You are on page 1of 9

7/9/2015

MIMO Formats | SISO, SIMO, MISO, MIMO | Tutorial - Radio-Electronics.Com

(http://www.radio-electronics.com/)
LinkedIn (https://www.linkedin.com/company/radio-electronics-com)
YouTube (https://www.youtube.com/user/radioelectronicscom)
Twitter (http://twitter.com/RadioElec)

News feed (/rss.php)

Newsletter (/newsletter/)

Google+ (https://plus.google.com/102744187429709400446?prsrc=3)
Search

ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION (HTTP://WWW.RADIO-ELECTRONICS.COM/INFO/ANTENNAS/)

MIMO Formats - SISO, SIMO, MISO, MU-MIMO


- overview and definitions about MIMO formats or configurations: SISO, SIMO, MISO
and MIMO for receiver diversity and transmitter diversity, etc..
IN THIS SECTION
MIMO technology tutorial (multiple-input-multiple-output-technology-tutorial.php)
SIMO, SIMO, MISO, MU-MIMO (formats-siso-simo-miso-mimo.php)
MIMO spatial multiplexing (spatial-multiplexing.php)
MIMO coding, inc Alamouti codes (precoding-codes-alamouti-diversity-space-time.php)
MIMO antenna beamforming (antenna-beamforming.php)
Multi-User MIMO, MU-MIMO (multi-user-mu-mimo.php)
Large MIMO systems (Massive MIMO) (large-massive-mimo-systems.php)
There is a number of different MIMO configurations or formats that can be used. These are termed SISO, SIMO,
MISO and MIMO. These different MIMO formats offer different advantages and disadvantages - these can be
balanced to provide the optimum solution for any given application.
The different MIMO formats - SISO, SIMO, MISO and MIMO require different numbers of antennas as well as
having different levels of complexity. Also dependent upon the format, processing may be needed at one end of
the link or the other - this can have an impact on any decisions made.

SISO, SIMO, MISO, MIMO terminology

http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/antennas/mimo/formats-siso-simo-miso-mimo.php

1/9

7/9/2015

MIMO Formats | SISO, SIMO, MISO, MIMO | Tutorial - Radio-Electronics.Com

SISO, SIMO, MISO, MIMO terminology


The different forms of antenna technology refer to single or multiple inputs and outputs. These are related to the
radio link. In this way the input is the transmitter as it transmits into the link or signal path, and the output is the
receiver. It is at the output of the wireless link.
therefore the different forms of single / multiple antenna links are defined as below:
SISO - Single Input Single Output
SIMO - Single Input Multiple output
MISO - Multiple Input Single Output
MIMO - Multiple Input multiple Output
The term MU-MIMO is also used for a multiple user version of MIMO as described below.

MIMO - SISO
The simplest form of radio link can be defined in MIMO terms as SISO - Single Input Single Output. This is
effectively a standard radio channel - this transmitter operates with one antenna as does the receiver. There is no
diversity and no additional processing required.

SISO - Single Input Single Output


The advantage of a SIS system is its simplicity. SISO requires no processing in terms of the various forms of
diversity that may be used. However the SISO channel is limited in its performance. Interference and fading will
impact the system more than a MIMO system using some form of diversity, and the channel bandwidth is limited
by Shannon's law - the throughput being dependent upon the channel bandwidth and the signal to noise ratio.

MIMO - SIMO
The SIMO or Single Input Multiple Output version of MIMO occurs where the transmitter has a single antenna
and the receiver has multiple antennas. This is also known as receive diversity. It is often used to enable a
receiver system that receives signals from a number of independent sources to combat the effects of fading. It
has been used for many years with short wave listening / receiving stations to combat the effects of ionospheric
fading and interference.

SIMO - Single Input Multiple Output


SIMO has the advantage that it is relatively easy to implement although it does have some disadvantages in that
the processing is required in the receiver. The use of SIMO may be quite acceptable in many applications, but
where the receiver is located in a mobile device such as a cellphone handset, the levels of processing may be
http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/antennas/mimo/formats-siso-simo-miso-mimo.php

2/9

7/9/2015

MIMO Formats | SISO, SIMO, MISO, MIMO | Tutorial - Radio-Electronics.Com

limited by size, cost and battery drain.


