L_

Bosic Klrowledge: Understonding

the

Eorth

I

(A) THE STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH
Whot lies deep within the eorth?

.

Scientisls hove discovered thot our eorfh is fqr frorn unifo.m from iis outer crust to its centae. fnsteod, it consists of o centrol core with severol loyers s!rro!nding it. The Eorth is mode up

of 3 principol loyers:-

I) Core II) it\ontle III) Lithosphere

r) coRE
At cenire of the eorfh About 3000 km in rodius
Temperotures estimoted to be between 2BoO"C ond 31OO"C Composed of iron ond nickel Subdivided into:o An inner core =) solid rodius of 7BO krn An ouler core -> liquid .odius of 2160 krn

II)

A,\ANTLE

.

Sqrrounding the core rAallar',l[qwil 2900 km in thickness ,hg I serrtl- flol\.ert: ho li.iuid B0% of ecrth's volume Temperoture between 1BOO'C ond 28OO.C Composed of minerol molters in solid stote ( moinly rocks rich in mognesium and iron silicotes) Wiihin the uppe. montle is o sofl loyer, colled the osthenosphere o Locqted beiween depths of 1OO ond 300 km o Semi mollen loyer; rock here is necr ils nelting tenrperofure ond is therefore eosily deformed. o gecouse it is eosily deformed, it focililoles the movement of lhe rigid loyer (lithosphere) obove it (mq lh,lblz )

\l/kt

t{

The boundory between the montle ond the crusi is known os the Mohoroviiii disconlinuity o Also known os the'Moho discontinuity

Crus10-100 knr

thick

Not ta scale

6J78 k.n

scala Figure l_ Cross s€ction of the eorth Source: http: //pobs. usgs.gov./pu
b

licd

tions./t€xrlinside. htlnl

I!I)

LITHOsPHERE

I
I

Lithosrlhcru

t

Lrthosphere'

I

r1
:\4antl€

ii

Mrn{e

ti l+

I
FiErre 2. Ihe osthenosphere, lithosphe.€ ond the L,\oho.ovi;ii discontinuity
loyer obont 100 km ihick Includes crust ond uppeamost pqrl of ihe lnqhtle Brok€n anto lorge units colled lithospheric plotes; eoch plote being oble to nove independently of ihe plofes q.ound it Thinnest loyer. overcAing <20 km thick -Subdivid"-.1 inloi ^ Conlinenfol lithospheric crusl o Oceonic lithospheric crvst
Cool

I

b.ittle

Differences belween continentol c.usl ond oceqnic crust ore highlighted in Toble 1on the following pogeAs highlighted in Toble 1, continentol crust ( olso known os "5iol") differs from oceonic crust(olso known os "5imo" ) in terms of composition. oge, thickness ond density. Continentol crust is oldea, thickea, ond less dense compored to oceonic crust

l_
l::.-l4ss
I

Continehfol
Domrnonce

(

olso lnown cs Srbl)

(olso known os Sma
Dominonce of chemicol elemenfs of silicc (si) ond

silico (si) ond oluminium (ol)

of chernicol elernenis of

r1c149ss
Toble 1 : Difference, U.rw..n.or*ir,.nt"l ond oceonic cr,0st
3.O

LDehsity

- 3:&rornsger

cm3

Continental Crust

l0 km
1O0 km

200 km

B) THE 6EOLO6IC T1ME 5CALE
How old is

the Eorth?

. . . .

Th€ Eo.fh is estimoted to hqve been formed 4600 OO0 0OO yeors o9o! Even if this figure is simplified io 4600 millioh yeors, tt still presents o tirnescqle for beyond our understcnding. fn order to better express ond desc ri6e lhe oges of rocks, geologisfs developed Ihe geologic time scole ( refer to Figure 4 on following poge) This time scole .summorizes" eorfh's history by orgonizang millions of yeors of history into eras, periods ond epochs :
Ero

o o

fhere ore three eros Poleozoic, Mesozotc and Cenozoi. These eros sow the evolution of life forms in the oceons
on

ond

rhir lqnds

o fhe Cenozoic

ero is imporfonl in terms of the continentol surface5. os neorly oll londscope feotures todoy hove been forned in the 65 million yeors since this ero begon

Period o The subdivision of eoch ero
Epoch

o

As the Cenozoic ero is comporolively shoat in durotion, scorcely more thon the overoge dLtrotion of o single period in older eros, it is subdivided di.ectly into seven lesser time units colled epochs
The geologicol time scole serves os o useful reference for geologisfs to describe the tining of events in Eorth's history_

.

