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Dear Readers,
Glad to present the combined edition of Trinity 1 &
2 for 2015. While we are faced with challenges within
the country and around the world, it is important to
focus on Salvation. Christ has justified us and we need
to remain in that relationship with God. This is done
through sanctification-how we ought to keep ourselves
spotless in this world through the sacramental grace
given us by God. We are called to holiness by staying
and growing in our relationship with our God - the
Father, Son and Holy Ghost. Great articles by Bishop
Kinner, Fr. Patrick Comerford, Fr. Jason Rice, Deacon
Dan Hartshorn and to top it all Fr. Vernon Staley who
spells out these terms of predestination, justification,
sanctification. Thankful to Anita Matthias who sent
us the picture of the Holy Trinity during her recent
travels to Europe-Cologne Cathedral, Germany. Great
pictures of the gathering our church family in the 2015
Diocesan and Provincial Synods. Let us read, meditate,
deepen our faith in the Risen Lord whose second coming we are all awaiting. - Bishop Leo Michael and Holly
Holy Trinity Anglican Seminary welcomes you!
Holy Trinity Anglican Seminary (HTAS) is
owned and administrated by the Holy Catholic Church Anglican Rite of the diocese of Holy
Trinity and Great Plains. Its location in Kansas
City, mid-America makes travel easy to meet
the campus schedule. It forms part of a long
tradition of the Holy Catholic Church of Anglican Rite and continues this important work of
evangelization of the Kingdom of Christ in the
United States of America and beyond its mission


With the advancement of communications, Holy Trinity Anglican Seminary will offer online and on campus training for its students.
Holy Trinity Anglican Seminary firmly believes that Good Formation
will ensure FRUITFUL Ministry. Keeping in mind the Great Commission of the Lord, HTAS will train its candidates in strong Scriptural foundation, Sacramental worship in the Apostolic Tradition as enunciated in
the conservative Anglican Tradition. With qualified faculty and commitment to the cause of priestly formation, Holy Trinity Anglican Seminary
is set to impart the traditional Anglican orthodoxy even in the emerging
social and pastoral challenges. The seminary will also offer courses for
lay students as well.

The Seminary primarily serves the Holy Catholic Church Anglican Rite while students belonging to other denominations are welcome to participate in our program of study and reflection. The Holy
Trinity Anglican Seminary will soon be accredited with a view to conferring the Bachelors Degree in Theology.

Holy Catholic Church pays special attention to the formation of her ministers. Church directives require that candidate to the
priesthood undergo a minimum of three years devoted to an intense and
specifically priestly formation. These directives are implemented at this
seminary, with particular emphasis on the Anglican traditions of the
Holy Catholic Church.

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Appointments: Mark Kinner on your assumption of the office of House Representative of Wyoming. Mark is the senior
warden of Holy Trinity in Sheridan and
member of the Diocesan council of Advice.
Publishing: Jake and Holly on your new
book release: First and Goal - What Football Taught Me about Never Giving Up
this August. Jake is a former NFL player
for San Diego Chargers. He now champions the cause of Type 1 Diabetes through
his inspiring story.
Wedding Bells: Karlie Kinner and David Boomgarden,
Jake and Emma Byrne on their marriage.
Farewell to Jack and Cyndi Octigan on their move to
Wyoming. They were part of the Lawrence Anglican
Mission. You will be dearly missed.
To all who have newborns and those who are back
in school. If we have missed out others please let us

Join the Morning

and Evening Prayer

Wake up with God. You can join the prayer

conference in the rhythm of daily morning and evening prayer. We have dedicated
clergy and postulants faithfully hosting the
prayer call daily at 7:00 am and 7:00 pm
central time. Ask your clergy for the phone

In the Koinonia masthead, the circle with the cross in the center symbolizes the paten and the diverse elements which form a whole. The Mosaic
represents the great cloud of witnesses and the church tradition. The red
in the letters represents the blood of Christ with the font comprised of individual pieces of letters that are not joined until the blood unifies them. Koinonia is the official publication of the Anglican Province of the Holy Catholic Church-Anglican Rite (HCCAR) aka Anglican Rite Catholic Church.
It is published quarterly at St. James Anglican Church, 8107 S. Holmes
Road, Kansas City, MO 64131. Phone: 816.361.7242 Fax: 816.361.2144.
Editors: The Rt. Rev. Leo Michael & Holly Michael, Koinonia header: Phil
Gilbreath; email: or visit us on the web
at: Cover picture: Photo of the painting of the
Blessed Tirnity, Cologne Cathedral Germany by Anita Matthias..

Therefore a man leaves his father and mother and cleaves to his wife, and they shall be one flesh.
Genesis 2:24

he Sacrament of
Holy Matrimony is
rooted in
the Old
Covenant with God; its
New Covenant expression is in and through Jesus Christ. Jesus blessing
of the marriage in Cana
of Galilee comes out of
His human experience in
the Holy Family of Nazareth and His divine relationship
with His Heavenly Father.

The Will of our Creator provides for His Images,
boy and girls, to be raised up in sacred families where both
receive guidance in being male and female from both father and mother. Here children experience, sense and are
taught that they are in reality, the children of God and
inheritors of the Kingdom of Heaven.

We are faced with a sexual revolution, portrayed as
progressive thinking; a cultural shift that they say should
not bother Christians in the least. A few people see it as
minor, almost insignificant theological change that brings
us into a broad minded society of equal rights

Modernists see the right to abortion, the right to
marry anyone, as a new and necessary development that
is finally coming to term. They are now approaching a
blended concept of family life. People are urged to keep
up with the times !

The truth is that it is not a battle between sexual
rights and religious liberty, but a real and basic contention between hedonistic (self pleasure) behaviors and the
God given self disciplines of the Body of Christ. The entire

doctrine of the Church is being confronted by individual

denial and alarming government condescension.

Because our personal experience is contained in a
relatively short period of time, we tend to think that the
present issues revolving around human sexuality are new.
The whole range of human obedience and human sin is
written for our learning in the Holy Scriptures of the Old
Testament. For us this is the first part of the revealed Word
of God. The whole range of human behavior is there. Read
and learn!

The second part of the Lords revelation to us is
in Jesus Christ, Himself, the only begotten Son of God.
Through His sacrifice and the descent of the Holy Spirit
we see Gods forward response to the virtues and sins of
our spiritual ancestors in the Early Church. They were
surrounded by the same self pleasures, the same negative
behaviors and the same challenges from government in a
manner that serves as a clear warning to us !

