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5 views22 pagesThis is a lecture note which focused on failure modes in metals. This is the lecture note used for Solid Mechanics course in University of Melbourne, Australia

Sep 07, 2015

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This is a lecture note which focused on failure modes in metals. This is the lecture note used for Solid Mechanics course in University of Melbourne, Australia

© All Rights Reserved

5 views

This is a lecture note which focused on failure modes in metals. This is the lecture note used for Solid Mechanics course in University of Melbourne, Australia

© All Rights Reserved

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MCEN90029

Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L07

Failure modes

Lecture L07 - 1

Summary

Over the next two lectures we will cover yield criteria for

brittle and ductile materials

These include yield criterion such as Tresca, Von Mises

and Colomb-Mohr theories

We will demonstrate that different yield criteria lead to

different failure modes

Lecture L07 - 2

Strength theories

Stress-strain curve for a material obtained by subjecting a

test specimen to axial tensile force

Initial stress-strain relationship linear. After elastic limit,

material acquires inelastic or permanent deformation

Lecture L07 - 3

Strength theories

For example, if a tensile specimen made of a ductile

material is loaded to failure in tension, fractures will be at

an angle of 45 to the load axis

Thus, shear stress contributes more to failure, and a maximum

shear stress criterion may be suitable

Lecture L07 - 4

Yield criteria

Failure: occurs at initiation of inelastic material behaviour

Plastic theory

Yield criterion (yield initiation)

Flow rule (stress/strain after yield)

Hardening (change in yield strength due to plastic

strain)

Yield criterion: predicting initiation of yielding using a given

criterion

Yield criterion often a

mathematical function:

when

where

ij = state of stress

Y = yield strength

f (ij ,Y ) = 0 yield occurs

of Solids

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics

f (ij ,Y )

Lecture L07 - 5

Yield criteria

There are many theories of static failure which

can be postulated for which the consequences

can be seen in a tensile test.

1. Maximum-principal-stress theory

2. Maximum-principal strain theory (St. Venants

criterion)

3. Strain-energy density criterion

4. Maximum-shear-stress theory (Tresca theory)

5. Maximum distortion-energy theory (Von Mises

theory)

6. Colomb-Mohr theory for brittle materials

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L07 - 6

Often called Rankines criterion

Yielding begins when the maximum principal stress

is equal to the uniaxial tensile (or compressive)

yield stress Y. Occurs when 1 reaches Y

If two principal stresses 1 and 2 (|1| > |2|)

both act at a point, yielding is predicted when

1 = Y, regardless of 2

If 1 = -2, the shear stress is equal in magnitude

to and occurs on 45 diagonal planes (e.g torsion).

Thus, if this criterion (1 = = Y) is to be valid for a

given material, the shear yield stress Y of the

material must be equal to the tensile yield stress

For ductile materials, Y is much less than the tensile yield stress Y!

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L07 - 7

For brittle materials that fail by brittle fracture rather

than yielding, the maximum principal stress

criterion may adequately predict tension fracture

The maximum principal stress criterion can be

expressed by the yield function:

f = max( 1 , 2 , 3 ) Y

The effective stress is:

e = max( 1 , 2 , 3 )

The corresponding yield surface is defined by

the stress states that satisfy the yield criterion

(f = 0), hence:

1 = Y, 2 = Y, 3 = Y,

The yield surface consists of 6 planes, perpendicular

to the principal stress coordinate axes

2 / u

1

-1

1 1 /u

-1

Lecture

L07 - 8

Often called St. Venants criterion

Yielding begins when the maximum principal strain

is equal to the yield strain of a material in tension

1 = Y

Y = Y / E

which corresponds to = Y

Under biaxial

stress, max principal strain is:

1 = (1 / E) v( 2 / E)

negative (compressive), max value of 1 that can be applied

without yield will be less than Y

Lecture L07 - 9

For an isotropic material, the principal strain (in

terms of the principal stresses), in the 1 direction,

is, from Hookes law:

1 =

1

(1 v 2 v 3 )

E

1

1 = (1 v 2 v 3 )

E

we equate |1| with Y to obtain the yield function:

f1 = 1 v2 v3 Y = 0 or 1 v2 v3 = Y

If we dont know the magnitudes of the principal strains, the

other possibilities are:

f 2 = 2 v1 v3 Y = 0 or 2 v1 v3 = Y

f 3 = 3 v1 v2 Y = 0 or 3 v1 v2 = Y

Lecture L07 - 10

Hence, the effective stress e may be defined as:

e = max i v j vk

i j k

f1 = e Y

principal

strain for biaxial stress

yield surface ABCD, individual

stresses greater than Y can occur

without causing yielding

Lecture L07 - 11

Yielding at a point begins when the strain-energy density at

the point equals the strain energy density at yield in

uniaxial tension (or compression).

Recall, strain energy density:

For normal stress x applied to an element,

the element increases length in x-dir, and

decreases length in the y- and z-dir.

