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Computationalfluiddynamics
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Computationalfluiddynamics,usuallyabbreviatedasCFD,isabranchoffluidmechanicsthatuses
numericalanalysisandalgorithmstosolveandanalyzeproblemsthatinvolvefluidflows.Computersare
usedtoperformthecalculationsrequiredtosimulatetheinteractionofliquidsandgaseswithsurfaces
definedbyboundaryconditions.Withhighspeedsupercomputers,bettersolutionscanbeachieved.
Ongoingresearchyieldssoftwarethatimprovestheaccuracyandspeedofcomplexsimulationscenarios
suchastransonicorturbulentflows.Initialexperimentalvalidationofsuchsoftwareisperformedusing
awindtunnelwiththefinalvalidationcominginfullscaletesting,e.g.flighttests.

Contents
1Backgroundandhistory
2Methodology
2.1Discretizationmethods
2.1.1Finitevolumemethod
2.1.2Finiteelementmethod
2.1.3Finitedifferencemethod
2.1.4Spectralelementmethod
2.1.5Boundaryelementmethod
2.1.6Highresolutiondiscretizationschemes
2.2Turbulencemodels
2.2.1ReynoldsaveragedNavierStokes
2.2.2Largeeddysimulation
2.2.3Detachededdysimulation
2.2.4Directnumericalsimulation
2.2.5Coherentvortexsimulation
2.2.6PDFmethods
2.2.7Vortexmethod
2.2.8Vorticityconfinementmethod
2.2.9Lineareddymodel
2.3Twophaseflow
2.4Solutionalgorithms
2.5UnsteadyAerodynamics
3Seealso
4References
5Notes
6Externallinks

Backgroundandhistory
ThefundamentalbasisofalmostallCFDproblemsaretheNavierStokesequations,whichdefineany
singlephase(gasorliquid,butnotboth)fluidflow.Theseequationscanbesimplifiedbyremoving
termsdescribingviscousactionstoyieldtheEulerequations.Furthersimplification,byremovingterms
describingvorticityyieldsthefullpotentialequations.Finally,forsmallperturbationsinsubsonicand
supersonicflows(nottransonicorhypersonic)theseequationscanbelinearizedtoyieldthelinearized
potentialequations.
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Historically,methodswerefirstdevelopedtosolvethelinearizedpotentialequations.Twodimensional
(2D)methods,usingconformaltransformationsoftheflowaboutacylindertotheflowaboutanairfoil
weredevelopedinthe1930s.[1]
OneoftheearliesttypeofcalculationsresemblingmodernCFDarethosebyLewisFryRichardson,in
thesensethatthesecalculationsusedfinitedifferencesanddividedthephysicalspaceincells.Although
theyfaileddramatically,thesecalculations,togetherwith
Richardson'sbook"Weatherpredictionbynumericalprocess",[2]
setthebasisformodernCFDandnumericalmeteorology.In
fact,earlyCFDcalculationsduringthe1940susingENIACused
methodsclosetothoseinRichardson's1922book.[3]
Thecomputerpoweravailablepaceddevelopmentofthree
dimensionalmethods.Probablythefirstworkusingcomputersto
modelfluidflow,asgovernedbytheNavierStokesequations,
wasperformedatLosAlamosNationalLab,intheT3group.[4][5]
ThisgroupwasledbyFrancisH.Harlow,whoiswidely
consideredasoneofthepioneersofCFD.From1957tolate
1960s,thisgroupdevelopedavarietyofnumericalmethodsto
simulatetransienttwodimensionalfluidflows,suchasParticle
incellmethod(Harlow,1957),[6]Fluidincellmethod(Gentry,
MartinandDaly,1966),[7]Vorticitystreamfunctionmethod
(JakeFromm,1963),[8]andMarkerandcellmethod(Harlowand
Welch,1965).[9]Fromm'svorticitystreamfunctionmethodfor
2D,transient,incompressibleflowwasthefirsttreatmentof
stronglycontortingincompressibleflowsintheworld.

Acomputersimulationofhigh
velocityairflowaroundtheSpace
Shuttleduringreentry.

