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GCSE PHYSICS

UNIT 1 Revision
and Exam Practice
EXAM: THURSDAY 12TH JUNE 2014
In this booklet you will find all the points and
subject content needed to revise for Physics
Unit 1. You will find multiple questions
throughout the booklet to test your
understanding of a certain topic. There are no
answers. You should know if it is right or
wrong!

Name:

AQA GCSE PHYSICS


REVISION NOTES/EXAM PRACTICE
EXAM: THURSDAY 12TH JUNE 2014
P1.1.1 INFARED RADIATION
All objects EMIT and ABSORB infrared radiation
The hotter the obect, the more infrared radiation it emits
(gives off)
Dark/Matte surfaces are good absorbers of infrared
radiation however they are bad REFLECTORS of
radiation.
Light and shiny surfaces are good reflectors of infrared
radiation but BAD absorbers.

GCSE Exam
Question
A man drinks tea on a daily basis, he drinks out of a white cup.
Explain why having a black mug helps the tea stay warmer for
longer
(2 marks)
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P1.1.2- Kinetic Theory


Kinetic theory is used to explain the
different states of matter
The particles of solids, liquids and
gases have different amounts of
energy.
We can make a substance change
between each of these by heating
or cooling them.
In a SOLID, the particles vibrate around fixed positions so the solid
has a FIXED shape.
In a LIQUID, the particles are in contact with each other but can
move about at random. They dont have a fixed shape and can fit
the shape of their container
In a GAS,the particles are usually far apart and move at random
much faster. NO FIXED SHAPE AND CAN FLOW.
GCSE EXAM QUESTION (4 MARKS)
Diagram 1

Diagram 1 shows the arrangement of particles of a solid


7a) One kilogram of gas has a much larger volume than 1 kilogram of a
solid
Use kinetic theory to explain why


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P1.1.3 Energy Transfer by heating
Conduction
Conduction occurs mainly in solids.
Most liquids and gases are poor conductors
When 1 end of a solid is heated, the particles of the end gain
KINETIC energy and vibrate more. The energy is then passed to
the neighbouring particles and this way the enerfy is transferred by
the solid.
This process occurs in metals. Metals are EXCELLENT
conductors.
Metals have FREE ELECTRONS. When metals are heated their
free electrons gain kinetic energy and move through the metal.
They transfer their energy by colliding with other particles
Poor conductors are called insulators. Materials like wool and fibre
glass are good insualtors because they contain trapped air.
GCSE QUESTION
Explain why saucepans are much more common with plastic handles
than metal handles. (3 marks)

P1.1.4- Convection
Convection occurs in fluids (liquids and gases).
When a fluid is heated, it expands. The fluid then becomes less
dense and rises. The warm fluid is replaced by cooler/denser fluid.

Rule for Convection

Convection occurs when the more energetic particles


move from the hotter region to the cooler region and
take their heat energy with them

The

resulting
CONVECTION
CURRENTS

transfer energy throughout the fluid.


Basically, convection currents are currents that result from
convection.
The convection currents can be on a very small scale, such
as heating water in a beaker, or on a very large scale such
as heating the air above on land and sea.
DONT FORGET!!
CONVECTION DOES NOT OCCUR IN SOLIDS!!!
GCSE EXAM QUESTION
In terms of the particle arrangements of solids and liquids
explain why convection CANNOT occur in solids.
(4marks)
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P1.1.5- Evaporation and Condensation

Evaporation is the change of a liquid into a gas


Condensation is the change of a gas into a liquid
Particles in a liquid have different levels of energy
Evaporation occurs when the highest kinetic energy level particles
escape from the surface of the liquid, allowing the liquid to turn into
a gas

Factors that affect the rate of evaporation


Increasing the surface area of the liquid
Increasing temperature of the liquid
Creating a draught of air across the liquids surface

Condensation is when a gas turns into a liquid. This may take


place on cold surfaces such as windows and mirrors
The rate of condensation is affected by: surface area and reducing
the surface temperature
Question
What effect would decreasing the surface area of a liquid have on
its rate of evaporation?

