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Form 2 Chapter 1: THE WORLD THROUGH OUR SENSES

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Sensory Organs:

Properties of Light:

Skin (Touch)
Nose (Smell)
Tongue (Taste)
Ear (Hearing)
Eye (Sight)

Light travels in a straight line


Reflection
Refraction
Dispersion of white light

Properties of Sound:
Reflection
Absorption

Sound & Hearing

Light & Sight

The World through Our Senses


Sight Mechanism:

Hearing Mechanism:

Formation of image by convex lens


Formation of image on retina

Limitation of Senses

Sight:
Stereoscopic
Monocular
Optical Illusion
Blind Spot

Hearing:
Stereoscopic hearing
Frequency range
Hearing Aids

Frequency
Pitch

Defects of Sensory Organs

Sight:
Long-sightedness
Short-sightedness
Astigmatism
Corrections

Stimuli & Responses in Plants:


Phototropism (light)
Geotropism (gravity)
Hydrotropism (water)
Thigmotropism (move toward)
Nastic movement (move run away)

Hearing:
Deafness
Corrections

Form 2 Chapter 1: THE WORLD THROUGH OUR SENSES

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Sensory
Organs
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Sensory Organs and Their Stimuli
Humans being have five main sensory organs, which are skin, nose, tongue, ears
and eyes.
Sense detects stimuli, which are changes in surroundings (around us).
Five senses:
sight
hearing
touch
taste
smell
The ability of the sensory organs to detect stimuli is called senses.
Organs that detect stimuli called sensory organs.
Changes or object that can detect by our senses are called stimuli.
All the sensory organs are complete with sensory receptors, which are the nerve
endings that can detect stimuli.
Stimuli

Sense

Light(Brightness, colour)
Sound
Touch, heat, cold, pain, pressure
Sweet, sour, bitter, salty
Smell or odors

Sight
Hearing
Touch
Taste
Smell

Sensory
organ
Eye
Ear
Skin
Tongue
Nose

The Pathway from Stimulus to Response


Stimulus

Receptors (Sensory organ)

Effectors (such as muscles)

Nerves

Nerves

Brain

Response (is used to describe nerve impulses)


Our sensory organs are used to detect stimuli (Singular: stimulus). A stimulus is
anything that causes a reaction in a living organism, e.g. Pain, heat, sound,
chemicals.
When a stimulus is detected, receptor cells in the sensory organ will be triggered
and generate impulses.
These impulses will be transmitted through the nerve and then to the brain.
The brain will further process and interpret the impulse signals as specific
information than the organism has to respond to.
This information is then sent back to the sensory organ through the nerve to
provide responses.

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1.2 Sense of Touch

The sense of touch is the sense that is sensitive towards the touch stimulus
provided by specific objects.
Organ involve in the detection of touch stimulus is the skin.
Structure of human skin:
The skin is the largest organ in our body.
The skin divided into three layer epidermis, dermis, fat layer (subcutaneous
layer @ adipose layer @ fat layer)
Receptors are cell in our body that detected stimuli and turn them into
electrical impulses called nerve impulse.
Our body has different types of receptors. These are:
pain receptor detects pain, very close to the skin and are most numerous
touch receptor reacts to light touch
heat receptor detects heat or any rise in temperature
cold receptor detects cold and any fall in temperature
pressure receptor senses strong pressure and locates deep within the
skin, texture and weight of an object can be identified
The pain receptor is in the epidermis.
The touch, heat and cold receptors are in the dermis. The pressure receptors
are in the fat layer.
Each type of receptor can detect only one particular stimulus.
The part or our body contain receptor are called sensory organs
Parts of the skin Function
Epidermis and
Protect the body from physical injuries
dermis
Prevent water loss (the skin is water proof)
Prevent the entry of bacteria and germs
Produce vitamin D
Adipose
Functions as a heat insulator
(fat tissue)
To keep the body warm
Hair
Controls body temperature by trapping a layer of
air to insulate heat
Sweat glands
Controls body temperature by the evaporation of

Form 2 Chapter 1: THE WORLD THROUGH OUR SENSES

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sweat
Secrete excrement such as water, urea and
mineral salts

The degree of sensitivity of the skin depends on the:


Thickness of the epidermis
The thinner the epidermis, the more sensitive the skin is to the stimulus
Number of receptors present
The more receptors found on the skin the more sensitive is that part of the
skin.
The part of the body that have thin epidermis and many receptors sensitive to
touch are
lips
fingertips
behind the ears
armpit
the back of the neck
The part of the body that are not so sensitive to touch are the:
elbow
knee
palm of the hand and sole of the foot
buttocks/hip
The parts of the body usually chosen by the doctor for injection are along the
upper arm and the buttocks. This is because these parts have thick epidermis
and fewer receptors.
Braille is a code made up of small raised dots on paper. Blind people use their
fingertips to read Braille writing on books, signs, currency notes and elevator
buttons.

