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Chapter 11

Metal-Casting Processes

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Manufacturing Processes Alternatives

Material Removal Processes


Forming Processes
Assembly

Similar to?
Examples?

And..
Casting Processes

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Metal Casting Processes

The process involves:

Advantages of Metal Casting Processes:

Pour molten metal into a mold patterned after the part to be


manufactured
Allow it to solidify
Remove the part from the mold
Produce part in single step (near-net shape)
Produce large parts
Can produce a wide variety of shapes and sizes
Complex shapes are possible
Internal cavities are possible

Any Disadvantages?

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Examples of Cast Products

Note how difficult it might get to produce these parts using


other manufacturing processes

Fig.
11.1
Fig.
Fig.11.1
11.1dbac
Fig.
11.1

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Categories of Metal-Casting Processes

Expendable Molds:

Typically made out of sand, plaster, ceramics and similar


material
Such material are refractory i.e., capable of withstanding high
temperatures.
After casting the mold is broken up to remove the casting

Permanent Molds:

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Made of metals that maintain their strength at high


temperatures.
Are used repeatedly
Designed in such a way that the casting can be removed
easily

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Categories of Metal-Casting Processes

Composite Molds:

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Made of two or more materials (sand, graphite, and metal) in


order to combine the advantages of each
Have both permanent and expendable portions

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First: Expendable Mold Casting

Theres a variety of casting processes that use


expendable molds.
We will focus on discussing 2 of them in detail:

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Sand Casting
Investment Casting

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Sand Casting

Process outline:

Place a pattern (having the shape of the desired casting) in


sand to make an imprint
Incorporate a gating system
Remove the pattern and filling the mold cavity with molten
metal
Allow the metal to cool until it solidifies
Break away the sand metal
Remove the casting

Example
Can we make hollow parts or parts with internal
cavities? How?

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Sand Casting (contd.)

Sands

Silica sands (SiO2) is widely used as the mold material


High melting point

Factors affecting sand selection

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Fine round grains can be closely packed


Fine grained sand has lower permeability
Mold should have good collapsibility

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Sand Mold Terminology

Figure 11.3 Schematic illustration of a sand mold, showing various features.

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Finished Casting

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Sand Mold Preparation


(a) Mechanical drawing of part
(b & c) Pattern Mounting
(d) Core Production

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Sand Mold Preparation (Contd.)


(e) Cores are pasted
(f ) Assembly of the cope half of the mold
(g) The flask is rammed with sand
(h) The drag half is produced in a similar manner
(i) The pattern , flask, and bottom board are inverted; and
the pattern is withdrawn

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Pattern Plate

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Pattern Considerations/Allowances

Shrinkage Allowance (Why?)


Machining Allowance (?)
Draft Allowance (?)
Round corners (?)

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Demonstration of the Draft Allowance

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Sand Cores

Cores are used for internal cavities and passages


Removed from the finished part during shakeout
Must be strong, collapsible, permeable, heat resistant
Made in a similar manner to mold making

Figure 11.6 Examples of sand cores showing core prints and chaplets to support cores.
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Investment Casting Process

Another common casting process with expendable


molds.
Also known as lost-wax process

Advantages

The mold material and labor is costly


Suitable for high-melting-point alloys
Good surface finish
Few or no finishing operations thus reducing cost

Typical parts

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Mechanical components such as gears, cams, valves.


Lately, titanium aircraft-engine
Parts up to 2500 lbs were successfully produced
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Investment Casting Process (Contd)

Figure 11.13 Schematic illustration of investment casting (lost-wax) process. Castings


by this method can be made with very fine detail and from a variety of metals.
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Disadvantages of Metal Casting

Depending on the casting process used, and specially


for expendable mold casting processes discussed in this
lecture:

Production rate can be slow


Finished Casting usually needs finishing operations

Casting Defects

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Casting Defects and How to Avoid them

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Next Time

Permanent Molds Casting Processes


Other Technicalities in various casting processes

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