 inches. The goal is to maximize this function
f (x, y) subject to the constraint 4x + y = 108, so
g(x, y) = 4x + y.
The partial derivatives are fx = 2xy, fy = x 2,
gx = 4, and gy = 1.
The three Lagrange equations are
2xy = 4; x = ; 4x + y = 108
2
xy
, which, combined
2
xy
= x 2 or y = 2x.
with the second equation, gives
2
(Another solution is x = 0, which is impossible in
the context of this problem.)
Substituting y = 2x into the third equation gives
6x = 108 or x = 18, and since y = 2x, the
corresponding value of y is y = 36.
So, the largest volume is f (18, 36) = (18)2(36) =
11,664 cubic inches.
MR = 4 R + 2 H ; MH = 2 R,
gR = 2 RH ; gH = R 2
The three Lagrange equations are:
4 R + 2 H = 2 RH
2 R = R 2
R 2H = 6.89
2
, which leads
R
to 2R = H , using the first equation.
Using the
357
S(R, H ) = 2R 2 + 2RH
The goal is to maximize this function subject to
the constraint R 2H = C (volume is fixed, C is a
constant), so g(R, H ) = R 2H .
Cx = 6kx +
Cy =
SR = 4R + 2H ; SH = 2R;
gR = 2RH ; gH = R 2
R 2H = C
2
, which leads
R
to 2R = H , using the first equation.
1
1 1
1
; 1= 2 ;
+ =L
2
do
di d o d i
This leads to
= (do2); = (di )2, or do = di
Substituting into the third equation,
do = di = 2L
and the maximum value of S is 4L.
33. Let k be the cost per square cm of the bottom and
sides. Then the cost of the top is 2k per square cm
2k
and the cost of the interior partitions is
per square
3
16
ky = 2xy;
3
16
kx = x 2; x 2y = 800
3
2R = R 2
1
1
; g di = 2
do2
di
16
kx, gx = 2xy, gy = x 2
3
6kx +
4R + 2H = 2RH
16
ky
3
2k
(2xy)
3
35.
358
20 3
x=
11.55 ft
3
80 3
y=
15.40 ft
9
25 3
z=
7.22 ft
6
64,000
1,000 = 306.122
49
(for each $1,000)
x 1y
y
= 1
a
ax
1
=
a
b
k
=
a
b
k
ka
a 1
=
=
a
bk
b
= 1 =
b
a
b
359
5
33K 5/4 0.6K 1/4 + 0.4L1/4
2
5
22L5/4 0.6K 1/4 + 0.4L1/4
5
0.15K 5/4
QK = 220 0.6K 1/4 + 0.4L1/4
4/5
44
2K + 5
K 150 = 0
165
K 40.14
4/5
44
L
K 13.89
165
4
Q(40.14, 13.89) = 55 0.6(40.14)1/4 + 0.4(13.89)1/4
1395.4
5
QL = 220 0.6K 1/4 + 0.4L1/4
0.1L5/4 49. Q(K, L) = A[K + (1 )L ]1/
Since the constraint is c1K + c2L = B, g(K, L) =
gK = 2 gL = 5
c1K + c2L.
The three Lagrange equations are
A
5
QK = [K + (1 )L ]1/1(K 1)
0.15K 5/4 = 2
220 0.6K 1/4 + 0.4L1/4
220 0.6K
1/4
+ 0.4L
1/4
0.1L
5/4
= 5
2K + 5L 150 = 0
5
22L5/4 0.6K 1/4 + 0.4L1/4
5
= AK 1[K + (1 )L ]1/1
A
QL = [K + (1 )L ]1/1((1 )L1)
=
=
360
y
C 1
4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1 1
C0
C1
C2
x
2 (0, 2)
3
y x5 x 2
4
x2 x + y
x
dy
1
2 xy 2
= 2x ye + +
x
x + y dx
y
x
ln(x + y)
2
dy
x
x+y
=
x
1
2
dx
2x 2yexy + +
x+y
x
y
x
2
2
xy 2exy + exy 2 +
+ ln(x + y)
x
x+y
=
x
1
2
2x 2yexy + +
x
x+y
2
2
y
2
xy
xy
(b)
Fx = xy e + e 2
x
x
+ ln(x + y)
+
x+y
2
x
1
Fy = 2x 2yexy + +
x
x+y
Fx
dy
=
Fy
dx
2
xy 2exy exy +
y
x
+ ln(x + y)
+
x2 x + y
x
1
2
2x 2yexy + +
x
x+y
2
xy 2exy + exy
=
g(x, y) = xy + y 5 = 0
1
x + 2y
gx = y
fx =
2
x + 2y
gy = x + 1
fy =
1
.
y(x + 2y)
2
.
(x + 1)(x + 2y)
59.