1.3 THE SENSE OF SMELL

The nose is sensory organ for smell.


Cells sensitive to smell (smell receptors) are found on the top of the nasal cavity.
Structure of the human nose.
The human nose has a cavity lined with epithelium tissue.

Form 2 Chapter 1: THE WORLD THROUGH OUR SENSES

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the surface of the epithelium tissue are the sensory cells known as
olfactory cells.
The surface of the nasal cavity is moist because of the mucus secreted by the
cells of a gland.
The nasal cavity has a pair of external opening (nostrils) which have hair to
filter dust from the air inhaled through the nose.
The nose detects smell in the following way:
1. The inside of the nasal cavity produce mucus
2. The chemical vapor entering nose during breathing dissolves in mucus.
The dissolve chemicals stimulate the smell receptor at the top of the
nasal cavity.
3. The smell receptor then produce impulse which are sent through the
nerves to the brain
4. The brain interprets / evaluates the smell

When
chemicals
in the air
the nose, they dissolve in the mucous lining and
Hot food, flowers and perfumes
release
chemicals
intoenter
the air

The brain receives and interprets the impulses as smells


The sensory cells send out nerve impulses to the b

When we have a cold or flu, a lot of mucus is produce. The smell receptors are
surrounded by this thick layer of mucus and very little of chemical vapor gets to
the smell receptors. Therefore, the smell receptors do not get stimulated enough
to effectively function as a sensory organ of smell.
The sensitivity of the nose towards stimuli is influenced by the following factors:
The strength of the smell. A stronger smell will be detected by the nose easily
compared with a weaker smell.
The presence of mucus in the nose. A lot of mucus will reduce the sensitivity
of the nose.

1.4 THE SENSE OF TASTE

Form 2 Chapter 1: THE WORLD THROUGH OUR SENSES

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The tongue is the sensory organ for taste.


The surface of the tongue has groups of cells known as taste buds which are
sensitive to taste.
There are four types of taste buds on the tongue sensitive to sweet, bitter, sour
and salty.
The taste buds contain many taste receptors.
Different parts of the tongue are more sensitive towards a certain taste.
The combination of different taste creates different taste sensations
The tongue detects taste in the following way:

The dissolved
chemicals stimulate the taste receptors in
When food is chewed, the chemicals in the food dissolve
in the saliva

The brain receives and interprets the impulses as taste


The taste receptors send out impulses to the

Both senses of taste and smell are needed when we taste food
When we chew the food, some chemicals from the food enter our nasal passages
to stimulate the smell receptors in the nose.
When we eat, our tongue gives us the taste and our nose smell of the food.
The sense of smell helps the sense of taste .This explains why food dose not
taste appetizing when we have a cold or flu because we cannot smell effectively
It is easier to drink an unpleasant tasting medicine with the nose pinched
because without the sense of smell, the medicine will taste less awful.

1.5 THE SENSES OF HEARING

Form 2 Chapter 1: THE WORLD THROUGH OUR SENSES

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The ear is the sensory organ that is sensitive to sound stimuli produced by
vibrating object.
A human ear has three main parts.
The outer ear, filled with air.
The middle ear, filled with air.
The inner ear, filled with liquid/ fluid
Function of the different parts of the human ear.
Part of ear

Structure

Functions

OUTER EAR
Pinna

Made of cartilage and skins.


Shape like a funnel

Collects and directs sound


waves into the ear canal

Ear canal/
auditory canal

A narrow tube, lined with


hairs and earwax

Directs sound waves to the


eardrum

Eardrum

A thin, stretched membrane

Vibrates when sound waves hit


it

MIDDLE EAR
Ossicles

Three small bones

Amplify vibrations by about 20


times and transfer them to the
oval window

Oval window

A thin membrane attached to


the last bone of ossicles

Transfers vibrations of the


ossicles to the cochlea

Eustachian
tube

A narrow tube that connects


the middle ear to the back of
the throat

Balances air pressure on both


sides of the eardrum,
preventing it from damage (not
involved in the hearing
mechanism)

INNER EAR
Cochlea

A coiled tube, filled with fluid.


