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PERFORMANCE

FIRE RETARDANT
ADDITIVES
FOR WIRE AND CABLE
NON-HALOGEN
FLAME RETARDANCE
SMOKE SUPPRESSION
ELECTRICAL PERFORMANCE
PHYSICAL PROPERTY ENHANCEMENT

F lames

and

S mo k e

D on t

Like

Us

Huber Fire Retardant Additive Solutions:


Exceeding the Requirements of Wire
and Cable Compounders and Producers
Huber offers a broad product line of high performing non-halogen fire retardant
additives to exceed the needs of wire and cable compounders and producers.
The following are the primary brands of Huber flame retardants and smoke suppressants that meet the demanding performance requirements of our customers:
Micral Alumina Trihydrate
Hymod Surface-Treated Alumina Trihydrate
Vertex Magnesium Hydroxide
ZerogenTM Magnesium Hydroxide
Kemgard Flame Retardants and Smoke Suppressants
Hydral Precipitated Ultrafine Aluminum Trihydroxide

Alumina Trihydrate (ATH) and Magnesium Hydroxide (MDH)

Alumina trihydrate (ATH) and magnesium hydroxide (MDH) are widely used to
make low-smoke and/or halogen-free flame retardant wire and cable compounds
for a range of insulation and jacketing applications. ATH and MDH serve to
retard both flame and smoke via an endothermic reaction that releases water
when heated to decomposition. The metal oxide by-product from decomposed
ATH and MDH, Al2O3 and MgO respectively, also helps form a char on the
polymer, which insulates the polymer from heat and oxygen.
The chart below compares the decomposition characteristics of ATH and MDH. ATH
decomposes at about 220C while MDH decomposes at about 330C, thus, having
a higher thermal stability allowing for a wider window for compounding processing.

Thermal Stability Comparison Of ATH and MDH


110

Weight Loss (%)

100
90
80
ATH

70

MDH

60
0

100

200

300

400

500

Temperature ( C)

Decomposition temperature of aTH and mDH


measured by TGA.
Product

Particle Size,
Microns

Product
Description

600

ATH is suitable to use in PVC- and polyolefin-based wire and cable


compounds where compounding processing temperatures are typically
below 220C. MDH is preferred for formulating compounds
that need to be processed at temperatures near or above the ATH
decomposition temperature, such as polypropylene and engineering
thermoplastics. Use of MDH also enables processing of PVC or polyolefin compounds at higher temperatures not permissible for ATH,
thus, enhancing
the compounding efficiency or extrusion throughput.
110

Key material parameters considered when selecting an ATH or


MDH product for flame retardant wire and cable applications are
particle size, particle size distribution, surface area, particle shape
or morphology, chemical cleanliness and color. These parameters
will directly affect compounding performance and compound
properties. Other common considerations may include the type
and level of surface treatment based on the polymer type and
compound performance requirements.

Property
ATH
The ATH or MDH particle properties directly affect compound performance. For your specific application, let Huber
assist110
you with a product recommendation based on our technical expertise. Physical Form
Powder
100
Hexagonal
platelet
Particle Morphology
gonal
Property
ATHpla
Weight Loss
(%)Loss (%)
Weight

Physical Property Comparison of ATH and MDH


100
90

Property

ATH

Powder
Physical
Form
90
80
Hexagonal
platelet
Particle Morphology
gonal pla
White
Color
ATH
80
2.42
Specific
70 Gravity, g/cm3
MDH
9-10
pH Value
ATH
2.5-3.5
Mohs Hardness
70
60
1.57
Refractive Index
100 MDH200
300
400
0
220C / 428F
Decomposition
Temperature
Heat
Temperature280
( C)
60of Decomposition, cal/g
34.6%
Theoretical
Loss
on
Ignition,
%
100
200
300
400
0

White
Powder
2.42
Hexagonal
platelet
gonal pla
9-10
White
2.5-3.5
2.42
1.57
9-10
220C / 428F
2.5-3.5
280
1.57
34.6%
220C / 428F
280
34.6%

