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Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013
4.1 The chemical composition in the cell

No

Marking scheme

Marks

(a)

There are two important groups of compound in the cells, the organic
compound and the inorganic compounds. the organic compound are
protein , nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipid s. describe the presence
and importance of organic compound , such as carbohydrate and
protein in a cells.
Carbohydrate
P1-It is a compound synthesized by plants through photosynthesis
P2-It is involved in the building of plant cell wall
P3-It is present in various forms including monosacharide, disaccharide
and polysacharide
P4-Polycharide is storage carbohydrate
P5-Example: glycogen is storage carbohydrate
Protien
P1-It is the main component of cytoplasm an dplasma membrane
P2-protien is present as keratin in hair and nail
P3-Carier protein in the plasma membrane function in the transport of
substances across the plasma membrane
P4-Enzyme , antibody and many hormones are proteins
P5-Hormones function to regulate chemical process and cell metabolism
, such as digestion
P6-Enzyme act to catalyze metabolism reaction of the cell
P7-Antibody defends the body from pathogenic attack
P8-Protein also act as source of energy during starvation ANY 10

(b)

(c)

How are the carbohydrates stored in plant and animal tissues?


Carbohydrate are stored as starch in glycogen and glycogen in animal
tissue
How are the delicate internal organs of animal protected by the lipids
Lipid form the adipose tissue lining around the delicate internal
organsProtecting them from physical injure

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Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

Nucleic acid
Trial perlis 2010 Trail kedah 2012 JUJ 2009
Figure below shows the structure of nucleic acid

N
o

Marking scheme

Marks

(a
)

Based on the figure 3, name the type of nucleic acid as shown


DNA

(b
)

Name another type of nucleic acid


RNA

(c
)

Explain the role of structure in 5.1 in determining the characteristic of


organism
P1-carry genetic information
P2-direct protein synthesis
P3-determine the traits that are passed from parents to their children

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Name the diagram S, T and U


S: Phosphate Group
T: Pentose/sugar/deoxyribose sugar
U: nitrogenous base

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Diagram shows apart of the structure of organic compound found in the


cell
Cell structure: chromosomes
Organelle: nucleus

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(d
)

(e
)

(f)

What is the basic unit of molecule X called


Nucleotide

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(g
)

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Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

Diagram below shows an incomplete structure of DNA at one


polynucleotide chain complete the structure below

Drawing 1m
Nitrogenous bases matched correctly : 1m
(h
)

Segment of structure in diagram 2.1 carry characteristic for each


individual .describe the application of genetics that be used for
Identification purposes in solving criminal cases
F1-DNA fingerprint
P1-(it is used) to examine DNA from tissue sample of hair/
saliva/blood/semen found at the scene of the crime then compare it to
suspects DNA

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4.2 Carbohydrate
No
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Marking scheme

Marks

Name two type of disaccharides


Sucrose
Maltose
Explain how the two disaccharide is formed
P1-Maltose is formed through the condensation of two glucose
molecules
P2-sucrose is formed through the condensation of a glucose molecule
and fructose molecule
Explain how glucose is considered a reducing sugar
P1- because it can reduce copper (II)ions
P2-which are blue in colour to a brick red precipitate of copper (I) oxide
Explain how molecule X( polysaccharide) are formed form their basic
unit:polyshacride
P1-Molecule is a polysaccharide which consists of many
monosaccharide

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Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013
P2-The monosaccharide are joined together by condensation to form a
long chains of polymer

4.3 Proteins

Trial Selangor 2008

Trial Melaka 2008

1. Diagram 2 shows a series of reaction process is the formation of molecules Q while


process Y is the breakdown of polypeptide
Process X
Molecule
Q

Molecule P

Molecule
X
No
(a)
(b)

(c)

(d)

Process Y

Molecule R

Marking scheme

Marks

Name Molecule X
Protein

Name Molecule P ,R, and Q


Molecule P: Amino acid
Molecule R: Dipeptide
Molecule Q: Polypeptide

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State the process X and Y


Process X: Condensation
Process Y: Hydrolysis

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Explain the process X and Y


Process X:
P1-Condensation of amino acid /(molecules ) P//(two unit of amino acid)/
(molecule)P combine/link and water (molecule) are release
P2-Peptides bond formed (between Amino acid /P)
Process Y:
P1-Hydrolysis of dipeptides/ (molecule) Q //Dipeptides /Q is broken by
water(molecule)
P2-Peptides bonds are broken down

