SCHOOL OF MARKETING, TOURISM AND LANGUAGES HT32422 HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY PROJECT Coursework Assessment Marking and Student Feedback Individual Report Submission (Week 13) (80% Weighting)




Ros Sutherland Mr.R.D’Silva REPORT


STUDENT NAME : Vikash kumar Reddy Janapala MATRICULATION NO: N07800562


<30% 30-39% Fail Achievement of project aims & objectives (15%) Discussion of relevant academic theory & models (15%) Research – method and approach adopted (20%) Substance of the content, validity & rationale for findings (20%) Feasibility & justification of the recommendations & conclusions (10%) Written presentation of the report (15%) References and Referencing (5%) General Comments:


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ABSTRACT This report discuss about Menu engineering and its different techniques used in industry. Menu engineering means designing, planning and pricing a menu in way that both costumer and organization should satisfy. Menu engineering also says how to classify dishes in menu through their popularity and profitability and this report also says some strategies to improve their sales, popularity and profitability. There are two main divisions in this report they are primary and secondary resources. Primary resource means information collected through research conducted through an organization. Primary resource consists of all techniques of menu engineering used in hotels and this also consists how to plan different types of menus for different types of restaurants and banquets. Secondary resource consists of theoretical knowledge from books and internet. It consist of menu planning, classification of dishes in menu, nutrition values in food etc. this report is all about menu engineering concepts and how to apply its techniques in industry.

INTRODUCTION Menu engineering is a concept which is used to develop a menu. Menu engineering was firstly developed by Michigan University’s Dr. Michael Kasavana and Donald Smith in 1980. This menu engineering is also flowed by many hotels and restaurants. Menu engineering is an approach which used for designing of a menu and it also classifies the items on basics of popularity and profit margins. Menu engineering consists of various issues like menu planning, menu designing and classification of dishes by their popularity and sales. Menu planning means planning a menu in advance for an organization by understanding the costumer needs which can generate profits to the organization and also the satisfied costumer. There are many benefits from menu planning and benefits are discussed below. Menu designing is also one of important issue of menu engineering. Designing a menu means creating a visible body for menu. A menu should look attractive and good in all aspects discussed above. Menu cover is the symbol of a restaurants identity. A well designed, attractive and clean menu cover is one indication to the costumer of a good restaurant. By the classification of menu engineering items are of four types they are Stars, Plow horses, Puzzles and Dogs. Menu economics is also an important aspect which should be used in designing a menu. Economics is the study of production, distribution and consumption of wealth. There three main elements which helps in deciding a price of a menu they are, costumer demand, menu mix analysis and item contribution. Menu economics will help an organization in both ways by creating them profits and also generating satisfied costumers

METHODOLOGY:The primary research of this project is conduct from a reputed 5 star hotel called The Oberoi, Bangalore. Mr.Zafar Ali is Senior Sous chef their and helped out throughout research. Mr. Ali also explained points like how to plan a menu and how to design a menu. Secondary research is conducted through books, international journals and also through Internet. Books like Food and Beverage service 4th edition by Dennis lillycrap, Menu design by Albing Seaberg and Food and Beverage cost control by Jack Emiller are used in research. International journal of contemporary hospitality management and some sites like chef&chef are used for the secondary research. Local tutor helped through out the project by correcting mistakes and saying how to solve them. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:The main aims and objectives of Menu Engineering are 1. One should know how to classify the items in the menu through the popularity and profitability of a particular item. 2. One should know how to plan a menu for different types menu for different types of restaurants and they target particular market, which is familiar for to that type of menu. 3. One should know how to design a menu in a presentable manner for the costumers. 4. One should know how to price a menu and they should also know how to satisfy both costumers and organization. 5. One should know how to improve the sales of a particular type of menu. JUSTIFICATION:This topic menu engineering is taken as project because it is one of study which is going from last three years in the college and this is an important strategy to run a restaurant (or) Hotel. Without know Menu

Engineering no one can become a successful chef.

