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March 2008 Issue 6

The magazine for the tunnelling professional

North America focus

Brightwater West; Site entitlement clauses

Tunnelling segments

San Vicente pipeline production techniques


Support and haulage vehicles
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BA (Arch) BA(Hons), DipBldgCons (RICS)

Production editor
Sub editor
Advertising production
Advertising manager
+44 (0)20 7216 6086
Advertising sales executive
+44 (0)20 7216 6053
World Tunnelling (ISSN 1756-4107) USPS No: 023-551
is published monthly (except January and July)
by Mining Communications Ltd, Albert House,
1 Singer Street London EC2A 4BQ England.
The 2008 US annual subscription price is US$170.
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Atlas Copco
Boart Longyear
Cov II

Visionaries open up new areas

wo news items this month will perhaps attract

more attention than others. The first (p9) concerns the recent unveiling of Strukton Groups
visionary plans for Amsterdam, involving a significant
amount of infrastructure being relocated underground.
Designed in conjunction with Amsterdam-based
architects Zwarts & Jansma, the visionary scheme aims
to improve Amsterdams
chronic traffic
problems and
improve the city
The other news
item, perhaps more
mundane but equally
significant for urban
development, concerns
the construction of a
Tesco supermarket
over a new concrete arch,
a railway

in Gerrards Cross, England (p6). The scheme shows how

a simple, concrete arch tunnel can yield land for
development. Rolled out on a larger scale that could
mean many extra hectares created out of nothing.
Both schemes exemplify tunnelling as a cost-effective,
environmentally-friendly way of increasing urban
space, opening up cities, making them more accessible
and creating new places that did not exist before.
But, it should be remembered that such schemes are
necessarily based upon an initial concept of tunnelling
as a means of improving the urban environment, allied
with the tunnelling sectors ability to advance that
concept expertly.
In the words of my predecessor Lawrie Williams,
tunnellers all need to learn to put forward their
viewpoint in as erudite a manner as possible, to
give them a chance to win their day for a more
environmentally-friendly solution to many urban
transportation problems.
George Demetri, Editor


1 Comment
3-9 Global news

A round-up of the latest news and technology

22-23 Innovation

Robbins conveyors on the Epping to Chatswood

(aka Parramatta) Rail Link in Sydney, Australia,
which featured two horizontal, two vertical and
one stacker conveyor. The horizontal conveyors
were crown-mounted and ran 6km in length with
more than 80% in curves

The latest equipment releases and upgrades

11 North America: Brightwater

The 6.4km-long Brightwater project combines TBM and micro-tunnelling

12-13 North America: Contractual procedure

Maschinen und Stahlbau Dresden
Robbins Cov III
RST Instruments


Dr Peter J. Tarkoy looks at site clauses that cover unforeseen conditions

14-15 Technology: Conveyors

Desiree Willis of Robbins Co looks at the improvements to todays systems

16-17 Interview: Alfred Haack

Rodney Craig discusses his old friend, Alfred Haack, who recently retired

18-19 Technology: Tunnelling segments


Sequentially lining the San Vicente Second Aqueduct Pipeline Project in the US

20-21 Equipment: Support/haulage vehicles

George Demetri gets to grips with a sector that is as huge as it is varied

March 2008
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0 5 .0 8 E

h e r r e n k n e c h t AG | u t i l i t y t u n n e l l i n g | T r a f f i c t u n n e l l i n g

Scotl an d: B r eakt h r ough

f or Ne ss i s H y dr op ow e r.
Britains most efficient hydropower plant is being built at the world-famous Loch Ness
in the Scottish Highlands. With 100 megawatts, it will produce sufficient power to
provide 250,000 people with environmentally-friendly electricity. The power plant is
located in a cavern below the south eastern lake shore and is supplied with water from
a reservoir through a tunnel that is almost 8 kilometers long.
In September 2006, the Herrenknecht S-351, a Gripper TBM with a diameter of
5.03 meters and the name Eliza Jane took up tunnelling with a gradient of up to 12
percent. The TBM cut through the hard rock with best weekly performances of up to 270
meters negotiating altitude differences of 600 meters. A top tunnelling performance
which helped to bring the project rapidly to completion: On January 7, 2008 the machine
reached its target ahead of schedule.


1x Gripper TBM
Diameter: 5,030mm
Driving power: 2,200kW
Tunnel length: 7,750m
Geology: hard rock

Construction AG

Herrenknecht AG
D-77963 Schwanau
Phone +497824302-0
Fax +4978243403

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Vinci/Eiffage win Marseilles

dual-deck tunnel contract

Cross-section through the

proposed double-deck Prado
tunnel in Marseilles

A CONSORTIUM led by French

infrastructure company Vinci
(58.5%) in partnership with
construction and concession
company Eiffage (41.5%) has won
the contract for the Prado Sud
tunnel concession in Marseilles,
France. The JV was recently
selected by the Marseille Provence
Metropolis Urban Community.
At 1.5km long, the
US$281million contract will
comprise constructing an extension
to the existing Prado Carenage
tunnel and will link the A50
motorway to the local road network
at the Avenue du Prado 2 and
Boulevard Michelet. Included in the
contract are the financing, design,
construction, maintenance and
operation of the tunnel in a
concession that will last 46 years.


New Zealand

Biggest little city

to host symposium
KNOWN as the biggest little city in
the world, Reno in Nevada, US,
will be the venue for the 12th US/
North American Mine Ventilation
Symposium, to be held on June
9-11. The event will include a
session on tunnel ventilation.
To be hosted by the University of
Nevada, Reno, Mackay School of
Earth Sciences and Engineering, it is
the first time a university has
partnered with a private firm to host
the event. Aimed at giving mine
ventilation experts, professionals
and students the opportunity to
network and exchange ideas, the
event will allow visitors to register
for workshops, technical field trips
and sightseeing trips. Attendance at
workshops and field trips, the
organisers say, may quality for
professional development hours for
PE and other certifications.
More details and registration:

Like the East tunnel currently

under construction on Paris A86
orbital motorway on which both
Vinci and Eiffage are involved, the
Prado Sud tunnel will also have
dual decks that will superimpose
two levels of traffic, both having
two lanes.
Width and height restrictions
of 3.2m will be needed in a
design that complies with current
safety regulations and is equipped
with a permanent surveillance
Financing the tunnel will be
through road tolls that will be paid
to the concession holder, the Prado
Sud company.
Work is scheduled to take five
years to complete and is expected
to last until spring 2013, when the
tunnel will begin operating.

Super tunnel
to end traffic
woes in
AUCKLAND, New Zealands
largest city, could get a 5km-long,
six-lane motorway tunnel to ease
its traffic congestion. Currently
considering its construction, the
government may soon be seeking
partners for the design, construction and operation of the project.
Part of a by-pass designed to
allow traffic to get from the citys
west to the south, the US$1.6billion Waterview Connection will
run from Mt Roskill to the
Northwestern Motorway and will
have a beneficial effect on the
citys economy.
Although other options are
being considered, a tunnel is
thought to be the favoured option,
which the government has said it

Intertunnel 08 ready

What is hailed as the largest

rail and tunnelling industry
exhibition returns to Lingotto,
near Turin. InterTunnel 2008 and
Expo Ferroviaria will be held
in parallel from May 20-22 in
Turin. This InterTunnel promises
to be a lively event, featuring
leading suppliers of equipment,
products and services. Visitors
are expected from government,
infrastructure management,
public service companies,
contractors, consultants, other
tunnel specialists and health &
safety people.
More details:
Melbourne event

Melbourne will host the 13th

Australian Tunnelling Conference
from May 4-7 at the Hilton on the
Park hotel. The theme will be
Engineering in a changing
environment to reflect the
environmental, technical, legal
and social frameworks associated
with tunnelling projects. It will be
opened by Ken Mathers, CEO of
South Eastern Integrated Transport
Authority. Other speakers include
Dr Martin Herrenknecht and John
Gardiner, CEO of ConnectEast on
the EastLink project.

would like completed by 2015.

If a public-private partnership is
used to build the tunnel, much of
the money would come from the
private sector, in which case the
tunnel is likely to be a toll tunnel.
A steering group is assembled to
ascertain whether the private
sector should be involved.
Located at around 50m below
ground level, a deep tunnel would
not be that much more expensive
than a cut and cover, according to
finance minister Michael Cullen,
once the cost of acquiring property
is taken into account. Tunnelling
investigations are ongoing, before
the acquisition of any land.

Some 125,000 industry

professionals are due to descend
on Las Vegas, US, for Conexpo,
the triennial construction
exhibition and conference
highlighting equipment, products,
technology and services. The
exhibition (March 11-15), at the
Las Vegas Convention Center,
should attract 2,300 exhibitors
spread over 195,000m2 of indoor
and outdoor space. During the
five-day exposition, the organisers
look set to host over 120
education sessions. It is supported
by 85 industry organisations from
around the world.
More details:

March 2008
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WT to catch chill from

Chinese steel woes?