P1.7 Energy Transfer by Design


The greater the temperature difference between an object and its
surroundings, the greater the rate at which that energy is
transferred.
The rate at which energy is transferred also depends on:
The materials that the object is in contact with
The objects shape
The objects surface area
Sometimes we want to maximise the rate of energy transfer to
keep things cool. To do this we may use things that:
1. Are good conductors
2. Are painted dull black
3. Have the air flow around them maximised
Question
Why does painting an object dull black maximise the rate of energy
transfer?
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Sometimes we need to minimise the rate of energy transfer in


order for us to keep things warm.
In order to do this, we need to minimise the rate of energy transfer
by conduction, convection and radiation
We may use things that: are good insulators, are white and shiny,
prevent convection currents by trapping air in small pockets

GCSE Exam Question 6 Marks


*In this question you will be assessed on using good english, organising information clearly
and using specialist terms where appropriate.
The Diagram shows the structure of a vacuum flask

*Describe as fully as you can how the design of a vacuum flask keeps
liquid inside hot

6 mark questions
There will be at least 1 6 mark question in the Physics paper.
You need to have a coherent understanding on how the examiners mark
these six mark questions so you can confidently tackle them in the
exam.
The 6 mark question you encountered on the above page is from the
June 2013 paper. Here is the mark scheme for it. Have a go at marking it
yourself!

1) First of all, the examiners will place your mark into a band. Level 1
Level 2 or Level 3. They will look for spelling mistakes, punctuation
and how well you convey your answer.
2) Then they will look for scientific points to back up your answer.
Here are some scientific points you could of used in your reponse.

Responses to 6 mark questions should be a mini essay type so you are


able to convey all the necessary information and scientific points the
question asks you.
The Classic Artic Fox
In your physics papers and many in the past, examiners have
threw in question of the artic fox. Questions to do with the artic fox
are normally ones like: Describe adaptations of the artic fox which
reduce heat loss
Adaptations of the Arctic Fox

Past Exam Question June 2013

P1.1.8 Specific Heat Capacity


When we heat a substance, we transfer energy to it so the overall
temperature is increased.
The specific heat capacity is the amount of this energy required
to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of the substance by 1C.
Different substances have different specific heat capacities.
The greater the SHC, the more energy required for each degree
temperature change

The greater the mass of a substance being heated the more enrgy
required for each degree temperature change. If we had a 2kg
piece of copper we would need to transfer twice the energy
needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of copper bu the same
amount.

Equation for
Specific Heat
Capacity
E=m x c x

E= Energy
M= Mass
C= Specific Heat Capacity

= Temperature Change

Practice Question
1) The Specific Heat Capacity of water is 4200J/kgC . How much
energy is needed to raise the temperature of 2kg of water by
1C.

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PAST EXAMINATION QUESTION

Heating and Insulating buildings


This topic is a How Science Works topic therefore it has something to
do with the Social/Economic/Environment.
Most people would like to minimise the rate of energy transfer out
of their homes to reduce fuel bills. (Economic/Environmental, less
money spent, less CO emissions.)
Ways of insulating homes
Fibre glass loft insulation to reduce enrgy loss via conduction
Cavity wall insulation that traps air in small pockets to reduce
energy transfer by convection.
Double glazing windows to reduce energy transfer by
conduction through windows
Draught Proofing to reduce enrgy transfer by convection
Aluminium Foil behind radiators to reflect escaping heat back
into the room.
U Values

U Values measure how effective an insulator is. The lower the U


Value, better the insulator.
The U Value measures how much energy per second passes
through it.
Bump up your grade by being able to look at a table of U Values to
see which is a better insulator.

Using the table, which is the best insulator and why?

