You are on page 1of 6

Sucralose - Technical Information

Sucralose
Sucralose is the new high quality
intense sweetener from Tate & Lyle
which is suitable for use in a diverse
range of food products from
carbonated beverages to baked
goods. Sucralose is made from
sugar, is approximately 600 times
sweeter than sugar, and has taste
characteristics which are very similar
to sugar. Sucralose is also extremely
stable, and maintains its sweetness
even when exposed to high
temperature food processing such as
pasteurisation, sterilisation, UHT
processing and baking. In addition,
it remains stable in food products
throughout extended periods of
storage, even at low pH. Moreover,
sucralose is non-caloric and does
not promote tooth decay.

Sucralose has undergone a stringent


and comprehensive safety evaluation
programme over a period of 15 years.
The safety database, comprising
more than 100 studies, demonstrates
that sucralose is safe for human
consumption. Furthermore,
environmental studies have shown
that sucralose is non-toxic to fish
and aquatic organisms, and that it
is biodegradable.
Sucralose is available to food and
drink manufacturers as a crystalline
powder or as a 25% solution in water.
The dry powder is highly soluble in
water, even at low temperatures
allowing sucralose to be readily
incorporated into most food products.
Solutions of sucralose are easy to
handle and will not cause excessive
foaming under pumping or mixing.

Sucralose has been manufactured


in accordance with FDA Good
Manufacturing Practice and complies
with the JECFA and Food Chemical
Codex specifications.
The excellent stability of sucralose in
combination with its high quality
sweetness means that sucralose is a
versatile sweetener that can be used
in a broad range of product
categories including:

carbonated soft drinks


still beverages
alcoholic beverages
canned fruits and vegetables
breakfast cereals
pickles and sauces
jams
baked goods
ice cream
dairy products
confectionery
chewing gum

Sensory Characteristics

Table 1: Sweetness Factors for


Sucralose in Food Products

Sweetness Intensity
Sucralose is a high quality sweetener
with a sugar-like taste and a
sweetening power approximately 600
times that of sugar. In common with
other high intensity sweeteners, the
relative sweetness intensity of
sucralose compared to sugar varies
as a function of concentration. The
sweetness factor for sucralose in
water ranges from about 750 to 500
times sweeter than sugar (Figure 1).
Sweetness intensity can also be
influenced by a number of other
factors including pH, temperature
and the presence of food ingredients
such as gelling agents, starches and
fats. Table 1 shows the sweetness
factors determined for sucralose in
various food products.

Sweetness Profile
Time intensity measurements have
demonstrated that the sweetness
profile of sucralose is very similar to
that of sugar (Figure 2). Sucralose
displays a rapid onset of sweetness
and a similar sweetness duration
to sugar.
Flavour Profile
In addition to sweetness, sweeteners
possess a number of side tastes that
give rise to an overall flavour. To
compare the flavour profiles, equisweet
solutions of sucralose and sugar,
equivalent to 9% sugar and prepared
in water of neutral pH, were evaluated
by a 12 member taste panel. The
key taste attributes were assigned a
score rating by each individual
member and then the scores were
averaged. The results shown in
Figure 3 confirm that the flavour
profiles of sucralose and sugar are
very similar.
Furthermore, sucralose has been
shown to maintain its sweetness and
flavour throughout storage, without
the development of off-flavours.

Cola

450

Jam

540

Strawberry Milk

680

Yoghurt

450

Canned Peaches

530

Beans in Tomato Sauce

680

Blends with Intense Sweeteners


Blending intense sweeteners allows
an experienced product developer to
customise the sweetness and flavour
profile of the sweetening system.
Sucralose when combined with most
other sweeteners will also result in
sweetness synergy. Here the
combination is sweeter than the sum
of the individual sweeteners, thereby
reducing costs. Altogether, its
versatility, sugar-like taste and excellent
stability make sucralose the ideal
foundation on which high quality
products can be built.
Blends with
Carbohydrate Sweeteners
Blending sucralose with nutritive
carbohydrate sweeteners gives rise to
an excellent sweetness quality and,
in most cases, a degree of sweetness
synergy. Sucralose is, therefore, a
worthy sweetener for use in light
products containing a mixture of
nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners.

Figure 1: Sweetness Intensity as a


Function of Concentration

Figure 2: Sweetness Profiles of


Sucralose and Sugar

Figure 3: Flavour Profiles of


Sucralose and Sugar

sweetness factor (x sucrose)

intensity rating

taste profile descriptors

sucralose
saccharin
ace-K
aspartame

800

600

sucralose
5% sugar solution

sweetness
peaked
caramelised
saltiness

400

200

bitter
numbing
body/thickness
fruity

% w/v sucrose equivalence

10

metallic
1

15

time (seconds)

35

55

75

95

115

135

astringent
sucrose
sucralose

sweet aftertaste*
bitter aftertaste*
0

10

15

mean ratings (1 to 50 scale)


At 9% sugar equivalence
*aftertastes measured at 60 seconds

20

25

30

35

Stability

Table 2: Sucralose Stability to Food Manufacturing Processes

Pasteurisation

pH

Process Conditions

Sucralose
Pre-Processing

Sucralose
Post Processing

Tropical Beverage

2.8

93C for 24 sec

0.0125% ( 0.5%)

0.0126% ( 0.5%)

Tomato Ketchup

3.8

93C for 51 min

0.046% ( 4%)

0.047% ( 1%)

Canned Fruit - Pears

3.3

100C for 12 min

0.038% ( 10%)

0.038% ( 10%)

5.6

121C for 80 min

0.0064% ( 12%)

0.0066% ( 10%)

Dairy Dessert

6.7

140C for 15 sec

0.012% ( 3.5%)

0.012% ( 3.6%)

Vanilla Milk

6.5

141C for 3.5 sec

0.0075% ( 0.6%)

0.0075% ( 1.0%)

Sterilisation
Beans in sauce
UHT

Note: The analyses were conducted by HPLC with a refractive index detector.
The values given in parentheses represent the coefficient of variation for each determination.