Menu engineering is

because of own interest. Menu engineering is a topic which teaches all the important issues like menu planning, menu designing and menu economics. Because of all the above points this topic is selected as the project.


menu in the hotels and restaurants means “A card which contains all

the dishes served in that particular outlet and description of all the items and also prices of the particular dishes” There are many types of menus. These are some of them,  Table D’ hote  A’ La Crate  Cart Du Jour  Fixed  Cyclical  California  Tourist  Degustation TABLE D’ HOTE: This menu consist of all points like • • • • There are fixed number of courses of in this menu Choice is limited in this type of menu Price of this type menu is fixed and whole menu is price. This menu can offer with some other dishes with extra prices.

A ‘LA CRATE: The term A ‘la carte means ‘from the card’. It may be defined as follows • • • It gives description of all the dishes prepared by the outlet. Each and every dish is priced differently. Certain waiting time should be given for every preparation.

This menu is may be dived into 18 courses or 14 courses like starters, soup, egg, fish etc. CART DU JOUR: It is a menu which is served on every particular day and is also called as chefs special. FIXED MENU: This is a menu which is fixed for a particular period of time this menu is used by any charitable originations like temples, old age homes and ashrams. CYCLICAL MENU: This is a menu which is rotated for a particular period of time like weekly or monthly. This type of menu is used in cafeteria of schools, hostels, companies etc. CALIFORNIA: This menu is a very special it can be order at any time. In a coffee shop of every hotel there will be a menu which can be ordered at any time because night time there will be limited number of staff. It consists of sandwiches and burgers which can be prepared easily. TOURIST MENU: This is a menu which is available in motels. These menus will consist of quickly production items. This menu is mainly for travelers and tourists. DEGUSATION: This is a menu which is specially prepared from the class to attract the costumers. Menu engineering:- “In the hospitality industry, a process that analyzes the entire menu (as opposed to individual menu items) as a measure of profitability” (dictionary, 2009).

Menu engineering means designing and planning a menu in way that it should look good and attractive for the customers. Menu Engineering tells how to design and how plan a menu and also tells how to classify the dishes in the menu and also gives the strategies how to improve the sales and demand of the classified dishes. Menu engineering plans a menu by considering both organization and also the costumers. Classification of dishes in the menu and some strategies to improve their sales and demand:Dishes in the menu sold in a particular restaurant can classified through its popularity and profitability. There are four types of items in this classification, they are 1. Stars (Gold) 2. Plow Horses (Silver) 3. Puzzles (Bronze) 4. Dogs (DQ) (Anon, 2009) 1) Stars (Gold):- These are items which are relatively popular and also generates good amount of profits. (Anon, 2009) E.g. In Indian restaurants butter chicken and Tandoori chicken are stars because they are popular and they also generates good amount of profits 2) Plow Horses (Sliver):- These are the items which are sold very widely but generates premium amount of profits. These are reflected for good volumes of sales but they generate very little amount of profits. (Anon, 2009) E.g. in Indian restaurants samosas are the plow horses because they are popular and they generate only little amount of profits.

3) Puzzles (Bronze):- These types of items are weak in demand in market but they can set high profit margins. No one can understand these types of items because they are named as puzzles. These puzzles need a research to conduct why these types of items are selling and how demand can be increased for improving sales. (Anon, 2009)

4) Dogs (DQ):- These types of items which are weak in sales and popularity and these types of items are also weak in generating profits. (Anon, 2009)

MENU PLANNING Menu planning is a task which will save revenue and time for organization and it also helps in improving nutrition levels in the food for the costumers. Saving revenue means if planning is done before one can plan how use the ingredients for preparing food and reducing food wastage, how to use the left over food. If one can plan menu before they can look for better and cheaper ingredients. While planning a menu one should give more importance to the balance nutrition values in food and should plan about portion serving for a particular dish. Menu planner should also know the capability of staff (chefs and service personals). If all these points will be used in planning a menu that menu will be a successful menu. (Albing.s, 1991, P16) NUTRINONAL VALUE Balance nutrition in every meal is essential for every human being. Items in menu should help the consumers with their nutrition values. The menu should be planned in way that menu should help with nutritional values through the food.

