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MCEN90029
Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L07
Failure modes

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L07 - 1

Summary
Over the next two lectures we will cover yield criteria for
brittle and ductile materials
These include yield criterion such as Tresca, Von Mises
and Colomb-Mohr theories
We will demonstrate that different yield criteria lead to
different failure modes

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L07 - 2

Strength theories
Stress-strain curve for a material obtained by subjecting a
test specimen to axial tensile force
Initial stress-strain relationship linear. After elastic limit,
material acquires inelastic or permanent deformation

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L07 - 3

Strength theories
For example, if a tensile specimen made of a ductile
material is loaded to failure in tension, fractures will be at
an angle of 45 to the load axis
Thus, shear stress contributes more to failure, and a maximum
shear stress criterion may be suitable

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L07 - 4

Yield criteria
Failure: occurs at initiation of inelastic material behaviour
Plastic theory
Yield criterion (yield initiation)
Flow rule (stress/strain after yield)
Hardening (change in yield strength due to plastic
strain)
Yield criterion: predicting initiation of yielding using a given
criterion
Yield criterion often a
mathematical function:
when

where

ij = state of stress
Y = yield strength

f (ij ,Y ) < 0 stress state is elastic


f (ij ,Y ) = 0 yield occurs

f (ij ,Y ) > 0 post-yield deformation

of Solids
MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics

f (ij ,Y )

Lecture L07 - 5

Yield criteria
There are many theories of static failure which
can be postulated for which the consequences
can be seen in a tensile test.
1. Maximum-principal-stress theory
2. Maximum-principal strain theory (St. Venants
criterion)
3. Strain-energy density criterion
4. Maximum-shear-stress theory (Tresca theory)
5. Maximum distortion-energy theory (Von Mises
theory)
6. Colomb-Mohr theory for brittle materials
MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L07 - 6

1. Maximum principal stress criterion


Often called Rankines criterion
Yielding begins when the maximum principal stress
is equal to the uniaxial tensile (or compressive)
yield stress Y. Occurs when 1 reaches Y
If two principal stresses 1 and 2 (|1| > |2|)
both act at a point, yielding is predicted when
1 = Y, regardless of 2
If 1 = -2, the shear stress is equal in magnitude
to and occurs on 45 diagonal planes (e.g torsion).
Thus, if this criterion (1 = = Y) is to be valid for a
given material, the shear yield stress Y of the
material must be equal to the tensile yield stress
For ductile materials, Y is much less than the tensile yield stress Y!
MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L07 - 7

1. Maximum principal stress criterion


For brittle materials that fail by brittle fracture rather
than yielding, the maximum principal stress
criterion may adequately predict tension fracture
The maximum principal stress criterion can be
expressed by the yield function:
f = max( 1 , 2 , 3 ) Y
The effective stress is:

e = max( 1 , 2 , 3 )
The corresponding yield surface is defined by
the stress states that satisfy the yield criterion
(f = 0), hence:

1 = Y, 2 = Y, 3 = Y,
The yield surface consists of 6 planes, perpendicular
to the principal stress coordinate axes

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

2 / u

1
-1

1 1 /u
-1
Lecture
L07 - 8

2. Maximum principal strain criterion


Often called St. Venants criterion
Yielding begins when the maximum principal strain
is equal to the yield strain of a material in tension
1 = Y
Y = Y / E

For the simple block, yielding occurs when


which corresponds to = Y

Under biaxial
stress, max principal strain is:

1 = (1 / E) v( 2 / E)

For this stress state, yielding will begin when 1 > Y. If 2 is


negative (compressive), max value of 1 that can be applied
without yield will be less than Y

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L07 - 9

2. Maximum principal strain criterion


For an isotropic material, the principal strain (in
terms of the principal stresses), in the 1 direction,
is, from Hookes law:
1 =