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(e)

(f)
(g)

(h)

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Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

The breakdown of poly peptides molecule to molecule Q through process y


occurs in human digestive system
State one organ wherer process Y occurs
Stomach/lieum/small intestine/duodenum

Name one enzyme secreted by the organ which is needed in process Y


Pepsin/Erepsin/peptidase/trypsin.protease

Explain how the complex molecule R are formed from their basic units
P1-Molecule R is polypeptide in which consist of amino acids
P2-The amino acids are joined together by condensation and arrange in a
sequence to form a long chain

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Explain the breakdown of molecule Y(Protein) Given basic units : amino


acid
P1-Molecule is a polypeptide( which consist of many amino acids)
P2-Molecule Y is broken down by hydrolysis

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2. Protein are large organic molecule which play diverse roles in living organism .
Diagram 2.1 shows four level of organization in protein structure
JUJ 2009
Trail Kelantan 2008

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Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

Molecule P

Molecule Q

P : Primary structure

Q : Secondary structure

R : Tertiary structure

No
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

S : Quartnetry structure

Marking scheme

Marks

Draw the structure

Name structure P;Q.R and S in diagram

Name X
Peptide bond

State the monomer of the structure shown in diagram


Amino acid

Give one example of each protein P, Q R and S


Protein P: DNA/RNA
Protein Q: Hairs/nails/Feather
Protein R: Hormones. enzyme /antibodies / plasma protein
Protein S: Haemoglobin

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(f)

(g)

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Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

Amino acid is monomer of protein . There are two type o f amino acids
which are essential amino acid and non essential amino acid
Explain about essential amino acid
P1-canot synthesis by the body
P2-obtain from diet
ESSAY ENCHANCEMENT CONER
Name the protein P ,Q and R.Describe the structure of each protein
structure
P1- P is primary structure
E1-It refers ti the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain
P2-Q is secondary structure
E2-It refers to the polypeptide chain that is coiled to form alpha helix
chain o into beta pleated sheet
P3-R is tertiary structure
E3-It refers to the way the helix chains or beta pleated sheets are coiled
or folded into three dimensional shape of a polypeptide chain
P+E

4.4 Lipids

JUJ 2009

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Trial

Melaka 2009

Z
Molecule P

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No
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

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Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013
Marking scheme

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Name molecule P
Lipid

State two important product obtained from the hydrolysis of lipid


Glycerol/fatty acid

Name X ,Y and Z
X: Glycerol
Y: Fatty acid
Z: Triglyceride

1
1
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State the process X and Y


Process X: condensation (state the reaction that lead to the synthesis of
lipid)

1
1

Write a word equation to represent the biochemical process in diagram


Lipase
Glycerol +fatty acid
triglyceride+ water

Name the other product of this reaction besides lipid molecule


Water

Process Y: hydrolysis
(e)

(f)

No

Marking scheme

Marks

(g)

Waxes are a type of lipid. it is found on the cuticles of epidermis of the


leaves fruit and some seeds of some plant . Explain another type of lipid in
human
F1- phospholipids s
P1-component in the formation of plasma membrane

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(h)

(i)

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Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

What is the essential structural difference between a phospholipids


molecule and the lipid molecule shown in the figure
P1-A phospholipids molecule has two fatty acids and phosphate group
attached to a molecule of glycerol
P2-ipid molecule in the figure has three fatty acids joined to a molecule of
glycerol
Describe the behavior of phospholipids in the water
P1-One end of the phospholipids molecule , containing the phosphate
group is soluble in the water, while the other end , containing the fatty
acids is insoluble in water
P2-When phospholipid are in water, they forma bilayered structure
comprising of to back to back layers of phospholipids molecule
P3-the water soluble (hydrophilic)ends point outwards while the water
insoluble (hydrophobic ) ends point inwards

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(j)

Structure X
Molecule P is important to build the structure of membrane in the cell ,
including structure X
Name structure X
Plasma membrane
(k)