Different types of menu items should have different type of nutritional values in the food. (Albing.s, 1991, P48) EX: - if the menu is planned for hospital, items should have good nutritional values in the food but it should not have more fatty acids and carbohydrates in food. PRICING OF MENU:Menu pricing means deciding cost of all dishes in menu. Price of menu is decided on the basics of raw materials cost, labour cost, fuel cost and also other expenses which are involved in making particular food. Food cost includes all cost involved in producing the item. Food cost should be 35% of dish cost and profit should be 65% in dish cost for a perfect profit producing menu to an organization. If menu is priced this manner it generates good amount of profits and also creates satisfied costumers in the means of pricing a menu. (Jack.E, 2002, P237-244) PRIMARY RESOURCE:This report is done by using the details from Mr.Zafar Ali senior sous chef of the oberoi, Bangalore. This hotel is one of the famous 5 star hotels in Bangalore located on Mahatma Gandhi road. According to zafar Ali menu engineering means plan a menu which generates profits to the organization and providing good quality and nutrition food and menu should attract the costumers. In this hotel there are four restaurants, royal club and a banquet hall which serves food. These four restaurants and rest of outlets required different menus. Four restaurants are called as LE JARDIN, SCZWHAN COURT, RIM NAM and POLO CLUB. LE JARDIN is a 24 hours coffee shop so

the sous chef planned a menu which consists of more breakfast of both Indian and continental cuisines. And they also planned a menu for night hours (12:00 Am to 5:30 Am) which consists of light snack items like burgers and sandwiches, this menu is designed by considering the skills of the staff because at night time there is low staff allotment and night staff is not capable of cooking specialty dishes. In their coffee shop there will be buffets of breakfast, lunch and dinner so they plans menus before two weeks because they want to advanced and provide good quality food for costumers. SCZWHAN COURT is a specialist Chinese restaurant so senior sous chef takes help of the Chinese sous chef. From specialty Chinese restaurant costumers expect exactly authentic Chinese food so they planned same and they also looked through the capability of staff also. RIM NAM is a specialty thai cuisine restaurant, so senior sous chef took help of the Thai cuisine sous chef and they also added Singaporean cuisine, Malaysian cuisine and Japanese cuisine dishes in the menu to keep guest interesting to give the costumer a wide range of cuisines. POLO CLUB is a sporty bar which serves every type of alcoholic drinks and cigars. So the senior sous chef planned a menu with full of snacks and some light food items. It is planned in this because the guest can enjoy drink with snacks. These items are very easy to prepare and doesn’t take more time to cook. ORCHID is a banquet hall which serves food for different time of community groups. It serves for all business parties, international conference and family functions and parties. So this is a huge menu which will be decided by the host of parties. So the senior sous chef will plan according to host and also according to hosts budget. Menu of parties will be decided before two weeks, so that staff will be well prepared. (Zafar.A, 2009)

According to sous chef benefits of menu planning are Benefits of menu planning: If planning of menu is done before, organization can plan exactly what to buy and how much to buy. It helps in reducing in the wastage of food because organization will buy exact amount of ingredients.  If any one planning to have specialist menus they can train their staff in the way by this they can give better product if they plan earlier.  If one can organize to plan a menu before they can organize to increase the dishes on menu by this costumer will have wide range of choice.  If one can organize to plan a menu before they can look alternative cheap ingredients to increase the profit levels for the organization (Zafar.A, 2009) According to sous chef there are four different types of items in the menu they are Stars, Plow horses, Puzzles and Dogs as discussed above. But they are many strategies to develop their popularity and sales they are

Strategies to improve sales and demand for Stars These items should have specific rules of production. For These types of items should be well presented on the menu. If the sales of this items are growing increase price of this Staff of the organization should suggest this types of items to

these types of items quality and quantity should be maintained.  These items should create a great visibility on the menu card.  items.  the costumers. Increase the sales by promoting them. (Zafar.A, 2009)

Strategies to improve sales and demand for Plow Horses These types of items should be shown very rarely on the Quantity of these types of foods should be reduced to

menu, try to avoid this type of items on the menu.  reduce the food cost and some items like plow horses can become like stars by using this type of strategy.  One should use alternative ingredients to reduce the food cost. This should not change the texture and taste of food. (Zafar.A, 2009)

Strategies to improve sales and demand for Puzzles  These types of items should be produce as the “special dish of the day” (or) “Chefs special”. This is a quickest way to divert costumer’s attention to these types of items.   Create a great visibility for these types of items on the menu. Try to reduce price of these types of items because it may If any item of this type is difficult to prepare remove from the

be over priced.  menu (Zafar.A, 2009)