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Solar heating panels contain water that is heated by radiation from the sun. This
water may then be used to heat buildings or provide domestic/home use hot water.
Solar heating panels are cheap to run because they do not use fuel. This is
environmetnally beneficial as it does not produce Carbon Dioxide emissions which is
a common cause of global warming. However they are expensive to buy and install
and the water is not heated at night.
Opininated Questions
Opinionated questions ask your opinion of something as long as you can justify them
with valid scientific points.
Exam Question
Why do you think the copper pipes that contain the water in a solar heating panel
are often painted black?

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P1.2-Energy and Efficiency
Forms of Energy
C-Chemical(Nuclear)
H-Heat
E-Elastic Potential
Electrical
Kinetic
Y
S-Sound
Light
A
Gravitational Potential
ENERGY CANNOT BE CREATED OR DESTROYED
IT CAN ONLY BE TRANSFERRED FROM ONE FORM TO ANOTHER

Energy can be transferred from one form to another by


different processes.
Any object above the ground has gravitational potential
energy for example someone standing on a chair has
gravitational potential energy.
When energy is transferred from one form to another,
there is only a percentage of useful energy, there is
usually more wasted.
For example, the whole purpose of a light bulb is to
convert electrical energy into light energy however some
light bulbs only produce 10% useful light energy and 90%
wasted heat energy which disspiateds into the
surroundings.

List of Energy Transfers between Devices


Electrical devices convert ELECTRICAL ENERGY into
SOUND/LIGHT/HEAT, and there is obviously going to be
wasted heat .

Televisions convert electrical energy to LIGHT & SOUND


Water can produce electricity. Water falls from the sky, converting
potential energy to kinetic energy. This energy is then used to
rotate the turbine of a generator to produce electricity. In this
process, the potential energy of water in a dam can be turned into
kinetic energy which can then become electric energy.
When playing pool, the cue ball is shot at a stationary 8 ball. The
cue ball has energy. When the cue ball hits the 8 ball, the energy
transfers from the cue ball to the 8 ball, sending the 8 ball into
motion. The cue ball loses energy because the energy it had has
been transferred to the 8 ball, so the cue ball slows down.
Kelly ran across the room and bumped into her brother, pushing
him to the floor. The kinetic energy she possessed because of her
movement was transferred to her brother, causing him to move.
When a moving car hits a parked car and causes the parked car to
move, energy is transferred from the moving car to the parked car.
When playing the lawn game bocce ball, a small ball is thrown with
the intention of hitting larger balls and causing them to move.
When a larger ball moves because it was hit by the small ball,
energy is transferred from the small ball to the larger one.
When you push a book across the table, the energy from your
moving arm is transferred from your body to the book, causing the
book to move.

A cat sitting on the highest branch of a tree has what is known as


potential energy. If he falls off the branch and falls to the ground,
his potential energy is now being converted into kinetic energy.
When kicking a football that is sitting on the ground, energy is
transferred from the kickers body to the ball, setting it in motion.
Sam was rearranging furniture, and needed help to push the heavy
sofa. His brother came over, and together they were able to lift the
sofa onto sliders. This made it easy to push the sofa across the
room. When Sam and his brother pushed the sofa and it slid
across the wood floor, energy was transferred from the men to the
piece of furniture.
A fly ball hits a window in a house, shattering the glass. The
energy from the ball was transferred to the glass, making it shatter
into pieces and fly in various directions.
Two football players collided on the field, and both went flying
backwards. Energy was transferred from each player to the other,
sending them in the opposite direction from which they had been
running.
Claire threw the ball and it hit her mothers vase, knocking it over.
Energy was transferred from the moving ball to the stationary
vase, causing the vase to move.
Fingers hitting piano keys transfer energy from the players hand to
the keys.
Billy hit the punching bag, transferring energy from his arm to the
stationary bag.
The dog ran in into the Christmas tree and knocked it over. Energy
was transferred from the moving dog to the stationary tree,
causing the tree to move.
When the car hit the road sign, the sign fell over. Energy was
transferred from the moving car to the stationary sign, causing the
sign to move. No energy was lost in the transfer.
Potential energy of oil or gas is changed into energy to heat a
building.