Rome of the 1st Century was given over almost
entirely to self-pleasure. Every sexual sin from abortion
to open marriage was condoned by the common culture;
some pagan religions even encouraged that behavior. (The
only place in the Empire where an attempt was made to
form any self discipline was in the Roman Army). Emperor Nero had two spouses, both male and one a teenager.
He despised the followers of some Christus whose very
existence was a judgment against him. After the great fire
of 64 A.D., he found an excuse to begin the persecutions,
killing Christians in every conceivable form of torture
including crucifixion and setting their bodies on fire. In
this Peter and Paul gave their lives, Peter crucified upside
down because he was not worthy to die as Jesus did!

In three centuries of off again, on again persecutions, Christian fathers and mothers raised their boys
and girls with the inward knowledge that at any time they

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Holy Matrimony of Megan Kinner and LCDR. Alexander Tershko by

Bishop Ken Kinner HCCAR at the U.S. Naval Academy Chapel, Annapolis, Maryland
could face a horrible death simply because they had ac-
Now Christian hearers we must challenge ourcepted Jesus as Lord.
selves! You can read in St. Pauls Romans 1:18-32

For anyone today to revert to the sexual practices the list of sins against God by human disobedience ! Be
of people who tried to destroy the Body of Christ is a very careful ! Can any of us say that we are not guilty of a
living insult to our obedient forbears and to noble army single one of them?
of martyrs .. To adopt what the
As people redeemed through Gods Son
first Christians would not accept
we must think and act toward all people as
is to say that they were misguided,
He did! Jesus befriended prostitutes and sat
even foolish!
down at table with elite hypocrites. Did this

Take courage men and
mean that he approved of their life styles? Of
women of God. Not one Church
course not! What He was doing was estabtoday, Catholic, Orthodox, Evanlishing a familiarity with them so that in His
gelical is even considering a decrucifixion they could identify with Him, in
nial of Scriptural revelation.
His sacrificial love.
The old line protestant churches
At some point in this short life span most
are splitting in half over these ispeople will consider themselves in relation
sues. In spite a constant drumbeat
to eternity ! When people around us sense
in the media about the successes
that we have seen the Lord some will desire
of the new morality (the old immoto see Him too !
rality) there are about 200,000,000
American Christians belonging to
Fr. Jay Rice participating in the march
churches that will never deny the Truth. We are part of
WHY NOT? YOU JUST MIGHT BE THE MINISthe salvation army !

St. Paul wrote: Romans 8: 5-8 For those who live
opinion - not part of this witness to the
according to the flesh, set their minds on the things of
is that government sees itself as the
the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit set
leveler of society, thus seeing marriage as a civil contract. Discrimitheir minds on the things of the Spirit. To set the mind nation is not made for a building permit, a drivers license, a hunton the flesh is death, but to set the mind on the Spirit is ing license. Courts have and probably will decide that a so-called
life and peace.
marriage license is just another civil contract that cannot be withheld.

For the mind that is set on the flesh is hostile to Why withhold a civil contract from polygamists either, as long as they
God; it does not submit to Gods law, indeed it cannot; consenting adults ? --- Better understanding would result if the state
would change the name of marriage license to a civil union license. It
and those who are in the flesh cannot please God.
would at least be honest.

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hristian thinking on justification is seen by

many theologians as the theological fault
line that divides Catholics and Protestants
ever since the Reformation in the 16th century.

In 2017, many Churches are going to mark the
500th anniversary of Martin Luther posting his 95 Theses
in Wittenberg on 31 October 1517. Luther insisted: This
one and firm rock, which we call the doctrine of justification is the chief article of the whole Christian doctrine,
which comprehends the understanding of all godliness.

But was Luther correct in asserting this? What do
we mean by justification? And what is the classical Anglican theological position on justification?

When we talk about justification in theology, we
are talking about God removing the guilt and penalty of
sin while at the same time declaring that a sinner is righteous through Christs atoning sacrifice. But the means of
justification is an area of significant difference between
Catholics and the Eastern Orthodox on the one hand, and
Protestants on the other.

Broadly speaking, we could say Catholics and the
Eastern Orthodox distinguish between initial justification, which occurs at Baptism, and permanent justification, after a lifetime of faith and discipleship.

Most Protestants believe that justification is a singular act in which God declares an unrighteous individual to be righteous, an act made possible because Christ
was legally made sin on the Cross (see II Corinthians
5: 21). Lutherans and Calvinists support their view with
some passages (see Acts 16: 14; Ephesians 2: 8 and Philippians 1: 29), while Catholics and Eastern Orthodox rely
on others (see Matthew 19: 17; Galatians 5: 19-21; and
James 2: 14-26).

For the Early Church, the concept of justification
was secondary to issues such as martyrdom. The early Patristic writings seldom mention it, and it does not begin

to be developed in the Western Church until the conflict

between Augustine and Pelagius. The Eastern Church
places less emphasis on justification, and instead talks
about sanctification or theosis.

Martin Luthers singular change in thinking at the
Reformation is the notion of imputed righteousness. This
idea suggests the righteousness of Christ was imputed to
the believer, who could be justified or declared by God
to be not guilty. For Luther, the believer is simul iustus et
peccator, simultaneously righteous and a sinner. John
Calvin, for his part, saw three meanings of justification
in scripture, none of which meant to make righteous.

These concepts are unknown for the first 1,500
years of Christian theology, yet justification more than
any other one single concept demarcates Catholic theology and Reformation theology. So what was the classical
Anglican theological thinking on this great dividing issue?

Article 11 of the Articles of Religion or the 39 Articles says: We are accounted righteous before God, only
for the merit of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ by Faith,
and not for our own works or deservings: Wherefore, that
we are justified by Faith only is a most wholesome Doctrine, and very full of comfort, as more largely is expressed
in the Homily of Justification.

But what does this mean? How is it understood
and worked out in classical Anglican theology?

Perhaps the best writer to turn to is Richard Hooker (1533-1600), perhaps the greatest Anglican theologian.
Hookers emphases on Scripture, Reason and Tradition
have shaped and continue to influence Anglican theology.
He is often seen as the founding figure in Anglican theological thought, and he is the great defender of the Anglican via media. C. S. Lewis includes him among the great
figures of 16th century English literature.

Hookers masterpiece is The Laws Of Ecclesiastical
Polity, which sets out his theological system, and it is foundational for Anglican theology. Although he is unsparing

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in his censure of what he sees as the errors of Rome, Pope

Clement VIII said of the book: It has in it such seeds of
eternity that it will abide until the last fire shall consume all

Hookers best short work is his sermon, A Learned
Discourse of Justification. In an earlier sermon in 1585,
he expressed the hope of seeing in Heaven many who had
been Roman Catholics on earth. But a prominent Puritan, Walter Travers (1548-1635), took him to task, saying
that as Roman Catholics did not believe in Justification by
Faith, they could not be justified.