AsimulationoftheHyperXscramjet
Thefirstpaperwiththreedimensionalmodelwaspublishedby
[10]
vehicleinoperationatMach7
JohnHessandA.M.O.SmithofDouglasAircraftin1967.
Thismethoddiscretizedthesurfaceofthegeometrywithpanels,
givingrisetothisclassofprogramsbeingcalledPanelMethods.Theirmethoditselfwassimplified,in
thatitdidnotincludeliftingflowsandhencewasmainlyappliedtoshiphullsandaircraftfuselages.The
firstliftingPanelCode(A230)wasdescribedinapaperwrittenbyPaulRubbertandGarySaarisof
BoeingAircraftin1968.[11]Intime,moreadvancedthreedimensionalPanelCodesweredevelopedat
Boeing(PANAIR,A502),[12]Lockheed(Quadpan),[13]Douglas(HESS),[14]McDonnellAircraft
(MACAERO),[15]NASA(PMARC)[16]andAnalyticalMethods(WBAERO,[17]USAERO[18]and
VSAERO[19][20]).Some(PANAIR,HESSandMACAERO)werehigherordercodes,usinghigherorder
distributionsofsurfacesingularities,whileothers(Quadpan,PMARC,USAEROandVSAERO)used
singlesingularitiesoneachsurfacepanel.Theadvantageofthelowerordercodeswasthattheyran
muchfasteronthecomputersofthetime.Today,VSAEROhasgrowntobeamultiordercodeandis
themostwidelyusedprogramofthisclass.Ithasbeenusedinthedevelopmentofmanysubmarines,
surfaceships,automobiles,helicopters,aircraft,andmorerecentlywindturbines.Itssistercode,
USAEROisanunsteadypanelmethodthathasalsobeenusedformodelingsuchthingsashighspeed
trainsandracingyachts.TheNASAPMARCcodefromanearlyversionofVSAEROandaderivative
ofPMARC,namedCMARC,[21]isalsocommerciallyavailable.

Inthetwodimensionalrealm,anumberofPanelCodeshavebeendevelopedforairfoilanalysisand
design.Thecodestypicallyhaveaboundarylayeranalysisincluded,sothatviscouseffectscanbe
modeled.ProfessorRichardEppleroftheUniversityofStuttgartdevelopedthePROFILEcode,partly
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withNASAfunding,whichbecameavailableintheearly1980s.[22]ThiswassoonfollowedbyMIT
ProfessorMarkDrela'sXFOILcode.[23]BothPROFILEandXFOILincorporatetwodimensionalpanel
codes,withcoupledboundarylayercodesforairfoilanalysiswork.PROFILEusesaconformal
transformationmethodforinverseairfoildesign,whileXFOILhasbothaconformaltransformationand
aninversepanelmethodforairfoildesign.
AnintermediatestepbetweenPanelCodesandFullPotentialcodeswerecodesthatusedtheTransonic
SmallDisturbanceequations.Inparticular,thethreedimensionalWIBCOcode,[24]developedby
CharlieBoppeofGrummanAircraftintheearly1980shasseenheavyuse.
DevelopersturnedtoFullPotentialcodes,aspanelmethodscouldnotcalculatethenonlinearflow
presentattransonicspeeds.ThefirstdescriptionofameansofusingtheFullPotentialequationswas
publishedbyEarllMurmanandJulianColeofBoeingin1970.[25]FrancesBauer,PaulGarabedianand
DavidKornoftheCourantInstituteatNewYorkUniversity(NYU)wroteaseriesoftwodimensional
FullPotentialairfoilcodesthatwerewidelyused,themostimportantbeingnamedProgramH.[26]A
furthergrowthofProgramHwasdevelopedbyBobMelnikandhisgroupatGrummanAerospaceas
Grumfoil.[27]AntonyJameson,originallyatGrummanAircraftandtheCourantInstituteofNYU,
workedwithDavidCaugheytodeveloptheimportantthreedimensionalFullPotentialcodeFLO22[28]
in1975.ManyFullPotentialcodesemergedafterthis,culminatinginBoeing'sTranair(A633)code,[29]
whichstillseesheavyuse.
ThenextstepwastheEulerequations,whichpromisedtoprovidemoreaccuratesolutionsoftransonic
flows.ThemethodologyusedbyJamesoninhisthreedimensionalFLO57code[30](1981)wasusedby
otherstoproducesuchprogramsasLockheed'sTEAMprogram[31]andIAI/AnalyticalMethods'
MGAEROprogram.[32]MGAEROisuniqueinbeingastructuredcartesianmeshcode,whilemostother
suchcodesusestructuredbodyfittedgrids(withtheexceptionofNASA'shighlysuccessfulCART3D
code,[33]Lockheed'sSPLITFLOWcode[34]andGeorgiaTech'sNASCARTGT).[35]AntonyJameson
alsodevelopedthethreedimensionalAIRPLANEcode[36]whichmadeuseofunstructuredtetrahedral
grids.
Inthetwodimensionalrealm,MarkDrelaandMichaelGiles,thengraduatestudentsatMIT,developed
theISESEulerprogram[37](actuallyasuiteofprograms)forairfoildesignandanalysis.Thiscodefirst
becameavailablein1986andhasbeenfurtherdevelopedtodesign,analyzeandoptimizesingleor
multielementairfoils,astheMSESprogram.[38]MSESseeswideusethroughouttheworld.A
derivativeofMSES,forthedesignandanalysisofairfoilsinacascade,isMISES,[39]developedby
Harold"Guppy"YoungrenwhilehewasagraduatestudentatMIT.
TheNavierStokesequationsweretheultimatetargetofdevelopment.Twodimensionalcodes,suchas
NASAAmes'ARC2Dcodefirstemerged.Anumberofthreedimensionalcodesweredeveloped
(ARC3D,OVERFLOW,CFL3DarethreesuccessfulNASAcontributions),leadingtonumerous
commercialpackages.