361
f (x, y) = xex
2 y
and
g(x, y) = x 2 + 2y 2 1 = 0
fx = e x
2 y
fy = xe
+ (x)(ex
x 2 y
2 y
)(2x)
(1) = xex
fx = (2x 2 + 1)(ex
2 y
2 y
gy = 4y
gx = 2x
x 2 y
2 y
) = (2x)
= (4y)
x + 2y = 1
2
(2x 2 + 1)(ex y )
.
2x
2
xex y
From the second equation, =
.
4y
2
362
1 3
x
"
8x 2y + 4y = 2x 2
2
y dy
1
8
=
y y dy
3
3
0
7 21 7
= y =
6 0 6
"
2x (1 + 4y) = 4y
2y
x2 =
4y + 1
2
1
2y + 2y (4y + 1) = 4y + 1
2
"
3.
7.6
Double Integrals
"
1.
"
1" 2
"
"
"
ln 2
"
"
ln 2
"
2xe dx dy
0
x 2 ey
1
dy
ln 2
ey dy = ey = 1.
5.
2xey dxdy
3" 1
2xy
dxdy
2+1
x
0
1
" 3 " 1
2xy
dx dy
=
2
0 x +1
1
" 3
1
2
=
y ln(x + 1) dy
0
"
=
1
3
y 2 = 4 ln 2
y ln 2dy = ln 2
1
2
"
"
=
"
"
"
=
0
x y dx dy
0
7.
ln 2
x 2y dxdy
"
8y 3 + 2y 2 6y 1 = 0
To solve, press y = and
input 8x 3 + 2x 2 6x 1 for y1 = (remember
we are actually solving for y).
Use window dimensions [4, 4]1 by [4, 4]1.
Press Graph .
Use the zero function under the calc menu to find
that y 0.9184, y 0.1636, and y 0.832.
We reject y 0.9184 and y 0.832 since these
would result in x being undefined. If y = 0.1636,
then x = 0.9729.
The two points for consideration are (0.9729,
0.1636) and (0.9729, 0.1636).
Press y = .
Input xe (x 2 L1) for y1 =.
From the home screen, input {0.1636} sto 2nd L1.
Press Graph .
Use the value function under the calc menu to find
f (0.9729, 0.1636) 2.952 and
f (0.9729, 0.1636) 2.952
The maximum point is (0.9729, 0.1636).
ln 2
x 2y dxdy
1
2
x y dx dx
y 2 21
x
dx = 0
1
2
363
3" 2
"
x+y
dy dx
xy
2
1
" 3" 2
1
1
+
dy dx
=
y
x
1
2
" 3
y 2
=
ln(y) +
dx
x 1
2
3
3
= (x ln 2 + ln x) = ln 2 + ln = ln 3
2
2
9.
"
11.
"
x 2y dy dx =
"
"
"
"
=
1
dx
"
"
=
=
(2x + y) dx
dy
1y
dy
(x + xy)
2
y1
"
y1
1
"
1y
1
[(y 1)2 + (y 1)y] dy
1
" 1
2y 3
1
2
2
=
2y 2y dy = y
=3
3
0
0
15.
"
0
1" 4
0
xy dy dx =
"
"
1
2
1
2
x y dy
0
1 3 4
1
" 1
" 1
2x 2 y 2
16x 2
dx
=
=
dx
3 0
3
0
0
3 1
32
32x 2
=
=
9 0
9
xy dydx =
"
ln x
xy dy
1
dx
ln x
" e
xy 2
x(ln x)2
dx
=
dx
2 0
2
1
and
dV =
x
dx
2
e " e x
x2
ln x dx
(ln x)2
1
4
1 2
" e
e2
x
=
ln x dx
4
1 2
ln x
dx
4
4
1 4
1
2
e
e2
x
x 2
=
ln x
4
4
8 1
2
e2
e
e2
1
e2 1
=
0
=
4
4
8
8
8
(2x + y) dx dy
y1
"
x
" 4 3
x
x 2y 2
dx =
dx
z 0
0 2
1 " 1y
"
ln x
u = (ln x)2
4
x 4
= = 32
8 0
13.
"
x 2y dy
e
1
"
17.
dx
and x y.
3
21. The given points form a rectangle. So, R can be
described in terms of vertical cross sections by
1 x 2 and 1 y 2 and in terms of horizontal
cross sections by 1 y 2 and 1 x 2.
23. Solving ln x = 0 yields x = 1, with the second
boundary given as x = e. Similarly, solving y = ln x
for x yields x = ey , with the second boundary given
as y = 0. So, R can be described in terms of vertical
cross sections by 1 x e and 0 y ln x and in
terms of horizontal cross sections by 0 y 1 and
ey x e.
364
"
""
25.