1
(1 v 2 v 3 )
E

1
1 = (1 v 2 v 3 )
E

Assuming that 1 is the principal strain of largest magnitude,


we equate |1| with Y to obtain the yield function:

f1 = 1 v2 v3 Y = 0 or 1 v2 v3 = Y
If we dont know the magnitudes of the principal strains, the
other possibilities are:

f 2 = 2 v1 v3 Y = 0 or 2 v1 v3 = Y
f 3 = 3 v1 v2 Y = 0 or 3 v1 v2 = Y

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L07 - 10

2. Maximum principal strain criterion


Hence, the effective stress e may be defined as:
e = max i v j vk
i j k

and the yield function as:

f1 = e Y

The yield surface for the maximum


principal
strain for biaxial stress

state (1 = 0) is as follows. For the


yield surface ABCD, individual
stresses greater than Y can occur
without causing yielding

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L07 - 11

3. Strain-energy density criterion


Yielding at a point begins when the strain-energy density at
the point equals the strain energy density at yield in
uniaxial tension (or compression).
Recall, strain energy density:
For normal stress x applied to an element,
the element increases length in x-dir, and
decreases length in the y- and z-dir.
A new length in any direction, in terms of
normal strains is:
x# = x + x x

y# = y + y y

z# = z + z z

Strains caused by y
and z are:

x
From Hookes law: x =
E

y
y =
E

z = z
E

From Poissons ratio for isotropic materials,


contractions in y and z directions are equal:

y = z = v x= v x
E

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

y
E

x = y = v z = v z
E
x = z = v y = v

Lecture L07 - 12

3. Strain-energy density criterion


Thus, for an element undergoing x, y, z simultaneously, the effect of each
stress can be added using the concept of linear superposition:
1
v( y + z )
E x
1
y = y v( z + x )
E
1
z = z v( x + y )
E

x =

Now, for a uniaxial stress x, the force due to x is


F = xyz, which displaces in a linear manner the
x
amount x=xx. The total work on the element is:
1
1
W = Fx x = x x (xyz)
2
2

The work per unit volume w is determined by


dividing the work by the volume xyz
1
w = x x Nm/m3
2
MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L07 - 13

3. Strain-energy density criterion


If the material is perfectly elastic, total work increases the potential energy
(strain energy) of the volume. Thus:

1
u = w = x x
2
In the elastic region, x = x / E . The resulting strain energy per unit vol is:
1 2
u=

2E x
If the normal
stresses y, z are also present,
1
1
1
u = x x + y y + z z
2
2
2
1
v( y + z )
E x
1
y = y v( z + x )
E
1
z = z v( x + y )
E

Substituting the normal strain relationship derived previously,


the strain energy per unit volume is:
u=

1
x2 + y2 + z2 2v( x y + y z + z x )
2E

x =

(1)

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L07 - 14

3. Strain-energy density criterion


Yielding at a point begins when the strain-energy density at the point
equals the strain energy density at yield in uniaxial tension (or
compression). Written in terms of principal stresses, from equation (1):
U0 =

1
12 + 22 + 32 2v(12 + 13 + 23 )] > 0
[
2E

(2)

The strain-energy density at yield in uniaxial tension where 1 = Y, 2 = 3 = 0 is:

U 0Y

Y2
=
2E

Thus, the strain-energy density criterion states that yield is initiated when the
strain energy density U0=U0Y.
For uniaxial
tension, yielding is
predicted to occur
when 1 = Y

For a biaxial stress


state, when 1 = 2 = ,
yielding is predicted to
occur when

2 2 (1 v) = Y 2
MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L07 - 15

3. Strain-energy density criterion


The yield function for the strain-energy density criterion is obtained by
setting U0 from equation (2) equal to U0Y (the strain-energy density at
yield):

12 + 22 + 32 2v(12 + 13 + 23 ) Y 2 = 0
Hence the yield function has the form

f = e2 Y 2
Where the effective stress is

e = 12 + 22 + 32 2v(12 + 13 + 23 )
In general, the yield surface for the strain-energy
density criterion is an ellipsoid in principal stress
space. The specific shape depends on Poissons
ratio v. (Left, a bi-axial stress state, 3 = 0 )
MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L07 - 16