Pr.iod
(.'

Epqch

Ao. Mqior Aiologieol
.Ot

(c.no:oic antyl l[cloc.nc
tRcccnt

B

Gcolcgic Evonr*

o o

€votcrnory

l

Pl!irtoCena
PliocG6c
15.5

5

{.. 4+r !.t1-r 46c ry.r!r.n !f 9...rdr lrr'rr r( ..n1r..n, u.,.taD6.ftr €r n{i.r !6Fidt C.iurr i Cc.€6d,oi Or.{.n, r,/.,r.d 5rdr.r: 1. t art C!deriir. t.c.q. r.r.
arl,a.tian !a aiilr6vrti lrcr.hoq pr'ir. fi4r, i. nd{nr *r Corcirr..or Ord O.ir
cddrr.i.i to.,riri

Tcrllcry
()

Miocrne Oll{ oc a.rn

lzs s

3,6-,--

Cr!toc!ou!

o
N

\\_-*-__:

{r/ /Eo
t65
?3C

54,"

o
Iriossie

o?.c.^r .r!(! r d r Lrir..".r6{i, ap.rr..*;a. or60rir: r. c..4 r..!

:
vqnioat

e65

4n{ *cdaer -ri!.
AFor!.(nidtr o/rgrar,

3to
i

-fqr. !.Dr rr. .oet ir.d!r io,dra, &si€.,na ir li. ae.l.d!r,,
r,.(qi6 r. ;^;;;;;;;;* <{..6j4r. d.o{rir;d.i rfur.. 0..q.{r i. Cndnr.r.^ t .! r. e.r, (*acrr
Fk.r raad srd,dti r |r.l ,d,i.! a ,i... ff,..(t dtrj rsdt fi!i: ahrn.t,onr 4ts.c? r {co{rd5 6.op..r i. rn.

Alir:i:s*

"i

ippaan

355

D6Y{11idn

4r1

Silu.iofi

425

.lcFr.d

r,r

i. r

O.deviciel

_
Csrnbrldn

'l

;l 3.__l-

478
GOO

tiln riria r rd{.nlr e..q..'l r. Fl.rt fir.*.t i^r+!.!r.r.. t ..ior ll|!al4( .t ,i..t6 ^i4rr.. 5 billion yiors (igo

Pricombrlcfl

tit|r G bog

n

Figure 4. The 6eotogac Tilne scote

6

1. PLATE TECTONIC5 THEORY
q)

Feoiures of the Plqte Tectonics Theor

l. Eqfth,
Definirion:

j.

j u(

Ludf
P'q

.

Plote teclonics theorv

L8

01,,r

r

f o,u,
Url

ttqdl

,lo

v 0u nd0 rLp:

...nJ

qL

liui)i?

i 0&(t

o{

plo'fu5
0n

2. Plru4xs novz

("c\ch Aly*r

telqttvt

1o

is

.

The word "tectonics" or ("tectonics octivil-',") refers to the study movement of lifhospheric ploles ond their boundqry inferoctions.

of

the

Key Feotures of the Plote Tectonics Theory: . World's surfoce divided into 7 major pldtes ond severol minor plotes; eoch oboui 75 km thick. ( Fig 5) . Rigid plotes "flool" on underlying semi,molten montle ( ie: osthenosphere) qnd ore moved by convection currenfs. . As o aesult of convection currents generoled by heot from the ceItre of the eorth, ploles may nove towatds, away {rom or sideways olong odJocent plotes.

frrst p.oposed by English 6eologast , Arthur Holmes. Intense heat energy released from lhe core of fhe Eorth (due to the rodiooctrve decoy of chemicol elemenis in the €ore) qenerdtes convection cur.ents in the
Convection cqrrents hypothesis

lndntle. As convection cu.rents rise, th€y wall frovel ldterdlly upon reachang the unde.side of lilhosphere. As fhey lrovel loterolly, they will pull fhe plotes owoy from eoch other ( or sidewoys olone eoch orher). dlte(g.!nl \rqnslOrn Upon giving up their heol energy Io the lithosphere, the currents cool ond descend bock into the montle. As they descend, they pull the plotes towqrds eoch other ( or

Ar

sidewoys olong eoch

ofher\.