Excavation begins on Hindhead

Tunnel project

TUNNELLING around the

world faces higher steel prices
resulting from turmoil in the
Chinese market. Freezing
conditions in January caused
havoc in a country that is no
newcomer to heavy winters.
The resulting surge in the
demand for coal prompted the
authorities to urge industry to
cut back production in a bid to
save electricity for domestic
heating and essential services.
Several mills did cut back, some
even shut for an unspecified
period but it seems it will take
some time for production to get
back to normal levels. Laiwu
Steel in Shandong province,
Eastern China, was asked to
reduce its energy consumption
by 100,000kWh to match that
being saved by the city.
At the time of writing, rebar
and steel rod have hit 70-100/t
in the UK. But a freezing winter
does not necessarily cause
higher steel prices on its own
and other factors have
conspired to cause the rise in
Chinese steel prices. Higher
Chinese taxes on long product
exports, for instance, like rebar,
rod and sections, encouraged
by heightened EU and US
political pressure aimed at
curtailing Chinese exports are
partly to blame. International
pressure to strengthen the RMB
currency has also not helped.
To make matters worse, the
rise of the euro by 10% against
the UK pound and the US
dollar has served to heighten
the crisis. All of this may mean
higher construction costs for
tunnelling, and it is unclear
how long the situation will last.

EXCAVATION work has begun on

the Hindhead Tunnel in Surrey,
England, which will take the main
A3 dual carriageway beneath the
Devils Punch Bowl at Hindhead.
Transport Secretary Ruth Kelly
witnessed the start of excavation
works for the 1.9km-long, twin
bore tunnel that will become the
UKs longest under-land road
tunnel and will do much to
enhance an area of outstanding
natural beauty. Work first started
on the project in January last year.
Projected to take around
30,000 vehicles daily, the tunnel is
part of a 371 million, 6.5km dual
carriageway upgrading and will
eradicate all traces of the existing
road from the landscape, not least
eliminate the notorious traffic light
bottleneck at Hindhead.
Tunnelling has began at the
northern portal and also should
start at the southern end in April,
with the two tunnels meeting up in
early 2009. Excavation through the

through the

predominantly Hythe Bed

sandstone formations will be
carried out by three Liebherr 944
excavators, with at least two operating at any one time. Also used will
be Liebherr L566T wheeled loaders,
Meyco Potenza Logica15 shotcrete
robots, ITC TE210 electric tracked
excavators and Sandvik Axera 8
(two-boom and basket) drilling
jumbos. A conveyor will evacuate
the spoil but at the southern end it
will be taken through the tunnel to
the northern end to avoid using the
A3 road.
Initially, the heading will be
excavated in 1-2m lengths, then
supported using steel fibrereinforced shotcrete. Excavation of
the bench will take place around
100m away from the heading, and
be followed by the excavation of

the invert. When completed, the

tunnel will receive a secondary
concrete lining to provide a
smooth finish and a fire-resistant
Work will be carried out on a
24/7 basis, until excavation is
completed by March 2009. In
2011, when the tunnel opens to
traffic, the existing A3 will be
closed and restoration can begin
to restore the site to its former
natural state.
Congratulating the Highways
Agency, Mrs Kelly said: The new
tunnel will bury the road deep
beneath this protected landscape
and ease congestion at this
notorious bottleneck improving
journeys on the vital Portsmouth
to London route.


Conference on fire suppression

TUNNELLING professionals from
all over the world will convene in
Munich, Germany, for an
international tunnel safety
conference entitled Fire Suppression in Tunnels, from April 2-3.
Aimed at consultants, safety
engineers, tunnel operators,
government bodies, fire brigades,
insurers and manufacturers, the
conference will focus on fixed fire
suppression systems and will also
cover related topics such as
detection, reliability and cost.

Presentations will be in
English and /or German.
Experts from government,
research bodies and the fire
protection industry will be
presenting their latest findings and
there will also be a get-together on
April 1, where participants are
encouraged to join informal, first
off-topic discussions at Hofbrhaus.
International Tunnelling
Association (ITA) President Martin
Knights said of the conference:

1 m

ITA recognises safety is the key

operator in existing and new tunnel
infrastructure. Conferences like this
that allow government, designers
and engineers the opportunity to
view the latest developments can
only be a good thing.
More details from:



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21.2.2008 14:22:54


Largest mobile
grouter on
Stockholm tunnel
A UNIGROUT mobile grouting
unit, claimed to be the largest
in the world, has been supplied
by Atlas Copco to Swedish
contractor Veidekke Entrepreneur
AS, for use on the new Norra
Lnken road tunnel project in
An all-in-one automated
grouting plant that mixes, pumps
and records the grouting process,
the unit is primarily designed for
tunnelling applications where
leakage and inux of water
may be a problem; or where
groundwater levels are not
allowed to vary.
Constantine Spinos, Veidekkes
tunnelling contract manager in
Stockholm, said: We lose money
if the equipment malfunctions so
we are dependent on the grouting
units efciency and reliability.


Supermarket tunnel ready for rebuild

looks set to resume work on its
2,300m2 Gerrards Cross store,
following the collapse in 2005 of
the tunnel onto which the
proposed structure was being
The original plan envisaged a
new store and car park to be built
over the railway cutting carrying
the Chiltern Line. This necessitated a 300m-long segmental
concrete arch structure that would
also create a tunnel. But on June
30 2005, part of the tunnel being
built by main contractor Jackson
collapsed, necessitating a halt in
the works and causing a seven
week closure of the line.
Since the disaster, a thorough
investigation by contractor Costain
and design engineer Scott Wilson
of what went wrong has been
conducted, although Tescos
Michael Kissman was unable to
divulge any details due to legal

A new reinforced concrete arch will support the supermarket

But he told WT that everything
was in place for work to start on
dismantling the original building
frame as a new tunnel design had
been developed with Costain and
Scott Wilson. This involved an
additional reinforced concrete arch
over the original segmental arch to
bear the load of the store. Backll
material surrounding the tunnel
would be removed and the existing
tunnel elements structure would
be strengthened. Tescos website

hails the new design as substantially more robust than other

proposed options.
Costains Mike Sawyer said :
We will construct a new
reinforced concrete arch over the
top, using the existing units as
permanent formwork. That will
create a more robust structure that
doesnt depend on the backll for
strength and increases the factors
of safety for the structure. The
new store is scheduled to open in
March 2010.


Motorway, tunnels to open up Akamas

IT LOOKS like a new motorway
and tunnels will bring new life
to the west of Cyprus, after the
Kinyras consortium was named
preliminary preferred bidder for
the 30-year PPP deal.
Leading the consortium will
be local infrastructure company
J&P (45%) in alliance with the
French infrastructure company
Vinci Concessions (40%) and
Cybarco (15%). Comprising
31km of motorway, three tunnels
and nine viaducts, the contract
includes the nancing, design
and operation of the motorway
linking the well-developed
western resort of Paphos with the

hitherto-undeveloped northwest
of the island.
The US$682 million project
will come as a blow to
environmentalists, given the
Akamas regions hitherto special
status as the islands last
extensive area of outstanding
wildlife habitats.
This is Cypruss rst PublicPrivate Partnership contract for
road infrastructure. Due to last
four-and-a-half years, the work
will be carried out by a
consortium comprising J&P
(60%), VINCI Construction
Grands Projets (20%) and
Cybarco (20%).


Armadillo progressing well in So Paulo

APTLY named Tatuzo (Big
Armadillo), the megashield TBM
that is boring Line 4 of Sao Paulos
metro has now reached the
proposed Oscar Freire station.
Between now and the middle of

March, the TBM will undergo a

period of inspection and
maintenance, after which it will be
heaved to the end part of the
station to start boring the tunnel
from Paulista station.

March 2008
03-04,06,08-09WT0803.indd 6

25/2/08 11:06:58

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25/2/08 09:50:38


Robbins TBM digs deep Down Under

FOLLOWING the recent signing of
a contract between Yarra Valley
Water and John Holland
Construction last year, a new 3mdiameter Robbins double-shield
TBM will excavate a 3.2km-long
sewer tunnel beneath Melbournes
northern suburbs as part of the
Northern Sewerage Project Stage 2.
It is expected to start excavation in
late August 2008, having been built
at Robbins Ohio, US facility.
Launched from a 35m-deep
shaft, the TBM will be armed with

The Newlands Road Shaft will

provide the launching point for a
3.0m Robbins TBM in Melbourne

17in cutters to bore through basalt

rock, ranging from 60 to 270MPa
UCS. As it excavates, full muck
cars will be hoisted up the shaft


NFM wins two more China orders

NFM Technologies continues its

progress in China following its
recent announcement that it
has received an order for two
5.75m diameter, hard-rock
tunnelling machines for use on
the project to divert the Tahoe
River, a tributary of the Yellow

River. Delivery should take 11

Worth about US$23million,
the contracts cover design,
construction, delivery and
commissioning of the two
The first, a single shield

and side-dumped into a spoils bin

for removal by rubber-tired
vehicles. However, the proximity of
houses has necessitated site
modifications that include
vibration monitoring and an
acoustic shed to dampen noise.
Ken Muir, project manager for
John Holland Construction, said:
Most civil tunnel works in

Australia in recent years have been

undertaken using road headers and
soft or mixed ground TBMs.
This is an opportunity to
demonstrate how hard rock TBMs
can perform.
Overall, the entire Northern
Sewerage Project is worth around
US$582 million and involves the
construction of 13km of sewer
ranging from 1.6-2.5m diameter id
Stage 2 involves 4.5km of tunnel
and is scheduled for completion by

TBM, is for the China Railway

Tunnel Group Company
(CRTGC); the second, a
telescopic shield TBM, is for
Sino-Italian group CMC
Ravenna and Synohydro
Engineering Bureau 4.
Diverting the Tahoe is part of
the Yintao project begun in
2006 which aims to bring
drinking water to Gansu

province in the northwest of the

country. TBMs T7 and T9
are expected to excavate
17.2km and 18.2km respectively during the first phase of
the work.
NFM has stated that with the
15 machines sold in China
during the last 18 months, it
has orders worth over
US$190.1 million.