3xy dA =
"
=
"
"
=
"
1 1
"
dy =
3xy dx
0
3y 3
9y 2
3
dy =
=
2
2 1 2
"
3xy 2 dxdy
2
3x 2y 2
dy
2 1
"
xey dy
"
0
"
(xe x) dx =
x
xey 0 dx
"
xe dx
x
" 1
1
x
xex dx
xe dx =
2
2 0
0
1
x2
and dV = ex dx
" 1
1
1
ex dx
= xex 0
2
0
1 1
x
x 1
= (xe e ) 0 =
2 2
x2
"
=
0
x2
"
2x
x2
(2y x) dy
[(2x)2 x(2x)] [(x 2)2 x(x 2)] dx
(2x 2 x 4 + x 3) dx
2x 3 x 5 x 4
+
3
5
4
dx
2
= 44
15
0
"
"
"
1y
y1
(2x + 1) dx
dy
y1
1y
(x 2 + x)y1 dy
1
u=x
x dx
29. Solving
""
"
"
1
dx =
0
1
2x
(y 2 xy)x 2 dx
27. Since the line joining the points (0, 0) and (1, 1) is
y = x,
""
" 1" x
y
xe dA =
xey dydx
=
1 1
"
R
" 1 " x
"
=
1
"
[(y 1)2 + (y 1)] dy
1
(2 2y) dy = (2y y 2)0 = 1
=
0
" 2
0
"
=3
365
2y
y
y2 + 1 y2 + 1
"
dy =
0
3y
dy
y2 + 1
= 2 2e
y
dy
2
y +1
2
2
2 1
= 2 ey y 2 ey + ey
"
+ 1,
Using substitution with
" 5
" 5
3
1 1
1
du =
du
=3
2 1 u
1 u 2
5 3
3
3 ln 5
=
ln u1 = (ln 5 ln 1) =
2
2
2
u = y2
y2
1
y 2e
= 2(e 2)
y2
"
4x 2
above by y = 4
and below by y = 0. It is
bounded on the left by x = 0 and on the right by
x = 2. So, the region is:
y
4
1
3
2 y2
12x e
"
=
0
"
=
1
y3
"
dA =
y 4 x2
2
"
1" y3
"
12x 2ey dx dy
2
1
1
3
y
4x 3ey 2 dy
f (x, y) dxdy.
"
=4
"
yey dy 4
(4yey 4y 3ey ) dy
"
4y
y 2(yey ) dy
1"
y
2
y x
and dV = yey dy
1
y x3
x
1
1" y3
f (x, y) dxdy.
0
y2
366
"
e2
"
"
ln x
"
=
"
x
2
x3
x
6
"
"
f (x, y) dxdy.
dx
dx
3
x3
4
+ 2x 2 3x =
3
3
1
"
=
"
ln x
y
dx =
0
ln x
(1) dydx =
1 dy
1
1 dy
(x 2 + 4x 3) dx
y1
dx
x 2 4x+3
x 4x+3
y1
0
y 2
"
3
"
=
x2
2x
2
4
= 16
3
0
1
4
2
x
2
"
4 2x
y x 2 dx =
y x2 1
dx
1 x 2 +1
1 dy
2
+ 4x = 18
2
4
1
1
x+4
x2
"
"
1 2
x = 2x yields x = 0 and x = 4. So, the
2
area of R is
" 4 " 2x
" 4 " 2x
(1) dydx =
1 dy dx
2
2
e2
(1) dydx =
47. Solving
"
" 2
x+4
(x + 4) dx
y 0
dx =
2
y In x
x+4
y
"
ln x dx
1
dx
367
57.
"
V =
u = ln x
and dV = dx
" e
e
1 dx
= x ln x 1
1
y
3
when y = 12 and y = 3. However, the region is
also bounded by y = 0, making the limits y = 0 and
y = 3. So, the area of R is
"
"
" "
4y
y
3
"
3
" 3
"
4y
=
dy =
x y
0
(1) dxdy =
"
3
0
4y =
4y
y
3
1 dy dx
4
4y
3
4 y dy
59.
"
"
dy
"
"
(6 2x 2y) dy
dx
2
(6y 2xy y 2) dx
=
"
"
dy
dx
(1 e
"
(xe2 + x) dx
dx =
0
)x dx = (1 e
1
e2 1 1
1
=
2e2
2
e2
1
x 2
)
2 0
"
1
= (8x 2x 2) = 6
(2x + y) dx
" 1
(2 y)2 + (2 y)y (y)2 + (y)y dy
"
(4 2y 2y 2) dy
=
dy
2y
(x + xy)
dy
(8 4x) dx
2y
y
1
"
2
xey
0
1
xey dydx
xe
"
0
1
"
"
"
1" 2
V =
0
"
1
dydx
xy
y
dy
0
0 3
3 " 3
" 3
y2
3
=
4 y dy =
4 y dy
6 0
2
0
0
1 1
=
dy dx
1
1 x y
" 2
" 2
3
1
1
=
ln y dx =
ln 3 dx
1
x
x
1
1
2
= ln 3 ln x 1 = (ln 3)(ln 2)
"
e
= (x ln x x)1 = 1
53. After solving each equation for x,
"
4y y 2
2y 3
3
1
=7
3
0
368
8 x2
63. Solving
"
V =
"
=
=
2
2
"
=
8x 2
x2
"
(x + 1) dydx
(x + 1) dy
8x 2
(x + 1)y 2
x
dx
2x 3 x 4
8x + 4x
3
2
2
= 64
3
2
1
15
1
15
1
15
"
"
"
2x 2
x 2 2x
16x
3
2
3
3
1 x3
1
2
=
3x =
2
15 2
6
0.1667
"
xyex
2y
dxdy
2
3
"
0
3
x
3
1
3xy 2 x dx
3
x3
dx
3
0
3
2 3x 2
9
x 4
=
=
3
2
12 0 2
2
=
3
2
dx
(1.5x 2 6x)dx
1
fav =
2
1
du dy
2
y
eu dy
x 2y 2 2xy 3
2
3
"
eu
"
"
3
. The line
2
x
joining the points (0, 0) and (3, 1) is y = .