>

L)\\\lvfqlnl A. lfaASf)fm

This hypothesis ssggesfs that conveclion cells within the lrlontle corried the plotes ond lhot the plotes ployed liltle or no ociive port in the convection

Where ploies nove oport ( ie'. diverge), new crustol mate ol maybe cteated. Where ploles move lowords eoch other, crustdl mqteriol mar,/ 6e desttoyed_ Becquse the caeotion of crustol noteriql ot divergent plote boundories is compensoted by the destruction of crastol mqteriol at convergent plste boundories, hence lhe world is nof increasina or decreasina in size.

.

Io o\tlh.rl0lpWttu/t(/tI< (tu t:vtll ttt, pl.rtr. qw','y +(a/r' P\Lh \)tfLr r' rida,.+uYs 7 ,WttI tvryy i:'losl q,nd ct^n(nt; dxsU,ttr bo,ck inlo ntar,tlz putl 1Vo pl' U i 1au""tr'J' ?uLh 0+Wf 0t 1i\JlwqVt

(olv{tf.on tUtttnl tttyp1lfu1,'9 J\r$fldry,

'fuul

lran.lprrrJ lrat,

trytqrtlk

t

is ot these boundories thot mosi ond eorihquoke octivity is locoted.

It

of fhe world,s mojor londforms ond volconic

of londforms ond phenonenq ossocioted with lhese boundorres will depend on the noture of the plote rnovement ond the type of crustol mqteriol oi the plole boundories
The types

-f
\YS
o !'

(
I

I

\

!a

!

I
\
I

i
t
+

\

J

E

!
30,

li
D

\: a

E

CI

o h .l!

.Qe

t

Eo

H!

v

Figu.e

5:. The Lifhospheric ptotes of the Eorrh

b)

Evidence supoortinq

the Plqte Tectonics Theory

The Plote Tectonics theory encornposses older concepts of contineniol driff, developed during the first holf of the Z1th century, ond seofloor spreodinq. understood during the 1960s.
Continental

driflr

thoi oll the continents were once joined togelher os o "super conlinent,, known os Pongoeo which loler drified oport to forn the contanenls os we know them
todoy.

Proposed by Alfred V,/egener in 1912, this concepl suggested

seq-floor spreodinqi This concept suggests thot new oceonic crust is constontly being cteoted ih the middle of oceanic bosins. As new oceonic crust is being creoted, the seo floor as being exiended over time.

fhe evrdence supporlin_g the occurren(e of conltnentol drltt ond seo-lloor spreoding ore the evidirnce thof support the plqie tectonics theory.
All these evidence support plote tectonics iheory by plotes move relotive to each ofher_

offirning ihe fqcl thoi

Evidence supporting Plote Tectonics Theory

. Lvrdence supporling : : : Conlanentol Drifi ,......................
uJiXsqa
zr

. i

--.........--.....'....

Evidence supporting : Seo Floor spreoding :

{i1s o{ coalimtiql (lqsllinxt q lVlQ\MliL
e,tidtn7

tpVpfsqls

0qlq eorrlo{uglc o1

nAy. al fock on {tqfloa,

,fu.alr;gic erticlt,cu
tt p qlqs o- (,I)nafic e u i dt
sr
n

u

floloeo

fl,togri/tlc

evid!,\LL

Lrrnospnerrc ftocesses, Hdzorcls ond Monogemeni :pLATE I ECfONICS
SRJC

l)

Jigsow

fif of the cohtinentdl
Bocon noted

coostlines ( Continentol Drift)

In 1620, Froncis
opposite sides
j;9sow pur.zle

of the Atldntic

(f'q. o)

fhot the South Americon ond Africon coostlines on Oceon seemed to fit like odjqcent pieces of o

Such continenfol

of a supercontineni (Pongoeo)

"corrying" ihese continents moved.

refits suggested thal fhe continents mqy hove been once port which eventuolly drifted oporl os the ploles

Fig,rre 6. Continental

refits

2) Poloeontologicol Evidehce: Distribution of Fossils ( Continentol Drift)
Polaeontoloqy refers io medium of fossil evidence-

.

ihe study of prehistoric onimols ond plonts through the

Fossils of ideniicol species were found on coniinenls ihot were now widely seporoted by oceons. This slggests thqt these continents wete once connected but eventuolly drifted opor-t os the plotes 'cdffying,, these continents
moved_

.