4. Tresca (maximum shear stress)


theory for ductile materials
Yielding begins when the maximum shear stress at a point equals the
maximum shear stress at yield in uniaxial tension (or compression).
For a multiaxial stress state, the maximum shear stress is
max = (max - min)/2, where max and min denote the maximum and
minimum order principal stresses
In uniaxial tension, 1 = , 2 = 3 = 0, the maximum shear stress is
max =

Since yield in uniaxial tension must begin when = Y, the shear stress
associated with yielding is predicted to be

Y =

Y
2

Thus the yield function


for max shear stress
criterion is:

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

f = e

Y
2

Where the effective stress is


e = max
Lecture L07 - 17

4. Tresca (maximum shear stress)


theory for ductile materials
From the 3-dimensional Mohrs circle, the magnitudes of the extreme
values of the shear stresses in the principal coordinate system (the
radius of the three Mohrs circles) are
1 =

2 3
1
2
; 2 = 3
; 3 = 1
2
2
2

Yield surface

The maximum shear stress max is the largest of (1, 2 , 3).


If the principal stresses are unordered, yielding under

multiaxial stress can occur for any one of the following


conditions
2 3 = Y; 3 1 = Y; 1 2 = Y

The Tresca criterion exhibits good agreement with experimental results


for certain ductile metals. For pure shear (e.g. torsion), the shear yield
stress of some ductile metals is found to be 15% higher than that
predicted by Tresca criterion (Tresca criterion is conservative)
MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L07 - 18

4. Tresca (maximum shear stress)


theory for ductile materials
EXAMPLE:

SOLUTION

Determine the yield stress using the Tresca


criterion of an arbitrary three dimensional state of
stress at a point given by. Assume plane-stress
#
xy zx &
xx
%
(
[] = %xy yy yz (
%$
yz zz ('
zx

Let N be the unit normal to the principal plane, N = li + mj + nk

where (l,m,n) are directional cosines of the unit normal N


The projection of this stress vector on principal planes is P = N
Px = lxx + mxy + nxz
Py = lxy + myy + nyz

l(xx ) + mxy + nxz = 0

Thus,

Pz = lxz + myz + nzz

(1)

lxz + myz + n(zz ) = 0


Lecture L07 - 19

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

lxy + m(yy ) + nyz = 0

4. Tresca (maximum shear stress)


theory for ductile materials
Find the solution to equation (1). To avoid zero solution to directional
cosines (as l2 + m2 + n2 = 1), the determinant of the coefficients must be
zero. Thus,

xx
xy
xz
xy
yy
yz = 0
xz
yz
zz
Evaluating the determinant:
3 (xx + yy + zz ) 2 + (xxyy + yyzz + zzxx yz2 zx2 xy2 )

(xxyyzz + 2yzzxxy xxyz2 yyzx2 zzxy2 ) = 0

The three solutions to this cubic equation are the three principal stresses,
1, 2, 3

If we assume plane stress, zz= yz= zx= 0 this equation reduces to:
3 (xx + yy ) 2 + (xxyy xy2 ) = 0

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L07 - 20

4. Tresca (maximum shear stress)


theory for ductile materials
The three roots to the equation
are = 0 and

3 (xx + yy ) 2 + (xy xy2 ) = 0

$ xx yy ' 2
xx + yy
) + 2
=
&
xy
2
2
%
(

With the principal stresses determined, order the principal stresses


such that 1> 2> 3,
The yield criterion for the Tresca criterion is

max =

max min 3 1
=
2
2

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L07 - 21

Lecture summary
Today we covered:
Maximum-principal-stress theory
Maximum-principal strain-energy theory (St. Venants
criterion)
Strain-energy density criterion
Maximum-shear-stress theory (Tresca theory)
In the next lecture we will discuss Von Mises theory for ductile
materials, and the Colomb-Mohr theory for brittle materials

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L07 - 22