3
" 3" 1
1
6xy dydx
fav = 3
(8 + 8x 2x 2 2x 3) dx
"
"
(x + 1)(8 x ) (x + 1)(x ) dx
1
fav =
15
1
4
"
dx
1
2
1
(ey 1) dy
4 0
2 1
1
= (ey y) = (e2 3) 1.0973
0
4
4
=
8x 2
x2
"
"
2
2
"
= x2
"
3
3x
"
1
3" 5
2
ln xy
dydx =
y
3" 5
"
1
ln xy
1
dydx
y
"
"
=
1
ln 5x
369
u du dx =
ln 2x
"
1
=
2
3 2 ln 5x
u
"
ln 2x
dx
"
1
2
79.
"
=
(xe
0
"
xe ) dx =
"
(2x 3 + 3x 2y + y 3) dxdy
xe
x2
"
100
125
5x 2y 80xy 5,300x] dy
100
89
70
89
= [1,906,041.67y + 58.33y 3 15,062.5y 2]
70
= 1.1826(107)
The area is (125 100)(89 70) = 475.
1.1826(107)
= 24,896.8 or
The average profit is
475
$2,489,800.
dx
+ (y 40)(80 6x + 7y)] dx dy
" 125
[5x 2 + 7y 2 + 160x
"
89
"
125
100
70
89
x2
"
P (xy) =
"
"
70
and
dV = dx
u = ln 10x 2
2
du = dx
V =x
x
3 " 3
2
ln 2.5
x dx
=
x ln 10x 2
1
x
2
1
3
ln 2.5
=
x ln 10x 2 2x
1
2
ln 2.5
=
[(3 ln 90 6) (ln 10 2)] 3.297
2
" 1" 1
" 1" 1
2
2
x 3ex y dy dx =
xex y x 2 dy dx
0
" 7
5
1
(0.5x 4 + x 3y + xy 3) dy
0
35 0
7
1
= ((0.5)(125y) + (0.5)(25y 2) + 0.25y 4)
0
7
943
= 235.75
=
4
"
"
5
dx
(ln 10x 2) ln
2
1
"
ln 2.5 3
=
ln 10x 2 dx
2
1
75.
1
Qav =
35
1
=
2
=
77.
x dx
0
81.
90
(2x + y 2) miles
5,280
" "
0.01705 3 4
Eav =
(2x + y 2) dxdy
12
0
0
" 3
= 0.00142
(16 + 4y 2) dy
E(x, y) =
3
= 0.00142(16y + 1.333y 3) = 630 ft.
0
370
83. Value =
"
(300 + x + y)e
0.01x
1 1
"
=
"
"
[(300 + y)e
0.01x
1 1
"
dxdy
+ xe
0.01x
= 125,000
"
] dxdy
(300 + y)
x=1
e0.01x
=
dy
0.01
1 100xe0.01x 10,000e0.01x
x=1
" 1
39,900e0.01 40,100e0.01
=
dy
+(100e0.01 100e0.01)y
1
"
"
5 " x+3
2
e0.01x0.02(2)
"
dx
5
e0.01x+0.04 dx
e0.01x0.06
0.01x+0.04
dx
0
1
e0.03x0.06
5
0.03
0
1
0.01x+0.04
+
e
5
0.01
1
5
+
e0.01x0.06
0
0.01
5
1
0.01x+0.04
+
e
0
0.01
1
e0.06 e0.09
= 125,000
0.03
1
0.04
+
e
e0.09
0.01
1
0.01
+
e
e0.06
0.01
1
0.01
0.04
+
e
e
0.01
125,000[5.080325 5.336351
+ 4.828530 5.076094]
62,949 people
e0.01x0.02y dy dx
x+3
1
0.01x0.02y
dx
e
= 2,500
2
5 0.02
" 5
x+3
1
0.01x0.02y
e
dx
+ 2,500
2
0.02
0
" 0
= 125,000
e0.01x0.02(x+3)
"
e0.03x0.06 dx
= 125,000
+ 2,500
"
e0.01x0.02(x+3)
125,000
0
e0.01x0.02(2)
dx
87. (a)
Sav =
0.0072
(142)(76.8)
"
80
3.2
"
180
38
W 0.425H 0.725 dH dW
371
0.0072
=
(142)(76.8)
0.0072
=
(142)(76.8)
"
"
80
0.425
3.2
"
80
0.425
3.2
"
180
0.725
dH
38
180
H 1.725
dW
1.725 38
0.00277
3.2
80
W 1.425
1.425 3.2
93.