Data Acquisition Systems

for automated
monitoring of
in tunnelling

Strabag acquires Adanti

ONE of Europes largest construction groups, Strabag of Austria, has
acquired in its entirety the Italian
construction group Adanti Spa.
Strabag claims the Bolognabased company operates in all
areas of Italian construction as well
as specific know-how of
Strabag itself is no stranger to
tunnelling. It is hoping to position
Adanti as one of the leading
construction companies in Italy.
Adanti generated revenues of

160million in 2007 and currently

has 370 employees.
Haselsteiner, said: Adanti fits into
the group excellently. Its high
technological competence and
market position gives us the
opportunity to develop our
business in Italy in all sectors.
Backed by our corporate structure,
we want to turn Adanti into one of
the leading construction
companies in Italy in the medium

Vibrating Wire
NATM Stress Cells

1 603 448 1562

03-04,06,08-09WT0803.indd 8

Strabag was involved on the Copenhagen Metro, completed in 2002

March 2008
25/2/08 11:07:31


The Netherlands

New tunnel could open Thames gateway

Life underground in Amsterdam

PROPOSALS for a new road and

rail tunnel under the River Thames
are being examined by the Dept
for Transport and the Environment
Agency, following the unveiling of
plans by business consortium
The multi-billion-pound scheme
envisages an immersed concrete
tube tunnel laid in a trench
between Medway and Canvey
Island, east of London on the
borders of Essex and Kent.
If built, the tunnel would

to locate a
significant amount
of Amsterdams
underground were
unveiled recently by
civil engineering group Strukton.
Owned by Dutch Rail, the
Group envisages facilities such
as cinemas, shops, gyms and the
household waste disposal
system to be buried in the citys
clay soil, while multi-storey car

facilitate the governments overall

development plan for the Thames
Gateway area.
A spokesman for Medway
Council, in whose area the
proposed tunnel would lie,
told WT that it had received no
proposals from Metrotidal but in
any case would not view
sympathetically any development
that might disrupt the Cliffe
Marshes an important bird
habitat of special scientific

parks could be built

under the citys
canals. Expected to
US$14.7billion, the
project will aim to
alleviate Amsterdams traffic problems and
improve city air quality, as well
as make the city more
economically attractive to
residents. It is envisaged it
would take up to 20 years to


Italian headrace tunnel will get a summer start

JUNE will see the start of tunnelling
for the 9.15km-long headrace
tunnel at the Crevola Toce III
hydropower scheme, awarded
recently by Enel to a joint venture
led by Monti and Giacomini
Comm. Alberto and also including
With outer and inner diameters

of 4.2 and 3.9m respectively and a

cross section of 13.85m2, the
tunnel will be excavated using a
combination of TBM (8,589m) and
drill and blast (565m).
Along the tunnel alignment are
an assortment of fine grain granitic
gneiss, metasediments, marble,
dolomite and calcareous clayey

schists, anhydrite and micashists.

Seli has designed the double
shield TBM to be compact, easy to
transport, assemble and operate,
while at the same time maintain
productivity and keep costs down.
Manufactured at Selis Aprilia
factory in Italy, the DSU Compact
TBM System will be kitted-out to

allow the installation of traditional

support methods that include
rockbolts, welded mesh, steel
arches, shotcrete, fibre-glass
rods and steel bars, depending on
the geology encountered.
Tunnelling is scheduled to
be completed by September 15,


Mega rail project commissioned

An 11m-diameter, 9.2km-long
TBM-driven tunnel that will be
the first part of a three-stage
scheme in the Buenos Aires area
is part of a project commissioned to the Nuevo Sarmiento
consortium, which submitted
the lowest bid. The line will link
the capital to the western
Greater Buenos Aires suburbs of
La Matanza, Morn, Castelar
and Moreno.
Comprising the Argentine
company Iesca, the Brazilian
firm Odebrecht, Spains Grupo
Comsa and Italys Ghella, the
consortium is tasked to build

the first phase to drive

underground 9.2km of the
Sarmiento line between
Caballito and Liniers stations
for US$1.35 billion. It will have
to be completed in 36 months
and will include a series of
ramps, six stations and a
maintenance workshop. The
larger scheme is worth
US$3.35billion and will see
32.6km of tunnel excavated
under the existing tracks.
Tunnelling the line
underground is seen as one of
the biggest-ever rail projects
carried out in the capital.


Istanbul metro
A LOVAT RME257SE Series 23100
TBM recently broke through at
Kirazli Station in Istanbul, Turkey,
thereby completing 1,307m of its
first drive on the current phase of
the citys metro project.

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The third Lovat machine

delivered to the Gulermak-Dogus
JV, the TBM has encountered
predominantly soft ground
mainly clays, silts and sands, with
EPB pressures of up to 5 bar.

March 2008
03-04,06,08-09WT0803.indd 9


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BOART WT.indd 1

21/2/08 15:32:09

NORTH AMERICA: Brightwater

Bright idea for Seattle sewers

The 6.4km-long Brightwater project combines TBM- and micro-tunnelling

RIGHTWATER West Contract is a 6.4kmlong, segmentally-lined sewer tunnel that

combines TBM- and micro-tunnelled
sections as part of a larger scheme designed to
meet Seattles sewerage demands. It is located
north of Seattle in the village of Richmond Beach,
a part of Shoreline, Washington. The general
contractor for the project is the joint venture (JV)
of Jay Dee Coluccio Taisei, acting on behalf of
King County, Washington state.
The JV is composed of Jay Dee Contractors Inc
of Livonia, Michigan, Frank Coluccio Construction Company, Seattle, and Taisei Corporation of
Japan. The project was bid in October 2006 with
the JV submitting the lowest (US$102.5 million)
and awarded in January 2007, with notice to
proceed given on February 20.
The project consists of a Point Wells portal site
an excavation about 9.14m deep and 12.2m x
59.44m. It will be used as a launch portal for the
BT-4 earth-pressure balanced tunnel-boring
machine to drive the 6,431m-long, segmentallylined tunnel with a 3.96m minimum internal
diameter. Around 152.4m of the tunnel will
comprise 2,130mm inside-diameter microtunnelled efuent sewer. This micro-tunnel will
house a 1,830mm-diameter steel pipeline from
the main tunnel, the last 762m of which is lined
with a 3.05m-diameter steel pipe, through a ow
meter vault ending in a receiving pit where it will
connect with a marine outfall pipeline that will
be constructed under a separate contract.

Jet grout rigs at shaft site

beneath the Burlington Northern Santa Fe railroad
(BNSFRR). The job-site eld ofces have been set
up and the contractor has moved from the
temporary ofces in Shoreline WA.
The site grading, drainage and temporary
access roads have been completed. Equipment is
being mobilised on site, including a Manitowoc
14000 crane. The JV is installing steel sheeting
and jet-grouting the break-out areas for the main



Standard and customized instruments

The geology for Section 4 is broadly the same as
for the Brightwater East Contract (WT,
WT, December
2007, pp10-12). Bedrock lies at depths of 122m
to 457m and will not be encountered during
construction, but it is overlain by glacial and
non-glacial sediments through which the tunnel
will be built. One feature that has resulted from
depositional glaciation is the sequence of aquifers
and aquitards. Due to groundwater movement
between upper and underlying aquifers, natural
changes in groundwater levels are anticipated
throughout the tunnel alignment.

As of the writers visit in October 2007, the JV
has completed all site
set-up and has started
the support of the
main shaft and microtunnel. All utilities are
installed, including two
pipe-rammed casings

11WT0803.indd 11

and micro-tunnel operations. All of the jetgrouting return spoil has been contained for
disposal to prevent contamination. The receiving
shaft for the micro-tunnel is almost to grade and
a second jet-grouting set-up is being started.
A Lovat 4.7m-diameter EPB TBM is being
manufactured in the Lovat plant in Toronto,
Canada, for the tunnel drive and it is scheduled
for delivery in March.
The concrete tunnel segments will be made by
CSI/Hanson JV, in Tacoma Washington. All
6,431m of tunnel will be driven from the shaft
portal at Point Wells in Richmond Beach to the
Ballinger Way Shaft being constructed, with
freezing of the overburden on the Central
Contract where the EPB TBM will break through
and be retrieved.
Major subcontractors include Delta Technology Corp for HVAC, J.P. Francis & Associates Inc
for plumbing and mechanical, and United States
Electrical Corp of Washington for both temporary
and permanent electrical work.