Close simjlority in the fossil plonts preserved forrnotion of the southern conl inenfs

in the

coql

ond

E.g:Ihe distinctive Pet'n'rcn f/ora. Glossapterts flora, were found in the southern continents nol in the northem confinents (Ftg Z)

l0

.

Connon fauna: fhe ptesence of lorge terrestriol vertebrotes of closely reloled species on eoch of the southe.n continenis

Mesosaurus (alligatorlike reptile) have been found on/y in the Itarafe forhotion of Brozil ond the DLlyka forno on of South Aftica in sihilar sedinentary beds. It was unlikely that the repti/e swan 4qookn o.rost the Attonhc Th,Js. the stnilar Dwyka and Ifafore forhations nay have been once joihed together. E.g: Fossils

of the

GkJssapt€{is

Lystrosaurus M€s)saurus

Oistritlution ot fosgis across thg southern coqllngnts of Pang6a.
Figur€ 7. The distribufion of fossils in the soulhe.n contanents

3) Geologic Evidence ( Continentol Drift)
Geology
sequence

refers to the study of rocks: age of rocks, mine.ol composriron, ol rock types (strotigrophy).

.
Eg

Geologic studies hove reveoled thot thzre ore motching rock types on the shelves of continenis thot qre now oport.(Fig B)

I: pock doting studies in Africd ond South Anerica showed thot lhe paltern of rock oges for th6e 2 regio6 has o close correspondence

Eg Z:-llegener found iEtonces in which on unconmon rock fype or o distinctive seguence of roc/<s on one side of the Atlantic Ocean wos identical lo rocks on the other side. I4/hen plotted on a Pangaea nap. those on the east side of the Atlantic were continuous on the

lt

Eg 3. Unusual violet quortzites, Devonian perioal in age? occur in both Brozit on.j South Africa n locotions which wou/d be adjocent if the Soith Anericon and Afrjcan conttnents
Eg

4:

The geo/agical sequence

tn Scol/ond

of sedinentary and rgneous rocks froa Ba/lantrae and Girvon natch those found jn Newfoundlond

Match ot cratofls lryrdsJ anC aoaont ororxsnk baltg (f,l!1lil b6trr6,,3'.: Soufir /4fi tr ica and ilrtca
Figure 8. /,lotch

sf

geologicat

siructure in South Ame.ico ond Afri.d

4) Poloeo-cli.no+ic Evidence: poloeoglociot,oh ( Contihentol

Drift)

Poloeoclimotology refers to the study of climofe chonge over the spon of Eorth.s history. It relies on records fron rocks, ice sheeis ond sediments to defermine posf climotic condifions on Eorth

conditions, their disfribution will be restricted to specific locolities

Differenf regions on Eorth experienc e diflerent cl,motic conditions. certoin rock lypeslsedimenls con only form under oppropriole

Sance

clinotic

(lilnolic condrlron<

The discovery of rocks/sedirnents in locolities where they were unlikely 1o be formed given the present climotic conditions, suggests thoi fhe conlinents were locoted oh a different port of the glo6e wheie they expe enced

different

Evidence of glqcioiion ( ie: 1s6e13a from rocks. ice-sheets or sedimenis) ih oreqs thqt ore now much wormer suggesls thof these continents were situoted

t2

neor the poles. Clrmofic chonges observed in ihese continents were thus the resull of the continenis driftinq from one lGtitude to onother.

E!!!€t!erI ry!4q5ya4past alociation over rndio in places where ice cannot exjst today, cannot be exploined by global clinntic.honges since there is no evidence of the sane cooling trends on other conttnenls.
Eg 1:

Eg 2: The distributian of tilhtes( olacially deposited sedinents) showed that the soufhern continents (South Aherica, South Africa, Indta and Australia,) had gl! experienced erlensive olaciation ot about the some time in penntan Carboniferous

3: Ihe direction in which striae ( deep s.rat.hes or groores teft behtnd on the as huge ice sheets retreot) poinl indicates the direction in which the jce sheets hove noved. luhen the southern continents (South Anerica, south Afrtca. India and
Eg

Austro/n,) were brought logether. the natch-up between the ice slieets wos a.curote. suggesttng thot lhe contitents used to be together and u/ere clusfered around the south Pole at the satne rinE (Fig 9)

Figure 9. Ext€nt of the ice sheet during the Pernion corboniferous

Fn$tibn of tn6 ic6 slu? el orf.r ths sa$1kafi c-anttlanls 1ga-tfi Ma eoo

5) Poloeomognetic evidencei (Apparent) Polor Wondering Curves (Cohlihehtol

D.ift)

. .