Methodology
Inalloftheseapproachesthesamebasicprocedureisfollowed.
Duringpreprocessing
Thegeometry(physicalbounds)oftheproblemisdefined.
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Thevolumeoccupiedbythefluidisdividedintodiscretecells(themesh).Themeshmaybe
uniformornonuniform.
Thephysicalmodelingisdefinedforexample,theequationsofmotion+enthalpy+
radiation+speciesconservation
Boundaryconditionsaredefined.Thisinvolvesspecifyingthefluidbehaviourand
propertiesattheboundariesoftheproblem.Fortransientproblems,theinitialconditionsare
alsodefined.
Thesimulationisstartedandtheequationsaresolvediterativelyasasteadystateortransient.
Finallyapostprocessorisusedfortheanalysisandvisualizationoftheresultingsolution.

Discretizationmethods
Thestabilityoftheselecteddiscretisationisgenerallyestablishednumericallyratherthananalyticallyas
withsimplelinearproblems.Specialcaremustalsobetakentoensurethatthediscretisationhandles
discontinuoussolutionsgracefully.TheEulerequationsandNavierStokesequationsbothadmitshocks,
andcontactsurfaces.
Someofthediscretisationmethodsbeingusedare:
Finitevolumemethod
Thefinitevolumemethod(FVM)isacommonapproachusedinCFDcodes,asithasanadvantagein
memoryusageandsolutionspeed,especiallyforlargeproblems,highReynoldsnumberturbulentflows,
andsourcetermdominatedflows(likecombustion).[40]
Inthefinitevolumemethod,thegoverningpartialdifferentialequations(typicallytheNavierStokes
equations,themassandenergyconservationequations,andtheturbulenceequations)arerecastina
conservativeform,andthensolvedoverdiscretecontrolvolumes.Thisdiscretizationguaranteesthe
conservationoffluxesthroughaparticularcontrolvolume.Thefinitevolumeequationyieldsgoverning
equationsintheform,

where isthevectorofconservedvariables, isthevectoroffluxes(seeEulerequationsorNavier


Stokesequations), isthevolumeofthecontrolvolumeelement,and isthesurfaceareaofthe
controlvolumeelement.
Finiteelementmethod
Thefiniteelementmethod(FEM)isusedinstructuralanalysisofsolids,butisalsoapplicabletofluids.
However,theFEMformulationrequiresspecialcaretoensureaconservativesolution.TheFEM
formulationhasbeenadaptedforusewithfluiddynamicsgoverningequations.AlthoughFEMmustbe
carefullyformulatedtobeconservative,itismuchmorestablethanthefinitevolumeapproach.[41]
However,FEMcanrequiremorememoryandhasslowersolutiontimesthantheFVM.[42]
Inthismethod,aweightedresidualequationisformed:

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where istheequationresidualatanelementvertex , istheconservationequationexpressedonan


elementbasis, istheweightfactor,and isthevolumeoftheelement.
Finitedifferencemethod
Thefinitedifferencemethod(FDM)hashistoricalimportanceandissimpletoprogram.Itiscurrently
onlyusedinfewspecializedcodes,whichhandlecomplexgeometrywithhighaccuracyandefficiency
byusingembeddedboundariesoroverlappinggrids(withthesolutioninterpolatedacrosseachgrid).

where isthevectorofconservedvariables,and , ,and


directionsrespectively.