2
2
"
=
"
=
"
=
"
4x 2
20y x 2y
y3
3
4x 2
dx
(4 x 2)3
dx
20(4 x ) x (4 x )
3
2
80 20x 2 4x 2 + x 4
"
y=2
x 2exy dy dx
" 2
3
1
x 2 exy dx =
x e3x 1 dx
0
x
0
0
" 2
" 2
=
x dx
xe3x dx
"
64 48x 2 + 12x 4 x 6
dx
3
x6
176
8x 2 3x 4 +
dx
3
3
2
2
3
1
8
176
x x3 x5 + x7
=
3
3
5
21
2
352 64 96 128
=
+
3
3
5
21
352 64 96 128
+
+
3
3
5
21
17408
165.79 m3
=
105
"
(20 x 2 y 2)dy dx
"
V =
"
x=2
4x 3 16x
= 4x
27
27 x=2
304
64
=
=2 8
27
27
80
0.0072
W 0.425(4195.71) dW
(142)(76.8) 3.2
" 80
0.00277
W 0.425 dW
1
2
2
1
dydx
E=
x +y
9
2 2
y=2
" 2
1
y3
2
y
dx
x y+
=
3
9
2
"
91.
dW
(b) f (x, y) =
372
fy = 3y 2 12y = 3y(y 4)
fx =
fy = 0 when y = 0, 4
So, the critical points are (0, 0), (0, 4), (1, 0),
and (1, 4).
fxx = 24x 12; fyy = 6y 12; fxy = 0
f (x, y) = e2xy
+ ln(y 2
2x)
The domain of e2xy is the set of all real pairs
(x, y), but the domain of ln(y 2 2x) is the
set of all real pairs such that y 2 2x > 0, or
y 2 > 2x.
2
y 2 2x
2y
fy = e2xy + 2
y 2x
fx = 2e2xy
(y 2
4
2x)2
3.
4y
(y 2 2x)2
(b)
(a) f (x, y) = x 2 + y 2
Level curves are of the form x 2 + y 2 = C,
which are circles
having the origin as their
center and radius C, and also the single point
(0, 0), when C = 0.
(b) f (x, y) = x + y 2
Level curves are of the form x + y 2 = C, which
are parabolas having a horizontal axis, opening
to the left, and a vertex on the xaxis.
f (x, y) = 4x 3 + y 3 6x 2 6y 2 + 5
(a)
fx = 0 when 2x 4y = 2
fy = 4x + 6y 4
fy = 0 when 4x + 6y = 4
373
1
1
yf =xy + 1
x
x2
1
1
fx = 0 when y = 2 , or y 2 = 4
x
x
1
fy = y + 2
x
1
fy = 0 when 0 = x + 2
y
(c) f (x, y) = xy
y 2 = 4x; 2xy = 2y
2x 2 + y 2 = 6
Solving the first two equations for and
equating gives y 2 = 4x 2.
Substituting into the third equation gives
x = 1, 1. When x = 1, y = 2 or 2. When
x = 1, y = 2 or 2. So, the critical points are
(1, 2), (1, 2), (1, 2), and (1, 2).
0 = x + x4
0 = x(x 3 + 1)
or, x = 1 (rejecting x = 0 since f undefined
for x = 0) and y = 1. So, the only critical
point is (1, 1).
2
2
; fyy = 3 ; fxy = 1
x3
y
2
2
D=
(1)2 > 0
(1)3
(1)3
fxx =
5.
1 0
3
= 16
(a)
f (x, y) = x 2
"
(b)
+ y2
"
g(x, y) = x + 2y
fx = 2x; fy = 2y; gx = 1; gy = 2
The three Lagrange equations are
2x = ; 2y = 2; x + 2y = 4
Equating from the first two equations gives
2x = y
4
Substituting in the third equation gives x = .
5
8
Then, y = and the minimum value of the
5
4 8
16
function is f
,
= .