(l)

Explain the arrangement of molecule P in X


P1-Molecule P consists of hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail
P2-the head part of faces the external surface of the membrane because it
attract to water
P3-the tail part of P is in the enter of the membrane as there is water in
the membrane
P4-Form a phospholipids bilayer ANY 3
State the function of phospholipids in cells
Provide the structure basis for all cell membrane

Diagram shows two types of fats

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No
(k)

(l)

(m)

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Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

Marking scheme

Marks

State the type of fat s shown in diagram


P: Saturated fat
Q: Unsaturated fat
Butter is saturated fat but corn oil is unsaturated fat . Explain briefly the
differences between saturated fat and unsaturated fat
P1- Saturated fat is solid (at room temperature)
P2-saturated fat without double bonds between carbon atoms where as
unsaturated fat have at least one doubled bond (between the carbon
atoms)
Compare and contrast fats and oils
S1-Both are good energy store
D1-At room temperature, fats are solid, whereas oils are liquid

4.5 Enzyme

Trial Johor 2009

Trial Kedah 2012

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Trial Kedah 2009

JUJ 2009

No
(a)

Marking Scheme

Marks

The general characteristic of enzyme


List three characteristic of the enzyme shown Diagram 3/ state two
characteristic of the enzyme
F1-Enzyme is highly specific//enzyme reaction follow the lock and key
hypothesis
F2-Enzyme is not destroyed after the reaction // can be reused again
//remain unchanged after the reaction
F3-Enzyme has a specific site for its substrate
F4-Enzyme hydrolyses /breaks down substrate to form products
F5-Enzyme is needed in small quantity

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Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

F6-Enzyme can catalyzed a reversed reaction ANY 3

No

Marking Scheme

(b)

The enzyme is highly specific. Explain this statement/Why enzyme is said to


be highly specific?
F1-Enzyme has specific sites called active site
F1-One enzyme only catalyzed one substrate
F2-the active site has a distinctive/ the active site ( of the enzyme )is
specific to certain substances
F3-the shape of the substrate must fit the enzyme precisely if a reaction is
to catalysed //complements its substrate

(c)

(d)

(b)

Marks

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(ii) Explain how inhibitor inhibit the enzyme reaction


P1- inhibitor change the active sites of the enzyme
P2-substrate cannot fits to the active site
P3-cannot form enzyme substrate complex

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Intracellular and extracellular enzyme Trail Kelantan 2010


State the meaning of extracellular enzyme
P1-Enzyme which is synthesized in the cell
P2-Secreted out of the cell to work externally

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State the meaning of intracellular enzyme


P1-Enzyme which produced in the cell
P2-for use of itself

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The enzyme reaction can be slowed down or completely stopped by


inhibitors
(i) Give one example of inhibitor
Heavy metal/leads / mercury

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(c)

(d)

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Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

Extracellular enzyme are enzyme which are produced in the cell but
secreted from the cell to function externally
Give one example of the cell
Pancreas//ileum //stomach epithelial cell //salivary cell

Give one example of an extracellular enzyme produced by the cell


Lipase /Amylase /trypsin

Synthesis of enzymes

Trail Johor 2011

Trail Kelantan 2010

Trial Pahang 2010

Trial MRSM 2011


Trail Perak 2012

Trial Perak 2009

Trial Selangor 2010

Trial Selangor 2008

R: secretory vesicles
P: Golgi apparatus
U : transport vesicles
T : Ribosomes
Q: nucleus

No

(a)
(b)

S: mitochondria

Marking scheme

Marks

Based on the Diagram 1, name P, Q, R, and S


Name correctly

State the function of organelle P


Modifies and pack the enzyme

State the function of organelles P(transport vesicles)


Transport protein synthesized by ribosomes to the Golgi apparatus

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(c)

(d)

(a)

State the function of T


P1 P contain respiratory enzyme
P2 P generate energy from cell respiration / oxidation of glucose
P3 Energy use by the cells for activities

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Explain the function of Q


P1 Q contain genetic material / DNA / gene
P2 which determine the type of protein synthesis by the ribosome
P3 determine the characteristics inherited by the offspring

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Synthesis of molecule y is very specific process. It depend on the


information contained in molecule X
Name X
In form of genes /DNA

No
(b)