arethefluxesinthe , ,and

Spectralelementmethod
Spectralelementmethodisafiniteelementtypemethod.Itrequiresthemathematicalproblem(the
partialdifferentialequation)tobecastinaweakformulation.Thisistypicallydonebymultiplyingthe
differentialequationbyanarbitrarytestfunctionandintegratingoverthewholedomain.Purely
mathematically,thetestfunctionsarecompletelyarbitrarytheybelongtoaninfinitelydimensional
functionspace.Clearlyaninfinitelydimensionalfunctionspacecannotberepresentedonadiscrete
spectralelementmesh.Andthisiswherethespectralelementdiscretizationbegins.Themostcrucial
thingisthechoiceofinterpolatingandtestingfunctions.Inastandard,loworderFEMin2D,for
quadrilateralelementsthemosttypicalchoiceisthebilineartestorinterpolatingfunctionoftheform
.Inaspectralelementmethodhowever,theinterpolatingandtest
functionsarechosentobepolynomialsofaveryhighorder(typicallye.g.ofthe10thorderinCFD
applications).Thisguaranteestherapidconvergenceofthemethod.Furthermore,veryefficient
integrationproceduresmustbeused,sincethenumberofintegrationstobeperformedinanumerical
codesisbig.Thus,highorderGaussintegrationquadraturesareemployed,sincetheyachievethe
highestaccuracywiththesmallestnumberofcomputationstobecarriedout.Atthetimetherearesome
academicCFDcodesbasedonthespectralelementmethodandsomemorearecurrentlyunder
development,sincethenewtimesteppingschemesariseinthescientificworld.YoucanrefertotheC
CFD(http://ccfd.meil.pw.edu.pl/ccfd/index.php?item=7)websitetoseemoviesofincompressibleflows
inchannelssimulatedwithaspectralelementsolverortotheNumericalMechanics(seebottomofthe
page)(http://numericalmechanics.com/page19.php)websitetoseeamovieoftheliddrivencavityflow
obtainedwithacompeletelynovelunconditionallystabletimesteppingschemecombinedwitha
spectralelementsolver.
Boundaryelementmethod
Intheboundaryelementmethod,theboundaryoccupiedbythefluidisdividedintoasurfacemesh.
Highresolutiondiscretizationschemes
Highresolutionschemesareusedwhereshocksordiscontinuitiesarepresent.Capturingsharpchanges
inthesolutionrequirestheuseofsecondorhigherordernumericalschemesthatdonotintroduce
spuriousoscillations.Thisusuallynecessitatestheapplicationoffluxlimiterstoensurethatthesolution
istotalvariationdiminishing.
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Turbulencemodels
Incomputationalmodelingofturbulentflows,onecommonobjectiveistoobtainamodelthatcan
predictquantitiesofinterest,suchasfluidvelocity,foruseinengineeringdesignsofthesystembeing
modeled.Forturbulentflows,therangeoflengthscalesandcomplexityofphenomenainvolvedin
turbulencemakemostmodelingapproachesprohibitivelyexpensivetheresolutionrequiredtoresolve
allscalesinvolvedinturbulenceisbeyondwhatiscomputationallypossible.Theprimaryapproachin
suchcasesistocreatenumericalmodelstoapproximateunresolvedphenomena.Thissectionlistssome
commonlyusedcomputationalmodelsforturbulentflows.
Turbulencemodelscanbeclassifiedbasedoncomputationalexpense,whichcorrespondstotherangeof
scalesthataremodeledversusresolved(themoreturbulentscalesthatareresolved,thefinerthe
resolutionofthesimulation,andthereforethehigherthecomputationalcost).Ifamajorityorallofthe
turbulentscalesarenotmodeled,thecomputationalcostisverylow,butthetradeoffcomesintheform
ofdecreasedaccuracy.
Inadditiontothewiderangeoflengthandtimescalesandtheassociatedcomputationalcost,the
governingequationsoffluiddynamicscontainanonlinearconvectiontermandanonlinearandnon
localpressuregradientterm.Thesenonlinearequationsmustbesolvednumericallywiththeappropriate
boundaryandinitialconditions.
ReynoldsaveragedNavierStokes
ReynoldsaveragedNavierStokes(RANS)equationsaretheoldestapproachtoturbulencemodeling.
Anensembleversionofthegoverningequationsissolved,whichintroducesnewapparentstresses
knownasReynoldsstresses.Thisaddsasecondordertensorofunknownsforwhichvariousmodelscan
providedifferentlevelsofclosure.ItisacommonmisconceptionthattheRANSequationsdonotapply
toflowswithatimevaryingmeanflowbecausetheseequationsare'timeaveraged'.Infact,statistically
unsteady(ornonstationary)flowscanequallybetreated.ThisissometimesreferredtoasURANS.
ThereisnothinginherentinReynoldsaveragingtoprecludethis,buttheturbulencemodelsusedtoclose
theequationsarevalidonlyaslongasthetimeoverwhichthesechangesinthemeanoccurislarge
comparedtothetimescalesoftheturbulentmotioncontainingmostoftheenergy.
RANSmodelscanbedividedintotwobroadapproaches:
Boussinesqhypothesis
ThismethodinvolvesusinganalgebraicequationfortheReynoldsstresseswhichinclude
determiningtheturbulentviscosity,anddependingonthelevelofsophisticationofthemodel,
solvingtransportequationsfordeterminingtheturbulentkineticenergyanddissipation.Models
includek(LaunderandSpalding),[43]MixingLengthModel(Prandtl),[44]andZeroEquation
Model(CebeciandSmith).[44]Themodelsavailableinthisapproachareoftenreferredtobythe
numberoftransportequationsassociatedwiththemethod.Forexample,theMixingLengthmodel
isa"ZeroEquation"modelbecausenotransportequationsaresolvedthe
isa"Two
Equation"modelbecausetwotransportequations(onefor andonefor )aresolved.
Reynoldsstressmodel(RSM)
ThisapproachattemptstoactuallysolvetransportequationsfortheReynoldsstresses.Thismeans
introductionofseveraltransportequationsforalltheReynoldsstressesandhencethisapproachis
muchmorecostlyinCPUeffort.
Largeeddysimulation