Piezometers Extensometers Load cells

Total pressure cells Temperature sensors
Strain gauges Data acquisition systems
Onsite technical assistance also available

Vacuum pipes
from jet-grout
carry spoil to the
collector units for
safe disposal


ISO 9001:2000 certied

25/2/08 13:02:16

NORTH AMERICA: Contractual procedure

Managing the unforeseen

Geotechnical and underground-construction consultant Dr. Peter J. Tarkoy looks
at site clauses designed to facilitate the contractual procedure when unforeseen
conditions are encountered

SC, the differing site condition clause,

has been used in US construction since
1926. Global trends have tailored and
altered the assignment of risk in construction,
consistent with the DSC clause. Our experience
of representing owners, engineers and contractors
in association with differing site condition
claims has led us to discover persistent failings
in a system that administers and attempts to
resolve these claims.
This paper will address these timely issues
associated with the administration of differing
site conditions:
nElements of entitlement;
nGeotechnical baseline reports;
nUtilisation of all available information;
nReasonable interpretation and assessment
of available information;
nDispute review boards;
nRecommendations for inclusion into contract

The required technical elements to establish
entitlement have not changed, but merely
become more distinctive. Outlined in Tarkoy
(1988, 1998), they are listed for inclusion in
contract specications with the DSC clause.
They are:
nThere must be a difference between
reasonable anticipated and documented
encountered conditions;
nThere has to be a difference between
reasonable anticipated and documented
encountered construction performance;
nA cause-and-effect relationship must be
demonstrable between the differences in
conditions and difference in construction
nThere must be a demonstrable impact on time
or costs;
nContract conditions must be fullled (reliance,
notice, mitigation), and
nNo other factors (self-inicted) can have
caused the difference between anticipated and
encountered performance.
To date, there has not been a direct link between
the Elements for Entitlement and the typical
DSC clause. The consistency of these elements
with a typical DSC clause used by many public
agencies is illustrated in the box.

Photo A: the encountered rock was

just as indicated by the rock core


Geotechnical baseline reports have been
conducive in establishing the baseline from
which any differences are measured. Yet,
resolutions have been troublesome and plagued
with uncertainty as a result of incomplete or
unsuitable anticipated properties. For example,
test results often do not reect the full range
of known mechanical properties experienced
in a locality in the past. In such cases, the
geotechnical engineer should extend anticipated
conditions beyond the test results with known
local experience, preferably quantitatively, as
illustrated in diagram 2.


If not all available data is used by a contractor,
the baseline and bidding eld is altered. A
contractors failure to examine and use all
available data is not uncommon. In one case,
the rock core was not examined and the
contractor failed to comprehend the massive
nature of the rock (diagram 3) to be excavated
by hydraulic-impact hammer. The encountered
rock was just as indicated by the rock core, as

Diagram 3: a massive rock core that was

misinterpreted as being easy to excavate

illustrated in photo A. It is well known that

excavation of rock by impact hammer relies on
such rock-mass properties as fracture frequency,
weathering and mass strength (photo B).

One of the ongoing problems facing adjudicators
of differing site-condition claim entitlements is
the reasonableness of interpretations of
anticipated conditions into material behaviour
under construction conditions, selection of
means, methods, equipment, and interpretation
into construction performance.
Diagram 3 illustrates a massive rock core that
was misinterpreted as being easy to excavate
because the contractor interpreted foliation to
be equivalent to discontinuities. The rock was
too massive (closely-spaced discontinuities
lacking) for impact-hammer excavation and
had to be blasted, as illustrated in photo A.
Closely-spaced discontinuities are necessary to
excavate in-situ rock with an impact hammer,
as illustrated in photo B.
One way to ensure a reasonable interpretation
is to require bidders to require the contractor to
provide a list of assumptions and methods of
interpretation, such as literature and relationships
used to interpret:
nGround behaviour;
nStability of opening;
nExcavation behaviour, and
nSelection of means, methods, equipment and
excavation rates.

March 2008
12-13WT0803.indd 12

25/2/08 10:13:39

Uniaxial compressive strength (MPa)

NORTH AMERICA: Contractual procedure

Diagram 2: extending anticipated conditions based on local experience






As with all other adjudicating bodies, DRBs
depend on the knowledge, experience and
thinking of the individual members. It is
essential that, in addition to experience and
understanding of geotechnical, engineering,
and construction issues, the board members
must recognise the necessity of fullling
all of the six elements necessary for
Without a clear pathway and checklist for
establishing or denying entitlement, both parties
tend to be unhappy with the adjudicating
opinions. In the past, the ASCE and DRBF
co-sponsored a continuing education course on
the elements of entitlement for DSC claims.
However, that programme lapsed recently.

In our experience, total cost claims are often
presented that do not address, rely on or
establish the underlying cause of increased
costs. In other words, total cost claims overlook
or avoid establishing entitlement. Too
commonly, entitlement is asserted with little or
no proof at all. The basis of the claim relies on
the quantum conjured up.
In order to ensure entitlement is fully
considered, established and conrmed prior to
addressing the quantum of the claim, we
recommend the addition of specic conditions
for entitlement. First, we recommend that the
Elements for Entitlement be included in the
specications following the differing site condition clause. In addition, it must be
stated that the contractor is required to:
nRely on all available geotechnical
nView all soil and rock samples;
nWalk-tunnel alignment;
nProvide evidence of reasonable
interpretation into material behaviour,
nAnalyse, establish and present
entitlement according to the Elements
for Entitlement.

Photo B: closely-spaced discontinuities are necessary to

excavate in-situ rock with an impact hammer

These elements are provided in

section 1 and have been discussed
by Tarkoy (1988, 1998). For more
information, visit these web sites: and

Tarkoy, P. J. (1988) What Claims are Made Of. World Tunnelling 1(3):249-253 (September 1988).
Tarkoy, P. J. (1998) Differing Site Conditions. World Tunnelling (March 1998).
Dr. Peter J. Tarkoy is a geotechnical and underground construction consultant specialising in preventing
and solving problems in tunneling and heavy construction, adjudicating differing site condition claims,
reducing cost and risk in tunneling and tunnel boring.

Article 106: differing

site conditions
(a) The Contractor shall promptly, and before
such conditions are disturbed, notify the
Engineer in writing of: (1) latent physical
conditions at the site differing materially from
those indicated in the Contract Documents
(sometimes referred to as a `Type I Differing
Site Condition); or (2) physical conditions at
the site, of an unusual nature, differing
materially from those ordinarily encountered
and generally recognized as inherent in work
of the character provided for in this Contract
but unknown to the Contractor until
encountered during prosecution of the Work
(sometimes referred to as a Type II Differing
Site Condition). The Engineer shall promptly
investigate such condition(s) to determine if the
condition(s) constitute a differing site condition
as described in sub-clauses (1) or (2) above.
Should the Engineer determine that a differing
site condition exists which causes an increase
or decrease in the Contractors cost of, or the
time required for, performance of any part of
the Work, the Engineer shall notify the
Contractor of same, and within a reasonable
time, not to exceed fteen days, Contractor
shall provide a detailed Change Order Proposal
in accordance with Article 404, Change
Order Procedure and Basis for Payment. The
Engineers determination shall be subject to
review by the Disputes Review Board as set
forth in Article 803, Disputes Resolution
(b) No claim for an extension of time and/or an
equitable adjustment by the Contractor due to
a differing site condition under this Article shall
be allowed unless: (i) the condition giving rise
to such claim could not have been discovered
during a reasonable site inspection prior to
award (whether or not same was actually
conducted) and was not otherwise reasonably
foreseeable, and (ii) the Contractor has given
the notice required in (a) above, and has met
all requirements in Article 205, Extension of
Time. In addition, any proposal by the
Contractor for additional time and/or
compensation due to a Type I Differing Site
Condition shall include specic reference to
the relevant section of the Geotechnical
Baseline Report or other Contract Document
which the Contractor claims gives rise to such
entitlement, with adequate explanation and
documentation to support its claim to the
Engineer, including appropriate documentation
that there was a substantial difference in the
actual site conditions from a condition stated in
the Geotechnical Baseline Report or other
Contract Document, that it impacted on the
Contractors prosecution of the Work, and that
the condition is one for which the negative
impact could not have been avoided by
reasonable efforts made by the Contractor.

March 2008
12-13WT0803.indd 13

25/2/08 10:13:40


Boost for TBM conveyors

Desiree Willis of Robbins Co outlines how advancing technology has made
todays conveyor systems more versatile, stronger and energy-efcient

NNOVATION in conveyor design must take

into account many parameters, including
bore diameter and type of TBM, muck chip
size, rock abrasiveness and moisture content,
not to mention the tunnel prole.