(c)

(d)

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Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

Marking scheme

Marks

Explain how information is carried out from the nucleus to organelle S


P1-DNA replicates/open /unwinds for the synthesis of RNA /messenger-RNA
P2-(genetic information) in DNA is copied to RNA
P3-RNA moves out of the nucleus and attaches itself on the ribosome
Explain the role of x(chromosomes) in the production of an Extracellular
enzyme
P1-information for synthesis enzyme is carried by /DNA
P2-Different sequences of bases in X / DNA are codes to make different
enzymes
P3-RNA copies the information from DNA in the nucleus
P4-Messenger RNA is formed to translate codes into a sequence of amino
acid//
P5-Ribosomes interprets the information carried by RNA
P6-the amino acid are bonded together to form specific enzyme ANY 4
Explain how information is carried out from the nucleus to organelle S
P1-DNA replicates/open /unwinds for the synthesis of RNA /messenger-RNA
P2-(genetic information) in DNA is copied to RNA
P3-RNA moves out of the nucleus and attaches itself on the ribosomes

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Predicting the absent of organelle


(e)

Explain what will happen to the production of extracellular enzymes if Golgi


apparatus malfunctions.
F: The production of the extracellular enzyme is incomplete/
disrupted/affected
E1 (without Golgi apparatus), the protein cannot be modified into
extracellular enzyme
E2-Protien cannot be sorted

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Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

E3-Extracellular enzyme cannot be released/ transported to the targeted


cell /organ

(f)

(g)

Explain what will happen if the rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi
apparatus are absent in the cell
P1 Protein cannot be sent to the Golgi apparatus
P2 Protein cannot be modified / processes
P3 No enzyme extracellular can be synthesis
Enzyme is made up of chains of polypeptides molecule. The Golgi apparatus
in living cell are malfunction .explain the effect of the malfunction to the
production of extracellular enzyme
P1-Processing /modifying/packing/sorting/transporting of the synthesized
protein could not be carry out
P2-Resulting the synthesized protein /carbohydrates/glycoprotein are not
able to be carry through the plasma membrane

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The production of extracellular enzyme


No

Marking scheme

Marks

(a)

Explain the role of P and Q in transportation of extracellular enzyme


P1-The nucleus /RNA instruct ribosome to synthesized protein
P2-the synthesized protein is transport in the rough endoplasmic reticulum
/Q
P3-to the transport vesicles
P4-then the Golgi apparatus/P packages./modifies/sorts/transports the
synthesized proteins
P5-to the secretary vesicles to be transported
P6-out of the cell through the plasma membrane

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Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

Based on the organelle shown in diagram, explain how extracellular enzyme


are
produced starting at ribosome
P1-Protien are synthesized in the ribosome
P2-Rough endoplasmic reticulum transport the protein to the Golgi
apparatus (by
transport vesicles)
P3Golgi apparatus modifies/repackage/transport protein to become
enzyme
P4-which are secreted out from the cell
Explain how the protein form at the ribosome is transform into the
extracellular enzyme,
so that it can be secreted from the cell
P1-Protien enter lumen Rough Endoplasmic reticulum(RER)
P2-Modified in RER into extracellular enzyme
P3-Carried to the Golgi body by transporting vesicles
P4-Processed/packed in the Golgi body for excretion

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Essay enhancement corner


Diagram 8.1 shows the involvement of different cellular component P, Q and S in the
secretion of extracellular enzyme in animal cell

Based on the diagram, describe the production of extracellular enzyme

Marking scheme

Marks

E1-The information for the synthesis of enzyme is carried by DNA in structure


Q / nucleus
E2-The information is copied and carried/transferred to ribosome/ structure P
via RNA /mRNA
E3-The information is used to synthesize protein in the ribosome /structure

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Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

R/rough endoplasmic reticulum


E4-protien that are synthesized in the ribosome/structure P are transported
vesicles/ S that buds off / from the side of structure R/ rough endoplasmic
reticulum
E5-protien depart from structure R /RER wrapped in transport vesicles /S that
buds off / form the side of structure R/RER
E6-These transport vesicles /S fused with the membrane of structure T / Golgi
apparatus to be sorted and modified
E7-Modified protein is packed into secretory vesicle/ U
E8-Secretory vesicles/ U buds off from structure T / Golgi apparatus membrane
and travel/sent to the plasma membrane
E9-Secretory vesicles / U will Release the modified protein /enzyme outside the
cell (as extracellular enzyme
The mechanism of enzyme action

