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317 views3 pagesSteps in Developing a Dynamic Programming Algorithm

Sep 07, 2015

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Steps in Developing a Dynamic Programming Algorithm

© All Rights Reserved

317 views

Steps in Developing a Dynamic Programming Algorithm

© All Rights Reserved

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The set of subinstances that need to be solved by the dynamic programming algorithm

are obtained by tracing the recursive backtracking algorithm through the tree of stack

frames starting with the given instance I.

The set consists of the initial instance I , its subinstances, their subinstances, and so

on.

Redundancy

The recursive backtracking algorithm can be speed up only when it solves the same subinstance

many times.

2) Count the Subinstances

number of subinstances.

At this point in the design of the algorithm, user should count how many subinstances

an instance I has as a function of the size n = |I | of the

instance.

If there are too many of them, then start at the very beginning, designing a new

recursive backtracking algorithm with a different question for the little bird.

the

will have one dimension for each parameter used to specify a particular subinstance.

To be consistent, user will always use the letter i and if necessary j to index the

subinstances.

Each entry in the table is used to store an optimal solution for the subinstance along

with its cost.

one for the solution and

One for the cost.

The dynamic programming algorithm for finding an optimal solution to a given instance from an

optimal solution to a subinstance is identical to that within the recursive backtracking algorithm,

except that instead of recursing to solve a subinstance, the algorithm finds its optimal solution in the

table.

5) Base Cases

The base case instances are exactly the same as with the recursive backtracking

algorithm.

an optimal solution for each of these and their costs.

table

When a friend in the recursive backtracking algorithm needs help from a friend, the

algorithm recurses, and the stack frame for the first friend waits until the stack frame

for the second friend returns.

This forms a tree of recursive stack frames, keeping track of which friends are waiting

for answers from which friends.

in an order such that nobody has to wait.

When allocating the table, be clear what subinstance each entry of the table

represents.

The original instance will be the last subinstance to be solved. When complete the

dynamic program simply returns this answer.

8) Code

From steps 17, the code can always be put together using the same basic structure:

algorithm LeveledGraph (G, s, t )

<pre-cond>: G is a weighted directed layered graph, and s and t are nodes.

<post-cond>: optSol is a path with minimum total weight froms to t , and optCost is its weight.

begin

% Table: optSol[i] stores an optimal path from vi to t , and

optCost[i] its cost.

table[0..n] optSol, optCost

% Base case: The only base case is for the best path from t to t .

Its solution is the empty path with cost zero.

optSol[n] =

optCost[n] = 0

% General cases: Loop over subinstances in the table.

for i = n - 1 to 0

% Solve instance <G, vi , t > and fill in table entry <i>.

for each of the d edges <vi , vk>

% The bird-and-friend Algorithm: The bird tells us that the first edge in an optimal

path from vi to t is <vi , vk>. User asks the friend for an optimal path from vk to t. He

gives us optSol[k], which he had stored in the table. To this user adds the birds edge.

This gives us optSolk which is a best path from vi to t from among those paths

consistent with the birds answer.

optSolk = <vi , vk> + optSol[k]

optCostk = w<vi ,vk > + optCost[k]

end for

%Having the best, optSolk , for each birds answer k, user keeps the best of these best.

kmin = a k that minimizes optCostk

optSol[i] = optSolkmin

optCost[i] = optCostkmin

end for

return <optSol[0], optCost[0]>

end algorithm

9) Running Time

It can be seen that the code loops over each subinstance and, for each, loops over each bird answer.

From this, the running time seems to be the number of subinstances in the table times the number K

of answers to the birds question.

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