When a bowling ball knocks over pins that had been standing still,
energy is transferred from the ball to the pins. No energy is lost.
Beth hit the wall so hard that she put a hole in it. Energy was
transferred from Beths body to the drywall, causing it to move.
When the car hit the curb it broke apart. Energy from the moving
car was transferred to the non-moving cement, causing it to move.

ENERGY IS
MEASURED IN J
JOULES

Ther
As you should know energy CAN NOT BE CREATED OR
e is a only transferred.
DESTROYED
This means that the total amount of energy is always the
list
same.
This is called the ruel of the CONSERVATION OF
ENERGY and it applies to ALL energy transferrs.
of
ener
gy
trans
P1.2.3- Useful Energy
fers
abov
e
P1.2.2- The Conservation of Energy

A machine is something that transfers energy from one place to


another

The energy we get out of a machine consists of :


Useful energy which is transferred to the place we want and in the
form we want it
Wasted energy energy that is not usefully transferred or we do not
need.
Energy is often wasted in a machine because of friction of the
moving parts of a machine. This friction/energy warms up the
machine and the surroundings.
Question
Why should we talk about energy being wasted and not lost?

P1.2.4- Energy and Efficiency


Energy is measured in J (JOULES) and this applied to all forms of
energy
The energy that is supplied to a machine is often called the input
energy, from the conservation of energy we know that:
Input energy=useful energy transferred+energy wasted
The less energy wasted makes a device/machine more efficient

We can calculate the efficiency of any appliance that supplies


energy

Formula for efficiency


EFFICIENCY=
USEFUL ENERGY TRANSFERRED
TOTAL ENERGY SUPPLIED
(X100%)

Practice Question
In a light bulb for every 25 joules of energy that are
supplied to the bulb,
5 joules are usefully transferred into light energy. Calculate
the efficiency

5j
of the bulb
useful

25j
20j
useful

The efficiency can either be left as a fraction or be turned into a


percentage by multiplying it by 100.
No appliance except an electric heater can be 100% efficient. This
is because all the electric energy transferred into the device is
transferred as heat to the surroundings.

SANKEY DIAGRAMS
Sankey diagrams illustrate how much input energy is
transformed into different types of energy
The wider the arrow the more energy it shows
So the width of the arrow shows the amount of energy

An exam question may ask you to calculate energies


using the sankey diagram

In order for us to work this out, each square in an arrow


is worth 1 joule of energy. So if an arrow is 8 squares
wide, it is worth 8 joules of energy.

Electrical Appliances

Electrical Appliances transfer electrical energy into whatever


form of energy we want.
Common electrical appliances include:
Lamps- to produce light
Speakers to produce sound
Televisions to produce light and sound energy
Kettles- to produce heat energy
Many appliances transfer energy by heating such as a kettle
which transfers electrical enrgy into sound and heat energy.
Heat energy is the useful however the sound is the wasted.
Appliances should be designed to waste as little energy as
possible.

P1.3.2- Electrical Power


The rate at which energy is transferred is known as the
POWER of the appliance
The unit of power is WATTS (W). An appliance with a
power of 1 watt transfers 1 joule of electrical enerrgy to
other forms of energy every second
A watt is too small of a unit to be useful so power may also
be given in kilowatts (kW)
1 kW = 1000w
Power is given by the equation p=E/T
P=power in watts (w)
E= energy in joules (j)
T= Time taken (in seconds) for the energy to be
transferred
Power is the energy per second transferred or supplied.
Equation
EFFICIENCY=USEFUL POWER OUT
TOTAL POWER IN (X100%)

Practice Question
An electric motor transfers 48 kJ of electrical energy into
kinetic energy in 2 minutes. What is the useful power
output of the motor?