Trial Kedah 2012

Trial Kedah 2009

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JUJ 2009

Substrate X
Q:substrate

Substrat
eY

P: enzyme

N
o
(a
)

R: Enzyme
substrate complex

S: Product

Marking scheme

Marks

What is the definition of enzyme?


P1-enzyme is an organic catalyst
P2-enzyme is a protein which speed up biochemical reaction in living
thing

N
o

Marking scheme

1
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Marks

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(b
)

(c
)

(d
)

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Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

Name the structure


Name P ,Q, and S if the enzyme used is lipase
P:lipase
Q:fats
S:fatty acid and glycerol

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Name P ,Q, and S if enzyme used is sucrase


P: sucrase
Q: sucrose
S; glucose/fructose

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Explain why substrate Y, but not Substrate X, can combine with the
enzyme
P1-substrate x does not have a specific active sites to fit into tha
enzyme
P2-only Substrate Y , has shape which exactly fits into the enzyme

(e
)

State the principle of enzymatic reaction as shown in Figure


key and lock

(f)

The enzyme reaction is referred as the key lock hypothesis. Explain


about hypothesis
P1-enzyem has active site where inly certain molecules can fit in
P2-substrate represents the key and enzyme represent the lock
P3-when the substrate fit into (active sites of ) enzyme forming
enzyme-substrate be complex
P4-enzyme catalyst the substrate to form products ANY 3

(g
)

(h
)

A student carried out and experiment using enzyme X. he replaced


lipid with maltose as the substrate. At the end of the experiment, he
observed that there was no reaction
P1-active site of the enzyme X is not complement to the shape of
maltose
P2-maltose cannot bind to enzyme X
P3-no enzyme substrate complex is formed
P4-maltose is not hydrolysed /broken down
A student carried out and experiment using enzyme X. he replaced
lipid with maltose as the substrate. At the end of the experiment, he
observed that there was no reaction
P1-active site of the enzyme X is not complement to the shape of
maltose
P2-maltose cannot bind to enzyme X
P3-no enzyme substrate complex is formed

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Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

P4-maltose is not hydrolysed /broken down

No
(a)

Marking scheme

Marks

Name organ X and organ Y


Organ X : Small intestine //ileum

1
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Organ Y : liver
(b)

Name molecule K , molecule M and enzyme L


Molecule K ; starch
Molecule M : glucose

1
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Enzyme L : (pancreatic ) Amlyase

Factor affecting the activity of enzyme Trail perils 2011


N
o
(a
)

Marking scheme

Marks

State two factor affecting activities of enzymes/state two other factor


affecting the enzyme activity
P1-temperature
P2-pH
P3-substrate concentration

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Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

P4-enzyme concentration

The effect of temperature on the activity of enzyme

Trial Johor 2011

Trial Kedah 2012

Trail Kelantan 2010


Trail Kelantan 2008
Trial Selangor 2008

Trial MRSM 2011

N
o

Trial Perak 2011

Trial Penang 2012

Marking scheme

Marks

Enzyme activity at high temperature


(a
)

(b
)

Each enzyme has an optimum temperature at which its reaction rate is the fastest.
beyond the optimum temperature an enzyme is said to be denatured
Explain the above statement.
E1: High temperature alter/changes the( three dimensional) shape of the
active site of the enzyme molecules
E2-Substrates thus can no longer fit into the active sites of the enzyme
E3-the reaction cannot be carried out // substrate cannot be hydroylsed
Explain the reaction of sucrose if the temperature of medium is 60 oC
P1-60oC is high temperature
P2-At very high temperature the chemical bond that hold enzyme molecule
together begi to break
P3-Thus altering three dimensional shape of enzyme
P4-Destroying active site of enzyme site of enzyme /enzyme denature MAX
3
Suggest what would happen if brand P washing powder is used with hot
water (60oC-80oC)
P1-Enzyme are protein
P2-enzyme are denatured by the high temperature
P3-Cleaning is less effective