Color
Physical Form
Specific Gravity, g/cm3
MDH Particle Morphology
pH Value
Color
Powder Mohs Hardness
Specific Gravity, g/cm3
Hexagonal platelet
Refractive Index
pH Value
White
Decomposition Temperature
Mohs Hardness
2.36
Heat of Decomposition, cal/g
Refractive Index
10-11
Theoretical Loss on Ignition, %
Decomposition Temperature
2.0-3.0
Heat of Decomposition, cal/g
1.58
Theoretical Loss on Ignition, %
600
330C / 626F
328
31.0%
600

500
500

Temperature ( C)

Hubers Untreated ATH and MDH Products


for Wire and Cable Applications

Product

2.1 Size,
Particle
1.5
Microns

Fine particle size, ground ATH


Product
Fine particle size, ground ATH
Description

TM

Performance Benefits

High efficiency smoke suppressant and char former


High efficiency smoke
suppressant and char former
Performance
Benefits

75%

0.005

0.007

55

Zinc molybdate / Zinc borate complex


BasicProduct
zinc molybdate
Description

65

75%

Product Description

TM

75%

5576 mg

291%

Product

limiting oxygen index [LOI])


Kemgard 700Z
lity, hydrophobicity
Kemgard 911B
Product

TM

TM

6644 mg

1123 psi

1142 psi

MDH
d ATH
d ATH
MDH
TH, low electrolytes
TH, spray-dried bead
1
bution
Hubers Surface-Treated
ATH and
MDH Products
for Wire and Cable Applications
TM
100
0.8
Ultrafine particle size, very low electrolytes
Zerogen
e distribution
Hubers state-of-the-art
the untreated fire retardant
Type surface treatments
Polymerenhance
Systemthe performance
PerformanceofBenefits
ectrolytes additives listed above.
Surface
ST (Fatty Acid)
Polyolefins, PVC
Processability, dispersion
ery low electrolytes
Treatments SG
(Alkyl Silane) Polymer
Polyolefins,System
Elastomers Performance
Processability, dispersion,
Type
Benefitshydrophobicity
Brightness
Dissipation
SA (Aminosilane) Tensile
Polyamides,Elongation
Polyolefins Low
temperature
properties, Compounding
mechanical properties
Surface
ST (Fatty Acid)
Polyolefins, PVC
Processability, dispersion
Strength
Factor
Torque
SP
(Vinyl
Silane)
Polyolefins,
Elastomers
Mechanical
properties,
flame
retardant (FR)
Treatments SG (Alkyl Silane) Polyolefins, Elastomers Processability, dispersion, hydrophobicity
fits
PK (Polymeric)
Polyolefins, Elastomers Processability, FR
SA (Aminosilane) Polyamides, Polyolefins Low temperature properties, mechanical properties
on
SV (Polymeric)
Polyolefins
FR (lower smoke, higher limiting oxygen index [LOI])
SP (Vinyl Silane)
Polyolefins, Elastomers Mechanical properties, flame retardant (FR)
on, hydrophobicity
SF (Phenyl Silane) PVC
Dynamic thermal stability, hydrophobicity
PK (Polymeric)
Polyolefins, Elastomers Processability, FR
erties, mechanical properties
SV (Polymeric)
Polyolefins
FR (lower smoke, higher limiting oxygen index [LOI])
flame retardant (FR)
SF (Phenyl Silane) PVC
Dynamic thermal stability, hydrophobicity

Zerogen 1

291%

Ultrafine precipitated ATH, low electrolytes


Fine particle size, ground ATH
Ultrafine precipitated ATH, spray-dried bead
Fine particle size, ground ATH
Broad particle size distribution
Ultrafine
ATH, low electrolytes
Zerogen
100SP precipitated
Zerogen 50SP
Fine, uniform particle size distribution
Ultrafine precipitated ATH, spray-dried bead
Fine particle size, low electrolytes
Broad particle size distribution
Ultrafine
particle
size,size
verydistribution
low electrolytes
Fine,
uniform
particle
Fine particle size, low electrolytes

291%

1.1
2.1
1.1
1.5
2.7
1.1
1.5
1.1
1
2.7
0.8
5
1.

