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# BELT DRIVES

## Flat belts and V-belts:

It may be employed to transmit power from one shaft to another where it is not necessary
to maintain an exact speed ratio between the two shafts. Power losses due to slip and
creep amount to from 3.0 to 5.0 percent for most belt drives. In the following discussion
it will be assumed that the shafts are parallel.
Belt design:
It involves either the proper belt selection to transmit a required power or the
determination of the power that may be transmitted by a given flat belt or by one V-belt.
In the first case, the width of the bet is unknown, while in the second case, the width is
known. The belt thickness is assumed for both cases.
The power transmitted by a belt drive is a function of the belt tension and belt speed.
Power = (T1 T2)v , W or = (T1 T2)V/550 , hp
Where:
T1 = belt tension in tight side, N
T2 = belt tension in loose side, N
V = belt speed, m/s
** The following formula for determining the stress, 2, for the flat belts applies when
the thickness of the belt is given but the width is unknown:
1 m V 2
ef
2
2 m V
Where:
1 = maximum allowable stress, N/m2
2 = stress in the slack side of the belt, N/m2
m = mass of 1.0 meter of belt 1.0 m2 in cross section , kg
f = coefficient of friction between belt and pulley
= angle of wrap of belt on pulley, rad.
** The required cross-section area of the flat belt for the case of the width unknown may
be determined by:
T 1 T 2
Required area =
1 2
** The required flat belt width b is therefore:
B = area/thickness
The value of (T1 T2) may be determined from the horsepower requirement,
P = (T1 T2)V, W
** The maximum tension in the tight side of the belt depends on the allowable stress of
the belt material. The allowable tensile stress for leather belting is usually 2.0 to 3.45
MN/m2, and the allowable stress for rubber belting will run from 1.0 to 1.7 MN/m2,
depending on the quality of the material. Leather belting can be obtained in various single
ply thicknesses. Double and triple ply belts are also available.

** The following formula for determining the value of T2 for both flat and V-belt applies
when the width and thickness of the belt are known:
f
T 1 mV 2
sin / 2
e
T 2 mV 2
Where:
m = b.t.p = mass of 1.0 meter of belt, kg/m
b = belt width, m,
t = belt thickness, m , p = belt density, kg/m3
= groove angle for the V-belt ( is 180 for a flat belt).
** The quantity mV2 is due to centrifugal force, which tends to cause the belt to leave the
pulley and reduce the power that may be transmitted.
Angle of wrap:
The angles of wrap for an open belt may be determined by:

sin

R r
c

R r
c
R r
2 180 2 180 2sin 1
c

## 1 180 2 180 2sin 1

r
R

The angles of wrap for a crossed belt drive may be determined by:
R r
sin
c
R r
1 2 180 2 180 2sin 1
c

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