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Group 714- Jacob Persily and Courtney Zyla

Assignment 6
Part 1
Dataset: GSS
Main Research Question: What demographic groups are most at risk for having adverse health
conditions?
Part 2
Independent Variables: Age, Race, and Sex
Dependent Variables: Health condition
Hypothesis 1: People who are older will be more likely to suffer from negative health conditions,
due to their bodys deterioration and in ability to maintain a certain level of health.
Hypothesis 2: People who are of a minority, as in not white, will have poorer health due to an
inaccessibility of health care services because they are either too expensive or geographically out
of reach.
Hypothesis 3: Women are more likely to suffer adverse health because of the gender stereotypes
in health care where women should put their family first and their own health second.
Part 3
Frequency Tables: There are no recodes or transformations needed for these variables. All
necessary recodes for the GSS dataset have already been provided.
Table 1: Sex of Respondents
Sex

Percent

Male

45%

886

Female

55%

1088

Total

100%

1974

Table 2: Age of Respondents


Age Range

Percent

18-29

17%

331

30-44

28%

560

45-64

35%

684

65 and Over

20%

394

Total

100%

1969

Table 3: Health Condition of Respondents


Health Condition

Percent

Excellent

27%

350

Good

46%

598

Fair to Poor

27%

358

Total

100%

1306

Table 4: Race of Respondents


Race

Percent

White

75%

1477

Black

15%

301

Other

10%

196

Total

100%

1974

Jacob Persily and Courtney Zyla-Group 714


Assignment 7Grade: 5 out of 5 (Comments are added by Aashish within document)
Assignment 7

Grading Grid

Points

Present frequencies in FINAL


table form

1 pt

Run 3 bivariates and present


one cross tab in FINAL table
form

1 pt

Interpret cross tab

1 pt

Analyze correlation and chi


square

1 pt

Conclude: whats it all mean

1 pt

Total points

5 pts

Comments (if full credit not given)

*You have resolved almost all comments added by professor, but do try to make the
additional changes that are suggested for your final paper.

Part 1: Final Frequency Tables


Table 1: Sex of Respondents
Sex

Percent

Male

45%

886

Female

55%

1088

Total

100%

1974

Table 2: Age of Respondents


Age Range

Percent

18-29

17%

331

30-44

28%

560

45-64

35%

684

65 and Over

20%

394

Total

100%

1969

Table 3: Health Condition of Respondents


Health Condition

Percent

Excellent

27%

350

Good

46%

598

Fair to Poor

27%

358

Total

100%

1306

Frequency Interpretation: Table 3


Of the participant in the GSS survey, roughly one-quarter (27%) indicated themselves to be in
excellent health. Nearly half (46%) indicated their health status to be good, and roughly onefourth (27%) indicated their health to be fair or poor.
Table 4: Race of Respondents
Race

Percent

White

75%

1477

Black

15%

301

Other

10%

196

Total

100%

1974

Part 2: Bivariate Analysis


Hypothesis: People who are of a minority, as in not white, will have poorer health due to an
inaccessibility of health care services because they are either too expensive or geographically out
of reach.
Table A: Relationship Between Health Condition and Race
Race
Health Condition

White

Black

Other

Excellent

28%

20%

27%

Good

45%

49%

45%

Fair to Poor
Total
n

27%

31%

28%

100%

100%

100%

974

198

134

Hypothesis: People who are older will be more likely to suffer from negative health conditions,
due to their bodys deterioration and in ability to maintain a certain level of health.
Table B: Relationship Between Health Condition and Age
Age
Health
Condition

18-29

30-44

45-64

65+

Excellent

35%

30%

25%

20%

Good

45%

50%

44%

43%

Fair to Poor

20%

20%

31%

37%

100%

100%

100%

100%

218

361

471

251

Total
n

Hypothesis: Women are more likely to suffer adverse health because of the gender stereotypes in
health care where women should put their family first and their own health second.
Table C: Relationship Between Health Condition and Sex
Sex
Health Condition
Excellent

Male

Female
29%

25%

Good

44%

48%

Fair to Poor

27%

27%

100%

100%

578

728

Total
n

Part 3: Interpret a Cross Tab


Interpretation: Twenty-nine percent of those who were male reported excellent health, as
compared to 25 percent of females. Forty-four percent of those were male reported good health,
as compared to 48 percent of females. Twenty-seven percent of those who were male reported
fair to poor health, as compared to 27 percent of females.
Hypothesis (H1): Women are more likely to suffer adverse health because of the gender
stereotypes in health care where women should put their family first and their own health second.
For excellent health, the hypothesis did hold with 4% more men reporting excellent health. For
good health, the hypothesis did not hold with 4% more women reporting good health than men.
For fair to poor health, the hypothesis did not hold because both men and women reported the
same amount (27%).
It is important to note, however, that the Margin of error of the GSS survey is 3.2% at a 95%
confidence interval. sThis is important to note in further analysis and interpretation, as all
differences fall within this range.
Part 4: Analyze a Cross Tab
Null Hypothesis (HO): Gender (sex) does not yield a variance difference in reported health
condition.

Chi-Square: After running the Chi-Square test for the sex (independent) and health condition
(dependent) variables, the p-value is equal to .215. This value indicates that the null hypothesis
cannot be rejected because the value is greater than .05.

Correlation Statistic: Because the independent variable, gender (sex), was measured at the
nominal level, the Cramers V correlation statistic was used. The value of the variable for this
correlation is 0.049. This represents a positive correlation between the two variable. However,
the value, 0.049, places this as a weak, more appropriately, a very weak relationship, between
these two variable. In addition, because the p-value from the Chi Square test is greater than 0.05,
this correlation statistic is not statistically significant for these two variables.
Final Analysis of Bivariate: see below for updated conclusion:
In this particular bivariate analysis, it is important to note that, because the p-value (.215)
was greater than 0.05, the null cannot be rejected. However, the data provided yields an
interesting perspective on the hypothesis. The hypothesis was that woman would be more likely
to suffer from adverse health conditions. In the first category of excellent health, this proved to
be true, with a lower percentage of women reporting excellent health than men. This created a
paradigm switch where less men reported good health than women. The fair to poor health
category was inconclusive, as men and women responded with this level of health at the same
rate.

The question comes down to the holding of the hypothesis. In this case, the hypothesis
does not hold. The 4% difference in percentages is within the margin of error of this study,
effectively meaning that the values are all, more or less, equal. Therefore no conclusive
differences can be drawn between the percentages reported.
In essence, the hypothesis was disproved, as the GSS Survey. The results show that men
and women have, within a reasonable margin of error, essentially the same health status for all
reported levels of health. This conclusion opens the door to further, trivariate analysis to
determine whether age, race, or other demographic information, in conjunction with gender,
make a noted difference in health condition. These results also show that policy and practice
changes should be implemented equally among men and women, as they are at similar risk for
adverse health conditions.
In conclusion, you cannot truly trust this bivariate, as the null cannot be rejected;
however, it does show that additional theory may be necessary to inform the hypothesis on this
data.