There are two forms of SIMO that can be used:

Switched diversity SIMO: This form of SIMO looks for the strongest signal and switches to that antenna.
Maximum ratio combining SIMO: This form of SIMO takes both signals and sums them to give the a
combination. In this way, the signals from both antennas contribute to the overall signal.

MIMO - MISO
MISO is also termed transmit diversity. In this case, the same data is transmitted redundantly from the two
transmitter antennas. The receiver is then able to receive the optimum signal which it can then use to receive
extract the required data.

MISO - Multiple Input Single Output


The advantage of using MISO is that the multiple antennas and the redundancy coding / processing is moved
from the receiver to the transmitter. In instances such as cellphone UEs, this can be a significant advantage in
terms of space for the antennas and reducing the level of processing required in the receiver for the redundancy
coding. This has a positive impact on size, cost and battery life as the lower level of processing requires less
battery consumption.

MIMO
Where there are more than one antenna at either end of the radio link, this is termed MIMO - Multiple Input
Multiple Output. MIMO can be used to provide improvements in both channel robustness as well as channel
throughput.

MIMO - Multiple Input Multiple Output


In order to be able to benefit from MIMO fully it is necessary to be able to utilise coding on the channels to
separate the data from the different paths. This requires processing, but provides additional channel robustness
/ data throughput capacity.
There are many formats of MIMO that can be used from SISO, through SIMO and MISO to the full MIMO
systems. These are all able to provide significant improvements of performance, but generally at the cost of
additional processing and the number of antennas used. Balances of performance against costs, size, processing
available and the resulting battery life need to be made when choosing the correct option.

By Ian Poole (https://plus.google.com/104687638164370436625?rel=author)

http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/antennas/mimo/formats-siso-simo-miso-mimo.php

3/9

7/9/2015

MIMO Formats | SISO, SIMO, MISO, MIMO | Tutorial - Radio-Electronics.Com

<< Previous (multiple-input-multiple-output-technology-tutorial.php) | Next >> (spatial-multiplexing.php)

Share this page


Share

Share

Tweet

47

Want more like this? Register for our newsletter (/newsletter/)


MORE ANTENNA TUTORIALS
MIMO (/info/antennas/mimo/multiple-input-multiple-output-technology-tutorial.php)
DAS (/info/antennas/das-distributed-antenna-systems/basics-tutorial.php)
Smart antennas (/info/antennas/smart-adaptive-antennas-array/technology-basics-tutorial.php)
Multipath propagation (/info/propagation/multipath/multipath-propagation-basics-tutorial.php)
Path loss (/info/propagation/path-loss/rf-signal-loss-tutorial.php)

PCBLowPriceGuarantee
Onlinequote,24hourquickturn.BareboardPCB,stencil&assembly.

Latest news
Highly configurable low-power embedded
http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/antennas/mimo/formats-siso-simo-miso-mimo.php

4/9

7/9/2015

MIMO Formats | SISO, SIMO, MISO, MIMO | Tutorial - Radio-Electronics.Com

controllers launched (/news/processingembedded/highly-configurable-lowpower-embedded-controllers-launched6312)


Dual analog-to-digital converter enables
double rate data outputs
(/news/distribution-supply/dual-analogto-digital-converter-enables-double-rate6324)
Cadence announces new value added
reseller for Turkey (/news/distributionsupply/cadence-announces-new-valueadded-reseller-6323)
MACOM expands power amplifier
portfolio (/news/rf-topics/macomexpands-power-amplifier-portfolio-6322)
Pay-TV services direct to 4K Ultra HD
connected TVs (/news/broadcasttechnology/pay-tv-services-direct-to-4kultra-6320)
. . . . More News (http://www.radioelectronics.com/news.php)
FEATURED BOOK (/BOOKSTORE/FEATUREDBOOK.PHP)
A Guide to RF Amplifier
Envelope Tracking
Ian Poole
Envelope tracking is a key
technology that is used in
association with RF...
Read more . .
(/bookstore/featured-book.php)
USA bookstore (/bookstore/bookshopusa.php)
UK bookstore (/bookstore/bookshopuk.php)

(/bookstore/ebooks-list.php)
TRAINING COURSES (/LEARNING-TRAININGCOURSES/)
http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/antennas/mimo/formats-siso-simo-miso-mimo.php