Hooker replied at length in his sermon. He agrees
with his opponents that the official
theology of Rome is defective on this
point. However, he defends his assertion that those who do not rightly understand the means that God has provided for salvation may nonetheless be
saved. He says: God is no captious sophister, eager to trip us up whenever we
say amiss, but a courteous tutor, ready
to amend what, in our weakness or our
ignorance, we say ill, and to make the
most of what we say aright.

He says: I doubt not but God
was merciful to save thousands of our
fathers living in popish superstitions,
inasmuch as they sinned ignorantly.

James Kiefer, in his introduction to Hookers Learned Discourse on
Justification, explains that this sentence, which today would be fiercely
attacked by those who thought it arrogant, narrow, and bigoted, was at
the time attacked on opposite grounds. But at the time it
shocked the Puritans, especially Travers, who eventually
became Provost of Trinity College Dublin.

In response to Travers, Hooker wrote his masterful
sermon on justification. So, what is Hookers thinking on
Responding to attacks

In response to the attacks on his Learned Discourse
and his Laws, Hooker set out to defend his views in a work
that was not completed when he died in 1600 and that
is now known as the Dublin Fragments. He explains his
views on justification with great care in his Sermon on Justification, his Laws and in the Dublin Fragments.

In the Dublin Fragments, Hooker asserts that generally justification means to be made righteous. More

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particularly, it gives way to two further meanings: To be

justified is to be made righteous. Because therefore, righteousness implies first remission of sins, and secondly a
sanctified life, the name is sometime applied severally to
the former, sometimes jointly it comprehends both.

So Hooker understands that firstly justification signifies the forgiveness of sins. It is the forensic declaration of
God that one is no longer guilty. But he believes justification has a second meaning, and asserts that sometimes
jointly [justification] comprehends both remission of sins
and a sanctified life. His use of the words jointly and
both indicates that this second justification is not simply
sanctification, but includes also the
remission of sins. Hooker argues that
Saint Paul spoke of this first justification and Saint James of this second
What distinguishes Hooker from
the magisterial Reformers is his doctrine of the sacraments. He believes
that justification (both first and second) is an effect of the sacraments. In
the Dublin Fragments, he defines sacramental grace and then links it with
justification. He writes:
Touching Sacraments whether
many or few in number, their doctrine is, that ours both signify and
cause grace; butt what grace and in
what manner? By grace we always understand as the word of God teaches;
first, his favour and undeserved mercy
towards us; secondly, the bestowing of
his Holy Spirit which inwardly works;
thirdly, the effects of that Spirit whatsoever but especially
saving virtues, such as are, faith, charity, and hope, lastly
the free and full remission of all our sins. This is the grace
which Sacraments yield, and whereby we are all justified.
The Effect of Baptism

In other words, Hooker understood the sacraments
to be channels of justifying grace. For example, in Book V
in his Laws (chapters 58-61), he puts forward a doctrine of
baptismal regeneration that is different from the reformers. He explains how first justification is linked to baptism:
Baptism is a sacrament which God has instituted in his
Church to the end that they which receive the same might
thereby be incorporated into Christ and so through his
most precious merit obtain as well that saving grace of imputation which takes away all former guiltiness, as also that

infused divine virtue of the Holy Ghost which giveth to

the powers of the soul their first disposition towards future
newness of life.

For Hooker, the imputation of Christs righteousness occurs in the very action of Baptism itself, whereby
also the Spirit is received by the believer. In Hookers sacramental theology, Baptism is the instrumental cause of
(first) justification.

This position leads Hooker to two conclusions that
differ markedly from the magisterial reformers. Firstly,
he believes that the very action of infant baptism leads to
the childs sins being actually remitted even if faith is not
present. Secondly, when he talks of being justified by faith
alone he assumes that the sacrament of baptism is included.

Hooker believes that the
Early Fathers were too harsh in insisting that an infant is damned if
he or she dies without Baptism. He
believes there are circumstances
that make impossible to receive
the sacrament, and that God in his
grace then extends acceptance.

righteous at one and the same time, then the Church is

both visible and invisible. For the reformers, the visible
Church is identified by two marks: the pure gospel or word
and the sacraments rightly administered. However, Hooker speaks of the Church as being both a society and as the
mystical Church, and he points to three different marks
identifying the visible church: one Lord, one faith and one

In his Learned Discourse, he finds the foundation
of this one faith in the New Testament, but believes there
are many who hold to that foundation although not seen
in the visible Church. Those who deny Christ are not part
of the visible Church, but he distinguishes between those
who err in ignorance and those who err in stubbornness. The ignorant are unaware that
they hold to error and yet desire to know
the truth, while the stubborn are aware
of their errors yet persist in them.

In this way, Hooker includes Rome
within the visible Church, for Rome
does not deny the foundation directly,
and he concludes that many who died
in the Church of Rome before the Reformation are saved. In Hookers ecclesiology, justification by faith alone is not
The effect of the Eucharist
the article by which the visible Church

If first justification is the
stands or falls. He holds that the Church
effect of Baptism, Hooker believes
was there before the Reformation and
second justification is the effect of
has always been there since Christ.
the Eucharist: We receive Christ

Hookers sacramental theology and
Jesus in Baptism once as the first
ecclesiology are very different from the
beginner, in the Eucharist often as
magisterial reformers. Instead, he embeing by continual degrees the finisher of our life. By baptism therefore we receive Christ Je- braces the best of Church tradition, and he draws widely,
sus and from him that saving grace which is proper unto from the Early Church Fathers to the Scholastics and the
Baptism. By the other sacrament wee receive him also im- Reformers.
Our knowledge of Hookers life comes mainly from
parting therein himself and that grace which the Eucharist
his biography by Izaak Walton, who was also the biograproperly bestows.

His sacramental theology has two elements. Firstly, pher of George Herbert and John Donne. Hooker is one
the believer is said to be in Christ by external imputa- of the first high churchmen in a tradition that includes
tion. Secondly, Christ is said to be in the believer by Lancelot Andrewes, John Donne and William Laud, and
that continued through John Keble, EB Pusey and Charles
internal impartation.

Calvin believes the sacraments impart grace be- Gore to this day in Anglicanism.
cause they are a subset of the word, which strengthens and
nourishes faith. They are visible words are there to increase (Revd Canon Professor) Patrick Comerford is Lecturer in Anglicanism, Liturgy and Church History, the Church of Ireland Theological Institute, and a
faith. On the other hand, Hooker places the sacraments canon of Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin.
side-by-side with the word as a means of grace in their own
right. They are not simply a subset of the word, although
they function as signs of Gods promises.