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Largeeddysimulation(LES)isatechniqueinwhichthe
smallestscalesoftheflowareremovedthroughafiltering
operation,andtheireffectmodeledusingsubgridscale
models.Thisallowsthelargestandmostimportantscalesof
theturbulencetoberesolved,whilegreatlyreducingthe
computationalcostincurredbythesmallestscales.This
methodrequiresgreatercomputationalresourcesthanRANS
methods,butisfarcheaperthanDNS.

Volumerenderingofanonpremixedswirl
flameassimulatedbyLES.

Detachededdysimulation
Detachededdysimulations(DES)isamodificationofaRANSmodelinwhichthemodelswitchestoa
subgridscaleformulationinregionsfineenoughforLEScalculations.Regionsnearsolidboundaries
andwheretheturbulentlengthscaleislessthanthemaximumgriddimensionareassignedtheRANS
modeofsolution.Astheturbulentlengthscaleexceedsthegriddimension,theregionsaresolvedusing
theLESmode.Therefore,thegridresolutionforDESisnotasdemandingaspureLES,thereby
considerablycuttingdownthecostofthecomputation.ThoughDESwasinitiallyformulatedforthe
SpalartAllmarasmodel(Spalartetal.,1997),itcanbeimplementedwithotherRANSmodels(Strelets,
2001),byappropriatelymodifyingthelengthscalewhichisexplicitlyorimplicitlyinvolvedinthe
RANSmodel.SowhileSpalartAllmarasmodelbasedDESactsasLESwithawallmodel,DESbased
onothermodels(liketwoequationmodels)behaveasahybridRANSLESmodel.Gridgenerationis
morecomplicatedthanforasimpleRANSorLEScaseduetotheRANSLESswitch.DESisanon
zonalapproachandprovidesasinglesmoothvelocityfieldacrosstheRANSandtheLESregionsofthe
solutions.
Directnumericalsimulation
Directnumericalsimulation(DNS)resolvestheentirerangeofturbulentlengthscales.This
marginalizestheeffectofmodels,butisextremelyexpensive.Thecomputationalcostisproportionalto
.[45]DNSisintractableforflowswithcomplexgeometriesorflowconfigurations.
Coherentvortexsimulation
Thecoherentvortexsimulationapproachdecomposestheturbulentflowfieldintoacoherentpart,
consistingoforganizedvorticalmotion,andtheincoherentpart,whichistherandombackgroundflow.
[46]Thisdecompositionisdoneusingwaveletfiltering.TheapproachhasmuchincommonwithLES,
sinceitusesdecompositionandresolvesonlythefilteredportion,butdifferentinthatitdoesnotusea
linear,lowpassfilter.Instead,thefilteringoperationisbasedonwavelets,andthefiltercanbeadapted
astheflowfieldevolves.FargeandSchneidertestedtheCVSmethodwithtwoflowconfigurationsand
showedthatthecoherentportionoftheflowexhibitedthe

energyspectrumexhibitedbythetotal

flow,andcorrespondedtocoherentstructures(vortextubes),whiletheincoherentpartsoftheflow
composedhomogeneousbackgroundnoise,whichexhibitednoorganizedstructures.Goldsteinand
Vasilyev[47]appliedtheFDVmodeltolargeeddysimulation,butdidnotassumethatthewaveletfilter
completelyeliminatedallcoherentmotionsfromthesubfilterscales.ByemployingbothLESandCVS
filtering,theyshowedthattheSFSdissipationwasdominatedbytheSFSflowfield'scoherentportion.
PDFmethods