5 5
5
2
(b) f (x, y) = xy
g(x, y) = 2x 2 + y 2
fx = y ; fy = 2xy; gx = 4x; gy = 2y
2
" 3
3
x 4y 2
dy =
4y dy = (2y 2)
1
4 0
1
=
"
=
2"
0
1
"
1 0
1
"
1 0
x 2exy dx dy
x 2exy dy dx
xexy x dy dx
"
=
"
=
"
=
1
1
1
1
2x
dx
x eu
0
x(e2x e0) dx
(xe2x x) dx
"
=
"
xe2x dx
1
1
x dx
374
u=x
e4 + 3
4e2
" 2 " y
" 2" y
y
1
dx dy =
dx dy
y
1
1 x
1
1 x
" 2
" 2
y
y ln y dy
=
y ln x 1 dy =
= xe
x2
x2
+e
x2
dx +
x2
+
2
2
= (2e + e + 2) (0 + e
= 1
6.
1
=
e2
u = ln y and dV = y dy
" 2
2
2
y
y
dy
ln y 1
=
2
1 2
2
2
y
y 2
1
=
ln y
= (2 ln 2 1) 0
2
4 1
4
3
= 2 ln 2
4
" 2
" 2 " 2x
2x
(d)
y
xe dy dx =
(x ey )0 dx 8.
0
0
0
" 2
=
xex2 + x dx
x dx
0
+ 0)
1
e2
e2
7.
0
2
x dx
0
2
"
(c)
"
2
= xex20
and
QL = 3.75
2
2x y =
x
Ux =
x2 y
Uy =
1
1 2 1/2
1
=
x y
2y
x2 y 2
gx = 20; gy = 50
The three Lagrange equations are
2
1
= 20;
= 50;
x
2y
20x + 50y = 500
Solving the first two equations for and equating
gives x = 10y. Substituting in the third equation
gives y = 2, from which follows that x = 20. So,
Everett should buy 20 DVDs and 2 video games.
E = 0.05(xy 2x 2 y 2 + 95x + 20y)
Ex = 0.05(y 4x + 95)
Ex = 0 when 4x y = 95
Review Problems
375
Ey = 0.05(x 2y + 20)
(b)
Ey = 0 when x + 2y = 20
Solving the system of equations by multiplying
the first by two and adding to the second gives
x = 30 units of A, so y = 25 units of B.
Since the combined dosage is less than 60 units,
there will not be a risk of side effects. Further, this is
an equivalent dosage of E(30, 25) = 83.75 units, it
will be effective.
9.
x
y
xy
x2
1
1.03
1.03
1
2
1.52
3.04
4
3
2.03
6.09
9
4
2.41
9.64
16
5
2.84
14.20
25
,
,
,
, 2
x = 15
y = 9.83
xy = 34.00
x = 55
m=
b=
1 2y
1
= 5 e
y
0
2
1
1 0
e 0
= 5 e2 1
2
2
1 2
1 2 1
1
= 5 e 1 +
= 5 e
2
2
2
2
5 2
= (e + 1) C
2
Review Problems
1.
f (x, y) = 2x 3y + 3xy 2 +
y
x
y
x2
1
fy = 2x 3 + 6xy +
x
fx = 6x 2y + 3y 2
3.
4
3
2
1
x
1
f (x, y) =
1/2
fy = 2x y = 2y x
376
5.
f (x, y) =
x
y
y
x
1
1
fx = x 1/2y 1/2 x 3/2y 1/2
2
2
y
1
= 3/2
2x
2 xy
1
1
fy = x 1/2y 3/2 + x 1/2y 1/2
2
2
1
x
= 3/2 +
2y
2 xy
7.
f (x, y) =
=
fy =
=
f (x, y) =
fx =
=
(x
2 +y 2
fyy = (2y)(2yex
= 2e
x 2 +y 2
2x 3 + 3x 2y y 2
(x + y)2
(x + y)(x) (x 3 xy)(1)
(x + y)2
x 3 x 2 x 2(x + 1)
=
(x + y)2
(x + y)2
)(2)
2 +y 2
13. f (x, y) = x ln y
x
y
fx = ln y
fy =
fxx = 0
fyy =
fxy = fyx =
x
y2
1
y
C 2
+ y)(2x) (x 2
y 2)(2)
(2x + y)2
3
2
2x 2 + 2xy + 2y 2 2(x 2 + xy + y 2)
=
(2x + y)2
(2x + y)2
fx = 2xex
2 +y 2
fxx = (2x)(2xex
x 2 +y 2
2 +y 2
) + (ex
(2x + 1)
2
C2
4
3
2
1
x
1
2
3
2 +y 2
= 2e
2 +y 2
(2y 2 + 1)
x 2 y 2
2x+y
11. f (x, y) = ex
) + (ex
fxx = 0
y) (x 3 xy)(1)
+ y)(3x 2
(x + y)2
(2x
2 +y 2
x 3xy
x+y
fx =
9.
fy = 2yex
2 +y 2
)(2)
Review Problems
377
y
2
2
1
1
1
2
D = (6)(6) 0 < 0
So it is a saddle point.