Poloemognetjsm

refers to the study of the mogneiic properties of rocks

in

order to reconstrucl the Eorth's oncient rnognetic field.
How Polaenganettc studies help us teconstruct Earth's /tlagnetic field..

Most rocks contdin mognetic a.oins which reflect the di.ection ndgnetic field dt the time the rock is formed
P

>

of

edrths

lql

qil.h3

1l

When mdgmo sol,difies, the iron minerols will crystdll,ze ond be.one orrentqled in lhe direction of the prevoating lndgnetic faeld.

>

By looking ot the orieniolion of the mognetic groins in the rocks, scientrsis ccn oscertoin the locotion of the North pole qnd fhe Souih pole

'

.

colled lhe oltention of screnttsls:

When poloeomognetic sludies were cortied or:t in oll lhe confinents ond in rock somples fro6 different oceons during the 5Os ond 6Os, some controdictory doto

ii.l. ff1. p"1"" wohde. cu.ve wos creofed 10 descr;be ihis focj. Studies ".^. of p"f""1."9""t,.. * Europecn rocks of widely differe t oge reveal ihot Eorth,s mogneiic ,i".rr, p.f" opporertly has sfeddily_ chqnged its position with tine. The.ton!" in porirlon ** systemdttc, nol rondom
pole v,/ithin some time period: HOWEVLR, for somples of the some dge token from drfferent coniinents. poleomognefism ind;cored thqt the rnognelic Norrh pole wos or different pos,r,on, ot it,. ,.m. i^-.. J.O."O,rg the continent considered Jr seemed cs if rhere were ."* "" ;;il;;. pole ol onv q,ven For in.ron,p. o srm;tor }nrgrotron "";;;; j,.;;;;;l;d ^*r,, ',ne "f ,h" ."q.. in Norfh Ame.icdn rocks, ond, olrhough rhe potn of m,9ror,o'n *.5 a,ff"..nt, ,t parolleled rhot of rhe European sh,fr (Fag 1O) position

position of North over time: For somples extrocfed frori the satne contrnenl whrch corresponded to dtlferent oges, ih€ orientotion of hqgnetic grojns wos_different. This suggested thot the locolron of the,nognetrc ruo.tt pot. n"s different for eoch oge. os if the pote hod ,wondered" tf,_"gf, pole

> Different

> Different

of Norfh

Fig'lre 1O Polor wondering curves for Europe ond North Am€rico, wiih the preseht North Pole shor,,/n in the

E

of the rocks involved shown by letters (from oldest to yoqngesl: Cs . Combriqn; S.Silurion; D. bevonton; C: Carboniferous; P: Permionj T Triossici J Jurossic; K. Cretaceousi "
The o9e

.

Eocene).

The North Aheracon curve is not the the European curve ond fhe moi6 61;;"."n.. occurs between the Tridssic dnd Crefoceous period, su99es1ing thdt the two continents drifled opdrt durihg this period_
sorne shope os

The explanat'ton:

.

the some time. Ihsteod, the contin€hls moved oround fhe mognetic Norlh
pole through geologic time. recording in.iheir poloeomognetism the continenl positions reloiive to o sfationory mognetic pole. (Fig. l1)

Neither the poles wqndered nor fhere wqs rnore thon one nognefic Norfh ot
s

Eg: Ihe dislance of the separation of the North and South po/es deternined for Europe and North Anerico. ot one geological period is the distonce those continents have snce move aport. Figure 11 shows the polar wande ng curves for Africo and South Ahterico, which dlso shows fhat lhe difference between these two curves con only be brought toqether by

Figure 11- The opporent chohge in the locotion of ihe south rnogn€tic pole o) Africo snd South Americo in their present posifions b) Africo cnd South Americo in iheir positions oround 250 to 4OO rnillion yeors cgo should the two polal" wonderingcurves be brolght together

6) Poloeomognetic €vidence : illognetic Reve.sols (Seo Floor Spreoding)

.

As d,scussed eorlie., polcemqgnetism refers to the study of the mognelic
properties of rocks in o.der to reconstruct the Eorth's dncient mognetic field.