Strategies to improve sales and demand for Dogs If any outlet or organization want to keep on the menu first

change the name and make it interesting and then once demand of the item increases they increase the price of it. This type of items should be dropped from the menu

because these types of items are dead items on menu and they really generate loss and if they are removed from the menu it reduces the inventory. (Zafar.A, 2009)

CONCLUSION Menu engineering is a tool which says how to plan, design and price a menu. This tool is used in all restaurants, hotels and also in fast food outlets to plan a menu from many years. This is the main tool by which many organizations are gaining profits and also generating many satisfied costumers for them. It also says when to place items in the menu and when to remove items in the menu. Menu engineering helps how classify items through their profitability and also popularity. Menu engineering gives some strategies to all classified items in the menu to improve their sales and popularity. By the help of menu engineering any one can plan a menu with good nutritional values in the food. By using menu engineering and its tools any organization can gain good amount of profit margins and also generates satisfied costumers for any type of organization. Menu engineering is a tool which can improve quality and price of food for the costumers.

RECOMMENDATIONS These are the few things which are to be implemented in industry  Inter changes in menu means making changes in menu for every interval (monthly, quarterly, half yearly and yearly), this will keep costumer interesting.  Value for money means Pricing of menu should be low and quantity should be up to mark  Menu bar should also contain some food items, so that the costumer could his meal in bar only.  Menu knowledge for the staff is important, so that staff can explain what are items on the menu and staff can suggest a dish to a costumer.

REFERENCE • • • • • Anon, 2009, “Menu Engineering Exercise”, retrieved on 09-04-2008 from http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~grc3/ha270/class/restaurant/menu/menueng.htm Albing.B, 1991, “Menu design, merchandising and marketing ,4th edition” , Canada, Shan & willey and sons publishers. Dictionary,2008 “Define menu engineering”, retrieved on 09-04-2008 from http://www.hometravelagency.com/dictionary/menu-engineering.html Jack.E, “Food and Beverage cost control, 2nd edition”, New York, Jhon willey & sons publishers. Zafar.A, 2009, Senior Sous chef, The Oberoi, Bangalore

COURSEWORK Plagiarism is the publication, as one’s own, of the ideas, or the expression of the ideas, of another (Oxford English Dictionary). Some dictionaries use the term stealing. Plagiarism is not permitted in assessments at Napier University. Student Disciplinary Regulations (SDR) 11.2 categorises plagiarism as Academic Misconduct. Major examples of plagiarism include the following • copying from another student. • copying large sections, from an academic or other source (e.g. book, internet article) without acknowledging that source . Minor examples of plagiarism include • Paraphrasing without acknowledgment. • Quoting original reference obtained from a textbook but not reading “original” material . OK Quoting a relevant passage from a book, if the reference is given e.g. Drury C, (2004), Management and Cost Accounting,6e, London, Thomson. The reference must be clearly linked to the body of your work by putting the Author’s name and date in brackets. Comparing different authors’ ideas, with acknowledgement of source, and making your own comments. Doing research with others in the library but writing your essay alone. When citing from the WWW give the entire URL, the date of access and author if possible, not just the URL of the homepage e.g. http://nulis.napier.ac.uk/studyskills/#Plagiarism NOT OK Copying from textbooks or articles and failing to acknowledge the source – even if the words/sentences are rearranged.

Copying from other students – even if the words and/or sentences are rearranged. Allowing another student to copy your work URL of home page alone and /or no date e.g. www.napier.ac.uk

Procedure if Plagiarism Identified If a case of plagiarism is suspected (SDR 14.2): The member of staff marking the work will seek a second opinion from another member of the teaching team and, if suspicion is upheld, report the matter to the School Academic Conduct Officer (ACO). If the case is considered minor, a range of sanctions may be applied, including reduction of the assessment mark. If the case is major, the matter will be referred to a School Disciplinary Committee, who will consider application of a broader range of more rigorous sanctions which range from a nil mark for plagiarised assessment and hence failure in module to rustication. I declare that I have read, and understand the above, and that the attached piece of work for Restaurant Management is my own work and is free from plagiarism as defined above.

Signature ___________________________________ Date __________ Matriculation no: N 07800562

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