Contains receptors

Detects vibrations and converts


them into nerve impulses

Auditory

Nerve fibers that connect to

Carries nerve impulses to the

Form 2 Chapter 1: THE WORLD THROUGH OUR SENSES

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nerve| 8

the brain

brain

Semicircular
canals

Three semicircular canals


situated at right angles to
each other

Maintain the balance of the


body (not involved in the
hearing mechanism)

The hearing mechanism

The
pinna
collects
sound
waves
The
sound
wavesthe
enter
the ear
and travel through the ear canal towards the eardrum. The eardrum

The ossicles
amplify
the vibrations
before transferring them to th
The vibrations of the oval window cause the fluid inside
the cochlea
to move
like waves

Theauditory
brain interprets
he nerve impulses produced by the receptors in the cochlea are carried along the
nerve tothe
theimpulses
brain as soun

Sound waves

Sound waves

Pinna

Ear canal

Sound waves

Eardrum

Nerve impulses
Nerve impulses

Sound can be heardVibrations

Brain
Vibrations

Cochlea

Auditory nerve

1.6 SENSE OF SIGHT

Oval window

Vibrations

Ossicles

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The eye is the sensory organ of sight that can is sensitive to light.
The eyelids and eyelashes keep dust and dirt out of eyes. When we blink, the
eyelids wipe tears over the eyes, keeping then moist and clean. Tears contain
chemicals that kill bacteria.
The layer of the human eye:
the sclera (outermost)
the choroids (middle) and
the retina (innermost)
Structure
of the eye
Sclera

Characteristic

Function

- Strong, hard and white layer

Cornea

- Curved transparent layer in


front of the sclera
- Black pigmented middle
layer of the eye
- Contains many blood

- Protects the eye


- Maintains the shape of the eye
- Refracts and focuses the light
onto the retina
- Absorbs light and prevents
reflection of light in the eye
- Supplies nutrients and oxygen to

Choroid

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Conjunctiva
Iris
Pupil
Eye lens
Ciliary body
Suspensory
ligaments
Aqueous
humour
Vitreous
humour
Retina
Optic Nerve
Yellow spot
(fovea)
Blind spot

vessels
- Thin transparent membrane
in front of the cornea
- Coloured part of the eye
that is continuous with the
choroid
- Opening in the centre of iris
- Elastic biconvex transparent
disc
- Muscular extensions from
the choroid
- Strong fibres that connect
the ciliary muscles to the eye
lens
- Transparent liquids between
the cornea and the eye lens
- Thick, transparent jelly-like
substances inside the eyeball
- Contains photoreceptors
(such as cones and rods)
- Nerve fibres that connects
the retina to the brain
- The most sensitive area of
the retina
- Located directly opposite
the pupil
- The spot where optic nerve
exits the eyeball
- Has no photoreceptors

the eye
- Protects the frontal part of the
cornea
- Controls the size of the pupil
- Allow light to enter the eye
- Refracts and focuses light onto
the retina
- Changes the thickness of the
lens through contractions and
relaxations
- Hold the eye lens in position
- Maintains the shape of the eye
- Helps to focus light onto the
retina
- Maintains the shape of the eye
- Refracts light onto the retina
- Detects light and produces
nerve impulses
- Carries nerve impulses from the
retina to the brain
- Detects light or images and
changes them into nerve
impulses
- Cannot detect any light or
images that fall onto it

Changes in the size of the pupil under different situations


The pupil in a normal situation

When a person moves from a bright area into a dark area


The pupil enlarges
More light enters the eye
After a while the eye can see in the dark

When a person moves from a dark area into a bright area


The pupil becomes smaller

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light enters the eye


The eye is protected from excess light

MECHANISM OF SIGHT

Reflected light rays from


The
anlens
object
converges
enter theand
eye focuses the light rays onto the retina
The cornea, aqueous and vitreous humour help to refract and foc

The nerve impulse produced by the photoreceptors is sent


A real,
from
inverted
the optic
and
nerve
diminished/
to the brain
smaller ima

The brain interprets the impulses as an upright image of the actual size ob
The lens in the human eye is a transparent convex lens.
An inverted image is focused on the retina.
Light rays are refracted by the eye lens. The eye lens focuses the image onto the
retina by changing the thickness of the eye lens. The thickness of the lens is
changed by the ciliary muscles.
Focusing near objects: To focus near objects onto the retina, the ciliary
muscles contract. The eye lens becomes thicker.
Focusing distant object: To focus distant objects onto the retina, the ciliary
muscles relax. The eye lens becomes thinner.