For the point (0, 2),
C2
C1
C0
D = (6)(6) 0 > 0
D = (6)(6) 0 > 0
Since fxx < 0, it is a relative maximum.
For the point (2, 2),
= 3x + 2y 6
To find the critical points, set fx = 0 and fy = 0 and
solve the system of equations.
4x + 3y 6 = 0
3x + 2y 6 = 0
Multiply the first equation by 2 and the second
equation by 3. Then, add the two resulting
equations
8x + 6y 12 = 0
9x 6y + 18 = 0
x+ 6=0
x=6
When x = 6,
4(6) + 3y 6 = 0
y = 6
So, the only critical point is (6, 6).
fxx = 4 fyy = 2 fxy = 3
D = (4)(2) (3)2 < 0
So, the point (6, 6) is a saddle point.
19. f (x, y) = x 3 + y 3 + 3x 2 3y 2
fx = 3x 2 + 6x fy = 3y 2 6y
fx = 0 when 3x(x + 2) = 0, x = 0 and x = 2
D = (6)(6) 0 > 0
So it is a saddle point.
21.
f (x, y) = x 2 + y 3 + 6xy 7x 6y
fx = 2x + 6y 7
fy = 3y 2 + 6x 6
To find the critical points, set fx = 0 and fy = 0.
So, 2x + 6y 7 = 0 and 3y 2 + 6x 6 = 0,
or 2x + 6y 7 = 0 and 2x + y 2 2 = 0.
Subtracting the two equations gives y 2 6y + 5 = 0,
(y 1)(y 5) = 0, or y = 1 and y = 5.
1
When y = 1, the first equation gives x = and when
2
23
y = 5, the first equation gives x = .
2
23
1
,1 , ,5 .
So, the critical points of f are
2
2
Since fxx = 2, fyy = 6y, and fxy = 6,
D = fxx fyy (fxy )2 = (2)(6y) 36 = 12(y 3)
1
,1 ,
For the point
2
D = 12(2) = 24 < 0
378
and f has a saddle point at
23
For the point , 5 ,
2
1
,1 .
2
fxx = (e2x
fyy = x[(e
2 +5xy+2y 2
2
2
fx = (x) e2x +5xy+2y (4x + 5y)
=e
2x 2 +5xy+2y 2
= e2x
2 +5xy+2y 2
2 +5xy+2y 2
)(1)
x(4x + 5y) + 1
(4x 2 + 5xy + 1)
2 +5xy+2y 2
=0
=
6
5
6
3
2
5
2 5
and
, .
So, the critical points are ,
3 6
3
6
or, y =
fxy = (e
2x 2 +5xy+2y 2
2 +5xy+2y 2
(4x + 5y)]
)(4)
2 +5xy+2y 2
(5x + 4y)]
)(5x)
2 +5xy+2y 2
(5x + 4y)
fx = 0 when 4x 2 + 5xy + 1 = 0
2
2
fy = x e2x +5xy+2y (5x + 4y)
fy = 0 when x(5x + 4y)e2x
2x 2 +5xy+2y 2
+ (5x + 4y)e2x
23
So, f has a relative minimum at , 5 .
2
+ (e2x
)(8x + 5y)
D = 12(2) = 24 > 0
2 +5xy+2y 2
25. f (x, y) = x 2 + 2y 2 + 2x + 3; x 2 + y 2 = 4
Since the constraint is x 2 + y 2 = 4,
g(x, y) = x 2 + y 2.
fx = 2x + 2
fy = 4y
gx = 2x
gy = 2y
f (1, 3) = 12
f (2, 0) = 3
f (1, 3) = 12
Review Problems
379
dx
Qy
=
fx = 1 fy = 2 gx = 8x gy = 2y
The three Lagrange equations are
1 = 8x 2 = 2y, 4x 2 + y 2 = 68
Solving the first two equations for and equating
gives y = 8x. Substituting in the third equation
gives 68x 2 = 68, or x = 1 and x = 1. It follows
that y = 8 and y = 8. So, the critical points are
(1, 8) and (1, 8). Testing these points in the
original function gives
f (1, 8) = 17
f (1, 8) = 17
So, the maximum value is 17 and it occurs at (1, 0).
The minimum value is 17 and it occurs at (1, 8).
29. Q = 40K 1/3L1/2
The marginal product of capital is
Q 40 2/3 1/2 40L1/2
L =
= K
3K 2/3
K
3
which is approximately the change Q in output
due to one (thousand dollar) unit increase in capital.
When K = 125 (thousand) and L = 900,
Q 40(900)1/2
=
= 16 units
Q
K
3(125)2/3
31.
y
20x 2/3y 2/3
=
40x 1/3y 1/3
2x
Q
dQ
40
=
= 2
dx
2(10)
20x
50y
+
xy
y+2 x+5
100
100
1; Py =
1;
(x + 5)2
(y + 2)2
gx = 1; gy = 1
The three Lagrange equations are
100
1=
(x + 5)2
100
1=
(y + 2)2
x + y = 11
380
1" 2
"
39.