The Reformation understanding of justification
also transformed ecclesiology. If a believer is sinful and

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Diocesan and Provincial Synod 2015

St. James Holy Catholic Church Kansas City

Subconditione Consecration of
Bishop Luis
Carlos Garcia Medina

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Diocesan and Provincial Synod 2015

St. James Holy Catholic Church Kansas City

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Diocesan and Provincial Synod 2015

St. James Holy Catholic Church Kansas City

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Diocesan and Provincial Synod 2015

St. James Holy Catholic Church Kansas City

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Holy Baptisms at St. Joseph of Glastonbury Holy Catholic Church Anglican Rite in Wichita, Kansas
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St. Joseph of Glastonbury Holy Catholic Church

Anglican Rite in Wichita, Kansas

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Congrats Representative Hon. Mark Kinner

We are blessed
to have a dear
member of ours, now a
Hon. Mark Kinner !

Mark Kinner is a faithful member of Holy

Trinity Anglican Church in Sheridan
Wyoming and also the senior Warden of
the same. His wife Tibbie Kinner serves on
the Altar Guild and their family has been
a wonderful blessing to our dear church in
Sheridan, Wyoming. Congratulations and
Gods blessings!

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Corpus Christi Anglican

Church in Rogers of Northwest Arkansas 0n 14 ACRES
just .8 miles away!
G RE AT for Yout h C a mp
& RE TR EAT C a b i n s ! ! !

yellow zebra lines show the

proximity of the church
property to Lake Atlanta
L e t s inve s t

Lake Atalanta includes

Lake Atalanta Bait Shop, with paddle boats,
canoes and fishing boat rentals.
Two parks: The city park on the lake has 17

Above photo courtesy of Restore Lake Atalanta organization from Facebook. The
renovation has begun this July, and Rogers Park authority. Photos of the church
grounds by Fr. Jason Rice

acres with two ADA accessible restrooms, large

stage area, 27 picnic tables, two-mile walking
trail with 18 exercise stations, large reflection
pond with fountain, pavilion, miniature golf
course and a 100-year-old cabin available for
small groups.
Built in 1936, it is the second oldest park in
Amenities: an Olympic-size swimming pool
with water slide and concessions.
A 4,000-square-foot banquet facility can be
rented for groups.
There is also an 8,000-square-foot special event
building that seats 680 with tables, chairs and
kitchen available.
Below the Lake Atalanta Dam is a park that
was completed in 1987. Full of beautiful mature
trees, it contains 12 picnic tables, open area,
and is also connected to the two-mile walking
Source Rogers and Benton County

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ears ago a popular evangelical Christian wrote a book titled Decide for
Yourself: A Theological Workbook
(For People Who Are Tired of Being
Told What to Believe). The main point
of the book was to get people to

examine scripture and come to their own
conclusions about what to believe doctrinally. Deciding
what you like is all well and good when it comes to
eating lunch or buying cars, but when it comes to theological beliefs, wisdom would suggest a better approach,
I think. A safer route would be to rely upon the faith
once delivered by the Apostles to Church and as articulated by the Seven Ecumenical councils. Since the Reformation of the 16th century, however, various aberrant theological options have gained credibility among
Christians, untethering doctrine from the Churchs authority and allowing individuals to formulate their own
doctrinal beliefs and then promote those beliefs as Biblical. The magisterial reformers Luther, Calvin, Melachthon, and Zwingli are an excellent example of this error.
The Reformers often called into question settled Scriptural doctrine by appealing to the slogan sola scriptura.
By this they tried to draw a distinction between what
they said the Church believed and taught and what they
said the Bible taught. In reality all they did is replace
the Churchs authority and set up their own beliefs as
the authority. Evangelicals, the grandchildren of those
reformers, inherited their perspective. The Reformers
complaints are too many to survey here as the scope of
this little essay will focus on just one theological doctrine: justification by faith as understood by evangelicals. And the question we want to answer is this: what
is the Evangelical view of justification by faith, and how
does it differ from the Apostles faith once delivered to
the church.

Actually, evangelicals hold differing views of
justification by faith, but most would accept the follow-

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ing definition found on the website Theopedia: Justification is the doctrine that God pardons, accepts, and
declares a sinner to be "just" on the basis of Christ's
righteousness (Rom 3:24-26; 4:25; 5:15-21) which results in God's peace (Rom 5:1), His Spirit (Rom 8:4),
and salvation. Justification is by grace through faith in
Jesus Christ apart from all works and merit of the sinner (cf. Rom 1:18-3:28). (
Common features inherent to the evangelical understanding of the doctrine of justification as the article
found on Theopedia states include:

1. Justification is a legal act, wherein God deems
the sinner righteous on the basis of Christ's righteousness. Unlike sanctification, justification is not a process,
but is a one-time act, complete and definitive.

2. The word justification is not always used in
the same sense. Some even speak of a fourfold justification as a justification from eternity, a justification from
the resurrection, a justification in final judgment as
these are all true.

3. God's act of justification may be seen to involve a double imputation. On the one hand, the sin and
guilt of the believer are imputed to Christ. On the other
hand, the righteousness of Christ is imputed to the believer, whereby he is declared righteous.

4. Justification is seen in two parts: (1) The sinner is forgiven on the basis of Christ's righteousness.
The pardon does not merely cover sins already committed but reaches to all sins. (2) The sinner is adopted as
a child of God. God places them within his household,
giving them all the rights of heirs and children (Rom
8:17, 1 Peter 1:4).

From this you can see, for example, how easy
it was for evangelicals to develop the doctrine once
saved, always saved or perseverance of the saints.

As Anglicans, we can certainly agree with much
of this definition; though we believe it is incomplete. It
is incomplete in that most evangelicals have accepted

the doctrinal innovations of the magisterial reformers

over and above that of the church of the first 10 centuries. And in doing this they are not in conformity with
what the Church and the Bible taught.

So what was the consensus of the early church?
Anglican Father Francis J. Hall, STD, makes the following five points about justification in his book Theological Outlines.

1. Justificationis our being accounted righteous by God because of the merits of Christ and by
reason of our living faith in Him. It is not, however, a
forensic imputation of righteousness merely, having no
moral basis in us; for the state of grace upon which the
possibility of justifying faith depends, and of which it is
the evidence, is the root and commencement of sanctification and of our growth in righteousness. We are accounted for what, by the grace of Christ, we have begun
to become. It is analogous to reckoning a child at the
value of the man who is growing in him.