A new length in any direction, in terms of

normal strains is:

x# = x + x x

y# = y + y y

z# = z + z z

Strains caused by y

and z are:

x

From Hookes law: x =

E

y

y =

E

z = z

E

contractions in y and z directions are equal:

y = z = v x= v x

E

y

E

x = y = v z = v z

E

x = z = v y = v

Lecture L07 - 12

Thus, for an element undergoing x, y, z simultaneously, the effect of each

stress can be added using the concept of linear superposition:

1

v( y + z )

E x

1

y = y v( z + x )

E

1

z = z v( x + y )

E

x =

F = xyz, which displaces in a linear manner the

x

amount x=xx. The total work on the element is:

1

1

W = Fx x = x x (xyz)

2

2

dividing the work by the volume xyz

1

w = x x Nm/m3

2

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L07 - 13

If the material is perfectly elastic, total work increases the potential energy

(strain energy) of the volume. Thus:

1

u = w = x x

2

In the elastic region, x = x / E . The resulting strain energy per unit vol is:

1 2

u=

2E x

If the normal

stresses y, z are also present,

1

1

1

u = x x + y y + z z

2

2

2

1

v( y + z )

E x

1

y = y v( z + x )

E

1

z = z v( x + y )

E

the strain energy per unit volume is:

u=

1

x2 + y2 + z2 2v( x y + y z + z x )

2E

x =

(1)

Lecture L07 - 14

Yielding at a point begins when the strain-energy density at the point

equals the strain energy density at yield in uniaxial tension (or

compression). Written in terms of principal stresses, from equation (1):

U0 =

1

12 + 22 + 32 2v(12 + 13 + 23 )] > 0

[

2E

(2)

U 0Y

Y2

=

2E

Thus, the strain-energy density criterion states that yield is initiated when the

strain energy density U0=U0Y.

For uniaxial

tension, yielding is

predicted to occur

when 1 = Y

state, when 1 = 2 = ,

yielding is predicted to

occur when

2 2 (1 v) = Y 2

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L07 - 15

The yield function for the strain-energy density criterion is obtained by

setting U0 from equation (2) equal to U0Y (the strain-energy density at

yield):

12 + 22 + 32 2v(12 + 13 + 23 ) Y 2 = 0

Hence the yield function has the form

f = e2 Y 2

Where the effective stress is

e = 12 + 22 + 32 2v(12 + 13 + 23 )

In general, the yield surface for the strain-energy

density criterion is an ellipsoid in principal stress

space. The specific shape depends on Poissons

ratio v. (Left, a bi-axial stress state, 3 = 0 )

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L07 - 16

theory for ductile materials

Yielding begins when the maximum shear stress at a point equals the

maximum shear stress at yield in uniaxial tension (or compression).

For a multiaxial stress state, the maximum shear stress is

max = (max - min)/2, where max and min denote the maximum and

minimum order principal stresses

In uniaxial tension, 1 = , 2 = 3 = 0, the maximum shear stress is

max =

Since yield in uniaxial tension must begin when = Y, the shear stress

associated with yielding is predicted to be

Y =

Y

2

for max shear stress

criterion is:

f = e

Y

2

e = max

Lecture L07 - 17

theory for ductile materials

From the 3-dimensional Mohrs circle, the magnitudes of the extreme

values of the shear stresses in the principal coordinate system (the

radius of the three Mohrs circles) are

1 =

2 3

1

2

; 2 = 3

; 3 = 1

2

2

2

Yield surface

If the principal stresses are unordered, yielding under

conditions

2 3 = Y; 3 1 = Y; 1 2 = Y

for certain ductile metals. For pure shear (e.g. torsion), the shear yield

stress of some ductile metals is found to be 15% higher than that

predicted by Tresca criterion (Tresca criterion is conservative)

MCEN90029 Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Lecture L07 - 18

theory for ductile materials

EXAMPLE:

SOLUTION

criterion of an arbitrary three dimensional state of

stress at a point given by. Assume plane-stress

#

xy zx &

xx

%

(

[] = %xy yy yz (

%$

yz zz ('

zx

The projection of this stress vector on principal planes is P = N

Px = lxx + mxy + nxz

Py = lxy + myy + nyz

Thus,

(1)

Lecture L07 - 19

theory for ductile materials

Find the solution to equation (1). To avoid zero solution to directional

cosines (as l2 + m2 + n2 = 1), the determinant of the coefficients must be

zero. Thus,

xx

xy

xz

xy

yy

yz = 0

xz

yz

zz

Evaluating the determinant:

3 (xx + yy + zz ) 2 + (xxyy + yyzz + zzxx yz2 zx2 xy2 )

The three solutions to this cubic equation are the three principal stresses,

1, 2, 3

If we assume plane stress, zz= yz= zx= 0 this equation reduces to:

3 (xx + yy ) 2 + (xxyy xy2 ) = 0

Lecture L07 - 20

theory for ductile materials

The three roots to the equation

are = 0 and

$ xx yy ' 2

xx + yy

) + 2

=

&

xy

2

2

%

(

such that 1> 2> 3,

The yield criterion for the Tresca criterion is

max =

max min 3 1

=

2

2

Lecture L07 - 21

Lecture summary

Today we covered:

Maximum-principal-stress theory

Maximum-principal strain-energy theory (St. Venants

criterion)

Strain-energy density criterion

Maximum-shear-stress theory (Tresca theory)

In the next lecture we will discuss Von Mises theory for ductile

materials, and the Colomb-Mohr theory for brittle materials

Lecture L07 - 22

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