"
(x + 5)2 = (y + 2)2
1" 2
"
ex ey dydx
exy dydx
2
(ex ey ) dx
"
(ex e2 + ex ) dx
=
0
= (1 e2)
"
ex dx
37.
12 18
f (x, y) =
+
+ xy
x
y
Suppose y is fixed (say at y = 1), then f is very large
when x is quite small.
f is also large when x is large, with smaller values
of f occurring between these extremes. The same
reasoning applies to y when x is fixed.
= (1 e
= (1 e
12
18
fx = 2 + y; fy = 2 + x
x
y
+ 1) = 0.5466
xe2y dydx
1
1
=
xe2y dx
1
2
0
" 1 2
xe2
xe
=
dx
2
2
0
"
e2 e2 1
=
x dx
2
0
"
12
12
12y 4
=
=
2
x2
182
18
y2
24
36
fxx = 3 ; fyy = 3 ; fxy = 1
x
y
)(e
1" 1
0
"
41.
1
)(ex )
"
I=
"
"
(ln x + ln y) dydx
e
y(ln x) + (y ln y y) dx
"
e2 e2
1.8134
4
1
[(e 1) ln x + 1] dx
Review Problems
"
45.
2
1
"
=
"
47.
"
y
x
"
x
xe dx =
"
1
2
y
x
e x y dy dx
xe x dx
(e 1)x dx = (e 1)
x 2 2
2 1
3
1
= (e 1)
= (e 1) 2
2
2
" "
(x + 2y)dA
1" 2
"
"
or y =
20 20 20
20
. Then, z = 20
= . So, the
3
3
3
3
20
.
3
(x + 2y) dydx
2
(xy + y 2) dx
"
4x dx
0
49.
e dy dx =
2
1
"
0
381
"
V =
"
"
xey dydx
3
(xey ) dx
2
1
2
D = x 2 + 10 + 2z2
Dx = 2x, so Dx = 0 when x = 0
Dz = 4z, so Dz = 0 when z = 0
10.
When z = 0, y 2 = 10 or y =
So,
the critical points are (0, 10, 0) and
(0, 10, 0).
"
1
= 2x 2 = 2
0
(x)(e2 e3) dx
3
= (e2 e3) = 0.1283
2
51. The sum of the three numbers is x + y + z = 20, so
z = 20 x y. Their product is
P = xyz = xy(20 x y) = 20xy x 2y xy 2
Px = 20y 2xy y 2
Px = 0 when y(20 2x y) = 0
Py = 20x x 2 2xy
D = 0 + 10 + 0 = 10
10.
382
x 3 4
7
9
10
y 78 86 138 145 156
Q dy
dQ Q dx
=
+
dt
x dt
y dt
y
200
175
150
125
100
75
0.2
50
25
x
2
(b)
= (20x)(0.02) + (20)
10
x
y
xy
x2
3
78
234
9
4
86
344
16
7
138
966
49
9
145
1,305
81
10
156
1,560
100
,
,
,
, 2
x
y
xy
x
= 33 = 603 = 4,409 = 255
m=
0.2
1
p(x, y) = x 1/3y 1/2
4
x = 129 8t
y = 15.60 + 0.2t
4184
Q=
p
59.
dQ dQ
=
dt
dp
dp
where
=
dt
dQ
=
dt
4184
2
p
dp
dt
p dx
p dy
+
y dt
x dt
1 2/3 1/2
x y
12
8
1 1/3 1/2
+
(0.2)
x y
8
2 t
57.
y(t) = 21 + 0.4 t
dQ
4184
=
(5)2
dt
8
1 1
4
12 25
2 2
1
1
5
(0.2)
+
8
4
3.00
or demand is decreasing at a rate of 3 pies per week.
Review Problems
383
dt
E dt
T dt
250 1/3 1/2
1
=
E
T
3
11
125 2/3 1/2
+
(0.21)
E T
2
1
250
=
(151)1/3(10)1/2
3
11
125
+
(151)2/3(10)1/2 (0.21)
2
113.19
or decreasing at a rate of 113 units per day.
r/2 s/3
63. N(r, s) = 40e
" "e
3
Pollution =
"
=
2
40er/2es/3ds dr
2
40er/2 3es/3 dr
3
"
er/2 e2/3 e1/3 dr
= 120
3
2/3
1/3
= 120 e
"
er/2dr
3
= 120 e2/3 e1/3 2er/2
e3/2 e1
7.056 units
65. With Q = x a y b , Qx = ax a1y b and Qy = bx a y b1.
xQx + yQy = x(ax a1y b ) + y(bx a y b1)
= (a + b)x a y b = (a + b)Q
If b = 1 a, then xQx + yQy = (a + b)Q = Q.