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Probabilitydensityfunction(PDF)methodsforturbulence,firstintroducedbyLundgren,[48]arebased
ontrackingtheonepointPDFofthevelocity,
,whichgivestheprobabilityofthe
velocityatpoint beingbetween and
.Thisapproachisanalogoustothekinetictheoryof
gases,inwhichthemacroscopicpropertiesofagasaredescribedbyalargenumberofparticles.PDF
methodsareuniqueinthattheycanbeappliedintheframeworkofanumberofdifferentturbulence
modelsthemaindifferencesoccurintheformofthePDFtransportequation.Forexample,inthe
contextoflargeeddysimulation,thePDFbecomesthefilteredPDF.[49]PDFmethodscanalsobeused
todescribechemicalreactions,[50][51]andareparticularlyusefulforsimulatingchemicallyreactingflows
becausethechemicalsourcetermisclosedanddoesnotrequireamodel.ThePDFiscommonlytracked
byusingLagrangianparticlemethodswhencombinedwithlargeeddysimulation,thisleadstoa
Langevinequationforsubfilterparticleevolution.
Vortexmethod
Thevortexmethodisagridfreetechniqueforthesimulationofturbulentflows.Itusesvorticesasthe
computationalelements,mimickingthephysicalstructuresinturbulence.Vortexmethodswere
developedasagridfreemethodologythatwouldnotbelimitedbythefundamentalsmoothingeffects
associatedwithgridbasedmethods.Tobepractical,however,vortexmethodsrequiremeansforrapidly
computingvelocitiesfromthevortexelementsinotherwordstheyrequirethesolutiontoaparticular
formoftheNbodyproblem(inwhichthemotionofNobjectsistiedtotheirmutualinfluences).A
breakthroughcameinthelate1980swiththedevelopmentofthefastmultipolemethod(FMM),an
algorithmbyV.Rokhlin(Yale)andL.Greengard(CourantInstitute).Thisbreakthroughpavedtheway
topracticalcomputationofthevelocitiesfromthevortexelementsandisthebasisofsuccessful
algorithms.Theyareespeciallywellsuitedtosimulatingfilamentarymotion,suchaswispsofsmoke,in
realtimesimulationssuchasvideogames,becauseofthefinedetailachievedusingminimal
computation.[52]
Softwarebasedonthevortexmethodofferanewmeansforsolvingtoughfluiddynamicsproblemswith
minimaluserintervention.Allthatisrequiredisspecificationofproblemgeometryandsettingof
boundaryandinitialconditions.Amongthesignificantadvantagesofthismoderntechnology
Itispracticallygridfree,thuseliminatingnumerousiterationsassociatedwithRANSandLES.
Allproblemsaretreatedidentically.Nomodelingorcalibrationinputsarerequired.
Timeseriessimulations,whicharecrucialforcorrectanalysisofacoustics,arepossible.
Thesmallscaleandlargescaleareaccuratelysimulatedatthesametime.
Vorticityconfinementmethod
Thevorticityconfinement(VC)methodisanEuleriantechniqueusedinthesimulationofturbulent
wakes.Itusesasolitarywavelikeapproachtoproduceastablesolutionwithnonumericalspreading.
VCcancapturethesmallscalefeaturestowithinasfewas2gridcells.Withinthesefeatures,a
nonlineardifferenceequationissolvedasopposedtothefinitedifferenceequation.VCissimilarto
shockcapturingmethods,whereconservationlawsaresatisfied,sothattheessentialintegralquantities
areaccuratelycomputed.
Lineareddymodel
TheLineareddymodelisatechniqueusedtosimulatetheconvectivemixingthattakesplacein
turbulentflow.[53]Specifically,itprovidesamathematicalwaytodescribetheinteractionsofascalar
variablewithinthevectorflowfield.Itisprimarilyusedinonedimensionalrepresentationsofturbulent
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