5/9

7/9/2015

MIMO Formats | SISO, SIMO, MISO, MIMO | Tutorial - Radio-Electronics.Com

Diploma in Telecoms
Business (/learningtrainingcourses/courses_item.php?
id=cellular-telecomscommercialbusiness/diploma-intelecoms-business-60)
Check out this popular
distance learning course
providing all the key
essentials about the
telecommunications
business arena.
More training courses
(/learning-trainingcourses/)

(/bookstore/)
RECOMMENDED WHITEPAPER
(/WHITEPAPERS.PHP)
New External Power
Supply Regulations
Are Coming in 2016
(http://www.radioelectronics.com/whitepapers/efficiencystandards-forexternal-powersupplies-23)
In this whitepaper, power
supply experts CUI look at
the standards &
requirements for power
supplies around the globe
that will hit the industry by
2016.
More whitepapers
(/whitepapers.php)

Forthcoming Events
European Microwave Week 2015
(/event/european-microwave-week-201510)
http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/antennas/mimo/formats-siso-simo-miso-mimo.php

6/9

7/9/2015

MIMO Formats | SISO, SIMO, MISO, MIMO | Tutorial - Radio-Electronics.Com

CTIA Super Mobility Week (/event/ctiasuper-mobility-week-21)


Satellite Communication Systems course
(/event/satellite-communication-systemscourse-52)
Wi-Fi Global Congress (/event/wi-fi-globalcongress-54)
Broadband World Forum
(/event/broadband-world-forum-56)
AUTOTESTCON (/event/autotestcon-39)
. . . . More Events (http://www.radioelectronics.com/events-exhibitionstrade-shows/)

Popular Articles
Thread: Wireless Networking for the IoT
Age (/articles/wireless-technology/threadwireless-networking-for-the-iot-160)
IoT connectivity unification;
simplification; & security
(/articles/wireless-technology/iotconnectivity-unification-simplificationamp-security-139)
How LTE is the enabling technology for
new automotive systems
(/articles/cellular-telecoms/how-lte-is-theenabling-technology-158)
Practical PCB Design using DesignSpark
PCB (/articles/circuit-design/practical-pcbdesign-using-designspark-pcb-143)
Electronic Components Market to Grow in
2015 (/articles/distributionsupply/electronic-components-market-togrow-in-133)
. . . . More Articles (http://www.radioelectronics.com/articles.php)

http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/antennas/mimo/formats-siso-simo-miso-mimo.php

7/9

7/9/2015

MIMO Formats | SISO, SIMO, MISO, MIMO | Tutorial - Radio-Electronics.Com

THE WEBSITE
About us (/rec-information/about-us.php)
Privacy Policy (/rec-information/privacy-policy.php)
Submit news / articles (/rec-information/article-submission.php)
Advertise with us (/rec-information/advertising.php)
SECTIONS
News (/news.php)
Articles (/articles.php)
Training (/learning-training-courses/)
Jobs (/electronics-software-jobs/)
Events (/events-exhibitions-trade-shows/)
Bookshop (/bookstore/)
Equipment store (/test-equipment-shop/)
Whitepapers (/whitepapers.php)
CHANNELS
Antennas & propagation (/info/antennas/)
Cellular telecoms (/info/cellulartelecomms/)
Circuit design (/info/circuits/)
Components (/info/data/)
Power management (/info/power-management/)
RF technology (/info/rf-technology-design/)
Test (/info/t_and_m/)
Wireless (/info/wireless/)
http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/antennas/mimo/formats-siso-simo-miso-mimo.php

8/9

7/9/2015

MIMO Formats | SISO, SIMO, MISO, MIMO | Tutorial - Radio-Electronics.Com

Broadcast technology (/info/broadcast/)


Embedded (/info/processing-embedded/)
Design principles (/info/electronics-design/)
Distribution (/info/distribution-supply/)
Formulae (/info/formulae/)
Manufacture (/info/manufacture/)
Satellites (/info/satellite/)
Telecoms & networks (/info/telecommunications_networks/)
History (/info/radio_history/)

Radio-Electronics.com is operated and owned by Adrio Communications Ltd and edited by Ian Poole. All information is Adrio
Communications Ltd and may not be copied except for individual personal use. This includes copying material in whatever form into
website pages. While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of the information on Radio-Electronics.com, no liability is accepted for
any consequences of using it. This site uses cookies. By using this site, these terms including the use of cookies are accepted. More
explanation can be found in our Privacy Policy

http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/antennas/mimo/formats-siso-simo-miso-mimo.php

9/9