Zerogen 1
1123 psi 1123 psi

ATH

Micral
932
Product

Micral 1500
Hydral 710
Micral 932
Hydral PGA-SD
Micral 1500
Vertex 60
Hydral 710
Vertex 100
Hydral TMPGA-SD
Zerogen 50
Vertex 60
TM
100
Zerogen
Vertex 100
ZerogenTM 50

Product
Description
1142 psi 1142 psi

ATH

Particle Size,
Microns

Tensile
Strength

Elongation

Tensile
Strength

Elongation

34.6%

Weight Weight
Loss (%)Loss

s on Ignition, % 90

31.0%

Specific Morphology
Gravity, g/cm3
Particle
pH Value
Color
Mohs Hardness
Specific
Gravity, g/cm3
Refractive
pH Value Index
Decomposition
Mohs
Hardness Temperature
Heat of Decomposition,
cal/g
Refractive
Index
Theoretical
Loss
on
Ignition,
Decomposition Temperature%

2.42pla
Hexagonal
platelet
gonal
9-10
White
2.5-3.5
2.42
1.57
9-10
220C
/ 428F
2.5-3.5
280
1.57
34.6%
220C
/ 428F

Heat of Decomposition, cal/g

280
34.6%

Flames and S mok e D on t L ike U s

90
80
ATH

80
70

MDH
ATH

70
60

MDH MDH: Delivering Enhanced Compound Performance


Theoretical Loss on Ignition, %
Introducing
100 100
200
300
400
500
600
0 Zerogen
TM

Temperature
C)
Zerogen 100SP
Zerogen ( 50SP
TM

TM

200

300

400

500

600

55

65

75%

0.005

Product
Description

Product

0.007

Particle Size,
Microns

291%

Temperature ( C)

5576 mg

100

1123 psi

1142 psi

6644 mg

60

TM

Zerogen 100
TM

291%

1123 psi 1123 psi

75%

291%

designed for wire and cable


applications where electrical and mechanical performance considerations

100
0.8
Ultrafine
particle
size, verydistribution
low electrolytes
Zerogen
5
Vertex
100
1.
Fine,
uniform
particle
are most critical. The
chart
above highlights
improved performance
for EVAsize
compounds made with
TM
TM size, low electrolytes
Zerogen
50
1
Fine
particle
silane-treated Zerogen 100SP versus a similarly treated Zerogen 50 additive. This Zerogen 100 grade
100
0.8
Ultrafine particle size, very low electrolytes
Zerogen
also provides enhanced
compounding
rheology
as shown.
Type
Polymer System
Performance Benefits

Zerogen 100
1142 psi 1142 psi

Micral
932
2.1 Size, Product
Fine particle size, ground ATH
Product
Particle
Microns
Description
Micral 1500
1.5
Fine particle size, ground ATH
64% of MDH in EVA

Tensile Hydral
Elongation
Brightness1.1 Dissipation Ultrafine
Compounding
710
precipitated
ATH,
low electrolytes
2.1 Factor Fine particle
size,
ground
ATH
ATH Strength Micral 932
(28%
VA, 2 MI)
Torque

PGA-SD
Hydral
1.1
Ultrafine
precipitated
ATH,
spray-dried bead
Micral 1500
1.5
Fine particle size, ground ATH
Vertex 60
2.7
Broad particle
size distribution
MDH
Hydral
710
1.1
Ultrafine
precipitated
ATH, low electrolytes
ZerogenTM 100 is aVertex
newline
of
MDH
products
introduced
to offerparticle
improved mechanical
property
1.5
Fine, uniform
Hydral 100
PGA-SD
1.1
Ultrafine
precipitated size
ATH,distribution
spray-dried bead
balance and enhanced
electrical
and
color
performance
benefits.
The
Zerogen
100
products
are
TM

Zerogen
17
Fine particle
electrolytes
Vertex
6050
2.
Broad
particlesize,
sizelow
distribution
MDH

ATH

TM

TM

Kemgard
Flame
Retardants
and Smoke
Suppressants
ST (Fatty
Acid)
Polyolefins,
PVC
Processability, dispersion
Surface