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Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

Compare the enzyme activity at high and low temperature


Diagram shows the results of an experiment in which two similar shirts P
and Q with same blood stain. the shirts were washed by using enzymecontaining washing powder at tow different temperature, 35 oCand 65oC

Explain the result of washing the shirt in the diagram


35oC : (shirt P Does not have blood satin remaining)
F:the rate of enzymatic activity is the highest
P:35 oC is the optimum temperature

(d
)

(e
)

(f)

(g
)

1
1

65oC: (shirt Q has the larger amount of blood satin remaining)


F: the rate of enzymatic reaction is lower
P:the enzyme must have been denatured at the high temperature
Explain why washing of shirt in P is more effective when used with warm
water 30oC-40oC
than cold water
P1-Enzyme are less active at low temperature
P2-Many enzyme have an optimum temperature range between 30 oC-40oC
Enzyme activity at low temperature
Explain the rate of enzyme reaction at low temperature and at the
optimum temperature
P1-At low temperature , the enzyme is inactive and the rate of reaction Is
slow
P2-at the optimum temperature, the enzyme is very active and the rate of
enzyme reaction is at maximum
All enzyme are protein .enzyme are sensitive to
temperature
Explain why food is kept in refrigerator?
F: temperature of the refrigerator is low
P1: Enzyme ( in bacteria) is inactive
P2- food cannot be decomposed
Enzyme activity at optimum temperature
A branded washing machine is provided with temperature regulator
A Housewife uses the detergent containing enzyme at 40C to wash the
clothes .using the information given, explain why
F:40C is an optimum temperature
P1-enzyme activity is maximum

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Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

P2-the cleaning is more effective

(h
)

(i)

Enzyme is used to wash away the blood stain on a shirt .explain how the
enzyme acts on
the blood stain at a maximum rate.
F1-Use (warm) water with temperature of 37oC
P1-optimum temperature for enzyme (activity)//enzymes work best this
temperature
Draw a graph to show the effect of temperature on the activity of enzyme

Draw 1m(/)
Label 1m(/)
(ii) what is the optimum temperature for this reaction
37oC

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The effect of pH on the activity of enzyme


No
(a)

Marking scheme

Marks

Explain the effect of pH on the mechanism of enzyme,in an acidic


medium /Explain the reaction of sucrase if the pH value medium is 3
P1-excess hydrogen ions attach to the active site of the enzyme
P2-Cause ionic vharge on the activity site are altered
P3-substrate is unable ti bind to the enzyme /reaction cannot take place

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Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

(b)

Starch ,protein and peptone can be hydrolyzed by enzyme amylase,


pepsine and trypsin respectively
Diagram shows the effect of pH an the rate of enzyme activity
Based on the diagram , explain how the changes in pH affect the enzyme
activity
P1-Enzyme are denature by changes in pH level of the reaction medium
P2-Each enzyme function actively at its optimum pH
P3-he enzyme salivary amylase functions at the optimum pH 7.0.
P4-it will become inactive when its reaction medium is too acidic or
alkaline
P5-the optimum pH for pepsin is 1.5-2.0and trypsin is pH 8.5
P6-the changes in pH will cause the changes in the concentration of
hydrogen ion (H+)or hydroxyl ions (OH-)
P7-the excess hydrogen ions or hydroxyl ions destabilize enzymes by
changing the shape of the active site
P8-enzyme stop functioning
P9-the effect of pH changes on the enzyme activity are reversible
P10-An enzyme which is inactive in a high pH will become active again
when it is at its optimum pH

(c)

Enzyme is used to wash away the blood stain on a shirt


Explain how the enzyme acts on the blood satin at a maximum rate
P1-Add a little vinegar/acid ( in the water)
P2-Enzyme /pepsin work best at this temperature
OR
P1-Add more soap/ alkali solution (in the water)
P2-Enzyme/trypsin protease work best in an alkaline medium

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The effect of substrate concentration on the activity of enzymes

Trial Melaka 2008

Trial perils 2011

No

Marking scheme
Diagram show how the amount of an enzyme substrate and product
change during seed germination