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The pathway of light as it enters the eye:

Light rays
Light rays
Light rays

Light rays

Light rays from an object

Light rays

Cornea

Aqueous humour

Pupil

Nerve impulses
Nerve impulses

Brain
Retina

Optic nerve

An upright object is seen


Vitreous humour

Lens

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LIGHT
& SIGHT
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Light is a form of energy.


Light travels in straight lines which causes the formation of eclipses.
Light cannot travel through opaque objects, thus shadows are formed.
Light travels at a speed of ;
300,000,000 meter/second (m/s) in the air.
225,000,000 m/s in water
200,000,000 m/s in glass

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Properties of light
Reflection

Refraction

A light ray bends when it goes through media of different densitie

A light ray bounces off the surface of an object

REFLECTION OF LIGHT
When light hits an opaque object, it may be absorbed or reflected (thats mean
change direction).
Reflection of light occurs when light bounces off the surface of an object.
When the reflected light rays enter our eyes, we can see the object.
The amount and direction of the reflected light depend on the nature of the
surface it hits.
Object with very smooth surfaces such as mirrors, sheets of glass and polished
metals are good reflectors of light. They reflect light in a regular pattern which
called regular reflection.
When light falls on irregular surfaces such as paper, cloth and wood, the reflected
rays are scattered in all directions which called irregular or diffused reflection.
If the light that hits a surface is reflected regularly, sharp images are produced.
That is why we can see our image on very smooth surface.
Diffused reflection of light enables us to see an object from any angle.
A plane mirror reflects light regularly.

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The image in a plane mirror is,


virtual (cannot be formed on a screen)
upright
laterally inverted (the left-hand side of the object appears on the right-hand
side of the image)
the same size as the object
at the same distance behind the mirror as the object is in front of the mirror.
Applications of the reflection of light in daily life
Plane mirrors are used at home and as rear-view mirrors in vehicles
Convex mirrors produce a wider scope of view. They are used as security
mirrors in shops, blind corner mirrors on roads and wing mirrors in vehicles.
Concave mirrors produced magnified images. They are used as dental
mirrors, cosmetics mirrors and in microscopes and telescopes.
Periscopes are used in submarines to look above the surface while staying
submerged. Two plane mirrors are used in a periscope to reflect and change
the direction of light
A kaleidoscope is a tube made up of mirrors with small pieces of coloured
objects. The light from the objects is reflected from one mirror to another,
producing beautiful multiple images.

REFRACTION OF LIGHT
Light travels through transparent media like air, water and glass.
The speed of light changes when it moves from one medium to another with a
different density which causes the light to be refracted (bent).
Refraction of light is the bending of light. This happens when light travels from
one transparent medium to another which is of a different density.
The speed of light decrease when light enters a denser medium.
The following shows the three situations of the movement of light rays through
two different media.

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The following examples show how light travels from one medium to another with
different densities.

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phenomena of refraction of light are shown below:

Form 2 Chapter 1: THE WORLD THROUGH OUR SENSES

VARIOUS
Page | 18 DEFECT OF VISION

Longsightedness
- Distant
objects appear
clearly but
near objects
appear blurry

Short-sightedness
- Near objects appear clearly but
distant objects appear blurry

Common
Defects of
Vision

Presbyopia
- Near objects appear
blurry due to an
inflexible lens in old
age.

Colour
blindness
- Unable to
differentiate
between red and
green colour

Astigmatism
- Both near and distant
objects appearblurry and
distorted as a result of an
irregular cornea surface

A person who suffers from the defects of vision has unfocused visions because
the images are not formed exactly on the retina
There are many causes of defects of vision, such as old age, heredity and
diseases due to infections.
Some defects of vision can be treated and some are permanent
Other defects of vision include strabismus (misalignment of the eyes),
keratoconus (cone-shaped cornea) and macular degeneration (blindness due to
ageing)
Comparison between long-sightedness and short-sightedness
Similarity
Caused by the condition of the lens and shape of eyeball
Short-sightedness
Differences
Long-sightedness
(myopia)
(hypermetropia)
Sees near objects clearly but
Condition of
Sees distant objects clearly
distant objects are blurred
vision
but near objects are blurred
Eye lens is too thick
Reason for the
Eye lens is too thin
Eyeball is too long
defect
Eyeball is too short
Light from distant object is
Focusing of
Light from near object is
focused in front of the retina
light
focused behind the retina

Corrected by wearing
glasses with concave lenses
to diverge light before it
enters the eyes.