Hubers
KemgardType
are molybdate-based
flame retardants
anddispersion,
smoke suppressants
Treatments
Polymer
Performance
Benefits
SGproducts
(Alkyl Silane)
Polyolefins,System
Elastomers
Processability,
hydrophobicityused in
EVA and PVC wireSAand
cable
compounds.
When
the
compound
burns,
molybdates
chemically influence
(Aminosilane)
Polyamides, PVC
Polyolefins Processability,
Low temperature
properties, mechanical properties
(Fatty
Acid)
Polyolefins,
dispersion
the Surface
formation of ST
organic
char, effectively
insulating the polymer
from the
heat and oxygen source,
Treatments SP (Vinyl
Polyolefins, Elastomers
Elastomers Processability,
Mechanical properties,
flame
retardant (FR)
(AlkylSilane)
Silane)
dispersion,
hydrophobicity
thereby loweringSGsmoke
and
heatPolyolefins,
release. Kemgard grades
are manufactured
by patented proPK (Polymeric)
Polyolefins, Elastomers
Processability,
FR
SA
(Aminosilane)
Polyamides,
Polyolefins
temperature
mechanical
properties
cesses in which molybdates
are precipitated
on an inertLow
mineral
core. properties,
This coated
core approach
SV
(Polymeric)
Polyolefins
FR
(lower
smoke,
higher
limiting
oxygen
index
SP
(Vinyl
Silane)
Polyolefins,
Elastomers
Mechanical
properties,
flame
retardant
(FR)
makes more efficient use of the molybdate species by maximizing the active surface area, and[LOI])
at a
SFthan
(Phenyl
Silane)
PVC chemicals,
Dynamic
thermal
stability, hydrophobicity
(Polymeric)
Polyolefins,
Elastomers
FR
much lower costPK
pure
molybdate
such asProcessability,
ammonium
octamolybdate
(AOM).

SV (Polymeric)

Polyolefins

FR (lower smoke, higher limiting oxygen index [LOI])

Compounders can utilize Kemgard products to replace AOM or partially replace antimony oxide
SF (Phenyl Silane) PVC
Dynamic thermal stability, hydrophobicity
to achieve desirable
smoke suppression performance while
reducing costs and minimizing regulatory
Product
Description
Performance
Benefits
Product
concerns
over antimony oxide use.
Kemgard 700Z
Product
Kemgard 911B
900Z
Kemgard 7
11C
Kemgard

Kemgard 9
1100
Kemgard
11B
Kemgard 911C
Kemgard HPSS
Kemgard 1100
Kemgard HPSS

Zinc molybdate / Zinc borate complex


Description
BasicProduct
zinc molybdate
Zinc
molybdate
talc complex
Zinc molybdate /treated
Zinc borate
Micronized
zinc molybdate
Basic
zinc molybdate
treated talc
Zinc molybdate treated talc
Basic zinc molybdate /
Micronized
molybdate
Magnesium zinc
hydroxide
complex
treated talc
Basic zinc molybdate /
Magnesium hydroxide complex

Tensile
Strength

Elongation

Br

Kemgard products
are available
with hydrophobic,

treatments to reduce

40
42

178
210

2 phr Sb2O3
phr Sb2OHPSS
3
5 phr 4Kemgard

38
40

106
178

No Sb2O3
2 phr Sb2O3
10 phr Kemgard
HPSS
5 phr
Kemgard HPSS

LOI
38

106

moisture pick-up,
improve powder flow
properties and ensure
better dispersion in
the polymer matrix.

4 phr Sb2O3

210

NBS smoke (D max)

Br

Cost-effective
High
efficiencysmoke
smokesuppressant
suppressant and char former
Cost-effective
thin
High
efficiencysmoke
smokesuppressant,
suppressant suitable
and charfor
former
gauge wire applications
Cost-effective smoke suppressant
Smoke suppressant and char former
Cost-effective smoke suppressant, suitable for thin
gauge wire applications
Smoke suppressant and char former

42

LOI

Elongation

non-functional surface

10 phr Kemgard HPSS

Tensile
Strength

High efficiency smoke suppressant and char former

Performance
Benefits
High efficiency smoke
suppressant and char former

Kemgard Smoke Reduction Performance

Sb2O3 (D max)
NBS No
smoke

75%

TM

Flexible PVC contains plasticizer


which generally means higher
flame spread, lower LOI values
and more smoke.