2. The subjective cause of justification is a living faithin Jesus Christ. The necessary fruit and evidence of such faith consists of repentance and good
works, springing from love, which is its formative element. If we say that we are justified by faith only, we
should mean (a) by a living faith, as above described; (b)
that such faith, in view of the potentialities of growth
in righteousness which it contains, is by itself the sufficient subjective cause of our being at once accounted
righteous in Christ. I should not mean either that no
other factors enter into the mystery, or that growth in
righteousness is unnecessary for ultimate salvation.

3. The final cause of justification is the glory of
God and of Christ, and eternal life. The efficient cause
is the Holy Spirit, by whom we receive grace to believe
and to advance in righteousness. The meritorious cause
is the death of Jesus Christ for our sins. The instrumental cause is Baptism, whereby we are incorporated into
the Body of Christ which is the source of justifying
grace. The formal cause, or standard of reference and
fruit of justifying grace, is the righteousness of God, in
so far as it can and ought to become our won righteousness by our spiritual growth in Christ.

4.our being put in a state of saving grace, our
justification, is not due to any preexisting merit in us,
and also that no good works of ours can have a wage
value sufficient to earn eternal life. But they erred when
they denied that we either can obtain, or need to acquire, any kind or degree of merit which can determine
our future reward. eternal life is a gift which is excessively disproportionate to any possible wage merit

of ours. But the good works which we perform by the

grace of Christ are truly meritorious in so far as they are
vital elements of our spiritual growth, and become evidences of our spiritual fitness to receive the gift of eternal life. We are to be judged, and everlastingly rewarded, according to our deeds that is, according to the
personal merit which they declare. That the righteous
God will admit us to a full enjoyment of Him without
our deserving this reward, that is, in the sense of possessing personal holiness and moral fitness for heaven,
is a supposition contrary to righteousness.

5. Our justification puts us in a state of salvation,
Baptism being the instrument by which we then receive
the grace of life eternal. But this mystery initiates and
presupposes a process of sanctification and growth in
righteousness, without the actualization of which ultimate salvation is impossible. And this actualization depends upon our persevering cooperation with justifying grace a cooperation which we can fail to give, and
with fatal results.

So, what possible harm can there be in holding
to the Evangelical view of the doctrine of justification by
faith? After all, volumes have been written on the subject and none agree completely. But the danger as I see
it is this: church doctrine is biblical truth as understood
by the church and is not the beliefs of just one person,
and ignoring biblical truth no matter how seemingly
insignificant is neither safe nor wise. Additionally, beliefs have consequences. For example, because of a
faulty view of justification by faith many well-meaning Christian teachers today teach the doctrine once
saved, always saved. Rather than giving insecure souls
the assurance of their salvation so they might go on to
spiritual maturity without fear of rejection by God, this
aberrant teaching instead gives many the license to sin
with seeming impunity. After all, they reason, they are
saved and regardless what they do they will go to heaven when they die. What was supposed to be helpful to
spiritual growth instead becomes a detriment.

A safer and wiser course is to listen to the blessed
Apostle Paul who reminds us in Ephesians 4, be no
more children, tossed to and fro, and carried about with
every wind of doctrine, by the sleight of men, and cunning craftiness, whereby they lie in wait to deceive
but instead, as Jude instructs us, earnestly contend
for the faith which was once delivered to the saints.
(Jude 3) The faith handed down to us by the Apostles
and the fathers of the church is the faith we must continue in. May we be found faithful in this charge.
<>< <><<><


In order to take us to the true teaching of the Catholic

Faith in the Anglican Tradition (Anglo-Catholic Tradition) the following chapter is an excerpt from Vernon
Staleys The Catholic Religion available in the public domain.

ALMIGHTY God, our Heavenly Father, worketh all things after the counsel of His own will. He
does nothing in time, which He has not purposed in
Himself in eternity. It has pleased God to make known
to us His eternal purpose to gather together in one all
things in Christ. (Ephesians 1:9-10) I This Divine purpose
of gathering together the elect into one Body, and thus
bringing them to eternal life in Christ, is called Predestination and Election,

Predestination does not mean that some souls
are fore-ordained to eternal life, and others to eternal
death, for there is no purpose of God to bring any man
to eternal death. God will have ALL men to be saved,
and to come unto the knowledge of the truth.(1 Tim 2:4)

There is a purpose in everything, both in the order of nature and in that of grace. In the order of grace,
Predestination corresponds to some extent with Providence in the order of nature. An acorn is naturally predestined to produce an oak, but it may fail to realize that
purpose; all acorns do not produce oaks. If it does fail,
it misses its predestined end. So the soul is predestined
to a life of grace and obedience here, leading to a life of
glory hereafter: but it may fail, and miss the mark. The
laws which determine the germination and growth of
an acorn are observed, the oak will be produced from it.
In like manner if the soul obeys God, and corresponds
with His grace, it will come to eternal life. God who calls
and elects, also bids us to make our calling and election
sure.(2 St. Peter 1:10)

God is not willing that ANY should perish, but
that ALL should come to repentance.(2 Pet 3:9) Therefore,

Koinonia 18

if any man is lost, it is of his own fault.

God has predestinated us to be conformed
to the image of His Son, (Rom 8:29) but no man can be
conformed to the image of Christ against his own will.
Hence it is said that we are elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanctification
of the Spirit, unto OBEDIENCE and sprinkling of the
Blood of Jesus Christ,(1 St. Peter 1:2)

Sin alone, deliberately chosen, persevered in,
and unrepented of, shuts out of heaven: and no man
need sin unless he chooses. Nothing is accounted sin
by God, unless it might have been avoided. God causes
no one to sin. We sin because we frustrate the grace of
God,(Gal 2:21) and receive the grace of God in vain. (2
Cor 6:1)The very fact that the grace of God is offered to all
men, proves that He does not will that anyone should
either sin or be lost.

God does not elect all men to the same position
in His kingdom. He gives to some ten talents, to others
five, to others two; but He gives to all one talent, and to
everyone grace to correspond to his vocation. If God
bestows His grace in a way which seems to us unequal,
yet to no one does He give less grace than is .necessary
for salvation. The lot of each soul in eternity will depend
upon the use made of that grace. Everyone is called to,
and is capable of, salvation, but God alone knows those
who will make their calling and election sure. (2 St. Peter



The soul of man is the seat of Freewill. Freewill
is that great gift of God to man,whereby he is able to
choose good or evil, The possession of Freewill raises
man above all the creatures around him, and makes him
capable of corresponding with Gods Grace. The soul
would be incapable of either moral goodness or moral
evil, unless it was free to choose one or the other. Without Freewill we should be mere machines, not moral
agents created in the image of God. There could be no

responsibility in the sight of God for our actions, unless

our wills were unfettered. Nothing teaches more forcibly the exceeding blessedness and greatness of a free
obedience, than the consideration that it was only possible at the risk of sin and rebellion.