P1.3.3- Using Electrical Energy


Companies that supply mains electricity charge customers
for the amount of electrical energy used. Because of the
large numbers involved, the joule j. The amount of energy
used is measured in killowat hours (kWh)
A killowatt hour is the amount of energy that is transferred
by a one-killowatt aappliance for an hour
The amount of energy transferred to a mains appliance can be
found using this equation:

E=pxt
E= is the energy transferred in killowatt hours, kWh

P= Power of the appliance


T= time taken (hours) for the energy to be transferred
The electricity meter in a house records the number of
kWh of energy used. If the previous meter reading is
subtracted from the current reading, the electrical energy
used between the readings can be calculated.
The cost of electrical energy supplied is found using this
equation

Total cost= number of


kWh x cost per kWh

Question

P1.3.4- Cost Effectivness Matters! (HSW)


In order to compare the cost effectivness of different appliances we must
consider a number of different costs
These include:
The cost of buying the appliance.
The cost of installing the appliance
The running costs
The maintenance costs
Environmental costs
The interest charged on a loan to buy the appliance
Many households want to reduce their energy bills. In order for them to
do this, they need to buy new more efficient appliances.
They could also install materials designed to reduce energy wastage.
PAYBACK time is the time it takes for an appliance or installation to pay
for itself interms of energy savings.

REDUCING HEAT LOSS FROM THE HOME

HEAT EXCHANGER
A heat exchanger costs 1000 to install
The annual savings are 100
What is the payback time?
Easy way to do this is to divide the cost of installation by the
annual savings
1000 /100= 10

P1.4- Fuel for electricity


The most common way of generating electricity is by
burning fossil fuels.
Generation electricity by nuclear power for example
produces a lot of energy however one day they will
eventually run out and they also produce greenhouse
gases which are harmful to the envrionment.
Non renewable energy resources
Coal
Oil
Natural gas
Nuclear fuels
All non renewable energy resources will eventually run out
They all harm the environment
However they give us the most out of our energy.
Energy sources can be used to heat water in power stations
(Most fossil fuels (coal,oil and gas) work in the same way.

How
do
power
station
s
work?

DISADVANTAGES OF FOSSIL
1)

FUELS (coal)
Fossil

fuels
are
limited resources therefore they will eventually run out, forcing us
to use renewable enrgy resources
2) When fossil fuels are burnt to produce energy, they release carbon
dioxide, sulfur dioxide and other green house gases which
contribute to global warming
3) S0 causes acid rain, which could potentially ruin building
structures
4) S0 poses a risk for breathing/living creatures
NUCLEAR POWER
The main nuclear powers that we use are uranium and plutonium.
Unlike coal, they arent burnt to produce energy, they instead undergo nuclear
fission reactions. This is where the nuclei atoms are split to produce their
energy therefore they do not release greenhouse gases such as Carbon
Dioxide
The rest of the process of generating electricity is then identical to the process
using fossil fuels. The heat energy is used to boil water. The kinetic energy in
the expanding steam spins turbines, which then drive generators to produce
electricity

Advantages
Unlike fossil fuels, they do not release the harmful greenhosue gases
such as carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide
They produce A LOT of energy

Disadvantages
They are non renewable therfore they will eventually run out
If there is an accident, lots of radioactive material could be released
into the environment, posing a serious cancerous risk from all of the
radiation. This will cause massive disruption as the radioactive material

would have to be kept underground a stored for 1000s of years for it to


become unreactive

Renewabl
e
Energy
*As fossil fuels are running out at a rapid pace, we need to start
usingResource
a range of renewable ways to produce our energy which
will aslo help to conserve the environment
s
Wind Power
Wind is produced due to GIANT convection currents in the
atmosphere of the Earth, which are driven by heat energy from
the Sun.
The KINETIC ENERGY in the wind is a renewable energy
resource

Have a go at describing the ADVANTAGES and


DISADVANTAGES yourself!

Advantages

Disadvantages

Biofuels
Biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel are used mainly
for transport needs. Ethanol is produced by the sugar
cane when being used as a bio fuel.
Advantages
They are
renewable which
means they will
never run out
They are carbon
neutral

Tidal Waves

Disadvantages
They produce
CO when burnt
There is a chance
of crop failure
therefore it is an
unreliable way of
renewable
energy