Scientific reseorch has reveoled thot Eorth' mognetic field hos reversed
polority throughout geologic hisiory.

l5

. In the eorly 1960s, geologisls nopped the rncgnetic directions implonted in
rocks on the oceon floor

off Icelond

They mode oh interesting observotion:

I There were bonds of rock hognetised in qlf€rrciing bonds of normol ond r€verse polsriiy orranged progressivety owoy frohl rh€ Mid,AtlonJic Ridge
Also. these bonds of rock of olternating no nol ond reverse poloriiy ore arronged syhmetricolly on either side of the Mid Atlonlic Ridge (Fiq 12)

>

.

orientotion in oll onolyzed rock sornples.

This dota puzzled geologists qs one would expecl to find the some mognetrc

l2:
fhe explanation: (Fig t3)

Mognetic reversols

.

As the moving convection cell corries oceonic crust owoy from the sprecding centrc/rift, slowly bui confinuously, bdsolfic mogmq rises through the spreoding centre/rift. As fhe bosolfic mogmo cools, it forms new oceonic crusf ond acquires lhe orientotion of the Eorth's moghelic field qt thot tine.
As the convection cqrrents in fhe rnontle continue to drive the plqtes opart, the newly formed oceonic crusi on eithe. side of the spreoding centte/ ft is cqrried owdy from it.

. .

The Eorth's mognetic field chonges oriehiofion periodicqlly , oa overage every holf o million yeors ( iet there l\ove 6een 9 mqjor reversqls in fhe post 3.6 million

t6

yeors). This chonge in rnqgnetisn orientotioh is systemotically recorded in the hew mogmo on the newly formed bosaltic tock emergang from fhe spreqding

centre/rift.

.

This resqlts in the bdnds of rock showing olternoiing normql ond reverse mognetic polqrity on eithet side of the mid-oceonic ridge.

tl n it/ /., /
1'/,//i --: F/ ' :rit
r.i

[

"rtl't"

ll,c'e;lt|

:r {''t: ( ;:'; ,';'r

.

vf' 1' . 'It,','

i

ii tt

.t:' 'y'1,i:

)

r,.ypisqlg

Figure 13. Relotiohship of the chonges in the eorth's hognetic fi€ld and the formotion of new oceonic cr.usl

naqtfiic RVs6qIs', f,hatoyes lr,

l\M Lqrlk,s rAtgM+,'c 4ietd __-) pssilll/t, o[ moqfrr1;, Nortk aal rvr09rutic 5,1ulla \q@ftte IIIZ,henged

*lV

Wier,talior, aF

7) 6eologic Evidence: Age of rocks ( Seo Floor Spreoding)

.

As rnenlioned eorlier, oceon floor exploration studies reveoled olternofe bonds of normolly ond reversely orronged mognetised rocks, symmeiricolly orrcnged oround the Mrd A I lonirc Rrdge

.

Apqrt fron thot, boreholes reveoled thot the oges

of

rocks neoresi

to the

qwov were proqressively older( over 160 million yeors). (Fig 14)

th..t

.

This puzzled scientists os rocks jn the sone locolity should hove fhe some oge.

Explanaflon:

. This suggesls thot

new oceonrc crust wos creoted neor the spreoding center/rift. When oceonic crust spliis ond slowly seporote, o rift opens ond moiien rnoteriol rises up from within the mqntle to fill the openang. The mogno rises, cools ond solidifies to form new rocks oi the edges of the rift.

.

As fhe conveciion currents in the montle continoe 10 drive the ploles apart, the newly formed oceqnic cTust on either side of ihe spreoding centre/rift is corried owoy fron il. Hence, rocks closer io the spreoding center/raft will be youngec compored io fhose further owoy from the rifi.

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Figure 14: Differing Ages of Rocks in Oceonic Bosins

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lw't",a Quesiions: Plote Tectonics Theory
i) Exploin the theory of Plote Tectonics.
) )
Definition qnd Key Feotures of the pldte Tectonics Theory Evidence thot support the Plote Tectonics Theory

ii) Exploin the evidence thot supports the plote Tectonics
Theory.

Ilust include:
'> Definilion of Plote Tecfonics theory . Not necessory to qddress key features here becouse guestion
osking { or evidence
is

)

Evidence supporting Pldte tectonics theory . Evidence suppo.ting both continental drift ond seo floor spreoding should be provided. . However, students should preferobly select evidence supporling seo floor spreoding ( ie: mognetic revercol ond geologic o9e) because it is more recent ond hence more relevont. . When oddressing these evidence, il as vitol thqt studenls exploin how ihese evidence offirm thot there is the movement of ihe plotes.

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