By the fall, the faculties of the soul were seriously disordered, and the will became enfeebled, and prone
to an evil choice. To remedy this defect God bestows
Grace upon the soul. Grace is a spiritual gift of God,
which makes man acceptable to Him, and able to serve
Him. Grace enlightens the mind, cleanses the heart, and
strengthens the will, uniting us with all the powers of
our life to God. Grace is the free gift of God, bestowed
on us for the sake of Jesus Christ, wrought in us by the
Holy, Ghost, to enable us to know and to do the will of
God. (Liddons University Sermons p.44)

The Grace of God corrects the natural bias of the
will in fallen man towards evil. The earth upon which we
live has two distinct motions. The earth revolves upon
its axis once a day, and it journeys round the sun once
a year. If it only moved round upon its axis, it would
fly off into space to its destruction.. The attraction of
the sun upon the earth as. it turns upon its axis, checks
this tendency to wander away, and keeps the earth in its
appointed path. It is thus with the movements of the
will acting under Grace; only with this difference, that
Grace does not constrain or force the will, for Grace
may be resisted. Grace attracts, persuades, and aids the
will to a right choice. As St. Augustine says,- Not Grace
alone, nor man alone, but Grace working with man, will
save: and again He who created thee without thee, will
not save thee without thee.

When we see the lid of a casket forced open,
and the hinges torn away, we look upon the work of the
spoiler; but when we see the casket gently unlocked by
the key, and the contents brought out, we note the hand
of the owner. Grace does not work by violence in opening the heart, forcing or crushing the free action of the
will. This is not the method of Him who comes not as a
plunderer to His prey, but as a possessor to His treasure.
The will is not blinded by Grace,but it is enlightened,
and the whole man is enabled to act with I the glorious
liberty of the children of God.(Romans 8:21). Grace does not
enslave the will, but enfranchises it.

the new birth, recorded in St. John 3. 1-14.

Regeneration is the being born again II of water
and of the Spirit. It is the act of God the Holy Ghost
upon the soul in Baptism,a single definite act which
can never be repeated. In Baptism, God gives the soul
the new birth,or, in other words, regenerates it. In Regeneration we receive a new nature, and pass out from
the natural into the supernatural order of things. This
new nature is as a seed planted within the soul, and it is
intended to grow and to bear fruit.

Conversion, as we shall see in the next section,
consists in the conscious turning of the will to God. It is
the act of man, through grace, as he accepts the mercy
and the love offered by Jesus Christ. .Thus we see that
Regeneration and Conversion are quite distinct, since
a converted man is not necessarily a regenerated man.
,..From a comparison of Acts 9, 9 with Acts22, 13, 16,
we learn that St. Paul was not baptised until three days
after his conversion. In his case, Conversion preceded
the new birth. St. John does not, in his Gospel, tell of
the institution of the Sacrament of Holy Baptism, but
he records a very full explanation of its meaning in the
words o our Lord to Nicodemus.

In this passage our Lord declares that, Except a
man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God
j and He explains this statement by adding, Except a
man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter
into the kingdom of Ged. Thus to be born of water
and of the Spirit, is the same as to be born again. Now
the joining together of water and the Spirit, can only
refer to baptism. To be born of water and of the Spirit,
cannot mean to be converted,for the use of water has
no part in Conversion. If our Lord had said, Except
a man be born of the Spirit only, we might have been
in doubt whether He meant Conversion or not ; but
since He said of water and of the Spirit, there can be
no doubt as to His meaning. Hooker writes,- Of all the
ancient (writers), there is not one to be named that ever
did otherwise expound or allege the place (i.e, St. John iii.5)
than as implying external baptism. (Ecclesiastical Polity 5. 59.3)

St. Paul uses an expression which confirms this
interpretation. In his epistle to Titus he writes, According to His mercy He saved us, by the washing of Regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost. The word
here used for washing J means a bath, which implies
the use of water. So here again, Regeneration, or the

There is much confusion in many minds con- new birth, is associated with the use of water,-the bath
cerning Conversion and Regeneration. This confusion of the font. The first words that the priest is directed
arises in a great measure from a misapprehension of to say after baptizing a child and receiving it into the
our Lords words to Nicodemus as to the necessity of Church, are these,- Seeing now, dearly beloved breth-

Koinonia 19

ren, that this child is regenerate. THEREFORE, EVERY


We must not think that because a person has been
born again, he will necessarily be saved. Regeneration is
not final salvation, but it places the soul in such a relation to God as to make salvation possible. The germ of
the new life, implanted in the soul at baptism, needs to be
cared for and developed. The new life in Christ is as a seed
within the soul, which needs to be watered and tended,
that it may live and grow until sin is destroyed, and the
new life is perfected. There are thus two forces at work in
the soul of the regenerate man. Good and evil meet in the
baptised, and one or other must in the end prevail. The
issue of the conflict depends upon the will, working with
or against grace.
There are two words used in the New Testament
which describe the process whereby a man passes from a
state of habitual sin to a state of holiness. These words are
Repentance ..and Conversion. The first of these is most
frequently used in the New Testament, but it is of the latter that we are now about to speak.

The word Conversion means a turning with or
towards a person instead of a turning away from him,
hence, a change of purpose. A converted man is one
who having turned away from God, is now turned towards Him. Having hidden his face from God and walked
away from Him, he has now turned round, and is facing
Him, or walking with Him. We speak of such an one as a
changed man, i.e. one who has changed the aim or purpose of his life; and this great change we call Conversion.
Conversion consists in the conscious yielding of the heart,
mind, and will to God. It is the willing acceptance of the
mercy, truth, and love of God. Conversion may take place
before baptism, leading a person to seek the new birth in
that Sacrament; or it may take place after baptism, when
one who has been born again in baptism, but has never
striven to live well,may turn from evil and begin to do better. In the case of a baptised person, Conversion may be
regarded as the willing acknowledgment of the baptismal
vows, and the conscious acceptance of his position as the
child of God by adoption and grace.