(a)

State which curve represents the amount of substrate


Curve P
Explain your answer
If the enzyme involved in the reaction is amylase, continue curve P in the
box diagram 2.2 to shows what would happen when photosynthesis begins
P1-curve P is plotted downward
P2-this shows the amount of substrate is decreasing
P33-this due to the substrate being hydrolyzed by the enzyme MAX 2

(b)

Marks

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(c)

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Explain the shape of curve that you have drawn


P1-when photosynthesis occur , shoot will start to produce sugars which is
later store as starch
P2-this increase in tha amount of substrate

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Table 1 shows the enzyme substrate complex molecule at Q where the


concentration of the
substrate is X%

(e)

(f)

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P-1
R-1
Based on the graph in diagram 3.1, complete Diagram 3.2 by drawing the
substrate molecule at region P and R
Based on your drawing in diagram 3.2, explain the relationship of the
substrate and enzyme molecule at region P and R
P- P1-when the concentration of substrate increase, more substrate
molecule bind to active sites of the enzyme
P2-more product will be produced// the rate of reaction is directly
propotional to the substrate concentration
R: P3-after the maximum rate , all active sites of the enzyme molecule are
filled/engaged
P4-the rate of reaction become constant
P5-the concentration of enzyme become the limiting factor

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(g)

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Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

If the concentration of enzyme increase, draw a line to show the enzyme


activity in diagram 3.3
D-1
P

(h)

(g)
(h)

(i)

Explain your answer in (c)


P1-When the enzyme concentration increases, more substrate will bind to
the active site of enzyme
P2-the rate of reaction increase
Which curve has a higher concentration of enzyme
Curve P
Explain curve Q
P1-Q has lower concentration of enzyme than P
P2-when concentration of substrate increase, the rate of enzyme reaction
increase until a limiting factor, where no enzyme substrate complex is
form
What is the limiting factor of both curve P and Q
How can we increase the rate of enzyme reaction?
P1-concentation of enzyme is the limiting factor

The use of enzyme in daily life and industries

Trial Johor 2009

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Trial Kedah 2012

Trial Penang 2012

No

Marking scheme

Marks

Biological enzyme are added to the washing power to boost its effectiveness
(a)

(b)

Give one example of a biological enzyme of biological enzyme that can be


added to washing powder
Explain the action of this enzyme
F1-Protease/Lipase/Amylase
P2-to breakdown//dissolve/hydrolyses protein stain /fat stain / starch stain
Name the enzyme present in washing powder to remove blood stain
Amylase/protease/lipase

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(c)

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Chapter 4 : Chemical composition in the cell 2013

Suggest one type of enzyme would need to be present in a washing


powder design to remove blood stain
lipase/protease

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(d)

(e)

(f)

Give two example of enzyme present in biological washing powder that


helps in the removal of food stain from the clothing. State one function of
each of the named enzyme
F1-AmylaseP1-to hydrolyse starch stains
F1-Lipase
P2-to break down oily stains
F3-Protease
P3-to hydrolyse protein stain ANY 4
F+P
Enzyme is widely used in daily life and in industries. explain the use of
enzyme in the process of extracting agar from seaweed
P1- Cellulase is added
P2-to digest the cell wall of the seaweed to extract agar
A chef marinate meat with pineapple for 30 minutes before he cook the
meat. Explain why
P1-protease/bromelian in fresh pineapple
P2-can be used to hydrolyse /tenderize the protein in the meat
P3-the meat is marinated with pineapple slices fro 30 minutes to give

(g)

time for enzyme react with protein in the meat ANY2


Enzymes are widely used in our daily life and industries.

Explain how enzymes act in :

To get rid of stains on cloth:


F1- biological detergents contain proteases, amylases and lipases
P1- proteases acts on stains containing proteins / blood / saliva
P2- amylases acts on stains containing starch / sauces / ice cream/ gravy
P3- lipases are effective in removing oil and grease

(h)

Helping to cook meat:


F2 Protease acts on protein in meat
P4 tenderize / softens meat
Explain example of the application of enzymes in cereal grains product
industry
P1-lipase
E1-Ripening cheese OR

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P2-Rennin
E2-Solidify milk potien

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MAX 2

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