As an alternative to fabric belt, steel-cable belt
is becoming important in todays conveyors,
thanks to its higher strength and ability to be
used with more powerful drives. On longer
tunnels, higher power motors greatly reduce the
need for booster drives, which, though adding
power to the belt along the tunnel length, can
be difcult to install and are often costly to
assemble and maintain.
Steel-cable belt was recently used on a large
tunnelling project in Liaoning, China. Two
8m-diameter Robbins main-beam TBMs bored
the Dahuofang Water Tunnel; a large reservoirdiversion project comprising two tunnel sections
of 19.3km and 16km in length. Two steel-cable

belt conveyor systems were designed for the

drives, with multiple-drive motors of 900kW
each (300kW is typical). The powerful drives
eliminated the need for several booster drives.
However, steel cable belt has limitations. It
has high tension and cannot be bent on sharper
curves, making it efcient only for mostly
straight paths. Fabric belt can negotiate curves
easily because it does not have the rigidity of a
steel-cable belt, although additional booster
drives may be needed in curved areas.

Variable-frequency drives (VFDs) are a
recent innovation and are now the
preferred control system over hydraulic
couplings as they control acceleration
better during start-up. The system
actively sets the speed and torque that
a drive contributes to the conveyor in
both single- and multiple-drive set-ups.
So, a controlled start-up is possible and

Part of the conveyor system on the East Side Access

TBM project in New York City, US, showing the vertical
conveyor rising out of the Queens shaft at the site

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Backfill systems

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14-15WT0803.indd 14

25/2/08 09:33:33

belt tension is kept low to reduce stress, and allow
certain types of belt to negotiate tunnel curves.
Variable-frequency drives are more costeffective and reliable, and require less routine
maintenance than hydraulic couplings, explains
Butch Riffe, chief engineer for Robbins conveyor
systems. The drive systems are much cheaper
because they use AC 3-phase motors, which
require less maintenance than earlier, DC
motors. Newer systems are also digitised, so a
separate frequency motor is not needed to
control the torque supplied by each drive.
Since their power output is controlled, VFDs
are more energy-efcient than their hydrauliccoupling counterparts. The latter are still used,
mainly on single-drive systems and shorter
tunnels that do not require a booster drive.
These coupling systems offer a smooth start-up
for the simpler motors that operate on one speed.


Curved tunnel paths are one of the biggest challenges for muck-hauling systems. Self-adjusting
curve idlers, patented by Robbins, help to solve
the problem by pivoting to accommodate changing load tensions around curves. The pivoting
action does not unnecessarily alter the carrying
capacity of the conveyor or the belt tension.
Self-adjusting curve idlers were used successfully
in the crown-mounted position for the Epping-to-

Chatswood conveyor system, which had a curved

tunnel path for over 80% of the bore.
New developments in curve idlers have made
them even more vital for conveyor design.
Recent decreases in the weight of the carrying
idler assembly have improved worker safety by
making them easier to lift. The reduced weight
makes it easier for workers to install idlers
through the installation window, which means
less possible back injuries, says Riffe.
curve idler

New York Citys East Side Access project involves
a job site in downtown Manhattan; one of the
worlds largest urban centres. An innovative
Robbins continuous conveyor system at the site
is using every type of commonly-recognised belt
conveyor to transport muck 150m away from the
tunnel portal. Most notably, the system has been
designed with three overland conveyors, the

second of which must cross a busy roadway.

The 48m-long conveyor was built with a
completely-enclosed box truss about 6m above
the roadway and under existing rail lines. As of
January, the system has been highly successful,
achieving 95% system availability on average.


TBM projects are becoming more extensive and
Indias AMR Project is no exception. The project,
for which two 10m-diameter double-shield
TBMs are being assembled, will be the worlds
longest TBM-driven tunnel without intermediate
access. The tunnel, at 43.5km in length, presents
unique challenges for conveyors.
The entire continuous-conveyor system will
be broken up into short ights with multipledrive motors, requiring belt to be added inside
the tunnel. Two 914mm-wide steel-cable belt
conveyor systems, each 22.5km long, will
operate from either side of the tunnel as the
TBMs bore. On each side, the conveyors will be
split into two ights of 11.3km in length. A dual,
300 kW main drive and booster drive will power
each conveyor ight. Once the TBMs bore the
rst 11.3 km of their respective drives, the xed
tailpiece will be installed at the tunnel portal
and the belt storage cassette will be moved
inside the tunnel, allowing for the continuous
addition of belt to the next conveyor ight.

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14-15WT0803.indd 15

25/2/08 09:33:40

INTERVIEW: Alfred Haack

Haacks retirement leaves a

gap in the sector
Rodney Craig discusses his old friend, Alfred Haack,
who recently retired from a long and distinguished
career in tunnelling

LFRED Haack retired in December 2007

after 41 years at STUVA, the German
tunnelling research organisation. Although he has given up his management responsibilities for retirement, he is still working 12-14
hours a day and will do so for the next few
years. His immense experience will not be lost
to the industry, at least for the present time.


Alfred Haack,
who retired
last December

16-17WT0803.indd 16

Haack was born in 1940. Having completed a

degree in civil engineering, he rst worked on
motorway bridges and in January 1967 joined
STUVA as a young engineer. Founded in 1960,
the non-prot research organisation specialised
mainly in underground construction, but has

since expanded into railway and road transport.

Today, it has become the tunnelling research
establishment of the western hemisphere.
Under the management of Gunter Girnau,
Haacks rst task was to investigate the art of
waterproong tunnels, a subject that is still one
of his two specialities. His other passion is
tunnel res and he has become the world
authority on this subject. Yet his knowledge and
experience in tunnelling extends outside these
two areas.
Haacks PhD thesis was on Fire protection
during the construction of tunnels, for which he
carried out a series of re tests, rst in the open
and then underground. The background to the
tests and his PhD thesis was a re accident in

25/2/08 09:43:21

INTERVIEW: Alfred Haack
the Munich metro, in which three people died.
There was also a second tunnel re in 1972. In
both cases, the res were started in areas where
bituminous waterproong materials were being
installed which caused dense smoke and toxic
fumes in the tunnels
In my four-hour informal talk with Haack last
January, he reminisced at length about his early
career. In 1977, when Girnau retired, Haack
was appointed managing director of Stuva, a
position which he has held for 31 years. In
1995, he was appointed to the Board. In 1996, a
separate daughter company STUVAtec was set
up to carry out commercial work for the
industry, leaving the basic research to the nonprot side of STUVA. The German Tunnel
journal was started in 1982 and shortly after that
date, became the ofcial journal of STUVA.
During Haacks time at STUVA, he has written
an amazing number of reports and lectures. He
is responsible for 284 reports and has given 438
lectures at seminars, conferences and other
events. He has lectured all over the world,
regularly giving more than 20 lectures a year,
with a peak of 28 in 2006. His caring, deliberate
endeavour to learn and his kindness to others has
meant that he has often spoken for at least some
of the time in the native language of the country
where he is lecturing. In this capacity, he has
spoken in 19 different languages.

Haack represented Germany on the PIARC Working Group No. 6 on Fire and Safety since
1988, but has recently resigned following the completion of the last ve-year phase and the
publication of its report. Haack had a major inuence in the working groups work, enjoying the
meetings and meeting many friends over the period.
Alfred Haack has had a monumental 41 years in the tunnelling industry and all his many
hundreds of friends around the world give him their best wishes as he moves slowly into his
retirement. But we all look forward greatly to meeting him at some future meeting.


In 1970, Haack and Girnau represented Germany
at the OECD Conference in Washington on the
future of tunnelling. Since the formation of the
International Tunnelling Association (ITA) in 1974
when nations started forming their own
tunnelling societies, Haack has been very active
in the working groups and has attended more
meetings than any other national representative.
Haack took his term of ofce seriously and
made it his task to attend as many of the
member nations conferences that he could. He
loved travelling the world and meeting people
and seeing their countries and, whenever
possible, he took a few extra days to explore the
countries. His presidency included the 25th
anniversary meeting held in Oslo, Norway,
when he had a private audience with the king.
Haack has been a major part of the ITA for

more than 30 years. His contribution to their

meeting has been enormous, initially representing Germany on the executive council, as
president and past president, and recently as
elder spokesperson.
Sir Alan Muir Wood, the ITA Honorary
President, said of Haack: Alfred was a tower of
strength, indefatigable, loyal and always with
good ideas for future development. His
contribution to tunnelling extended well beyond
his period of presidency and as a member of the
executive council.
In his tribute to Haack in Tunnel Magazine,
ITA president Martin Knights said: Alfred stands
out as the supreme mentor, a role model, a
leader, a beacon of good standards, someone to
go to for advice, a lighthouse where he attracts
attention; he warns and advises; he guides you;
and weathers every storm.

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25/2/08 09:43:30

TECHNOLOGY: Tunnelling segments

Segmentally lining the San

Vicente aqueduct tunnel

HE 17km-long San Vicente Aqueduct

Pipeline tunnel is being constructed
using precast concrete rings to act as
preliminary ground support through two
sections of bored tunnel with lengths of
2.9km and 10.27km. The six-segment, bolted,
trapezoidal ring is made from a combination
of steel bre-reinforced concrete and selfcompacting concrete in vertical moulds.
The segment manufacturer for the San Vicente
Second Aqueduct Pipeline Project (SVP) decided
to use simplied, precasting methods to produce
over 66,000 segments, to be used for the
primary lining of the tunnels. The methods
examined and adopted included the use of steel
bre to replace traditional reinforcement bars,
vertical moulds to minimise surface nishing,
and self-compacting concrete to minimise
vibration and compaction effort.