Conversion may be sudden, may be gradual.
Sudden Conversion is the instantaneous passage from
darkness to light, without any intervening twilight,a violent change in the souls history. Such conversions
are rare, and we may regard them as the exception rather
than the rule. The cases of the penitent thief, the jailer at

Koinonia 20

Philippi, and that of St. Paul, fall under the head of sudden Conversion. Lacordaire, the great French preacher,
in describing his own Conversion, said,- I seem to see a
man who is making his way along, as it were, by chance,
and with a bandage over his eyes; it is a little loosened-he
catches a glimpse of the light-and, at the moment when
the handkerchief falls, he stands face to face with the
noon-day sun. This touch of grace was in him so vivid
that he never lost the memory of it. On his death-bed he
described this sublime moment with just the same emotion.. . . Every Christian knows this state, more or less, but
Conversion is not ordinarily produced in the way of sudden illumination, like a flash of lightning in a dark night,
but rather under the form of growing daylight, like that
which precedes the sunrise.

The majority of earnest people find it impossible
to say when they first consciously yielded up the heart
to God. The life of such has been a succession of gentle
changes and renewals, each bringing the soul nearer to
Him. The process of Conversion in these cases has been
-decidedly gradual, first the blade, then the ear, after that
the full corn in the ear.(St. Mark 4:28) 2 Because a man is
once converted it does not follow that he is safe. A converted man may fall from his state of grace and salvation
and become a backslider, and so need converting again.
St. Paul was undoubtedly converted on the road to Damascus, yet he often speaks as though conscious of the
possibility of falling away. (1 Cor 9:27) 10:12 Phil 2:12,13) a
Conversion, like Repentance, is not a solitary act, but a
lifelong, continual process, a daily passing from death
unto life, under the influ-ence of the grace of God. For
not until the will of man corresponds completely and perpetually to the will of God, will Conversion be really effectual. He that endureth to the end shall be saved. (St.
Matt 10:22)


Justification is the act of God upon the soul
whereby He cleanses it, and endows it with righteousness
by uniting it to Christ. Christ died to destroy the rule of
the devil in us,and He rose again to send down the Holy
Spirit to rule in our hearts, and to endow us with perfect
righteousness, (Homily on the Resurrection)2

The term Justification describes the state of man
in this life as redeemed by Christ, and united to Him, in
contrast with His state by nature. By sin, original and actual, we are at enmity with God; by our union with Christ
this enmity is done away, we are made Gods children and
treated as such, and so gradually fitted for heaven. Thus,
the state of Justification is much the same as the state of

grace, i.e. the state in which Gods favour rests upon the
soul, and His help assists it. Justification is not the office
of man but of God: for man cannot make himself righteous by his own works. It is God that justifieth. (Rom
8:33). Justification proceeds from the love of God, which
is the first or moving calm of our Justification. We love
Him, because He first loved us. (1 john 4:19) We are justified by God only for the merit of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, (Art.11)
His death and passion
being tire meritorious cause of bur Justification. God
justifies us by II the grace of Christ, and the inspiration
of His Spirit. 1 This action of the Holy Spirit is the efficacious cause of our Justification, endowing us with
perfect righteousness. The Sacraments are the instrumental cause of Justification on Gods part j they are the
Divinely-appointed instruments by which God doth
work invisibly in us. (Article XIII) In order that the soul
may receive sacramental grace savingly, it is necessary
to approach the Sacraments with faith and repentance.
If faith is the opening and stretching forth of the hand
of the soul to receive Gods gift of Justification, repentance is the cleansing of that hand. _When we say that
we are justified by faith and repentance, we do not mean
that faith or repentance justify of themselves; but rather
that they are the conditions upon which we are united
to Christ by Justification. Faith apprehends and appropriates the merits of Christ, and thus it is said that we
are justified by faith. (Rom 5:1) A holy life is the evidence
of a true repentance, and a lively faith in Christ. Justification does not mean that God regards us as holy when
we are not really so. They that keep holiness holily shall
be justified. (Wisdom 6:10) Christians who do not live according to their calling and neglect the means of grace,
throw away also the gift of Justification, and lose their
Sanctification is the term used to describe the work of
God the Holy Ghost upon the character of those who
are justified. We are justified in order that we ma.y be
sanctified, and we are sanctified in order that we may be
glorified. Whom He justified, them He also glorified.
(Romans 8:30)

The grace of God is given to make us holy,. and
so to fit us for Gods presence in eternity; for without
holiness no man shall see the Lord, (Hebrews 12:14) In Holy
Baptism we are born again into a state of Justification,
that we may be completely renewed. This renewal depends upon our union with Christ, the Source of Holiness. Our union with Christ,-commenced in Baptism,

and dependent upon the abiding presence of the Holy

Spirit in the soul,-is sustained by feeding upon Him in the
Holy Communion of His Body and Blood.

We are responsible to God for the use we make
of the opportunities of Sanctification, which never fail
to wait on the regenerate and justified. If we fail to use
these opportunities then our Justification, like the one talent wrapped in a napkin and unused, becomes a witness
against us in the day of judgment. Gods manifold dealings with us in grace and providence are the means by
which the Holy Spirit - our wills cooperating- carries on
and perfects the work of Sanctification.

Sanctification is the consecration of the redeemed
man, with all the powers of his soul and body, to the perfect and eternal service of God. Christ loved .the Church,.
and gave Himself for it; that He might sanctify and cleanse
it with the washing of water by the word, that He might
present it to Himself a glorious Church, not having spot,
or wrinkle, or any such thing; but that it should be holy
and without blemish. (Eph 5:25)

Perseverance is the crown of all Gods dealings
with the soul in its earthly course. On Gods part, it is the
perfecting of that good work which He began in regeneration.( Phil 1:6) On the side of man, it is the continuance
in that state of salvation to which baptism introduces him,
and the correspondence with Gods grace even unto the
end. On this account it is named Final Perseverance.

The saying once in grace, always in grace, is not
necessarily true, for, as we have already said, grace may
be received in vain;(2 Cor 6:1), and even resisted.(Acts 7:51). The
writer to the Epistle to the Hebrews speaks of the falling
away of some who were once enlightened, and have tasted
of the heavenly gift,(Heb 6:4-6) and St. John also speaks of
those who went out from us.(1 St. John 2:19)

It is therefore perilous to trust to the feeling of assurance, when all must depend on a continued faithfulness to grace, and a true conformity to the will of God,

The humblest man is the most diffident. The most
confident is the most likely to be self-deceived. The very
best among us has need to take to himself the Apostles
warning, II Let him that thinketh he standeth take heed
lest he fall.(1 Cor 10:12) There is a I holy fear, which it is always needful to cherish, and he that feareth is the more
likely to be kept safely to the end. There is a warning that
with all our joy in a conscious state of grace, we should II
rejoice with trembling.(Psalm2:11) One of the saddest deceits
of Satan is to encourage a spirit of presumption, and false
peace. The desponding soul may often be the surest of be-

Koinonia 21

ing finally saved.