Stability
One of the major technical advantages
of sucralose is its stability to high
temperature food processing and
long term storage, even when used in
low pH products. Like sugar, sucralose
will hydrolyse to its component
monosaccharide derivatives under
acidic conditions, but at a much
slower rate.
Studies conducted using model
solutions, comprising 1% sucralose
in aqueous buffer systems, have
confirmed that breakdown of sucralose
is solely by simple hydrolysis and that
no further degradation products are
formed. In terms of taste, breakdown
of sucralose is characterised only by
a loss of sweetness with no associated
development of off-flavours.

Process Stability
The stability of sucralose during food
manufacture has been confirmed by
a series of processing trials, covering
the main processes used in the food
industry. Generally, the trials were
conducted using industrial equipment
and in all cases, analysis of the
samples confirmed that no measurable
loss of sucralose had occurred during
processing (Table 2).
A detailed programme of work was
also undertaken to assess the stability
of sucralose in baked products.(1)
Three different products were chosen
to reflect the diverse baking conditions
used in industrial production, and
again, analysis of the products
demonstrated that no measurable
loss of sucralose had occurred during
the preparation of:
Sponge cake cooked at 180C
for 25 minutes
Cookies baked at 210C
for 8 minutes
Crackers baked at 230C
for 4 minutes

Table 3: Stability of Sucralose


in Aqueous Solution
Storage Conditions

20C - 1 year

30C - 1 year

50C - 4 weeks

pH

2.5

% Sucralose
Retention

Table 4: Shelf Life Stability of Sucralose in Carbonated Cola

99%

Sucralose
pH 3 Formulation

Sucralose
pH 2.7 Formulation

> 99.5%

Zero time

191 ppm ( 1.0%)

184 ppm ( 0.7%)

98%

5 weeks

198 ppm ( 1.0%)

182 ppm ( 1.0%)

100%

10 weeks

192 ppm ( 0.9%)

183 ppm ( 0.8%)

100%

17 weeks

194 ppm ( 1.5%)

183 ppm ( 0.8%)

93%

25 weeks

194 ppm ( 0.6%)

184 ppm ( 0.8%)

100%

99%

Shelf Life Stability


Shelf life studies have demonstrated
that sucralose sweetened products
retain their sweetness throughout
extended periods of storage. This
uniform sweetness has also been
shown to promote a more consistent
overall flavour and can help reduce the
incidences of off flavours developing
during the shelf life of the product.

Note: The analyses were conducted by HPLC with a refractive index detector.
The values given in parentheses represent the coefficient of variation for each determination.

Figure 5: Shelf Stability of Sucralose


system over a 6 month period when
stored at 20C.
Interaction with Food Ingredients
In addition to determining the stability
of sucralose in aqueous solution,
studies were conducted to ascertain
whether sucralose is likely to interact
with other food ingredients.

% retained
100

80

60

40
0

12

24

36

storage time (weeks)

Sucralose is most stable in the pH


range of 5-6, with the stability
increasing as the pH increases from
pH1 to about pH 5.5. Thus, sucralose
exhibits excellent shelf life stability in
neutral pH products, as well as
acidic products.
Figure 5 shows the degree to which
sucralose hydrolysis occurs during
storage at 20C under different pH
conditions and illustrates the stability
of sucralose to acidic conditions.
At pH 3, less than 0.5% sucralose is
lost, while no significant change
occurs at pHs 4, 6 and 7.
Table 3 shows the effect of temperature
on the stability of sucralose in
aqueous solutions at various pHs.
Table 4 demonstrates the stability of
sucralose in a carbonated cola

From a theoretical standpoint


sucralose would be expected to be
unreactive (apart from slow acid
hydrolysis), and this is borne out in
practice. A variety of food products
have been stored for prolonged
periods without loss of sweetness or
the development of off-flavours.
Furthermore, specific studies have
confirmed that sucralose is unlikely
to undergo interactions with any
commonly used food ingredients.
The stability of sucralose has also
been shown to be unaffected by the
presence of ethanol. Sucralose is
suitable, therefore, for use in
alcoholic beverages.
Reference
(1) R.L. Barndt & G. Jackson;
Stability of sucralose in baked goods
(1990), Food Technology, 44 (1), 62-66

sucralose pH 4, 6, & 7, 20C


sucralose pH 3, 20C
aspartame pH 3.1 ambient temperature

52

All information contained in this publication has been carefully compiled but no guarantee can be given of its
applicability in any given situation because of the wide variation in conditions of use. Nothing in this information
should be construed as a recommendation to use sucralose in violation of any patent or as a warranty of
non-infringement of any patent rights. The approval status of sucralose should always be confirmed with the
appropriate governmental agencies for its intended use.