The SVP consists of a water-transmission pipeline
running from the San Vicente Pump Station to
the Rancho Penasquitos pressure control and
hydroelectric facility. Forming part of the system
required to ensure water supply to the San Diego
region in the event of supply interruptions, it
is being constructed predominantly in the
17.3km-long tunnel that is bored through mainly
sedimentary rock.
Various tunnelling methods are being
adopted along the route to suit the local
geology, with a bored tunnel and segmental
lining adopted as the primary support for about
2.9km of bored tunnel through Reach 2, and

Mike King of Halcrow Group, London, and Chris

Hebert of Traylor Shea Ghazi Precast, Los Angeles,
discuss the production of this pipeline in the US
Blind-end grout sockets are cast into the centre of
each segment, which are being erected behind
open-face shields, manufactured by CTS. The
design of the segmental lining is based on the use
of steel bre-reinforced concrete (SFRC), with the
performance requirements listed in Table 1.

Vacuum-lifting the newly-cast segment
10.27km through Reach 4. The ground in these
sections is mainly weaker, sedimentary formations and conglomerates between higherstrength granitic rock either side of the two
Reaches. A raw water-transmission pipe will be
placed through the tunnel, which will form the
long-term support for the ground loads and
internal water pressure. The precast concrete
lining maintains suitable support to the ground
until the permanent support can be installed.
The tunnel is being built with a six-segment,
trapezoidal, segmental lining with an internal
diameter of 3.2m and a thickness of 178mm.
Each ring has a length of 1,219mm and a taper of
19mm across the diameter. Two spear bolts are
used across each longitudinal joint and the ring
has 12 dowels across the circumferential joint.

Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is concrete that

will ow and consolidate under its own weight
to completely ll the form void while maintaining homogeneity, without the need for an
external, vibrating energy source. The
advantages in terms of noise reduction, health,
safety and cost savings on equipment, operation
and maintenance are obvious. There can be
quality advantages as poker-vibrated concrete
may look well-compacted, but the effort can be
uneven through the section and poor compaction may occur around congested reinforcement, or within complex form details, or there
could be reinforcement displacement due to
excessive effort.

Steel bre-reinforced, self-compacting concrete
has many similarities with normally-compacted
SFRC with the requirements for strength and
toughness being unchanged for design purposes.
Also assumed is a suitable mix design,
effectively being equal in terms of
being able to achieve the
required performance.

The development of the mix
design for the segments was
complicated by three of the
primary items noted above
(vertical segment moulds,
use of SCC and use of
steel bre). While these
Stacking for trucking
to site

March 2008
18-19WT0803.indd 18

25/2/08 12:51:06

TECHNOLOGY: Tunnelling segments
Table 1: concrete performance requirements
Characteristic compressive cylinder strength
Characteristic exural strength at rst crack
Characteristic residual (post-crack) exural strength
Characteristic tensile strength
Early-age (stacking) compressive strength

materials and processes are not new, none had

been employed at the segment casting facility in
Littlerock, CA, and combining all three is a rst
for the segment industry.
In addition to meeting the required design
parameters, the concrete had to provide the
high-early strengths dictated by the production
schedule and casting process, and had to be
robust enough to deal with the variability
inherent in the local materials and in any high
production casting facility. The design strength
parameters developed by Halcrow that had to
be met are in Table 1.
The materials incorporated into the mix were
fairly standard. The decisions that had to be
made related to the steel bres, the high-range
water reducing admixture (HWRA), and the mix
proportioning. The choice of steel bres was
largely based on the experience of other projects
using bre-reinforced segments, such as the
CTRL project in the UK, and also on the
recommendations of the technical departments
of the bre suppliers.
During the trial mix testing, the steel-bre
concrete was tested to ensure it met the exural
and tensile requirements set forth by the design.
A dosage of 30 kg/m3 proved to be optimal, and
the bre used was the Dramix RC 80/60 BN, as
supplied by Bekaert. This bre is 60mm long,
0.75mm in diameter, and has a tensile strength of
1,050 N/mm2. It also has hooked ends and comes
glued in bundles. Each pound of bre contains
about 2,087 bres, so each yard of concrete has
over 100,000 bres (130,000 bres/m3).
The HWRAs tested were of the polycarboxylate family, and were designed to be used
specically for SCC concrete. Viscocrete 2100
provided by Sika was selected, and the dosages
tested ranged from 5-10 ounces per hundred
weight (oz/cwt) of cementitious material. Further
testing narrowed the ideal range for this
application down to 5.5-8.5 oz/cwt. The use
of a viscosity-modifying admixture (VMA)
was suggested, and tested, but the benets
observed in the testing did not justify the
additional cost.
Field trials began seven months before
segment production. Fifty batches of concrete
were produced, of which 33 were sampled and
tested. The experience gained from these trial
batches proved invaluable to the success of
the project.

41.3N/mm2 (6,000psi)
4.2N/mm2 (610psi)
3N/mm2 (440psi)
2.8N/mm2 (420psi)
9.6N/mm2 (1,400psi)

The segments were cast vertically, with two

moulds per trolley. There were a total of 144
moulds on 72 trolleys. The moulds were lled
with concrete from an overhead bucket that
traveled from the on-site batch plant into the
casting building. The segments were steam
cured and demoulded with a vacuum lifter,
and were produced on a two shift/day basis,
ve days/week. Average daily production was
48 rings, and there were approximately 11,000
rings required for the project. Casting was
nished in April 2007.


Preparing vertical moulds for casting

The testing regime included the standard tests
for concrete, and some additional testing
dictated by the use of the steel bres. Table 2
below lists the test, the required result, and the
average result.
The bre content was tested weekly by taking
a random sample from the production concrete,
lling a 1/4 cubic foot bucket, and then washing
out all the non-bre materials. This was done on
an inclined table with a magnetic plate at the
bottom to collect the steel bres. The bres were
then dried, weighed, and compared to the
required amount for the sample size.

Segment production was undertaken at a twin
carrousel plant located near Los Angeles,
California. One of the carrousels was dedicated
to the San Vicente Project, and the other
serviced other projects. The moulds and
carrousel were provided by CBE of France, and
the concrete batch plant was supplied by ACT/
Wiggert. The facility was originally constructed
in 2001 for the NOS-ECIS project, and has since
been updated and modied for various projects.

The use of steel bre-reinforced self-compacting

concrete in vertical segment moulds provided
some unique challenges. Applying these
technologies, whether individually, or as in this
case, combined, must be considered carefully
against the design requirements of the project,
the concrete production capabilities, and the
casting process. While there were some hurdles
to overcome, combining these three technologies was successful and enabled the project to
meet the structural, schedule, and commercial
goals. It also produced a nished product suited
to its intended nal use.
1.Burke J., The Saviour at San Vicente, Tunneling
and Trenchless Construction, December 2006
2.Klein S., Hopkins D., McRae M., Ahinga Z.,
Design Evaluations for the San Vicente Pipeline
Tunnel, RETC 2005 Proceedings, Ed. Hutton D.,
Rogstad W D.
3.Interim Guidelines for the Use of Self-Consolidating
Concrete in Precast/Prestressed Concrete Instituted
Member Plants, Precast/Prestressed Concrete
Institute, TR-6-03


Project owner: San Diego County Water Authority

Project engineer: Jacobs Associates
Contractor: Traylor Brothers and JF Shea Company
Segment manufacturer: Traylor Shea Ghazi
Precast Segment designer: Halcrow Group

Table 2: test results

Seven-day compressive strength
28-day compressive strength
56-day compressive strength
Flexural strength at rst crack
Residual exural strength
Tensile strength
Fibre content

Design requirement
None specied
41.3N/mm2 (6,000psi)
None specied
4.2N/mm2 (610psi)
3.0N (440psi mm2)
2.8N/mm2 (420psi)
30kg/m3 (50lbs/yrd3)

Actual average result

40.8N/mm2 (5,930 psi)
50.7N/mm2 (7,360 psi)
64.9N/mm2 (9,430 psi)
8N/mm2 (1,162 psi)
3.7N/mm2 (536 psi)
5.4N/mm2 (780 psi)
31.7kg/m3 (53.3 lbs/yrd3)

Result from a limited sample of 48 cylinders taken over the rst two months of production

March 2008
18-19WT0803.indd 19

25/2/08 12:51:13

EQUIPMENT: Support & haulage vehicles

The vital support vehicles

Support and haulage vehicles is an equipment category that is as huge as it
is varied. George Demetri grapples with a selection of what is on offer