The only ground of an assured hope is in the
faithful use of all the means of grace, and the diligent
practice of good works,- perfecting holiness in the fear
of God. (2 Cor 7:1) St. Paul could say of himself, I have
fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have
kept the faith: henceforth there is laid up for me a crown
of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge,
shall give me at that day. (2 Tim 6:7,8)4 And great
as St. Paul was, beyond-any, in his calm and patient sufferings, yet to others also the same trustful assurance
may be given. To faithful souls living in the grace of
God, and iii the honest practice of the Christian virtues,
there comes a peace and a trustful looking forward to
the glory that shall be revealed,-a hope full of immortality. To such is given an increasing sense of being in God,
as grace grows into habit, and evil is overcome. We may
believe that to these faithful souls God grants a special
gift of Perseverance, as they realise the promise of our
Lord concerning His sheep, They shall never perish,
neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand.

Grace is not simply kindly feeling on the part

of God, but a positive boon conferred on man.
Grace is a real and active force; it is, as the Apostle says, the power that worketh in us (Eph. iii. 20),
illuminating the intellec.t, warming the heart,
strengthening the will of redeemed humanity.
It is the might of the Everlasting Spirit renovating man by uniting him, whether immediately
or through the Sacraments, to the Sacred Manhood of the Word Incamate.
-Liddons University Sermons. First Series, p. 44.

Grace is power. That power whereby God

works in nature is called power. That power
whereby He works in the wills of His reasonable
creatures is called grace.
Mozley, On Predestination, P- 302.

Koinonia 22

A Review of the Thirty-nine

Articles, Their History and
Explanation by B.J. Kidd
Fr. Jason Rice

I remember when I was first introduced to the Anglican

faith many years ago. I joined an Anglican jurisdiction
that interpreted the Thirty-nine Articles with a heavy
protestant bias. At first this seemed to make sense. But
as I continued to study the historic Anglican church and
her traditions I found that this modern way of interpreting the Articles was improper and historically inaccurate.

Recently I have been reading a book called the
The Thirty-nine Articles, Their History and Explanation by B.J. Kidd. I believe this book should be read
by every Anglican clergy and lay person. It explains
the history behind the Thirty-nine Articles, the historic context of which they were written in, and properly understanding and interpreting them as they were
originally intended. Many today in the Anglican faith
read the Articles with a protestant leaning bias. This is
because the Protestant side of the reformation period

seems to be the most prominently taught and looked at

aspect of the reformation period and the desire of some
in the Anglican tradition to appeal to evangelical Protestants. But there was a distinct difference and motive
by the divines in the English Church than those of the
continental reformers.

The English Church wanted to restore the primitive catholic faith and purge out the medieval superstitions. They did not desire to purge that which was clearly catholic but only the superstition and abuses that had
crept into the church whereas the continental reformers
sought to establish a whole new church based on new
innovations and understanding of the scriptures and rejected what was clearly the practice of the ancient and
apostolic catholic church, in essence throwing out the
baby with the bath water.

I give an example of understanding the thirtynine Articles in their proper catholic context from the
book by B.J. Kidd on his explanation of Article 22 on
Purgatory. It reads as follows. The Romish Doctrine
concerning Purgatory, Pardons, Worshiping and adoration, as well of Images as Relics, and also invocation of
Saints, is a fond thing, vainly invented, and grounded
upon no warranty of Scripture, but rather repugnant to
the Word of God.

When I was first introduced to the Anglican
Faith via a more protestant jurisdiction than that of the
HCC-AR, I was taught the word Romish referred to
the Roman Church. But this is not the case. As B.J. Kidd
points out in his book, the original articles substituted the word Romish for the doctrine of the School
Authors. In 1563 they were amended to say Romish.
As B.J. Kidd points out, The effect of this change was
to direct the condemnations against a type of practice
and teaching current within recent memory rather than
against the system of the Schoolmen whose day was
past. The party with which this teaching was known
was the 'Romanesian' or 'Romish' party, a name given
to the extreme Medievalist, and not descriptive of the
Roman Church as a whole. Consequently it must not be
assumed that the tenets here condemned are identical
with those of the Church of Rome.

The Article could not have been aimed, either
in its original or in its amended form, at her authoritative teaching on the points in question; for that teaching
was not laid down till the last session of the Council of
Trent, December 4, 1563. He goes on to illustrate that,
for example, the English Church was not denying the
belief in Purgatory, but only the Romish teachings. He
goes on to elaborate on the history of the ancient church

and her beliefs on Purgatory and the rest of Article 22

explaining where the errors of the Romish party crept
in and what the English reformers set out to clarify. This
is just one example. The book gives a detailed history of
the Articles and their formulation, the context, and idea
behind each article written. They were not written as
many believe with Protestantism as we understand it
in mind. He rightly states, The Articles were the product of the middle of the sixteenth century. That was an
age which had characteristics of English thought. The
Church was merely engaged in self-defense: and this
imparted to the Articles a tentative and negative character. They are thus less definite than the liturgy and
so more susceptible of being taken in some other than
their 'literal and grammatical sense.'

The book also goes on to note that many of the
Articles were written not just as a response to Romish
errors, but in response to hyper protestant beliefs that
were spreading through out the Kingdom, namely Anabaptist and puritanism. They set out to retain and state
the Churches adherence to that which was properly
catholic rejecting both protestant and medieval schoolmen errors.

The Thirty-nine Articles were written for a specific time in history to address specific doctrinal issues
in history. They are not a Creed and therefore binding
on the Church through out future generations. They
were not written and approved of by general council of
the undivided Church, therefore they cannot be seen
as binding in any permanent fashion upon the Church,
Anglican or otherwise. The Articles can be very valuable in teaching the Anglican faith if they are understood in their historic context and taught in the same
manner. But they can also be abused to fit any persons
whims and be made to say things they where never intended to say.

It is clear after reading this book that the Articles
are of a temporary nature, and while they can be very
valuable to the understanding of the Anglican tradition,
they can also be used and twisted to promote a protestant interpretation of them which was clearly never
the intent of the writers of them. The Articles rather establish what it is to be truly understood as catholic, according to the primitive church established in England
so long ago and preserved still to this day in the Holy
Catholic Church Anglican Rite.

You can read the book online. It is an excellent
source for understanding the Articles, their meaning,
and the history behind them.

Koinonia 23

Publication of the Anglican Province of the

Holy Catholic Church Anglican Rite
St.. James Anglican Church
8107 S. Holmes Road Kansas City, MO 64131

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