Correction

Corrected by wearing glasses


with convex lenses to
converge light before it
enters the eyes.

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Astigmatism is another vision defect.


Its caused by the cornea and the eye lens that are not evenly curved.
As a result, the image formed on the retina is distorted and not clear
(hazy/blurred).
This defect can be overcome by wearing glasses with cylindrical lenses or
contact lens or by surgery.

Colour-blindness
Colour-blind people cannot see some or all colours. Most of them cannot
distinguish between red and green colours. Most sufferers are men.
This defect is due to reduced number of cone cells on the retina or defects in
them.
It is inherited from the mother who is a carrier for the defect and it cannot be
corrected.
Presbyopia
As we grow older, our eye lenses become less elastic. The ciliary body also
loses its ability to contract and relax. As a result, images for near and distant
objects are blurred.
This defect is corrected by wearing glasses with bifocal lenses.

LIMITATIONS OF SIGHT
Our sense of sight has its limitations. For example, we cannot see tiny objects
such as bacteria and atoms with naked eyes. We also cannot see very distant
objects such as far away planets and stars. And we cannot see through opaque
objects.
Optical illusion.
Optical illusion is a phenomenon where the images that we see are different
from reality.
Optical illusions are caused by disturbances to the nerve impulses carried to
the brain.

Form 2 Chapter 1: THE WORLD THROUGH OUR SENSES

The
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brain does not interpret accurately the information sent by the


photoreceptors in the eye. This creates a false perception or impression on
the objects we see.

Examples of optical illusion.

Blind spot
The blind spot is a spot on the retina of the eye that cannot detect light
stimulus.
The image of the object formed at the blind spot cannot be seen by the eye
because there are no light-sensitive cells (photoreceptors) at the blind spot.
Close your left eye and stare at the cross mark in the diagram with your right
eye. Now slowly move toward the diagram. Keep looking at the cross mark
while you move. At a particular distance, the spot will disappear (it will
reappear again if you move even closer). The spot disappears because it falls
on the optic nerve head, the hole in the photoreceptor sheet.

MONOCULAR & STEREOSCOPIC VISION


The stereoscopic vision is vision using both eyes.
The overlapping area of the vision of both the left and right eyes is called
stereoscopic field

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Advantages
of stereoscopic vision.
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See three-dimensional pictures of objects.
Enables more accurate estimation of distance and position.
Animal predators normally have stereoscopic vision so better estimate the
distance when getting to pounce on their prey.
Monocular vision is a vision using only one eye.
The advantage of monocular vision is having a wide vision field.
Its disadvantage is that it cannot estimate distance accurately.
Animal preys use monocular vision to detect predators coming from all direction.

DEVICES TO OVERCOME LIMITATION OF SIGHT


Optical devices are invented to increase the ability to see minute or very
distant objects.
INSTRUMENT
Microscope
Telescope
Binocular
Magnifying glass
Periscope
X-ray machine
MRI (Magnetic

FUNCTION
To see minute objects such as microorganisms.
To see far-off objects such as stars and planets.
To see tiny distant objects such as birds in the sky.
To see small objects such as insects
It is used in a submarine to see objects above the water
level
To see internal organs in the body or to see the contents
in the passengers luggage at the airport
To see the bodys interior in order to diagnose medical

Form 2 Chapter 1: THE WORLD THROUGH OUR SENSES

Resonance
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Imaging) scanner
Ultrasound
scanning device

conditions such as tumours, spinal or soft tissues injuries


To see the conditions of the foetus in pregnant women

1.8 SOUND AND HEARING


PROPERTIES OF SOUND
Sound is a form of energy.
Sounds are produced by vibrations.
Anything that vibrates in the air produces sounds.
When an object vibrates, kinetic energy is changed into sound energy.
Sound needs a medium to travel. A medium can be a solid, a liquid or a gas.
Sound cannot travel through a vacuum.
Sound can be transferred fastest in solids and slowest in gases.
This is because the particles in solids and liquids are closer each other compared
to the molecules in gases.
Vacuum is a space that does not have any particles.