HEN it comes to underground

support vehicles, Sandvik offers a
large range, partly due to its huge size
and partly to the companies it has acquired over
the past 20-odd years. This includes: Hughes
Mining tools (1987); MGT (1987); Mission
Drilling (1988); Eimco (1989); Tamrock(1990),
which itself acquired Toro in 1987), Voest-Alpine
(1996) and Drillmaster (1997). In 1998, Tamrock
and Sandvik Rock tools merged fully to form
Sandvik Mining and Construction. The same
year, the company established the four product
areas of Sandvik Tamrock, VA-Eimco, Sandvik
Materials Handling and Driltech Mission.
Consequently, these mergers and takeovers
have resulted in a wide range of Sandvik
products that reect the diverse origins of
these various companies. However, as of
January, the rm wisely decided to
consolidate the myriad brands under the
Sandvik banner and ensure the rainbow
of coloured products would conform to
its blue house colour.
Lars Josefsson, president of Sandvik
Mining and Construction, said: I
believe that doing business under one
brand will clarify Sandviks total offering
and make it even easier for our customers
to do business with us. This is also a natural
consequence following the reorganisation of
our company last year. Our customers will only
have to call one number for sales, support and
servicing for all Sandvik equipment, irrespective
of what kind of equipment it is.
Sandviks range of underground support
vehicles is very wide and covers underground
loaders (LHD) and trucks, and MPVs (multipurpose vehicles). The companys load-haul
dumpers (LHDs) have tramming capacities
of 1-21t, while the loaders, also low-prole,
come in either diesel or electric variants.
Sandviks underground loaders (LHD) have
FEA-optimised frames, four-wheel drive,
articulated steering, advanced drive-train
technology and an ergonomic design. Rugged
and highly-manoeuvrable, they have tramming
capacities of 1-21 metric tonnes and are
available in both diesel and electric versions.
Typical of these is the LH625E, which, at over
14m long and 3m high, is claimed to be the
biggest-ever underground loader, designed for
underground production and large-scale
developments. With a tramming capacity of

around 25,000kg, the unit does not produce

exhaust fumes and features the patented Toro
cable-reeling system.
But, perhaps the most visionary development
to have come out of Sandvik for a long time is
AutoMine; an automated loading-and-hauling
system that has been designed for underground
mining, which the rm is now seeking to apply
to tunnelling. If that happens, it will be a positive
development that could bolster productivity.
Adaptable for small-scale operations, as well
as larger block-caving applications, AutoMine

The ITC Superloader

combines excavator and
rear conveyor belt

allows an operator (who would otherwise have

driven a single vehicle underground) to control
and monitor several vehicles from the comfort of
an air-conditioned ofce above ground. In this
way, it is possible to monitor the movements of
a eet of driverless loaders or trucks that are
hundreds of metres underground.
Also based in Sweden, Gia has manufactured
locomotives for the tunnelling industry since
1950. The company claims its range of 2-456t
locomotives can provide high productivity, have
a high traction force, can reach relatively high
speeds and are easy to customise. They are
available in different engine sizes.
Gia also makes three utility service trucks: the
articulated GIA 111 and 211, and the rigid TT24.
All four-wheel drive, the trucks are designed to
operate on steep gradients. All models can come
equipped with boom and basket, scissor

platforms for ANFO charging, scaling and other

kinds of installation works. Further versatility
comes from the fact that the trucks can be used
for other applications, such as small dump trucks
or shotcreting. By having different equipment on
the cassette, one track can serve numerous
applications. Gia claims its utility/service trucks
can boost productivity and safety, and have low
investment and service costs, as well as being
made of well-known components.

A shorter wheel base and greater ground
clearance makes Volvos recently-introduced
FM340 6X4 Tipper usable for tunnelling
applications. Indias experience in this respect
is an interesting one. Volvo India says that,
prior to the introduction of the FM340
6x4 Tipper, dumpers were mainly used
in tunnelling, but their lack of
manoeuvrability in congested spaces
saw many customers resort to 6x4
and 4x2 trucks. Yet, these very
vehicles, although good in congested
spaces, suffered from low power-toweight ratios and other concerns, such
as cab safety and visibility levels.
Volvo says its FM340 bridges the gap
between the two types with its claimed
manoeuvrability, and ability to handle
gradients, difcult terrain and congested spaces.
Equipped with a six-cylinder, in-line diesel
engine that is heat stabilised, the FM340 has a
power output of 340HP at 1,6001,900rpm, as
well as a 14M3 body with complete steel
construction, sub-frames and a sandwich oor,
made from Hardox 400 steel. It also features a
rock breaker.

Shotcreting deep into a tunnel can have special
demands; for instance, how do you get the
concrete, ready mixed, to where it is needed?
One way is to use a bizarre-looking, concrete
bullet car made by Cifa, which combines a
mixer and transporter.
Peter Remnant of UK-based Specialist Plant
told WT: These vehicles can be rubber-tyred,
but are usually mounted on small bogeys for
track gauges of 750mm, 900mm or 1,000mm.
The units are rather big, ranging in length from
5.5-7.2m and come in six different capacities to
suit the loading gauge; the largest being the

March 2008
20-21WT0803.indd 20

25/2/08 09:46:15

EQUIPMENT: Support & haulage vehicles
MC100, which can take 10m3 of concrete for
the largest tunnels. Higher capacities can be
achieved if needed by linking the bullet cars
together, coupling the male and female ends.
Drum-rotation speeds range from 11-12 rpm.
Putzmeisters self-propelled Tunnel-Kreter SP
40 is designed for large shotcreting applications
for tunnel construction. The kinematics of its
specially-designed spraying arm and oscillating
nozzle increase spraying speed. The unit is armed
with a 3m-long lance, which can be aligned
parallel to the tunnel wall and set to travel at
variable speeds, automatically back and forth,
enabling the operator to cover a 3m section of
the tunnel by simply controlling the main boom.
Another specialist vehicle that is just as
intriguing comes from UK-based AFC Tunnelling.
Its Pipe Utility Vehicle (PUV) is designed to move
both people and equipment in and out of tunnels
easily. Comprising working platforms at the front
and rear for simultaneous load carrying, the platforms can also be folded away for maximum
manouverability. PUV was developed for the UK
water industry and is designed to move through
circular tunnels, including sewers and storm
drains. It features an on-board carousel, which,
on a job for Thames Water, carried 3x6m pipe
sections with a combined weight of 1.5t.
Tunnelling-machine specialist ITC (part of the
Terex group) has been supplying the tunnelling

Volvo FM340 6x4 tipper

industry with excavators for more than 40 years,
but it also produces other types of utility vehicle
to aid tunnel production. One newly-launched
machine is the ITC Superloader, combining an
excavator and rear conveyor belt, which can be
linked to a dump truck or other conveyor for
spoil evacuation.
Made in Germany, the Superloader, like all
the companys tunnel-loaders, is built on a
modular basis to allow it to be congured to
individual circumstances. Designed to speed up
mucking (minimising the cost of conventional
drill-and-blast tunnelling), it is aimed at nonhomogeneous soft-to-medium hard rock (with
erratic blocks) that demands exible equipment.
With a working height of 4.7m and a width
of 2.75m, the Superloader comprises a basic
chassis on a crawler with a 1m-wide, integrated,
heavy-duty conveyor. It is notable for having

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working at the face, with a cable reel and robust
mucking-boom equipment. ITC claims the
machine makes it easy for the operator to reach
loading capacities as high as 8-10 m3/min in
extremely hard and abrasive rock. This means it
takes only two minutes to load a 20m3 dump
truck. Easy maintenance and very low running
costs are also claimed by the manufacturer.
A smaller version of the Superloader is also
available. The ITC 312 SL was used recently on
the Breidalsoverfringen 15km-long transfer
tunnel to the Raudalsl power plant in west
Norway, where it achieved an average weekly
advance rate of 90m, with a peak value of over
100m, including the support works.
The classic wheel loader has evolved into a
highly-manoeuvrable and versatile piece of
equipment that is at home in large or conned
spaces. Caterpillar has produced these highlymobile units for many years. Take the 944F,
which is the worlds largest wheeloader with
bucket capacities ranging from 14-36m3 and a
net power output of 1176kW (1,577 hp). With
its reduced engine noise, lower emissions and
good fuel efciency, the 944F proves that big
does not necessarily mean environmentally
unfriendly. With a standard, rated payload of
35.4t, Caterpillars able monster has a colossal
operating weight of just over 194t.

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25/2/08 09:46:20

TECHNOLOGY: Innovation

Rugged notebook for

rugged environments
GETACS newly-launched P470 notebook is
designed as a secure and rugged notebook for
use in tough, wet and dirty environments. The
design takes into account the need for a rugged
data storage solution when out of the ofce,
reducing, so the manufacturer claims, the risk of
data theft and accident.
Weighing less than 3kg, the unit features a
magnesium alloy casing that provides an overall
weight reduction of around 25%, as well as
increasing the strength of the chassis by 50%.
This, it is claimed, allows the notebook to
survive the small drops that can sometimes
occur on site. Robustness is further enhanced by
the shock-mounted HDD and LCD TFT screen,
thereby allowing the unit to withstand vibrations
and other shock conditions that can result in
electronic damage and loose connections. In
addition, the G-sensor is said to protect data
from drops and accidents. Furthermore, solid
particles and moisture are prevented from
entering the unit, thanks to the sealed I/O caps
and doors, making it suitable for use in more
extreme environments.
If stolen, a range of measures will keep the
notebooks data safe from hackers. This includes
a biometric ngerprint reader designed to
constitute a secure and reliable authentication
device for log-in or for accessing sensitive

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March 2008
22-23WT0803.indd 22

25/2/08 09:38:19

TECHNOLOGY: Innovation
information. This also eliminates the need to
remember those easily forgotten or hacked
passwords. Second, a Trusted Platform Module
(TPM 1.2) or Root-of-Trust, a chain of trust
procedures monitors every step, from pre-boot
to OS load, to guard against unauthorised
tampering from physical theft or software attack.
As would be expected, the unit offers a range
of wireless connectivity facilities, including
built-in Wi-Fi and Bluetooth 2.4G to allow
secure connection to other Bluetooth devices;
Wide Area Network GPS to record the P470s
location, and 3G technology. The built-in 1.3
Mega Pixel camera can be used as a webcam
for video conferencing.

