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CH 5170 Process Optimization

Homework #1

Due: 24 A ug

Instructions

Go to http://geogebratube.org/student/m46151 or

http://geogebratube.org/student/m46151?mobile=true.

Make sure you are able to access it. Enter the roll number in the box and then press the button titled Click.

Take a screen shot and print to pdf and attach the printout with the submission. The problem details will

be visible on the screen.

Water distribution networks, as the name suggests transport water from a source (or multiple sources)

and deliver them to demand points. Generally speaking, pressure drives flow, i.e., the upstream pressure

is greater than the downstream pressure. Water can also flow aided by gravity, i.e., water flows from a

higher level to a lower level. Thus, a difference in elevation and/or pressure provides the driving force for

flow. The two are often combined into a single quantity called the head, (expressed in meters) If water

flows from point A to point B, the head at point A, HA is greater than the head at point B, HB . If the flow

rate of water Q is known, the head loss H = HA HB is related to the flow rate, diameter and length

of the pipe through the following correlation:

HA HB = H = 4.457 108

LQ1.85

,

D4.87

(1)

where Q is the flow rate in m3 /min, HA , HB , H are the heads in meters, L is the length of pipe in meter,

D is the inner diameter of the pipe in mm.

A networks consists of a source node (or multiple sources) and demand points or nodes. The topography

of the network (i.e., where the source is situated, where the demand points are located etc.), the interconnections between the nodes is usually decided beforehand. The water demand at the individual demand

points is also known. The task at hand is to decide the diameters of the pipes used to transport the water.

There are two competing factors that have to be traded off when deciding the optimum pipe diameters:

the capital cost of the pipe and pump operating costs. In the following problems we consider flow by

gravity and hence, pump operating costs are zero. A large diameter pipe would result in a high capital

cost, but low head loss. Likewise, a smaller diameter pipe would result in small capital cost, high head

loss. As expected, one aims to minimize the total cost. Constraints to be enforced are the demand flow

rates at the demand points. In addition, it is common to specify a minimum head at the demand nodes.

The task at hand is to decide the individual pipe diameters that minimize the total cost while satisfying

the constraints.

1. Consider the network shown in the figure available at http://geogebratube.org/student/m46151

1

The water distribution network consists of a source node A and three demand nodes 1,2 and 3.

Node 0 and node 1 are connected by link I. Likewise, link II connects nodes 1 and 2. Link III

connects nodes 1 and 3. The diameters of the pipes are D1 , D2 , D3 respectively (in mm). Flow is

by gravity and it is possible to achieve a head of 100 m at source node 0. Minimum head values at

nodes B, C and D are given in the html page. Lengths of links I, II and III are 300, 500 and 400

m respectively. Flow rates in links I, II and III are 9,3 and 2 m3 /min respectively. The cost of the

pipe per unit length (in Rs.) can be estimated by the correlation:

c = 1.2654D 1.327 ,

(2)

where D is the diameter of the pipe. Since flow is by gravity, there are no operating costs associated

with this network, i.e., total cost is simply the sum of capital costs of the pipes. The task at hand is

to decide the diameters of the pipes, D1 , D2 , D3 respectively.

2. Write down expressions for the heads at nodes 1, 2 and 3 in terms of D1 , D2 , D3 . Hint: Head loss

across pipes connected in series is equal to sum of individual head losses.

3. Write down expression for the total cost, i.e., sum of costs of links I, II and III.

4. Formulate the appropriate optimization problem to minimize the costs while ensuring that the heads

at nodes 1, 2 and 3 are greater than the minimum values.

5. At the optimum, what do you expect the values of the head at nodes 1, 2 and 3 to be? Give reasons.

6. What are the optimum values of D1 , D2 , D3 ? Hint: You may use a trial and error method.

7. Unlike previously, we will consider the heads at nodes 1,2 and 3, viz., H1 , H2 , H3 to be the decision

variables.

8. Reformulate the problem to minimize pipe cost subject to the minimum head requirements at 1, 2

and 3 in terms of H1 , H2 and H3 .

9. Consider the solution obtained in (6). One issue is that these are odd sizes,

i.e., commercially available pipes are available only in certain diameters, e.g., 80 mm, 100mm, 125

mm etc. Table 1 contains a list of the commercially available pipes and their unit costs. Clearly, pipes

with fractional diameters are not available commercially. One solution to avoid this is to restrict the

solution space to pipes from the discrete set. However, this can lead to a combinatorially difficult

problem. In this example, this would mean examining potentially 143 combinations. Another solution

is to simply round off the pipe diameter to the closest commercially available pipe size. What

commercial size would you recommend and why?

10. Obtain the optimal solution to the discrete pipe selection problem as best as you can (e.g, by trial and

error)

Sr no Pipe dia (mm) Unit costs (Rs./m)

1

80

424

2

100

570

3

125

767

4

150

977

5

200

1431

6

250

1924

7

300

2451

8

350

3008

9

400

3591

10

450

4198

11

500

4828

12

600

6149

13

700

7545

14

750

8269

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