REFLECTION & ABSORBTION


Sound can be reflected or absorbed by the surface of an object.
The sound reflected repeatedly from one surface is known as echo.
Surfaces that are smooth, even and hard are good sound reflectors and
produce loud echo. For examples, concrete, plank, metal and mirror
Surfaces that are rough, hollow and soft are good sound absorbers and
produce weak echo. For examples cloth, sponge, cork, rubber, carpet and
cushion.
The following methods are used to reduces echoes in concert halls or cinemas:
Hanging thick curtains
Covering the floor with carpets
Installing chairs with soft cushions
Lining the walls with acoustic foam
The application of the reflection of sound include:
Determining the depth of the sea
Determining the presence of fish under the sea (by fishermen) and the
presence of enemy ships by a submarine (warfare)
Determining distances by bats and dolphins to help in their movements.

DEFECTS OF HEARING
The most common hearing defect is deafness.
Deafness is a hearing defect that is caused by damage to some part of the ear,
for example:
Tearing of the eardrum
Damage to the ossicles
Damage to the auditory nerve

Form 2 Chapter 1: THE WORLD THROUGH OUR SENSES

Damage
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to the cochlea
Damage to the hearing centre of the brain
In some cases, the hearing defect can be corrected through surgery or by using a
hearing aid.
Damaged ossicles can be replaced and torn eardrums can be patched.
Some cases of hearing defects cannot be remedied, for example damage to the
auditory nerve, cochlea or hearing centre of the brain.

LIMITATION OF HEARING
We cannot hear all the sounds around us. Voices that are very soft cannot be
heard
The range of frequencies of hearing in man is 20 Hz until 20 000 Hz. The
following table shows the range of frequencies of hearing of several animals:
ANIMAL
Snake
Frog
dog
cat
bat
grasshopper
whale

RANGE of FREQUENCIES
100-800Hz
50-10 000Hz
10-50 000Hz
60-60 000Hz
1000-120 000Hz
100-15 000Hz
10-50Hz

Different people have different limitations of hearing.


For example, old people generally cannot hear as well as young people.
Our ear drum become less sensitive to sound as we grow older.
To overcome the limitations of hearing, we use
The stethoscope
Enables doctor to detect the soft heartbeats of patients.
Hearing aids
Collects sound signals before being sent to the middle ear.
Amplifier
Boosts weak sound signals.

STEREOPHONIC HEARING
Stereophonic hearing is hearing using both ears.
The advantages of stereophonic hearing:
i.
Enables the direction of the source of hearing to be detected more
accurately.
ii.
This is because the ear nearer the source of sound receives sound
louder and earlier than the other ear.
iii.
Animals that have stereophonic sound can detect the presence of
preys and predators more quickly.

1.9 STIMULI AND RESPONSE IN PLANTS

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Movements of any plant parts towards stimuli are known as tropic movement or
tropism.
Type of tropism:
Growth of plant part towards an external stimulus is known as positive
tropism.
Growth away from an external stimulus is known as negative tropism.
Tropism responses in plants include:
Phototropism
Geotropism
Hydrotropism
Thigmotropism move towards to obtain support
Nastic movement response to external stimulus
Type of tropism
Phototropism
Geotropism
Hydrotropism
Thigmotropism

Stimulu
s
Light
Gravity
Water
Touch

Nastic movement (seismonasty)

Touch

Positive

Negative

Shoots
Roots
Roots
Stems
(tendrils)

Roots
Shoots
Shoots
Roots

Phototropism
Def.: Respond of plant to light
+ve phototropism Shoots grow towards light
-ve phototropism Roots grow away from light
+ve phototropism helps green plants to get light to make food by
photosynthesis

Hydrotropism
Respond to water by plants
+ve hydrotropism Roots grow towards water
-ve hydrotropismShoots grow away from water
+ve hydrotropism helps the roots to get water
Roots are attracted more by water than by gravity.

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Geotropism
Respond to gravity by plants
-ve geotropism Shoots grow upwards against gravity
+ve geotropism Roots grow downwards towards gravity
+ve geotropism helps the roots to get water and to anchor the plants firmly
into the soil for support

Thigmotropism
Some plants with soft stems climb up a support when they touch it
They climb by twining, by using tendrils or thorn/hooks
This respond to touch by plants is called thigmotropism
Thigmotropism provides additional support to plants to get sunlight for
photosynthesis

Nastic movements
A movement made by plants in response to stimuli that may come in any
direction

Form 2 Chapter 1: THE WORLD THROUGH OUR SENSES

The
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leaves of the mimosa plant close up when they are touched


A nastic movement response helps to protect the plant from injury
Seismonasty in Venus flytraps helps the plants to get nutrition (food) for
survival.