Robot unveiled at
concrete gathering

CONJET AB recently unveiled its latest

demolition robot, the compact hydrodemolition
322 Robot, the smallest unit in the companys
range of high-pressure water-jetting equipment
designed to remove weakened and damaged
concrete from numerous structures.
Designed for good manoeuvrability, the unit
is compact and manoeuvrable and is claimed to
be ideal for use in conned spaces: it has been
designed to pass through openings 0.8-1m wide,
depending on the attachment tool used, which
means it can be used in tunnels as small as
1.7m in diameter. The robot operates with a
reaction force from the water of 1,400N.
Comprising a self-contained, crawler-mounted
undercarriage, the electrically-powered robot
has an integral control system that allows
progress of hydrodemolition to be remotely and
safely controlled, as well as monitored away
from the hazardous cutting area. When in
operation, the robot can adjust its undercarriage
width to improve stability and is equipped with a
single oscillating nozzle mounted on a traversing
cradle that runs back and forth along a 1.5mlong feed beam. For safety, a protective shroud
covers the nozzle assembly.
While in operation, the unit ensures that only
those weakened or damaged areas of concrete
are removed, in what the manufacturers
describe as a continuous, uniform and safe
operation to a predetermined depth above or
below any steel reinforcement which, if
exposed, is also cleaned of rust.
A control box, wireless or cable-connected,
allows the unit to be controlled remotely. But if
contact is lost with the robot, the units
emergency stop feature is activated and both
robot and pump will shut down automatically.

Revamped excavator
continues tradition?

Tyre-protection chain

LIEBHERR recently launched its completelyredesigned R 944 C Tunnel Litronic excavator

which replaces the R 934 B Tunnel. Weighing in
at 41t, the new R 944 C Tunnel Litronic is not
only much heavier than its predecessor, but has
an output of 190kW/258 hp and offers 31%
more engine power. The new excavators
dimensions are compact to suit its purpose.
Powered by a Liebherr six-cylinder, in-line
engine producing an output of 190kW/258hp at
a nominal speed of 1,800rev/min, the R 944 is
designed to reduce particulate emissions; as an
optional extra, it can be tted with the new
Liebherr particulate lter system certied in
accordance with the CERT standard (Curtailing
Emissions from Real Tunnel-building Machinery).
Comprising a closed catalytic-coated lter made
from cordierite, a pre-lter and an electronic
monitoring unit, the system regenerates passively
via the continual oxidation of the particulate. The
modular design allows the central module
(comprising lter mufer and silencer) to be
demounted easily for ash removal.
FOPS and FGPS come as standard on the
tunnel cab for protection. Polycarbonate windows
on the right and rear are provided for their high
impact resistance and good visual qualities but,
on special request, the entire cab can be tted
with polycarbonate windows. Other aspects of the
R 944 Cs robust specication include a slewing
arm with 2 x 45 slewing areas and a 4.5m bucket
stick. The optional mechanical quick-change
system has been tted with reinforced locking and
wear protection at the rear.

metallurgical and
design team has
recently developed
the Fels Toro X19 tyre
protection chain
(TPC), to add to its
existing range of TPCs
originally developed
in the 1950s. The X19
has been designed
with a prole that
features three different
wear levels which, the
manufacturer claims,
combine enhanced
traction capabilities,
excellent tyre
protection and
maximum abrasion
The FELS Toro X19
Suited to low-prole
Ring Link System
loaders and dump
trucks in tunnelling and mining applications, the
X19s denser mesh aims to provide stable
operation and reduces the risk of tyre damage
that can sometimes result when a vehicle
impacts into the tunnels sidewalls. The shape of
the wear link is formulated to allow deeper
hardening, giving the chain a larger wearresistant surface and, with the benet of 19mm
connecting rings, extends the chain life by as
much as 30%.
Following in the Rud-Erlau tradition, the Fels
Toro X19 is claimed to offer the tunnelling and
mining industries the established cost benets of
its range of TPCs particularly those of extended
tyre life and assured productivity.
With patenting in progress and site trials
successfully completed, Rud-Erlau is now
shipping the Fels Toro X19 to underground
applications in Australia, southern Africa and
South America.
Since pioneering the TPC ve decades
ago, Rud-Erlau has continually developed the
product and now claims to enjoy a 65% market
share. Customer installations are backed by a
global network of ofces, agencies and teams
of experienced engineers providing a round-theclock, on-site service to ensure chains
are tensioned properly and running at
optimal performance. These visits provide the
opportunity to observe the TPCs working in
normal conditions, offer advice and give
valuable feedback to the technical team at the
Getman HQ.

The compact Conjet Robot 322, here tted

with a rotor head, is designed for small tunnels
with restricted access

March 2008
22-23WT0803.indd 23

25/2/08 09:38:27




Applied Felts Limited

Castle Bank Mills
Portobello Road

Shaft sinking
Tunnelling /
Timber Headings
Deep Drainage
Specialist Plant

Tel: +44 (0) 1924 200535

Fax: +44 (0) 1924 366951
Specialist Manufacturers of Cured-In-Place
Materials for the Rehabilitation of Pipes
and Conduits



Principal Senior & Section Engineers

(Excavated & SCL Tunnel Exp.) Surrey
Tunnel Resident Engineer & Inspectors USA
Tunnel Engineers (Immersed Tunnel Exp.) UK
Immersed Tunnel Design Engineers - UAE or UK Based
Tunnels Project Directors Hong Kong & Surrey
TBM Shift & Section Engineers - London
Tunnel Engineers, Site & Design - USA
Tunnel/Underground Structure Design Engineers
UK, Australia, USA & UAE
Tunnel Ventilation Engineers UK & USA
Tunnelling QS South East

Telephone + 44 (0) 207 754 5999

32 Brunshaw Avenue, Burnley,

Lancashire, BB10 4LT
Tel/Fax: 01282 452666
Mobile: 07917 625802


Shaft jacking systems

Grout mixer/pumps - 200 L to 200 L
Vent fans 500 to 1500
Locos - battery and diesel
Track and pipework
610 gauge rolling stock

tunnel shutters
Specialist Plant Asscociates
Tel: +44 (0) 1234 781882 Fax: +44 (0) 1234 781992

An Authorised Distributor of American Directional Drill

Dealers Supplying:Directional Drilling Rigs, Auger Boring Systems

Mud Cleaning Systems, Mud Mixing Systems
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Down Hole Tooling, Drill Rods
Tel: 0044 (0) 1424 854112
Fax: 0044 (0) 1424 854231

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LTD & Co. KG
Graf-Edzard-Str. 7,
Tel: +49 4943 990662 Fax: +49 4943 990664

1: American Augers DD-140, 700m rods, 1200 liter pump,

reamer etc.
2: Vermeer D80x100, approx. 2000h, year 2000, 750l aplex
pump, 620m rods
3: Vermeer D50x100, approx. 4000h, year 2000, 500l kerr
pump, 500m rods
4: Huette HBR 206D, approx. 2200h, year 1998, 470m rods
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North America, Australia &
Contact: Jim Moore, Sales Executive
Mining Communications Ltd,
Albert House, 1 Singer Street,
London EC2A 4BQ, England.
Tel: +44 (0)20 7216 6060
Fax: +44 (0)207 216 6050
Contact: Richard Dolan
Tel: +44 (0)20 7216 6086
Fax: +44 (0)20 7216 6050
Contact: Fabio Potesta/Daniela Chiusa
Media Point and Communications SRL,
Corte Lambruschini
Corso Buenos Aires, 8 5 piano
Interno 7-16129 Genova, Italy.
Tel: +39 (010) 570 4948
Fax: +39 (010) 553 0088
Contact: Gunter Schneider
GSM International, Postfach 20 21 06, D-41552
Kaast, Germany.
Tel: +49 2131 511801

Mini piling/Piling casing (up to 32")
Casing advancing systems
Reverse circulation
Rotary percussive
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Drill rods: Friction welded up to 51/2"
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Length up to 10 metres
Grouting and bentonite
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ADVERTISEment offices

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Contact: Linda Winfield
Tel: +44 (0)1268 769666
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March 2008
24WT0803.indd 24

25/2/08 11:45:29

Our most innovative TBM tool.


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