Flame Retardant/Smoke Suppression


Applications
Building Wire
Power/Utility Cable and Accessories
Electrical/Electronic Cable and Components
Security Cable
Transit/Transportation Cable
Mining Cable
Communications/Data Cable
Automotive Wire
Appliance Cable
Windmill Cable

Huber Wire and Cable Capabilities


Hubers technical and commercial expertise is the
foundation to developing innovative products
that meet the exacting performance requirements
for each application. Huber Engineered Materials
is a supplier of metal hydroxide products (ATH
and MDH) used for fire retardant material
applications. Huber specializes in the design,
manufacture and marketing of a comprehensive
product portfolio based on ATH, MDH and
metal molybdates and phosphate.

Fire Testing Capabilities


ASTM E1354: Cone Calorimeter
ASTM E662: NBS Smoke Chamber
ASTM D3806: Two-Foot Tunnel
ASTM D2863: Limiting Oxygen Index
UL 94: Horizontal and Vertical Burn Tests
ASTM E648: Radiant Panel

Huber Engineered Materials: Over


a Century of Advancing Technology
Huber Engineered Materials is part of J. M. Huber
Corporation, one of the largest family-owned
companies in the United States. J.M. Huber
Corporation is a global company with a diverse
portfolio of businesses serving a wide range of
industries. Huber Engineered Materials develops
engineered specialty ingredients that enhance the
performance, appeal and processing of a broad
range of products used in industrial, paper and
consumer-based applications.

Technical Papers
Huber offers an array of technical papers offering guidance in using its fire retardant performance
additives in wire and cable applications. The following articles are available upon request:
Molybdate / Borate Complexes for Enhanced Cable Compound Fire Performance
60th International Wire and Cable Symposium, 2011
Fire Performance Synergies of Metal Hydroxides and Metal Molybdates in Antimony-Free
Flexible PVC
SPE Vinyltec, 2010
Flame Retardant (FR) Olefinic Polymers Containing Metal Hydroxides
Fire Performance vs. Other Properties Optimization by Surface Modification
2010 BCC Conference on Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials
Enhanced FR Performance Enabled by Magnesium Hydroxide with Metal Molybdates in
EVA Wire and Cable Compounds
Earned the Jack Spergel Memorial Award for Outstanding Technical Paper, 58th
International Wire and Cable Symposium, 2009
Synergies of Metal Hydroxides and Metal Molybdates in Low-Smoke Flexible PVC
57th International Wire and Cable Symposium, 2008
New Magnesium Hydroxides Enabling Low-Smoke Cable Compounds
Wire and Cable Technology International, January 2008
Non-Halogen Flame Retardant Polyolefin Compounds via Synergistic Blends of Metal
Hydroxides and Mineral Fillers
SPE International Polyolefins Conference, 2007
Low-Smoke Flexible PVC Compounds via Metal Hydroxides as Flame Retardants
SPE Vinyltec, 2006
Synergistic Benefits of Metal Hydroxides and Zinc Borate in Flame Retardant Wire and
Cable Performance Compounds
54th International Wire and Cable Symposium, 2005
Use of Surface-Modified Magnesium Hydroxide for Low-Smoke Flame Retardant
Thermoplastics Applications
Intertechs Conference on Functional Fillers for Plastics, 2005
Effects of Morphological and Surface Characteristics of Magnesium Hydroxide on
Performance of Flame Retardant Wire and Cable Compounds
53rd International Wire and Cable Symposium, 2004
Comparison of Ground vs. Precipitated Fine Aluminum Trihydrate for Flame Retardant
Wire and Cable Applications
52nd International Wire and Cable Symposium, 2003

For more information or to sample our products,


please contact us:
Email: hubermaterials@huber.com
Click: hubermaterials.com or kemgard.com
Call: 1-866-JMHUBER (1-866-564-8237)
THERE ARE NO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Refer
to Hubers Standard Conditions of Sale for the only express warranties applicable to the Huber products. Products
incorporating Huber products are not warranted by Huber. In no event is Huber liable for consequential
damages. Hymod and Micral are used, applied for, or registered as trademarks of the J.M. Huber Corporation
for alumina trihydrate in various countries around the world. Kemgard and ZerogenTM are used, applied for,
or registered as trademarks of the J.M. Huber Corporation for mineral flame retardants in various countries
around the world. Vertex is used, applied for, or registered as a trademark of the J.M. Huber Corporation for
magnesium hydroxide in various countries around the world. Hydral is a trademark of Almatis, Inc.
2011 J.M. Huber Corporation

FireRetardantAdditives/WC/RevisionV/Nov11